Nootropics sometimes calledsmart drugs are compounds that enhance brain function. Theyre becoming a popular way to give your mind an extra boost. According to one Telegraph report, up to 25% of students at leading UK universities have taken the prescription smart drug modafinil , and California tech startup employees are trying everything from Adderall to LSD to push their brains into a higher gear .
Ive been actively benefitting from nootropics since 1997, when I was struggling with cognitive performance and ordered almost $1000 worth of smart drugs from Europe (the only place where you could get them at the time). I remember opening the unmarked brown package and wondering whether the pharmaceuticals and natural substances would really enhance my brain.
They did, and Ive been a big fan of certain cognitive enhancers ever since.
Im wary of others, though. The trouble with using a blanket term like nootropics is that you lump all kinds of substances in together. Technically, you could argue that caffeine and cocaine are both nootropics, but theyre hardly equal. With so many ways to enhance your brain function, many of which have significant risks, its most valuable to look at nootropics on a case-by-case basis. Heres a list of 13 nootropics, along with my thoughts on each.
I started taking modafinil while getting my MBA at Wharton. I was also working at a start-up that later sold for $600 million in value, so you can imagine how busy I was. I wanted a way to keep my brain running.
When I first started taking modafinil, I felt more like myself than I had in years. I took it just about every day in varying doses for 8 years (with a physicians prescription). It gave me energy and changed my life. I would not be the biohacker I am today without modafinil.
When I worked on the Bulletproof Diet book, I wanted to verify that the effects I was getting from Bulletproof Coffee were not coming from modafinil, so I stopped using it and measured my cognitive performance while I was off of it. What I found was that on Bulletproof Coffee and the Bulletproof Diet, my mental performance was almost identical to my performance on modafinil. I still travel with modafinil, and Ill take it on occasion, but while living a Bulletproof lifestyle I rarely feel the need.
Theres a slight risk (about 5 in a million people) of having a life-threatening immune reaction to modafinil. Its the same reaction that happens with ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), so if you know you dont react well to NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking modafinil.
One reason I like modafinil is that it enhances dopamine release, but it binds to your dopamine receptors differently than addictive substances like cocaine and amphetamines do, which may be part of the reason modafinil shares many of the benefits of other stimulants but doesnt cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms [3,4]. It does increase focus, problem-solving abilities, and wakefulness, but it is not in the same class of drugs as Adderall, and it is not a classical stimulant. Modafinil is off of patent, so you can get it generically, or order it from India. Its a prescription drug, so you need to talk to a physician.
You can also try armodafinil, which is a more purified form of modafinil with only biologically identical molecules in it. It has nearly identical and sometimes stronger effects. Its very expensive without insurance.
If you dont want to get a prescription, theresadrafinil, which your liver converts to modafinil in about 45-60 minutes. You can buy adrafinil without a prescription, and in my experience it feels very similar to modafinil, but I wouldnt recommend taking it regularly because it stresses your liver a lot.
Normally prescribed modafinil dose: 50-200 mg, taken in the morning (unless you want to be awake all night)
Normally prescribed arrmodafinil dose: 100-200 mg, taken in the morning
Adrafinil dose: 300 mg, taken in the morning
The racetam family contains dozens of related compounds, includinga few well-known nootropics. The best studied one is piracetam, but the most effective nootropics are aniracetam and phenylpiracetam, so youll read about those here.
There was an explosion of racetam research between 1968 and 1972, but many of the racetams are off patents, so pharmaceutical companies are studying racetam analogs that they can patent and sell. We still dont fully understand how racetams work, but theres plenty of anecdotal evidence that theyre excellent nootropics. The best studied racetam is piracetam, and its analogs work well too.
I like aniracetam more than piracetam because its the only member of the racetam that has a stress-lowering effect and also increase memory IO (getting memories in and out of your mind). I take aniracetam every day, as well as for public speaking. I find I speak more fluently (no ums or ahs) and I dont have to grasp for words. I find that phenylpiracetam improves my learning, memory, and energy, too.
I dont use piracetam or oxiracetam because theyre weaker forms of phenylpiracetam and aniracetam. I suggest you try racetams alone at first not in a pre-made stack because ones that work for other people may not work for you. For example, I feel nothing from noopept (a very strong derivative of piracetam), but I know plenty of people for whom it works very well.
Racetams are very bitter, so its best to get them in capsules. In some people they deplete acetylcholine , which can cause headaches. If that happens, try adding in Choline Force or a raw pastured egg yolk to give your body the materials to make more acetylcholine. You can also try lowering doses; too much can make you irritable.
These nootropics sound a little unusual, but Ive been on them every day since 1997 and theyre a core part of my nootropic stack. It irritates me that theyre in a regulatory gray zone.
One last thing: these phenylpiracetam, aniracetam, and noopept are all fat soluble, so take them with a meal or a fat source (like your morning Bulletproof Coffee) to increase their absorption.
Phenylpiracetam dose: 100 mg, 1-4 times daily
Aniracetam dose: 650 mg, 1-2 times daily
Noopept dose: 10 mg, 1-2 times daily
Nicotine can be a powerful nootropic if you take it carefully and sparingly. Heres a full guide to using nicotine as a nootropic, complete with pros and cons, risks, dose recommendations, and advice about what form of nicotine to use.
I do NOT recommend smoking cigarettes or using tobacco to get your nicotine. Im talking about very small doses that are far lower than youd get from smoking. Nicotine has a direct effect on your mitochondrial energy, and just about anything that increases mitochondrial function is going to make your brain work better.
Big Pharma has recommended amphetamine (Adderall) for ADHD sufferers for years now. Its also popular on college campuses around exam time. Too bad, because there are much better choices.
Amphetamine has substantial risks. In healthy adults, itimproves attention, focus, motivation to work, and short-term memory, all by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine release in your prefrontal cortex [11,12]. Amphetamine also decreases fatigue, but it makes you jittery and can increase anxiety.
What worries me about amphetamine is its addictive potential, and the fact that it can cause stress and anxiety. Research says its only slightly likely to cause addiction in people with ADHD , but we dont know much about its addictive potential in healthy adults. We all know the addictive potential of methamphetamine, and amphetamine is closely related enough to make me nervous about so many people giving it to their children. Amphetamines cause withdrawal symptoms, so the potential for addiction is there.
If you want a stimulant, drink coffee. If you want something stronger, try a racetam or talk to your doctor about modafinil. If you do decide to take Adderall, youll need a prescription but I really recommend avoiding it. There are many better options out there.
L-theanine is a major component of black and green tea. On its own, theanine promotes relaxation , alertness, and arousal .
Theanine also works synergistically with caffeine. Together, the two increase reaction time, memory, and mental endurance .
You can get your theanine from a capsule, or you can drink a cup or two of green tea. If you decide to do the green tea, look for tea thats grown in the shade, because shade-grown green tea typically has much higher levels of theanine.
L-theanine dose: 50-200 mg. You can take it with your morning coffee, or you can take it at night, like me.
Bacopa monnieri is a small water plant native to India. Bacopais an adaptogen it helps your body adapt to stress. It also improves memory in healthy adults  and enhances attention and mood in people over 65 . Scientists still dont fully understand how Bacopa works, but they do know it takes time to work; study participants didnt feel its memory-enhancing effects until theyd been supplementing with it daily for 4 weeks, so if you try Bacopa, stick with it for a month before you give up on it.
Bacopa suppresses sperm production in male mice, so you may want to skip it if youre trying to conceive . It didnt affect the mices testosterone or sex drive, though.
A lot of nootropic companies include Bacopa in their stacks, but they often dont use enough to give you real benefits. You want at least 750 mg daily. Take Bacopa with a fat source to increase its absorption.
Bacopa monnieri dose: At least 750 mg daily, taken with a source of fat
Yes, were talking 1960s, Jimi Hendrix, psychedelic LSD. Dr. Rick Doblin and I have discussed the use of psychedelic medicine on Bulletproof Radio before. Now, Silicon Valley tech employees are reporting benefits from using LSD as a nootropic, but it has a history of being misused by both governments and partiers. (In fact, Bulletproof Radio guest Jan Irwin has published lots of research showing that much of the psychedelic movement is at least partly the result of government initiatives.)
The key to using LSD as a nootropic, according to the Silicon Valley techies, is getting the right dose. They say that when they take microdoses about 1/10th of a recreational dose they experience increased positivity, creativity, focus, and empathy.
LSD as a nootropic may not be as crazy as it sounds. Its certainly a mind-expanding drug, and studies suggest that its less risky than its reputation suggests. Even at a full dose (again, 10 times a microdose), researchers ranked LSD the 4th least dangerous common recreational drug far below alcohol and nicotine  and historically not a single person has died from LSD overdose . Its possible to react poorly to LSDs psychological effects, but microdoses are below the dose that usually causes hallucinations . LSD does increase your suggestibility, so you should be extra aware of making big decisions if you are using it as a nootropic.
LSD dose: 10 micrograms, taken in the morning, every 3 days. (This is probably illegal where you live. Its experimental but shows great promise from anecdotal reports. I look forward to the day when its legal for researchers to actually determine how impactful this is. Until the government allows this kind of research in your country, the only option is to wait, or to be your own guinea pig. Be safe if you experiment with anything.)
Unfair Advantage supports your mitochondria, the power plants of your cells, with two different ingredients:
You have the highest density of mitochondria in your brains prefrontal cortex, which helps to explain why I feel Unfair Advantage in my head first. You have the second highest density in your heart, which is probably why I feel it in the center of my chest next. Mitochondrial energizers can have profound nootropic effects! At higher doses mitochondrial energizers also make for an excellent pre-workout supplements.
Unfair Advantage dose: 1-4 ampules, taken any time
Bulletproof Upgraded Aging Formula is another powerful nootropic. It contains oxaloacetate, a neuroprotective agent that can shield your brain from environmental toxins. Oxaloacetate also decreases brain inflammation .
Common environmental toxins pesticides, for example cause your brain to release glutamate (a neurotransmitter). Your brain needs glutamate to function, but when you create too much of it it becomes toxic and starts killing neurons. The oxaloacetate in Upgraded Aging protects rodents from glutamate-induced brain damage . Oxaloacetate also promotes brain recovery after stress or trauma [27, 28].
Upgraded Aging is a great way to give your brain a little extra protection from stress and toxins. In animal studies, it also modifies the Krebs Cycle, shifting the ratio of NADH to NAD+, which makes mitochondrial energy production more efficient.
Upgraded Aging dose: 1 capsule, taken in the morning
Forskolin has been a part of Indian Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. In addition to being fun to say, forskolin increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a molecule essential to learning and memory formation .
I have used forskolin for more than a decade.
Forskolin is especially effective if you combine it with artichoke extract. Artichoke extract inhibits PDE4, an enzyme that breaks down cAMP. PDE4 inhibitors make cAMP more available, and when you add in artichoke extracts cAMP-enhancing effects, you get a significant boost to learning, memory, and motivation.
Or you get a headache and an energy crash when you come down.
That may be because upping cAMP uses more dopamine than your brain usually would. It affects different people differently. You only know if you tryit.
Bulletproof carries CILTEP, the first commercial combination of artichoke extract and forskolin. CILTEP also uses up acetylcholine, so I recommend adding in Choline Force to keep your brain well stocked.
CILTEP dose: 1-3 capsules, taken in the morning on an empty stomach
When you first start taking nootropics, sometimes youll feel like nothing is happening. Thats what I experienced. Then, a week later, I quit taking them, and noticed their absence immediately. This is because when your brain works better, it feels so natural that its hard to notice unless you have a great degree of self-awareness. On the other hand, sometimes youll feel a great cognitive boost as soon as you take a pill. That can be a good thing or a bad thing. I find, for example, that modafinil makes you more of what you already are. That means if you are already kind of a dick and you take modafinil, you might act like a really big dick and regret it. It certainly happened to me! I like to think that Ive done enough hacking of my brain that Ive gotten over that programming and that when I use nootropics they help me help people.
You can also get profoundly depressed. One of the nootropics I did not write about here, Lucidril, has superb anti-aging and cognitive benefits for some people, but others get deeply sad after taking it. After three days on Lucidril I felt entirely hopeless about my life. Fortunately, Id done my research and I stopped taking it immediately.
There is inherent risk in experimenting with pharmaceuticals, or illegal drugs like LSD. The risk is greater than it is with most natural substances. You can have a psychotic experience if you take too much LSD; youre more likely to get a big headache if you take too much of a choline stimulating herbal substance.
It also pays to check the purity of your nootropics. Ive seen some companies promoting pre-made nootropic stacks that contain ingredients like blue agave (fructose!), food coloring even pieces of metal. Read your labels!
I have great hope that medicine will wake up to the amazing benefits of nootropics and begin to incorporate them into society. Many of them not only increase your quality of life, they make your brain more resilient to the environment around you. We could all use a little more that.
Before you try nootropics, I suggest you start with the basics: get rid of the things in your diet and life that reduce cognitive performance first. That is easiest. Then, add in energizers like Brain Octane and clean up your diet. Then, go for the herbals and the natural nootropics. Use the pharmaceuticals selectively only after youve figured out your basics.
The truth is that, almost 20 years ago when my brain was failing and I was fat and tired, I did not know to follow this advice. I bought $1000 worth of smart drugs from Europe, took them all at once out of desperation, and got enough cognitive function to save my career and tackle my metabolic problems. With the information we have now, you dont need to do that. Please learn from my mistakes!
Click to read the complete list of references.
Click to hide references.
- Could new dietary supplements boost brain power? - WNDU-TV - August 11th, 2017
- Labdoor Special Report: We Tested the Infowars Supplements - Markets Insider - August 11th, 2017
- Nootropic Effects of Psychedelic and Addictive Substances - Brain Blogger (blog) - August 4th, 2017
- New study into 'smart drugs' in the finance industry - Investment Magazine - August 4th, 2017
- Pimp my Brain: The Quest for Intelligence - TG Daily (blog) - August 4th, 2017
- Is Qualia Revolutionary or Just Another Nootropic? - HuffPost - August 1st, 2017
- True Focus Review (UPDATED 2017): Don't Buy Before You Read This! - Diets In Review (blog) - July 25th, 2017
- Nootropics: How Smart Can You Get on Smart Drugs? - Brain Blogger (blog) - July 25th, 2017
- Every Entrepreneur Needs Flow. Nootropics Can Get You There. - Entrepreneur - July 20th, 2017
- Nootropics | Our Favorite Nootropics Supplements - July 20th, 2017
- NETCENTS Integrates Top Tier Merchants Within the Nutraceutical Sector - Canada NewsWire (press release) - July 20th, 2017
- Buying a boost: Smart drugs on campus - Oregon Daily Emerald - July 10th, 2017
- Duke Neuroscientist: Brain Augmentation Will Allow Us to Make a New Kind of Human - Futurism - July 5th, 2017
- Nootrobox is now HVMN and will sell biohacking products beyond nootropics - TechCrunch - June 28th, 2017
- Medical Q&A: So-called smart drugs can turn out to be a dumb idea - Sarasota Herald-Tribune - June 27th, 2017
- Don't Fall for the 'Memory' Pills Targeting Baby Boomers - WIRED - June 27th, 2017
- The Provigil Secret Few Experts Want to Tell You - HuffPost - June 26th, 2017
- Nootropics Market Is Predicted To Hit USD 6059.4 Mn By 2024, Expanding At A CAGR Of 17.9% From 2016 To 2024. - Technorati - June 24th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market Is Predicted To Hit USD 6059.4 Mn By 2024, Expanding At A CAGR Of 17.9% From 2016 To ... - Technorati - June 22nd, 2017
- Best Nootropics for Sale in 2017 | Reviews and Comparison - June 19th, 2017
- Best Nootropics Smart Pills - Serie A Weekly - June 6th, 2017
- How Do Various Nootropics Work? - Serie A Weekly - June 6th, 2017
- Brain food - brand-e.biz - June 5th, 2017
- How to Increase Your Energy at Work ... Without Coffee - Successful Meetings - June 1st, 2017
- Bacopa: The Herb That May Increase Your Brain Power - ProHealth - June 1st, 2017
- Growing Use Of Smart Drugs By Students Could Be A Recipe For Disaster - IFLScience (blog) - June 1st, 2017
- A doctor is helping Silicon Valley execs live their best life for $40k a year - Quartz - May 28th, 2017
- How Nootrobox Started a Craze (That Actually Works) - TechDay News (blog) - May 26th, 2017
- Skullcap Herb: Synergistic Powerhouse & Possible Nootropic ... - MilTech - May 20th, 2017
- Nootropics Market Research Report Now Available at Research ... - The Republic of East Vancouver - May 18th, 2017
- Nootropics Market Forecast And opportunities Trends, Size, Drivers 2016 2022 Brisk Insights - Thrasher Backer - May 17th, 2017
- Meet The Racetams: Powerful Family of Nootropics - MilTech - May 14th, 2017
- The Top 5 Nootropic Supplements of 2017 Health Ranks - May 13th, 2017
- Nootropics: Business Performance Enhancing Drugs? - Huddle Today - May 11th, 2017
- Functional beverages using nootropics will rise, predicts new energy drink LGND - BeverageDaily.com - May 9th, 2017
- Captagon The Smart Drug Fuelling Syrias Civil War ... - May 2nd, 2017
- Ramping up your brain power - Marianas Variety - April 30th, 2017
- nootropics / smart drugs - April 28th, 2017
- Will 'Smart Drugs' Really Make Us Smarter, or Just ... - VICE - April 28th, 2017
- Coluracetam Warning Review - Don't Buy Before You Read This! - Diets In Review (blog) - April 21st, 2017
- Oxiracetam Powder - Nootropics Depot - April 19th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market Outlook, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts, 2014-2016 & 2024: Analysis of the Top 30 ... - GlobeNewswire (press... - April 19th, 2017
- What are "Nootropics"? Smart Drug Smarts - April 17th, 2017
- The Ultimate Guide To Nootropics | Supplement Critique - April 13th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market Report to Grow at a CAGR of 17.9% by 2024: Market Size, Share & Application Analysis ... - Yahoo Finance - April 13th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market Report 2017 - Forecast to 2024 with Regional Outlook, Growth Trends & Key Players ... - Business Wire (press release) - April 12th, 2017
- What Will Make Man Smarter? - Yahoo Finance - Yahoo Finance - April 12th, 2017
- Take a Chill Pill (How to Relax in the Modern Age) - Huffington Post - April 7th, 2017
- Sharp & Energized! IMPRESS! Dietary Supplement for Men Unleashes Nootropic Power of Cereboost from Naturex - Digital Journal - April 7th, 2017
- 4 Non-Chemical Ways to Stimulate Productivity - Entrepreneur - Entrepreneur - April 3rd, 2017
- A real-life 'Limitless' pill? Silicon Valley entrepreneurs pursue brain hacking with nootropics, or 'smart drugs' - ABC News - March 31st, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market Is Expected To Reach Over USD 6 Bn By 2024: Credence Research - Digital Journal - March 31st, 2017
- Top Nootropics for Each Unique Brain - Huffington Post - March 29th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market To Reach Over USD 6 Bn By 2024: Expanding Usage Of Supplements and Demand For ... - Mobile Computing Today - March 29th, 2017
- What One Qualia Supplement Review Warns About the Future - Huffington Post - March 27th, 2017
- Nootropics Market to receive overwhelming hike in Revenues by 2024 - Credence Research - MENAFN.COM - March 19th, 2017
- Nootropics Market to receive overwhelming hike in Revenues by 2024 Credence Research - Press Release Rocket - March 17th, 2017
- Brain Hackers Seeking Peak Performance Use Risky Chemical Cocktails - Scientific American - March 17th, 2017
- Credence Research: Industry Analysis Report for Nootropics Market 2017 - PDF Devices - March 17th, 2017
- Le-Vel's new premium nootropic capsule designed to support, optimize mental capabilities - Yahoo Finance - March 7th, 2017
- Why Would People Without Diabetes Monitor Their Blood Sugar? - A Sweet Life - March 7th, 2017
- Hacking the Human Body with the CEO of Nootrobox - Paste Magazine - March 6th, 2017
- Best Supplements For Your Brain: 4 Nootropics That Work ... - March 4th, 2017
- Nootropedia Launches Flagship Brain Conference - Benzinga - March 4th, 2017
- NEU Brings Nootropics to Energy Shots - BevNET.com - February 22nd, 2017
- Elevacity Introduces Smart Coffee: "Elevate" - Press Release ... - Digital Journal - February 18th, 2017
- Onnit Earth Grown Nutrients All-In-One Daily Greens Mix Review - BarBend (blog) - February 15th, 2017
- Need Some Energy Or Some Better Sleep? The Mad Scientists at Nootrobox Can Help - Magnetic Magazine (blog) - February 15th, 2017
- Global Nootropics Market has been expected to grow at CAGR 17.9% CAGR during 2016-2024- Credence Research - PDF Devices - February 14th, 2017
- How to target a niche market at a small business - Telegraph.co.uk - February 7th, 2017
- Silicon Valley's 'nootropic' smart drugs a big business - Daily Sabah - February 6th, 2017
- The Big List of Nootropics | Braintropic - January 30th, 2017
- Noopept | Smarter Nootropics - January 14th, 2017
- Nootropic Supplements [Smart Drugs] Simple Nootropics Guide - December 21st, 2016
- Brain Center - Research News and brain Supplement Reviews - December 12th, 2016
- Buy Noopept Powder | View Noopept Reviews and Benefits - December 7th, 2016
- Nootropics - Strong Supplement Shop - November 25th, 2016
- Nootropic - Wikipedia - October 23rd, 2016
- Nootropics Supplements and Stacks - Review Before You Buy! - October 1st, 2016
- Nootrobrain | Pure nootropics at the proper dose. - September 22nd, 2016