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Economic Freedom of the World – Peer-reviewed papers …

Posted: July 27, 2016 at 11:44 am

Peer-Reviewed Papers (published in academic journals):

1994|1996|1997|1998|1999|2000|2001|2002

2003|2004|2005|2006|2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011

Other Papers Related to Economic Freedom: 1998-2007

If you know of any other papers current or forthcoming that should be included on this page, or have further information about any of these papers or authors, please write to freetheworld*at*fraserinstitute.org.

de Vanssay, X. and Z. A. Spindler (1994). Freedom and Growth: Do Constitutions Matter. Public Choice. 78, 3-4: 359-372.

This paper empirically investigates whether certain constitutional enumerations matter for economic growth. We find that negative (positive) rights tend to have a positive (negative) effect on economic growth, and that structural constraints have a more significant and larger effect than procedural constraints.

Uses the ‘Scully and Slottje’ Index as an independent variable. (See: Scully, GW and Slottje, D, (1991) “Ranking Economic Liberty Across Countries” Public Choice 69, pp. 151-2). The model estimates the steady-state solution of an (institutionally) augmented Solow growth model. The dependent variable is the logarithm of per-capita income. This is a cross-section analysis covering 100 countries.

de Vanssay, X. and Z. A. Spindler (1996). Constitutions, Institutions and Economic Convergence: An International Comparison. Journal for Studies in Economics and Econometrics. 20, 3 (November): 1-19.

Abstract: This paper explores empirically whether constitutional enumerations and economic freedom indexes affect economic convergence. Some constitutional features and economic freedom do affect convergence, though economic freedom is by far the more influential.

Uses the ‘Scully and Slottje’ Index as an independent variable. (See: Scully, GW and Slottje, D, (1991) “Ranking Economic Liberty Across Countries” Public Choice 69, pp. 151-2). The dependent variable is the average annual per capita growth rate. This is a cross-section analysis covering 109 countries.

Islam, Sadequil (1996). Economic Freedom, per Capita Income and Economic Growth. Applied Economics Letters 3: 595-97.

Examines the effect of economic freedom on income and growth in high-, middle-, and low-income country sets and finds that economic freedom is significant for a sample of all countries but only in some subsets.

Uses the precursor to Economic Freedom of the World, Measuring Economic Freedom, by James Gwartney, Walter Block and Robert Lawson, a chapter in Stephen Easton and Michael Walker (eds.), Rating Global Economic Freedom (Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1992). Measuring Economic Freedom is the main data source for institutional variables.

Paul, C.W.; Souder, W.E.; Schoening, N.C. (November 1996). The influence of government policies on innovation and technological advance. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research of India. 55 (11): 851-859.

Petersmann, E.U. (June 1996). International competition rules for governments and for private business – The case for linking future WTO negotiations on investment, competition and environmental rules to reforms of anti-dumping laws. Journal of World Trade. 30 (3): 5-35.

Ali, Abdiweli M. (1997). Economic Freedom, Democracy and Growth. Journal of Private Enterprise 13 (Fall): 1-20.

This paper takes advantage of newly constructed measures of economic freedom to show the importance of economic freedom on growth. I find that economic freedom is a more robust determinant of growth than political freedom and civil liberty.

Uses summary ratings from Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as one variable in a comparison of a number of institutional variables.

Anwar, S.T. (1997). Economic freedom of the world: 1975-1995. Journal of International Business Studies. 28 (4): 872-878.

Dornbusch, R. (1997). Brazil’s incomplete stabilization and reform. Brookings Papers on Economic Accountability. (1): 367-404.

Easton, Steven T., and Michael A. Walker (1997). Income, Growth, and Economic Freedom. American Economic Review 87 (2) (May): 328-32.

Finds that economic freedom is an important explanatory variable for steady-state levels of income. The addition of a variable for economic freedom is also shown to increase the explanatory power of a neo-classical growth model.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 is the main data source for institutional variables.

Goldsmith, Arthur A. (1997). Economic Rights and Government in Developing Countries: Cross-National Evidence on Growth and Development. Studies in Comparative International Development 32 (2) (summer): 29-44.

The paper finds that developing countries that score better in protecting economic rights also tend to grow faster and to score higher in human development. In addition [the paper finds that] economic rights are associated with democratic government and with higher levels of average national income.

Uses summary ratings from Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as one of a number of institutional variables.

Hakura, F.S. (April 1997). The Euro-Mediterranean policy: The implications of the Barcelona Declaration. Common Market Law Review. 34 (2): 337-366.

Hanke, Steve H., and Stephen J.K. Walters (1997). Economic Freedom, Prosperity, and Equality: A Survey. Cato Journal 17 (2) (Fall): 117-46.

The article compares several institutional indexes for content and explanatory power: Gerald Scully’s studies, The Fraser Institute’s Economic Freedom of the World, Freedom House’s Economic Freedom Indicators, The Heritage Foundation’s Indices of Economic Freedom, The International Institute for Management Development’s World Competitiveness Yearbook 1996, The World Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 1996. Compares liberty and prosperity, equality and foreign policy implications. They find that economic freedom is positively correlated with per-capita GNP.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 is used as one variable in a comparison of a number of institutional variables.

Jordan, Jerry L. (1997). Jobs Creation and Government Policy. Cato Journal 16 (3) (Winter): 287-94.

Argues that employment-creating initiatives or job-creation policies hinder the creation of new technology and the process of “creative destruction.” Also argues that the role of government monetary intervention in the economy should be limited to creating stable monetary policy.

Makes reference to the general conclusions of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 regarding economic freedom and income and growth.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Mbaku, J.M. (December 1997). Africa in the post-Cold War era: Three strategies for survival. Journal of Asian and African Studies. 32 (3-4): 223-244.

Park, Walter G., and Juan Carlos Ginarte (1997). Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth. Contemporary Economic Policy 15 (July): 51-61.

The authors have compiled an index of intellectual property rights, and examine its effects on growth and the factors of production (investment, schooling, and R&D). The paper finds that IPRs affect economic growth indirectly by stimulating the accumulation of factor inputs like R&D and physical capital.

Uses summary ratings of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as a control variable for market institutions in the analysis.

Trebilcock, Michael J. (1997). What Makes Poor Countries Poor?: The Role of Institutional Capital in Economic Development. Chapter in The Law and Economics of Development, edited by Edgardo Buscaglia, William Ratliff and Robert Cooter. Greenwich: JAI Press.

Discusses the general conclusions regarding economic freedom and growth found in Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995.

Ayal, Eliezer B., and Karras Georgios (1998). Components of Economic Freedom and Growth: An Empirical Study. Journal of Developing Areas 32 (Spring): 327-38.

The paper uses regression analysis to examine the effect of the components of economic freedom on growth, output and investment and finds that “economic freedom enhances growth both via increasing total factor productivity and via enhancing capital accumulation.” It also identifies components that have the highest statistical effects on these variables, with the aim of informing policy makers.

Uses component ratings from Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as the main data source for institutional variables.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Chafuen, Alejandro (1998). Estado y Corrupcion. In Alejandro Chafuen and Eugenio Guzmn, Corrupcin y Gobierno (Santiago, Chile: Fundacin Libertad y Desarrollo): 45-98.

Finds that corruption is negatively related to economic freedom.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 and Transparency International are the main data-source for institutional variables.

Dawson, John W. (1998). Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence. Economic Inquiry 36 (October): 603-19.

This paper outlines the alternative channels through which institutions affect growth, and studies the empirical relationship between institutions, investment, and growth. The empirical results indicate that (i) free-market institutions have a positive effect on growth; (ii) economic freedom affects growth through both a direct effect on total factor productivity and an indirect effect on investment; (iii) political and civil liberties may stimulate investment; (iv) an important interaction exists between freedom and human capital investment; (v) Milton Friedman’s conjectures on the relation between political and economic freedom are correct; (vi) promoting economic freedom is an effective policy toward facilitating growth and other types of freedom.

Uses Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as the main data source for institutional variables.

De Haan, Jakob, and Clemens L.J. Sierman (1998). Further Evidence on the Relationship between Economic Freedom and Economic Growth. Public Choice 95: 363-80.

Primarily investigates the robustness of the index of economic freedom devised by Gerald Scully and D.J. Slottje and determines that the robustness of results depends heavily on how freedom is measured. Finds that some specifications are robust predictors of the growth rate of real per-capita GDP (1980-1992) but few are robust for investment share of GDP.

Empirical analysis on Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 is limited to correlation with the Scully and Slotjie’s index. Suggests further empirical work be done on Economic Freedom of the World.

Elbadawi, I. and Schmidt-Hebbel, K. (December 1998). Macroeconomic policies, instability and growth in the world. Journal of African Economy. 7: 116-168 Suppl. 2.

Farr, W. Ken, Richard A. Lord, and J. Larry Wolfenbarger (1998). Economic Freedom, Political Freedom and Economic Well-Being: A Causality Analysis. Cato Journal 18 (2) (Fall): 247-62.

The paper uses Granger causality analysis to demonstrate that economic freedom “causes” economic well-being and economic well-being “causes” economic freedom. Additionally, the authors argue that economic well-being causes political freedom but that there is no causation flowing from political freedom to economic well-being. The paper also finds no evidence of a casual relationship in either direction between economic freedom and political freedom. Indirectly economic freedom causes political freedom through its effect on economic well-being.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 and the Freedom House index of political rights and civil liberties are the main data sources for institutional variables.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Ford, John B., Kiran W. Karande, and Bruce M. Seifert (1998). The Role of Economic Freedom in Explaining the Penetration of Consumer Durables. Journal of World Business 33 (1): 69-86.

The study examines the link between economic freedom (a measure of government intervention) and the penetration of three durable goods (televisions, radios and automobiles) across countries.

Cites conclusions of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995; uses other indexes of economic freedom for empirical work.

Grubel, Herbert G. (1998). Economic Freedom and Human Welfare: Some Empirical Findings. Cato Journal 18 (2) (Fall): 287-304.

The paper compares economic freedom to income, growth, unemployment in the OECD, the UN Human Development Index, life expectancy, literacy, poverty, and income distribution. It finds that economic freedom does not have a cost in terms of income levels, income growth, unemployment rates, and human development.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1997 Annual Report is the main data source for institutional variables.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Gwartney, James, Randall Holcombe, and Robert Lawson (1998). The Scope of Government and the Wealth of Nations. Cato Journal 18 (2) (Fall): 163-90.

The paper examines the effect of the size of government in OECD countries upon economic growth. This paper draws on the authors’ Joint Economic Committee Study, The Size and Functions of Government and Economic Growth.

Makes reference to the general conclusions regarding economic freedom and income and growth as published in Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 and Economic Freedom of the World: 1997 Annual Report.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Henderson, David (1998). The Changing Fortunes of Economic Liberalism. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

A comprehensive review of the trends in economic liberalism in the last century. The book covers economic liberalism in thought and practice as well as discussing how the climate of political and popular opinion has both helped and constrained the development of liberal policy. One section uses the Economic Freedom of the World to discuss the progress made by countries engaging in economic reform and the appendix discusses the derivation, benefits, and limitations of the Economic Freedom of the World.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 is the only quantitative source for institutional variables.

Johnson, James P., and Tomasz Lenartowicz (1998). Culture, Freedom and Economic Growth: Do Cultural Values Explain Economic Growth? Journal of World Business 33 (4): 332-56.

The paper discusses which cultural values are associated with economic freedom, drawing on two international quantitative cultural indexes.

Uses the summary ratings from Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as one of a number of institutional variables.

Johnson, Simon, Daniel Kaufmann, and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton (1998). Government in Transition: Regulatory Discretion and the Unofficial Economy. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings (May): 159-239.

Empirically studies the effect of institutional quality on the share of the unofficial economy in GDP.

Uses the component, Equality of Citizens under the Law and Access of Citizens to a Non-Discriminatory Judiciary, of Economic Freedom of the World: 1997 Annual Report as one of a number of institutional variables.

Kealey, T. (April 1998). Why science is endogenous: a debate with Paul David (and Ben Martin, Paul Romer, Chris Freeman, Luc Soete and Keith Pavitt). Research Policy. 26 (7-8): 897-923.

Lim, Linda Y.C. (1998). Whose “Model” Failed? Implications of the Asian Economic Crisis. Washington Quarterly 21 (3): 25-36.

The paper examines the conflicting interpretations of the role of governments and economic freedom in the success and subsequent crises in Asia.

Cites conclusions of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995.

Mbaku, John Mukum, (1998). Constitutional Engineering and the Transition to Democracy in Post-Cold War Africa. The Independent Review 2 (4) (Spring): 501-17.

Discusses the constitutional guarantees necessary to secure economic freedom and why such guarantees are important. Focuses specifically on Africa.

Makes reference to the general conclusions of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 regarding economic freedom and income and growth.

Milhaupt, Curtis (1998). Property Rights in Firms. Virginia Law Review 84: 1145-94.

Discusses how differences in property rights and corporate governance systems arise within differing institutional frameworks.

Uses the Property Rights component of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as one of a number of institutional variables in case-study analysis.

Nelson, Michael A., and Ram D. Singh, (1998). Democracy, Economic Freedom, Fiscal Policy and Growth in LDCs: A Fresh Look. Economic Development and Cultural Change 46 (4) (July): 677-96.

The study examines the effect of democracy on economic growth after controlling for a number of variables for the size of government and institutions. The study finds that it is not the redistributive policies of democratic governments that hinder development in developing countries but the lack of economic freedom.

Uses the precursor to Economic Freedom of the World, Measuring Economic Freedom, by James Gwartney, Walter Block and Robert Lawson, a chapter in Stephen Easton and Michael Walker (eds.), Rating Global Economic Freedom (Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1992). The summary ratings of Measuring Economic Freedom are used as one variable in a comparison of a number of variables for institutions and the size of government.

Norton, Seth W. (1998). Poverty, Property Rights, and Human Well-being: A Cross-national Study. Cato Journal 18 (2) (Fall): 233-45.

The paper compares property rights to indicators of development and determines that the well-being of the world’s poorest inhabitants [is] sensitive to the cross-national specification of property rights. The paper shows that well-specified property rights enhance the well-being of the world’s most impoverished.

Economic Freedom of the World: 1997 Annual Report and the Heritage Foundation’s Indices of Economic Freedom are the main data source for institutional variables.

Download the paper. (PDF)

Norton, Seth W. (1998). Property Rights, the Environment, and Economic Well-Being. In Peter J. Hill and Roger E. Meiners (eds.), Who Owns the Environment (Rowman & Littlefield): 37-54.

Investigates whether countries with better property rights have better performance on environmental measures.

Uses the summary ratings of Economic Freedom of the World: 1975-1995 as one of four measures used as proxies for property rights.

Porket, J.L. (1998). Is the state in retreat? Politicka Ekonomie. 46 (6): 805-815.

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Economic Freedom of the World – Peer-reviewed papers …

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Virtual reality News, Videos, Reviews and Gossip – Gizmodo

Posted: at 11:38 am

Virtual reality, a dream of science fiction writers for decades, is the closest to a true reality than its ever been. Multiple headsets are on sale to consumers, and while some arent exactly affordable to the common person, such as the HTC Vive or the Oculus Rift, and others work better than others,the upcoming

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Virtual reality News, Videos, Reviews and Gossip – Gizmodo

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NATO – Science for Peace and Security

Posted: at 11:33 am

The Science for Peace and Security Programme

The Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme is a policy tool that enhances cooperation and dialogue with all partners, based on scientific research, innovation, and knowledge exchange. The SPS Programme provides funding, expert advice, and support to security-relevant activities jointly developed by a NATO member and partner country.

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National Speakers Association of North Texas

Posted: at 11:32 am

If youre looking for a way to dramatically enhance your speaking career, find support and friendship with fellow speaking professionals, and gain skills to run your speaking business, then youre in the right place. Read more about NSA-NT membership

Our NSA-NT calendar is full of powerful events designed to propel your speaking career. Monthly meetings, labs, special workshops, After Hours, and our infamous chapter parties are just a few of our 2016-2017 offerings. Find out more about our events

Are you looking for a local professional speaker to deliver a keynote, training, workshop, concurrent session, lunch speech, dinner speech, emcee, facilitator, comedian, entertainer, or more? Find a professional speaker in our searchable database.

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National Speakers Association of North Texas

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Police Wage War on Drugs in the Philippines Photos – ABC News

Posted: July 25, 2016 at 4:00 pm

The President-Elect of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte, declared a war on crime and drugs after sweeping an election on May 9, and has been living up to his nickname, “the punisher.” Philippine police have been conducting night raids almost on a daily basis and revived a curfew for minors that had not been enforced for years. Based on local reports, there has been at least 59 drug-related deaths since the election and hundreds of drug suspects arrested.

A suspected drug user is handcuffed during a nighttime raid on a drug den, June 16, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images

A suspected street robber is arrested by a policeman after a brief chase in the streets, June 20, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images

Police pass by homeless boys sleeping on the street during a night patrol, June 22, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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A blood-soaked stretcher is seen here after a buy-bust operation which killed three suspected drug dealers, June 25, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Social workers and police round up a minor at night during curfew, June 8, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Social workers and police round up minors at night during curfew, June 8, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images

Suspected drug users and drug dealers are arrested by police during a nighttime raid on a suspected drug den, June 16, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Crystal meth and various drug paraphernalia are seized by undercover police during a nighttime raid on a suspected drug den, June 16, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Criminals with various offenses and drug gangs sit in an overcrowded jail cell, June 20, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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A group of policemen listen to a briefing prior to a raid on a drug den, June 16, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Police patrol a shanty community at night during curfew, June 8, 2016, in Manila, Philippines. The president-elect of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte, declared a war on crime and drugs after sweeping an election on May 9, and has been living up to his nickname, “the punisher.”

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Social workers and police round up minors at night during curfew, June 8, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images

The following contains graphic content. Viewer discretion is advised.

ABC News

A drug suspect is killed in a shootout during a buy-bust operation conducted by police, June 25, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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A gun, bullets, marked money and sachets of crystal meth are laid on a table after a drug raid, June 20, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Drug suspects are led into a crowded jail cell, June 20, 2016, in Manila, Philippines.

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Police Wage War on Drugs in the Philippines Photos – ABC News

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Evolution – The New York Times

Posted: at 3:52 pm

Latest Articles

A single-cell, bacterium-like organism clinging to volcanic sea vents may have been the forebear of every animal, plant and microbe on earth.

By NICHOLAS WADE

In the extremity of the urban environment, natural selection is transforming species in unexpected ways.

By MENNO SCHILTHUIZEN

Gualicho shinyae was found to have evolved its stubby arms independently, suggesting there was some evolutionary advantage to the small size.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

An ancient reptilian creature was found by researchers to be the source of the spikes, plumage and fur that cover reptiles, birds and mammals.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

Members of the mustelid family, including badgers, ferrets and otters, have evolved into remarkable predators.

By NATALIE ANGIER

A ripple effect of weather, insects and other food supplies, from the Arctic to the tropics, may be driving down the population of the red knot, a study finds.

By CARL ZIMMER

The bearded dragon shows stages of sleep similar to those in humans and other mammals, suggesting that the stages evolved earlier than scientists thought.

By ERICA GOODE

Most of the diversity outlined on the new tree has been hiding in plain sight.

By CARL ZIMMER

When everyone has a theory, actual scientific theories like evolution take a hit.

By CARL ZIMMER

Humans arent so special. Animals think much more deeply than we imagine.

By FRANS de WAAL

An exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History documents the recently established link between dinosaurs and modern birds.

By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD

In a cave in Thailand, scientists discovered a parallel to one of evolutions signature events: the transition from sea to land.

By CARL ZIMMER

The interbreeding may have given modern humans better immunity to pathogens, according to the authors of the analysis of global genomes.

By CARL ZIMMER

Male nursery web spiders tie up females with spider silk before mating to avoid being killed and eaten.

By SAMANTHA STARK and JAMES GORMAN

Scientists at Harvard concluded that stone tools that broke down food could have helped early human relatives conserve energy, aiding in their evolution.

By CARL ZIMMER

A report in the journal Science reveals how evolution harnessed viral DNA to rewire humans own genetic circuitry and strengthen the immune system.

By CARL ZIMMER

It may seem noble and selfless, but its also about improving your reputation.

By JILLIAN JORDAN, PAUL BLOOM, MOSHE HOFFMAN and DAVID RAND

1 . .

By JAMES GORMAN

A dig in Kenya has uncovered the remains of a slaughter from 10,000 years ago, suggesting that warfare may have existed even before humans began agriculture.

By JAMES GORMAN

Humans sleep more deeply but for shorter periods than other primates habits, a study finds. The pattern may have helped humans evolve more powerful brains.

By CARL ZIMMER

A single-cell, bacterium-like organism clinging to volcanic sea vents may have been the forebear of every animal, plant and microbe on earth.

By NICHOLAS WADE

In the extremity of the urban environment, natural selection is transforming species in unexpected ways.

By MENNO SCHILTHUIZEN

Gualicho shinyae was found to have evolved its stubby arms independently, suggesting there was some evolutionary advantage to the small size.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

An ancient reptilian creature was found by researchers to be the source of the spikes, plumage and fur that cover reptiles, birds and mammals.

By NICHOLAS ST. FLEUR

Members of the mustelid family, including badgers, ferrets and otters, have evolved into remarkable predators.

By NATALIE ANGIER

A ripple effect of weather, insects and other food supplies, from the Arctic to the tropics, may be driving down the population of the red knot, a study finds.

By CARL ZIMMER

The bearded dragon shows stages of sleep similar to those in humans and other mammals, suggesting that the stages evolved earlier than scientists thought.

By ERICA GOODE

Most of the diversity outlined on the new tree has been hiding in plain sight.

By CARL ZIMMER

When everyone has a theory, actual scientific theories like evolution take a hit.

By CARL ZIMMER

Humans arent so special. Animals think much more deeply than we imagine.

By FRANS de WAAL

An exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History documents the recently established link between dinosaurs and modern birds.

By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD

In a cave in Thailand, scientists discovered a parallel to one of evolutions signature events: the transition from sea to land.

By CARL ZIMMER

The interbreeding may have given modern humans better immunity to pathogens, according to the authors of the analysis of global genomes.

By CARL ZIMMER

Male nursery web spiders tie up females with spider silk before mating to avoid being killed and eaten.

By SAMANTHA STARK and JAMES GORMAN

Scientists at Harvard concluded that stone tools that broke down food could have helped early human relatives conserve energy, aiding in their evolution.

By CARL ZIMMER

A report in the journal Science reveals how evolution harnessed viral DNA to rewire humans own genetic circuitry and strengthen the immune system.

By CARL ZIMMER

It may seem noble and selfless, but its also about improving your reputation.

By JILLIAN JORDAN, PAUL BLOOM, MOSHE HOFFMAN and DAVID RAND

1 . .

By JAMES GORMAN

A dig in Kenya has uncovered the remains of a slaughter from 10,000 years ago, suggesting that warfare may have existed even before humans began agriculture.

By JAMES GORMAN

Humans sleep more deeply but for shorter periods than other primates habits, a study finds. The pattern may have helped humans evolve more powerful brains.

By CARL ZIMMER

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Evolution – The New York Times

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Evolution | definition of evolution by Medical dictionary

Posted: at 3:52 pm

evolution [evo-lushun]

the process of development in which an organ or organism becomes more and more complex by the differentiation of its parts; a continuous and progressive change according to certain laws and by means of resident forces.

convergent evolution the development, in animals that are only distantly related, of similar structures or functions in adaptation to similar environments.

1. A continuing process of change from one state, condition, or form to another.

2. A progressive distancing between the genotype and the phenotype in a line of descent.

3. The liberation of a gas or heat in the course of a chemical or enzymatic reaction.

[L. e-volvo, pp. -volutus, to roll out]

convergent evolution the appearance of similar forms and/or functions in two or more lines not sufficiently related phylogenetically to account for the similarity.

organic evolution the origin and development of species; the theory that existing organisms are the result of descent with modification from those of past times.

1. A continuing process of change from one state, condition, or form to another.

2. Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, often resulting in the development of new species. The mechanisms of evolution include natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, mutation, migration, and genetic drift.

Etymology: L, evolvere, to roll forth

1 a gradual, orderly, and continuous process of change and development from one condition or state to another. It encompasses all aspects of life, including physical, psychological, sociological, cultural, and intellectual development, and involves a progressive advancement from a simple to a more complex form or state through the processes of modification, differentiation, and growth.

2 a change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms over time.

1. A continuing process of change from one state, condition, or form to another.

2. A progressive distancing between the genotype and the phenotype in a line of descent.

[L. e-volvo, pp. -volutus, to roll out]

the process of development in which an organ or organism becomes more and more complex by the differentiation of its parts; a continuous and progressive change according to certain laws and by means of resident forces.

the development, in animals that are only distantly related, of similar structures or functions in adaptation to similar environment.

the development of different characteristics in animals that were closely related in response to being placed in different environments.

Q. How the bacterias are produced?

A. The Bacteria are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. (The name comes from the Greek bakterion, meaning small staff.) Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[2] water, and deep in the Earth’s crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (51030) bacteria on Earth,[3] forming much of the world’s biomass.[4] Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many important steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria Hope this helps.

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Evolution | definition of evolution by Medical dictionary

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Victimless Crime Constitutes 86% of The Federal Prison …

Posted: July 21, 2016 at 2:24 am

When we talk about the war on drugs, which is increasingly turning into areal war, we often overlook the fact that the criminals involved in the drug trade arent actually violating anyones rights. When a drug dealer is hauled before a judge, there is no victim standing behind the prosecutor claiming damages. Everyone participating in the drug trade does so voluntarily.However, there area lot more crimesfor which this is also true. Millions upon millions of Americans have been thrown into cages without a victim ever claiming damages. It is important to look at the burden this mass level of incarceration places upon our society.

In light of that, let us review some statistics which demonstrate just how destructive the mass incarceration of victimless criminals has become to our society.The 2011 federal prison population consisted of:

Drug offenses are self-explanatory as being victimless, but so too are public-order offenses, which also fall under the victimless crimes category. Public order offenses include such things as immigration, weapons charges, publicdrunkenness,selling lemonade without a license,dancing in public,feeding the homeless without a permitetc..

The United States has the highest prison population rate in the world. Presently756 per 100,000of the national population is behind bars. This is in contrast to an average world per-capita prison population rate of145 per 100,000(158 per 100,000 if set against a world prison population of 10.65 million), based on 2008 U.N. population data. In other words, the U.S. incarcerates its citizens at a rate that is 5 times the world average.

In 2008, according to the Department of Justice, there were 7,308,200 persons in the US corrections system, of whom 4,270,917 were on probation, 828,169 were on parole, 785,556 were in jails, and 1,518,559 were in state and federal prisons. This means that the U.S. alone is responsible for holding roughly 15% of all the prisoners in the world.

In other words, 1 in 42 Americans is under correctional supervision. This constitutes over 2% of the entire U.S. population. That percentage jumps up drastically if we limit the comparison to working aged adult males, of which there are around 100 million. Over 5% of the adult male population is under some form of correctional supervision, alternatively stated, 1 in 20 adult males are under correctional supervision in the U.S.

According to 2006 statistics, 1 in 36 adult Hispanic men are behind bars, as are 1 in 15 adult black men. If we limit the data to black males between the ages 20 to 34,1 in 9 are behind bars. Keep in mind that 86% of those men in federal prisons are there for victimless crimes. They have not stolen any property, damaged any property or harmed anyone directly by their actions. Of course, if you are reading this and live in the US, you are paying for all those people to subsist on a daily basis. Roughly34% of all prisoners in the U.S. are incarcerated for victimless crimes.

In California in 2009 it cost an average of $47,102 a year to incarcerate an inmate in state prison. In 2005 it cost an average of $23,876 per state prisoner nationally. In 2007, $228 billion was spent on police, corrections and the judiciary. That constitutes around 1.6% of total U.S. GDP.

Of course, being the good economists that we are, we must not just look at the cost to incarcerate and police, but also at the opportunity cost to society that putting all those able-bodied men behind bars creates. When a man is put behind bars he is obviously incapable of contributing anything to society. He becomes a complete burden to society while producing nothing in return for the expenses he creates. He becomes a black void of resource destruction. Its important to remember that moneys value is directly related to the consumer goods that a society produces. If a society produces nothing of value, the money it uses will also be worth nothing of value. If a huge portion of able bodied workers is locked behind bars, society is effectively penalized twice once for the resources that are diverted into the prison industry and it is penalized again for the opportunity cost of the lost labor of those prisoners.

I find some dark humor in the fact that those who engage in victimless crime dont create any real victims until they are put behind bars, at which point they cause the State to steal $47,000 a year from the tax paying public. In our justice system today, victims are victimized twice; once by the perpetrator of the crime against them, and the other by the State which then forces the victim to pay for the punishment of their assailant. Clearly our societys notion of justice is logically ridiculous. Its apparently not OK for someone to steal from you, but its perfectly acceptable for the State to steal from you if the State is going to use that money to punish the person who stole from you. what kind of asinine system of justice is that?

What is justice? Isnt justice making a victim whole once again? Isnt justice punishing a criminal for the damages he imposed upon his victims?I propose that the only real justice that can be enacted in a free society is monetary punishment in the form of taking the perpetrators property and handing it to their victim, or ostracism by defamation of character.

I know some people will cry that under such a system violent criminals will be left free to roam the streets, but isnt that what our system is doing now? Consider that if a man commits a violent crime today, he is put behind bars for some arbitrary length of time with hundreds of other violent criminals, after which he is released back on to the streets. Do you think that criminal is going to be more dangerous to society after spending years locked in a cage with other violent criminals or less dangerous? Numerous studiesshow that prison eitherincreases, or has no impact on, recidivism. Thus, it all comes down to punishment. Isnt being branded a criminal, along with monetary punishment to make a victim whole once again, enough? How difficult do you think your life would be if you were convicted of murder, everyone knew about it and half your assets and income were being handed to your victims family? The rest of your life would be a living hell.

Putting people behind bars does nothing but squander resources. It deprives society of able-bodied workers and costs society massive amounts of resources which are stolen from the general public through the coercive theft of taxation. Consider how much richer American society would be today if it had an additional 5% of the male population working to produce goods and services in the private sector labor force.

Economist David Friedman has put together a fantastic presentation on how society could be organized in such a way as to eliminate all victimless crime while simultaneously eliminating the necessity of the State to steal from the victims of crimes to pay for their assailants punishment. After youre done watching Friedmanspresentation, check out thisfantastic comicput together by the Real Cost of Prisons project.

If you are interested in learning more about private law and private defense, listen to thisseries of essaysby economist Robert Murphy andthis lectureby economist Hans Hoppe.

The statistics cited in this article can be verified atDrug War Facts.org

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Libertarian Johnson defends Melania Trump on speech

Posted: at 2:24 am

Libertarian presidential candidate Gary Johnson defended Melania Trump during a stop in Chicago Tuesday, saying he could understand how the wife of soon-to-be Republican nominee Donald Trump could have mistakenly plagiarized parts of the speech she delivered to the GOP convention Monday night.

A few sentences of the address Melania Trump delivered in Cleveland were nearly identical to passages of first lady Michelle Obama’s speech to the Democratic National Convention in 2008, a revelation that dominated coverage of the presidential race Tuesday.

And while Johnson has sought to appeal to middle-of-the-road voters fed up with Trump and presumptive Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he did not seek to capitalize on the latest Trump flub following an appearance before the Chicago Tribune Editorial Board.

“Here’s what I make of it, and it’s a defense of Melania: She’s brought into this, make a few comments, Melania, make it from the heart and I don’t know what the circumstances are,” said Johnson, a former two-term Republican governor of New Mexico. “But maybe she got online and ‘what did Michelle do’ … or some staff did for her. Anyway, no stones cast on my part.”

Asked if the mistake reflected poorly on the campaign and Trump’s leadership, Johnson punted. “There will be others to do that. I’ll refrain. I just can see how it could happen,” he said, before starting to laugh. “Whoever did it, should have done a better job of paraphrasing as opposed to (using) just the exact lines.”

Johnson was joined by his running mate, former Massachusetts Republican Gov. Bill Weld, as the two tried to make the case for their third-party campaign. They positioned their ticket as the campaign of the center conservative on fiscal matters but liberal on social issues.

“I’m maintaining in this cycle that most people are Libertarian, it’s just that they don’t know it,” said Johnson, who noted he first identified himself philosophically as a Libertarian in 1971, though he later ran for office as a Republican. It was that year when he read a short book on what it meant to be a Libertarian and decided he was one.

The name of the book or author? “I can’t even remember.”

But Johnson said he did remember voting Libertarian for the first time in 1984, when he said he cast a ballot for David Bergland over Republican President Ronald Reagan, because “Reagan had blown the lid off the deficits.”

During the hourlong session with the Tribune Editorial Board, Johnson often took a back seat to Weld, who spoke more and jumped to answer many of the questions as the presidential nominee looked on.

If elected, the two said they’d cut federal spending by 20 percent in their first budget and would eliminate the Department of Education, Department of Commerce and Department of Housing and Urban Development. They said they’d place states in charge of Medicare and Medicaid and allow them the autonomy to determine their own eligibility rules. And they said they’d cut back on unnecessary military spending and try to close unneeded bases.

Johnson said Clinton and Trump had their “heads in the sand” on Social Security and vowed to reform the system by increasing the retirement age and making income a factor in whether individuals qualify for assistance.

And Johnson said he was the highest-ranking elected official in the country calling for the legalization of marijuana back in 1999, a position he’s still pushing today.

As for his opponents, Johnson said the Trump agenda is fascism, calling his vows to round up and deport illegal immigrants “horrible” and “incendiary.”

Added Weld: “There has to be a change in tone. Mr. Trump is very much a part of the problem and not part of the solution. I make a point of saying in a Johnson-Weld White House, you’re not going to get any bullying and you’re not going to get any bluffing, you’re not going to get any sanctimonious lectures.”

Johnson said Clinton’s agenda is one of being beholden, predicting higher taxes and a mantra of “just give us the money, we’ll take on more of the problems.”

Much of Johnson and Weld’s work right now is to convince voters their ticket has legitimacy. There are a lot of what-ifs.

The federal debate commission requires candidates to receive at least 15 percent support in polls to be included in this fall’s televised debate, a policy Johnson’s campaign has challenged in court. Still, the two projected they’d reach the 15 percent threshold anyway, noting a recent CNN poll that had them receiving 13 percent of the vote. The Real Clear Politics average has Johnson receiving 8.5 percent.

Weld said “it’s possible” former Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney will endorse their campaign. He also noted the campaign’s fundraising could rise as high as $50 million to $100 million if they get that valuable debate airtime.

“If we get in the presidential debates,” Weld said, “we’re going to be dangerous to the other two parties.”

bruthhart@chicagotribune.com

Twitter @BillRuthhart

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Space Exploration – National Archives and Records …

Posted: at 2:17 am

Information about the United States space flight programs, including NASA missions and the astronauts who participate in the efforts to explore space.

Stellar cluster taken by Hubble Space Telescope. (Courtesy of the Hubble Heritage Team)

NARA Resources Finding Aids for NARA Records on Space Exploration

Mars taken by Hubble Space Telescope. (Courtesy of NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team)

Presidential Libraries

The Dwight D. Eisenhower Library And Museum: Space Sources

John F. Kennedy Library & Museum: Space Sources

Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum: Space Resources

Richard Nixon Library: Space Resources

Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum: Space Resources

Picture of the Trifid Nebula taken by Gemini North 8-meter Telescope. (Courtesy of the Gemini Observatory/GMOS Image)

Jimmy Carter Library and Museum: Space Resources

Ronald Reagan Presidential Library: Space Resources

George Bush Presidential Library and Museum: Space Resources

William J. Clinton Presidential Library: Space Resources

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Neptune taken by Voyager spacecraft. (Courtesy of NASA, JPL, and CALTech)

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General Space Exploration Resources

Jupiters red spot taken by Voyager spacecraft. (Courtesy of NASA, JPL, and CALTech)

Fireworks at star formation taken by Hubble Space Telescope. (Courtesy of NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team)

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Space Exploration – National Archives and Records …

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