Author Archives: jos

International Childfree Day | Celebrating Childfree Men …

Posted: July 25, 2016 at 3:52 pm

The nominations for 2016 Childfree Man and Woman of the Year have gone to the Selection Panel.Winners will be announced on August 1, International Childfree Day!

Meanwhile, want to know about past winners? Check them out Here!

TODAY is the Nomination Deadline for the 2016 Childfree Man&Woman of the Year! Know an amazing childfree person? Its time to nominate him/her for the 2016 Childfree Man/Woman of the Year! Heres How Check out last years winners How did this start? Check it out!

by Laura S. Scott

When I was writing my book, Two Is Enough: A Couples Guide to Living Childless by Choice, I reflected on my early role models for childfree living. I was what I call an early articulator. I knew in my early teens that I didnt want children but I didnt have a lot of role models for that life decision-making in my neighborhood, or in my family. However, I did have a TV and there I could find a number of really inspiring role models who appeared to be without children and were apparently quite happy to remain so. Continue reading

by Rachel Chrastil

I find inspiration in both famous childfree people and the less-sung individuals who created meaningful lives for themselves without children. We sometimes find them in unexpected times and places. One such person is an ordinary woman from pre-revolutionary France who had no children a skilled tailor named Louise Le Mace. Continue reading

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International Childfree Day | Celebrating Childfree Men …

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Immersion (virtual reality) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: at 3:51 pm

Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment.

The name is a metaphoric use of the experience of submersion applied to representation, fiction or simulation. Immersion can also be defined as the state of consciousness where a “visitor” (Maurice Benayoun) or “immersant” (Char Davies)’s awareness of physical self is transformed by being surrounded in an artificial environment; used for describing partial or complete suspension of disbelief, enabling action or reaction to stimulations encountered in a virtual or artistic environment. The degree to which the virtual or artistic environment faithfully reproduces reality determines the degree of suspension of disbelief. The greater the suspension of disbelief, the greater the degree of presence achieved.

According to Ernest W. Adams, author and consultant on game design,[1] immersion can be separated into three main categories:

Staffan Bjrk and Jussi Holopainen, in Patterns In Game Design,[2] divide immersion into similar categories, but call them sensory-motoric immersion, cognitive immersion and emotional immersion, respectively. In addition to these, they add a new category:

Presence, a term derived from the shortening of the original “telepresence,” is a phenomenon enabling people to interact with and feel connected to the world outside their physical bodies via technology. It is defined as a person’s subjective sensation of being there in a scene depicted by a medium, usually virtual in nature (Barfield et al., 1995).[full citation needed] Most designers focus on the technology used to create a high-fidelity virtual environment; however, the human factors involved in achieving a state of presence must be taken into account as well. It is the subjective perception, although generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, that ultimately determines the successful attainment of presence (Thornson, Goldiez, & Le, 2009).[full citation needed]

Virtual reality glasses can produce a visceral feeling of being in a simulated world, a form of spatial immersion called Presence. According to Oculus VR, the technology requirements to achieve this visceral reaction are low-latency and precise tracking of movements.[4][5][6]

Michael Abrash gave a talk on VR at Steam Dev Days in 2014.[7] According to the VR research team at Valve, all of the following are needed to establish presence.

Immersive virtual reality is a hypothetical future technology that exists today as virtual reality art projects, for the most part.[8] It consists of immersion in an artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they usually feel in consensus reality.

The most considered method would be to induce the sensations that made up the virtual reality in the nervous system directly. In functionalism/conventional biology we interact with consensus reality through the nervous system. Thus we receive all input from all the senses as nerve impulses. It gives your neurons a feeling of heightened sensation. It would involve the user receiving inputs as artificially stimulated nerve impulses, the system would receive the CNS outputs (natural nerve impulses) and process them allowing the user to interact with the virtual reality. Natural impulses between the body and central nervous system would need to be prevented. This could be done by blocking out natural impulses using nanorobots which attach themselves to the brain wiring, whilst receiving the digital impulses of which describe the virtual world, which could then be sent into the wiring of the brain. A feedback system between the user and the computer which stores the information would also be needed. Considering how much information would be required for such a system, it is likely that it would be based on hypothetical forms of computer technology.

A comprehensive understanding of which nerve impulses correspond to which sensations, and which motor impulses correspond to which muscle contractions will be required. This will allow the correct sensations in the user, and actions in the virtual reality to occur. The Blue Brain Project is the current, most promising research with the idea of understanding how the brain works by building very large scale computer models.

The nervous system would obviously need to be manipulated. Whilst non-invasive devices using radiation have been postulated, invasive cybernetic implants are likely to become available sooner and be more accurate. Manipulation could occur at any stage of the nervous system the spinal cord is likely to be simplest; as all nerves pass through here, this could be the only site of manipulation. Molecular Nanotechnology is likely to provide the degree of precision required and could allow the implant to be built inside the body rather than be inserted by an operation.

A very powerful computer would be necessary for processing virtual reality complex enough to be nearly indistinguishable from consensus reality and interacting with central nervous system fast enough.

An immersive digital environment is an artificial, interactive, computer-created scene or “world” within which a user can immerse themselves.[9]

Immersive digital environments could be thought of as synonymous with virtual reality, but without the implication that actual “reality” is being simulated. An immersive digital environment could be a model of reality, but it could also be a complete fantasy user interface or abstraction, as long as the user of the environment is immersed within it. The definition of immersion is wide and variable, but here it is assumed to mean simply that the user feels like they are part of the simulated “universe”. The success with which an immersive digital environment can actually immerse the user is dependent on many factors such as believable 3D computer graphics, surround sound, interactive user-input and other factors such as simplicity, functionality and potential for enjoyment. New technologies are currently under development which claim to bring realistic environmental effects to the players’ environment effects like wind, seat vibration and ambient lighting.

To create a sense of full immersion, the 5 senses (sight, sound, touch, smell, taste) must perceive the digital environment to be physically real. Immersive technology can perceptually fool the senses through:

Once the senses reach a sufficient belief that the digital environment is real (it is interaction and involvement which can never be real), the user must then be able to interact with the environment in a natural, intuitive manner. Various immersive technologies such as gestural controls, motion tracking, and computer vision respond to the user’s actions and movements. Brain control interfaces (BCI) respond to the user’s brainwave activity.

Training and rehearsal simulations run the gamut from part task procedural training (often buttonology, for example: which button do you push to deploy a refueling boom) through situational simulation (such as crisis response or convoy driver training) to full motion simulations which train pilots or soldiers and law enforcement in scenarios that are too dangerous to train in actual equipment using live ordinance.

Computer games from simple arcade to massively multiplayer online game and training programs such as flight and driving simulators. Entertainment environments such as motion simulators that immerse the riders/players in a virtual digital environment enhanced by motion, visual and aural cues. Reality simulators, such as one of the Virunga Mountains in Rwanda that takes you on a trip through the jungle to meet a tribe of mountain gorillas.[10] Or training versions such as one which simulates taking a ride through human arteries and the heart to witness the buildup of plaque and thus learn about cholesterol and health.[11]

In parallel with scientist, artists like Knowbotic Research, Donna Cox, Rebecca Allen, Robbie Cooper, Maurice Benayoun, Char Davies, and Jeffrey Shaw use the potential of immersive virtual reality to create physiologic or symbolic experiences and situations.

Other examples of immersion technology include physical environment / immersive space with surrounding digital projections and sound such as the CAVE, and the use of virtual reality headsets for viewing movies, with head-tracking and computer control of the image presented, so that the viewer appears to be inside the scene. The next generation is VIRTSIM, which achieves total immersion through motion capture and wireless head mounted displays for teams of up to thirteen immersants enabling natural movement through space and interaction in both the virtual and physical space simultaneously.

New fields of studies linked to the immersive virtual reality emerges every day. Researchers see a great potential in virtual reality tests serving as complementary interview methods in psychiatric care.[12] Immersive virtual reality have in studies also been used as an educational tool in which the visualization of psychotic states have been used to get increased understanding of patients with similar symptoms.[13] New treatment methods are available for schizophrenia[14] and other newly developed research areas where immersive virtual reality is expected to achieve melioration is in education of surgical procedures,[15] rehabilitation program from injuries and surgeries[16] and reduction of phantom limb pain.[17]

Simulation sickness, or simulator sickness, is a condition where a person exhibits symptoms similar to motion sickness caused by playing computer/simulation/video games (Oculus Rift is working to solve simulator sickness).[18]

Motion sickness due to virtual reality is very similar to simulation sickness and motion sickness due to films. In virtual reality, however, the effect is made more acute as all external reference points are blocked from vision, the simulated images are three-dimensional and in some cases stereo sound that may also give a sense of motion. Studies have shown that exposure to rotational motions in a virtual environment can cause significant increases in nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.[19]

Other behavioural changes such as stress, addiction, isolation and mood changes are also discussed to be side-effects caused by immersive virtual reality.[20]

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Eczema Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Posted: at 3:43 pm

What Is It?

Dermatitis is a skin inflammation. Eczema is the most common type of dermatitis.

Eczema first appears as an episode of itching and redness of the skin. You also may have tiny bumps or blisters.

When eczema develops into a long-term condition, it is called chronic eczema. This leads to:

Thickening of the skin




Color changes

There are many types of eczema. The type depends on the cause, shape and location of the rash.

Most eczemas are related to allergies or to contact with irritating substances. Some are associated with fluid retention in the legs.

Following are types of eczema:

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) This type of eczema comes and goes repeatedly. It usually occurs in people with an inherited tendency to allergies. These allergies may include allergic asthma, hay fever or food allergies.

Atopic eczema appears early in life, usually by 18 months. In babies, atopic eczema primarily affects the:

Atopic eczema in older children, teenagers and adults usually involves the:

Contact dermatitis When irritants touch the skin, they can produce two types of contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is the direct irritation of the skin. It can be caused by prolonged contact with irritants such as:


Bubble bath

Harsh soap




The second type of contact dermatitis is allergic contact dermatitis. This is an allergic reaction in the skin. This type occurs in people who have an allergy to a specific substance. The most common allergens are poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac.

Other substances that can trigger skin allergies include:

Some building materials

Cleaning products




Nickel in earrings

Chemicals in:


Skin cream and lotions




Hand eczema Hand eczema is limited to the hands. It can be related to atopic eczema. Or it can result from repeated hand washing or exposure to strong detergents. Occasionally, it is caused by an allergy, such as to latex.

Nummular eczema This eczema causes coin sized patches of irritated skin. It typically appears on the legs, arms or chest. It usually occurs in adults. It can be related to atopic dermatitis and, less often, allergic contact dermatitis.

Sometimes, it is an allergic reaction to a fungal infection such as athlete’s foot. It still appears on the arms, legs or chest, even if the fungal infection is elsewhere on the body.

Asteatotic eczema This eczema dries the skin, causing fine cracks. It often first involves the lower legs. It commonly occurs in the elderly. It is common during winter months spent indoors in low humidity environments.

Stasis dermatitis This type appears on the calves, ankles and feet. It occurs in people who have poorly functioning veins in the lower legs. The veins cause blood to collect in the legs (stasis). This leads to leg swelling, which leads to the signs of stasis dermatitis:

Lichen simplex chronicus This eczema is a reaction to repeated scratching or rubbing of the skin. A nervous scratching habit can lead to thickened, discolored skin. Skin picking can lead to smaller bumps of the same type of rash.

Seborrheic dermatitis This type creates a greasier rash than usual for eczema. This scaly dermatitis commonly appears on the scalp of infants (as cradle cap). In adults, it appears as dandruff. It commonly affects the face or neck around the nose and at the scalp line.

Short-term symptoms of eczema include itchy skin, redness and tiny bumps or blisters.

If these symptoms remain untreated, the skin can become thick, scaly and dry. There can be areas of hair loss and color changes. Skin affected by long-term eczema is more vulnerable to secondary infections.

Each type of eczema has specific characteristics and patterns of symptoms:

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) Atopic dermatitis appears as irritated, red, dry, crusted patches on the skin. If the skin becomes infected, it may develop a wet (weeping) look. Scratching the itchy patches causes more irritation. It increases the risk of infection.

Contact dermatitis When an irritant causes contact dermatitis, symptoms can range from a mild redness to severe skin blistering or ulceration.

When triggered by an allergic reaction, it usually causes skin redness, fine red bumps or blisters and severe itching.

A reaction caused by plant allergies (like poison ivy or poison oak) is usually intense. It appears as bumps and blisters in lines or streaks where the plant brushed against the skin.

Hand eczema Hand eczema usually appears during the winter as patches of dry, cracked skin. There may or may not be redness. Hand eczema may also cause itching, red bumps or blisters and scaling. Irritation often occurs under rings from soap trapped under the rings.

Nummular eczema Nummular eczema begins as small areas of irritation. They turn into round red, crusted or scaly patches.

Asteatotic eczema This type usually occurs on the lower legs. It causes itching or stinging pain in areas of dry, cracked, reddened skin. There may or may not be tiny bumps.

Stasis dermatitis Stasis dermatitis occurs in legs that are already puffy or swollen. It usually begins with mild redness and itching of the lower legs. If redness and tenderness develop suddenly, it could be caused by a secondary bacterial infection. Bacterial infections require immediate medical attention.

Lichen simplex chronicus This rash creates thickened, leathery skin with darkening of skin color. It is very itchy. Scratching makes the problem worse.

Seborrheic dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis causes red, scaly patches with yellow, greasy crusts. These patches can be itchy or can cause burning.

Patches appear most commonly on the scalp as dandruff. But they also can occur elsewhere on the body. They may appear on the eyebrows, eyelids, ears and skin creases near the mouth and nose.

Scalp lesions in infants (cradle cap) can appear yellowish and greasy. They usually cause no discomfort.

Depending on your pattern of skin symptoms, your doctor will ask about your:

Personal and family allergy history

History of exposure to irritating chemicals

Contact with potential allergy triggers, such as poison ivy

In many cases, your doctor can diagnose eczema by examining the skin.

If your doctor suspects that allergies are involved, patch testing with various allergy-causing chemicals may be necessary.

Duration depends on the type of eczema. Symptoms may go away after a week or two. Or they may persist for years.

There are many things you can do to prevent or reduce eczema flare-ups.

Avoid exposure to:

Extreme temperatures

Dry air

Harsh soaps

Perfumed products

Bubble baths

Use blankets and clothing made of cotton. Avoid more irritating fabrics, such as wool. Avoid stiff synthetics, such as polyester.

After showering or bathing, pat dry (rather than rub). That way, you leave a little moisture on your skin. Then apply a moisturizing cream or lotion to trap moisture in the skin.

Use a humidifier to add moisture to indoor air during the winter heating season.

To help to prevent contact dermatitis, avoid skin contact with:

Dish detergent, cleaning solutions, and other irritating chemicals



Substances that trigger skin allergies

If you have leg swelling, you can help prevent stasis dermatitis by:

Your doctor should review your skin care routine. Your doctor can ensure you are doing everything possible to prevent symptoms.

But sometimes eczema remains bothersome despite these measures.

Your doctor may prescribe a corticosteroid ointment or cream. In atopic dermatitis, mild or medium strength topical steroids generally are used. These are applied to the affected areas of the skin.

Strong steroids and oral antihistamines may be needed to treat allergic contact dermatitis.

If there are signs of bacterial skin infection, oral antibiotics usually are needed.

Sometimes, in very severe cases of eczema, your doctor will prescribe a short course of oral steroids or stronger immunosuppressants. However, these medications can have serious side effects. They must be used cautiously.

In some people, treatment with ultraviolet (UV) light is another option.

Seborrhea in adults is best treated with dandruff shampoo. Occasionally prescription antifungal facial creams or rinses may be needed.

Cradle cap in infants eventually clears up without treatment. However, it can last several months. The crust usually can be loosened. To do so, apply baby oil to the scalp 30 to 60 minutes before brushing with a soft brush. Then wash with baby shampoo.

When treating a contact allergy in a child, avoid topical treatments containing antihistamines. Skin reactions can occur.

Call your doctor if you have an area of skin that is red and very itchy. Also call if your skin is cracked, blistered or painfully dry.

Ask your doctor for an urgent evaluation if you have signs of infection. These include an area of skin that:

The prognosis varies from person to person. It depends on the type of eczema and its response to treatment.

Most contact dermatitis heals within two to three weeks. Most stasis dermatitis lasts for years.

About half of children with atopic eczema still have the problem as adults.

Drugs associated with:

Micromedex Care Notes:

National Eczema Foundation4460 Redwood Highway, Suite 16D San Rafael, CA 94903-1953 Phone: (415) 499.3474 Toll-Free:(800) 818-7546 Fax: (415) 472-5345

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Eczema Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

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Nassau Paradise Island, Bahamas Where to Stay

Posted: July 23, 2016 at 4:21 am

Nassau Hotels & Resorts

Stay at one of our renowned Nassau hotels and resorts, where you’ll love the fabulous beaches, historic charm and vibrant pulse of The Bahamas-all while having the attractions of paradise right at your fingertips.

Browse Nassau Hotels & Resorts

Paradise Island Hotels & Resorts

From quaint, private beachfront properties to some of the most exclusive and famed destinations in the Caribbean, the hotels and resorts on Paradise Island are as incredibly varied and unique, as they are spectacular.

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Beachfront Hotels & Resorts in The Bahamas

Choose one of our Nassau Paradise Island beachfront locations, and wake up to stunning views of white sandy beaches, turquoise waters and beautiful blue skiesthen fall asleep to the sound of waves gently caressing the shore.

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AllInclusive Hotels & Resorts

Experience the ultimate carefree Nassau Paradise Island vacation and book your vacation at an all-inclusive resort. From the moment you arrive at a Bahamas all-inclusive resort, to the minute you depart, everything will be taken care of – including you.

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Small Hotels

Our Nassau Paradise Island small hotels are delightfully different yet joined by an impeccable set of standards. Because when it comes to wonderful accommodations and exceptional personal service, size doesn’t matter in The Bahamas.

Browse Small Hotels

Meetings in Paradise

Hosting your next great meeting or event in Nassau Paradise Island has never been easier. We are a short 3-hour flight from the Northeast and are served by several nonstop flights from most major U.S. cities.


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Nassau Paradise Island, Bahamas Where to Stay

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Survival Plus – Kurt Saxon, survivalism, survivalist

Posted: at 4:11 am


Kurt Saxon, owner of Atlan Formularies, is the father of Survivalism. He coined the word. For years he’s collected knowledge on trades, crafts, cottage industries and survival skills from a past when our immediate ancestors had to do for themselves on a day to day basis. His work is in anticipation of a time when our overcrowded and down-bred system goes the way of Rome.

Kurt started his business in January of 1976 with a quarterly newsletter called “The Survivor”. After publishing and selling twelve issues of “The Survivor”, Mr. Saxon would collect all those back-issues and combine 3 to 5 long out of print books to this concoction to create a bound volume of one of his most famous works to date; “The Survivor” series of books. We have 2 volumes in print with 8 more on both CD and DVD ROM ready to go to press just as soon we have the financial where-with-all to print them.

Kurt’s most famous (or “infamous” if you happen to roost on the left side of the political spectrum) work is called “The Poor Man’s James Bond” series. We have the first of this series in print, with the other 4 all on CD/DVD. Though much of the information (chemistry, chemicals, improvised weapons, weaponry, bombs, explosives, etc.) found in these books could be usedfor some home grown domestic mayhem, Mr. Saxon has assembled it all in one handy package for one reason and one reason only. So that you and/or any group of your friends or fellow citizens would have all the info necessary to defend yourselves from all the thugs, punks and assorted two-legged vermin that always seem to come out of the woodwork when any local, state or national disaster strikes.

His program is in no way political, racist or religious. He leaves such considerations to those who seek security in belief rather than practical knowledge.

The only inalienable right is to die for ones beliefs. Those who choose beliefs over knowledge, as well as those who don’t know the difference, will not survive the collapse. In most cases, they will have done the only good thing they have ever done, which is to take their defective genes out of our species.

Atlan Formularies supplies the knowledge to survive. Those who reject such knowledge are welcome to share the fate of the rest of the doomed herd.

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Survival Plus – Kurt Saxon, survivalism, survivalist

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Politically Incorrect Dictionary.

Posted: July 21, 2016 at 2:06 am

Bum – Replaced by Homeless Person.Calling a person a “Bum” implies that the person is a moocher that is too lazy to get a job. Referring to him as a “Homeless Person” removes this stigma, and implies that he would be a perfectly normal citizen if only the government would give him a house. (See :State-Socialism)

Crazy – Replaced by the term Mental Illness. And, since it is an illness, it may be treated in the same manner as other diseases – with drugs. Of course, this idea is nothing new … people have been using drugs to treat depression for centuries.

Criminal – Replaced by behaviorally challenged. This is one change that makes sense. A lot of the people in prisons today are not really “criminals” in the classic sense. Thanks to the “War on Drugs”, there are a lot of people in jail because they failed to “behave” properly.

Eastern (As when used when discussing Asian Culture) – Too Eurocentric. Instead, use Africa as your frame of reference. When discussing European culture you should now use the phase “Northern”, and when discussing Asia use the phrase “North-Eastern”. Now isn’t that better?

Factory – Replaced by Plant. The word Factory is a place where mistreated laborers toil long hours to produce pollution that billows forth from gigantic smokestacks. The word Plant is preferred since it is more difficult for this term to carry a negative connotation since this term is also used to describe nature. Its counterpart noun describes plant life (Plants, as in flowers, shrubs, etc). And the Verb form, to plant, is the process of lovingly placing a seed in the ground so it may one day grow into a mighty oak. Who can complain about having a new plant in their backyard?

Failure – Replaced by Deferred Success.

Fairy – Homophobic. Replaced by Petite airborne humanoid which possesses magical powers. The term fairy should be avoided when discussing these mythical beings, regardless of how gay they may appear.

Fat – Replaced by Enlarged physical condition caused by a completely natural genetically-induced hormone imbalance. Of course, this is very difficult to say in one breath– so people will find it easier to not say it at all. The term “fat” is simply too short and to direct. It all too clearly points out that the reason that an obese person’s skin appears so swollen is because it is being buttressed by large amounts of… well… Fat.

Foreign Food – Replaced by Ethnic Cuisine. The word foreign is generally used when one wishes to refer to something that alien to ones own country — something that is not normally found within the jurisdiction of your own particular political unit. But with the increasing power of multinational organizations (such as the U.N. and large corporations), nothing can be said to be truly ‘foreign’ anymore. In a world where you can find a McDonald’s in Moscow, a Disneyland in Japan, or a single currency throughout Europe, the word ‘Foreign’ is losing its meaning. The word ‘ethnic’ provides a more accurate way to refer to these cultural traits which are continually growing fainter as we move away from the world of the past, in which different areas of the world were actually unique.

Founding Fathers – Too Sexist. Instead, use the term The Founders. We wouldn’t want to exclude all those great female leaders of 18th century America would we?

Garbage Man – Replaced by Sanitation Engineer A Garbage Man picks up garbage. A Sanitation Engineer engineers it.

Ghetto – Replaced by Economically disadvantaged area. This term is used by politicians who believe money from the Government would solve their problems. (See : State-Socialism)

Girlfriend/Wife – Replaced by Unpaid sex worker

Handicapped – Replaced by Physically Challenged, or even worse, handicapable

Home-ec (Home Economics) – Replaced by Family and Consumer Sciences, and I’m really not sure why. These classes have been taught in school since the early 1900’s after Ellen Swallow Richards, an old-time feminist and the first woman to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, formed the American Home Economics Association in 1909. But I suppose that the reason for the change has something to do with the fact that Home-Ec is generally considered a ‘girly’ class, and is therefore sexist.

Housewife – Replaced by Domestic Engineer. This is to remove the necessity of marriage from the task of raising children.

Illegal Aliens Replaced by Undocumented Immigrants. The phrase Illegal Aliens implies that these people are a bunch of law-breaking creatures from outer space, while Undocumented Immigrants suggests that they are good old-fashioned immigrants that simply have not gone through the hassle of being documented yet.

Janitor – Replaced by Custodial Artist. No matter what you call it, this is a person who is paid to clean up shit.

Jungle – Replaced by Rainforest. A Rainforest is a happy place where Disney characters dance and sing … a jungle is a scary place with lions, tigers, malaria and natives that want to cut off your head and boil it for dinner… who in their right mind would want to save that!?!

Lumberjack – Replaced by Murderer.

Mans Job and Womans Work – Replaced by Traditional Gender Role. These are basic practices that are followed in one form or another by most of the life forms on this planet, and have been part of human culture for thousands of years and as with most other traditions, a lot of people believe that it is time for a change.

Midget – Replaced by Vertically Challenged.

Natural Disaster – replaced by Unnatural Event caused by man’s destruction of the environment. Every hurricane, mudslide, and flood sould be blamed on Global Warming, even though these events have been occurring for millions of years. (I’m still waiting for somebody to blame the last Ice Age on the campfires of cavemen)

Nigger – Originally, A negro Slave. Has evolved to mean “A Trashy or devious Negro”, but the word has still lost acceptance. (see : White Trash)

Psycho – Replaced by Pathologically High-Spirited

Secretary – Replaced by Administrative Assistant The word Secretary comes from Latin and means Confidential Officer And for some unknown reason this is a bad thing.

Sex Change – Replaced by gender re-assignment.

Swamp – Replaced by Wetland. Swamps are full alligators, bugs, and disease. If anybody went around saying that we need to “save the swamps”, people would think they were out of their friggin’ mind!

Trailer Park – Replace by Mobile Home Community.

Ugly – Replaced by Visually Challenging.

White Trash – Losers of European descent. Term still in acceptance, although its counterpart term to describe trash of the negro race is being eliminated.

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Politically Incorrect Dictionary.

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Life Extension Programs | National Nuclear Security …

Posted: July 18, 2016 at 3:34 pm

The term life extension program (LEP) means a program to repair/replace components of nuclear weapons to ensure the ability to meet military requirements. By extending the “life,” or time that a weapon can safely and reliably remain in the stockpile without having to be replaced or removed, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is able to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent without producing new weapons or conducting new underground nuclear tests.

Underlying the LEP planning process, NNSA remains committed to supporting the Presidents nuclear agenda as articulated in the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review. LEP activities will support the goal to reduce both the number of warhead types and the stockpile size by formulating options for interoperable (i.e., common or adaptable) warheads that could be flexibly deployed across different delivery platforms.

Additionally, a well-planned and well-executed stockpile life extension strategy will result in improved safety and security while also enabling the Department of Defense to build a deployment and hedgestrategy consistent with the Administrations agenda to establish a smaller, yet still effective, deterrent.

Each facility in NNSA’s nuclear weapons complex contributes to the life extension process. The majority of the physical work on the warhead and bombs is carried out at the NNSA Production Office which contains the Pantex Plant and Y-12 National Security Complex. The Pantex Plant does assembly and disassembly of the warheads and bombs while the Y-12 National Security Complex manufactures, assembles, and disassembles certain key components. The Kansas City Plants main mission is to manufacture and procure key non-nuclear components. The design laboratories Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories – assess the health of the current stockpile, design the components and systems for the life extension program warheads and bombs, and certify the life extended models when they enter the stockpile. The Nevada National Security Site provides facilities and expertise for experiments used to assess the health of the current stockpile systems and to evaluate proposed component designs for life extension programs. The Savannah River Site provides tritium gas, an essential and limited life material used in modern warheads.

NNSA must develop individual life extension programs by using science-based research for each weapon type and develop specific solutions to extend the lifetime of each particular weapon because each is unique. Over time, the components of nuclear warheads deteriorate, even when kept in storage. LEPs will address known aging issues in weapon systems, and each LEP will study the options for increasing the safety, security and reliability of weapons on a case-by-case basis.

Life extension efforts are intended to extend the lifetime of a weapon for an additional 20 to 30 years. The current planning scenario envisions that the useful lifetimes of the W76, B61, W78 and the W88 will have been extended through major LEP efforts by 2031. The Phase 6.X process should be used when life extension activity is planned for a weapon already in the stockpile.

In summary, the current LEP and alteration plans endorsed by the Nuclear Weapons Council include the following:

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Life Extension Programs | National Nuclear Security …

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Posted: at 3:31 pm

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(a privative, and theos, God, i.e. without God).

Atheism is that system of thought which is formally opposed to theism. Since its first coming into use the term atheism has been very vaguely employed, generally as an epithet of accusation against any system that called in question the popular gods of the day. Thus while Socrates was accused of atheism (Plato, Apol., 26, c.) and Diagoras called an atheist by Cicero (Nat. Deor., I, 23), Democritus and Epicurus were styled in the same sense impious (without respect for the gods) on account of their trend of their new atomistic philosophy. In this sense too, the early Christians were known to the pagans as atheists, because they denied the heathen gods; while, from time to time, various religious and philosophical systems have, for similar reasons, been deemed atheistic.

Though atheism, historically considered, has meant no more in the past than a critical or sceptical denial of the theology of those who have employed the term as one of reproach, and has consquently no one strict philosophical meaning; and though there is no one consistent system in the exposition of which it has a definite place; yet, if we consider it in its broad meaning as merely the opposite of theism, we will be able to frame such divisions as will make possible a grouping of definite systems under this head. And in so doing so we shall at once be adopting both the historical and the philosophical view. For the common basis of all systems of theism as well as the cardinal tenet of all popular religion at the present day is indubitably a belief in the existence of a personal God, and to deny this tenet is to invite the popular reproach of atheism. The need of some such definition as this was felt by Mr. Gladstone when he wrote (Contemporary Review, June 1876):

Moreover, the breadth of comprehension in such a use of the term admits of divisions and cross-divisions being framed under it; and at the same time limits the number of systems of thought to which, with any propriety, it might otherwise be extended. Also, if the term is thus taken, in strict contradistinction to theism, and a plan of its possible modes of acceptance made, these systems of thought will naturally appear in clearer proportion and relationship .

Thus, defined as a doctrine, or theory, or philosophy formally opposed to theism, atheism can only signify the teaching of those schools, whether cosmological or moral, which do not include God either as a principle or as a conclusion of their reasoning.

The most trenchant form which atheism could take would be the positive and dogmatic denial existence of any spiritual and extra-mundane First Cause . This is sometimes known as dogmatic, or positive theoretic, atheism; though it may be doubted whether such a system has ever been, or could ever possibly be seriously maintained. Certainly Bacon and Dr. Arnold voice the common judgment of thinking men when they express a doubt as to the existence of an atheist belonging to such a school. Still, there are certain advanced phases of materialistic philosophy that, perhaps, should rightly be included under this head. Materialism, which professes to find in matter its own cause and explanation, may go farther, and positively exclude the existence of any spiritual cause . That such a dogmatic assertion is both unreasonable and illogical needs no demonstration, for it is an inference not warranted by the facts nor justified by the laws of thought. But the fact that certain individuals have left the sphere of exact scientific observation for speculation, and have thus dogmatized negatively, calls for their inclusion in this specific type . Materialism is the one dogmatic explanation of the universe which could in any sense justify an atheistic position. But even materialism , however its advocated might dogmatize, could do no more than provide an inadequate theoretic basis for a negative form of atheism. Pantheism, which must not be confused with materialism , in some of its forms can be placed also in this division, as categorically denying the existence of a spiritual First Cause above or outside the world.

A second form in which atheism may be held and taught, as indeed it has been, is based either upon the lack of physical data for theism or upon the limited nature of the intelligence of man. This second form may be described as a negative theoretic atheism; and may be further viewed as cosmological or psychological, according as it is motived, on the one hand, by a consideration of the paucity of actual data available for the arguments proving the existence of a super-sensible and spiritual God, or, what amounts to the same thing, the attributing of all cosmic change and development to the self-contained potentialities of an eternal matter ; or, on the other hand, by an empiric or theoretic estimate of the powers of reason working upon the data furnished by sense-perception. From whichever cause this negative form of atheism proceeds, it issues in agnosticism or materialism; although the agnostic is, perhaps, better classed under this head than the materialist. For the former, professing a state of nescience, more properly belongs to a category under which those are placed who neglect, rather than explain, nature without a God. Moreover, the agnostic may be a theist, if he admits the existence of a being behind and beyond nature , even while he asserts that such a being is both unprovable and unknowable. The materialist belongs to this type so long as he merely neglects, and does not exclude from his system, the existence of God. So, too, does the positivist , regarding theological and metaphysical speculation as mere passing stages of thought through which the human mind has been journeying towards positive, or related empirical , knowledge. Indeed, any system of thought or school of philosophy that simply omits the existence of God from the sum total of natural knowledge, whether the individual as a matter of fact believes in Him or not, can be classed in this division of atheism, in which, strictly speaking, no positive assertion or denial is made as to the ultimate fact of His being.

There are two systems of practical or moral atheism which call for attention. They are based upon the theoretic systems just expounded. One system of positive moral atheism, in which human actions would neither be right nor wrong, good nor evil, with reference to God, would naturally follow from the profession of positive theoretic atheism; and it is significant of those to whom such a form of theoretic atheism is sometimes attributed, that for the sanctions of moral actions they introduce such abstract ideas as those of duty, the social instinct, or humanity. There seems to be no particular reason why they should have recourse to such sanctions, since the morality of an action can hardly be derived from its performance as a duty, which in turn can be called and known as a “duty ” only because it refers to an action that is morally good . Indeed an analysis of the idea of duty leads to a refutation of the principle in whose support it is invoked, and points to the necessity of a theistic interpretation of nature for its own justification .

The second system of negative practical or moral atheism may be referred to the second type of theoretic atheism. It is like the first in not relating human actions to an extra-mundane, spiritual , and personal lawgiver; but that, not because such a lawgiver does not exist , but because the human intelligence is incapable of so relating them. It must not be forgotten, however, that either negative theoretic atheism or negative practical atheism is, as a system, strictly speaking compatible with belief in a God; and much confusion is often caused by the inaccurate use of the terms, belief, knowledge, opinion, etc.

Lastly, a third type is generally, though perhaps wrongly, included in moral atheism. “Practical atheism is not a kind of thought or opinion, but a mode of life” (R. Flint, Anti-theisitc Theories , Lect. I). This is more correctly called, as it is described, godlessness in conduct, quite irrespective of any theory of philosophy, or morals, or of religious faith. It will be noticed that, although we have included agnosticism, materialism, and pantheism, among the types of atheism, strictly speaking this latter does not necessarily include any one of the former. A man may be an agnostic simply, or an agnostic who is also an atheist. He may be a scientific materialist and no more, or he may combine atheism with his materialism . It does not necessarily follow, because the natural cognoscibility of a personal First Cause is denied, that His existence is called in question: nor, when matter is called upon to explain itself, that God is critically denied. On the other hand, pantheism, while destroying the extra-mundane character of God, does not necessarily deny the existence of a supreme entity, but rather affirms such as the sum of all existence and the cause of all phenomena whether of thought or of matter. Consequently, while it would be unjust to class agnostics, materialists, or pantheists as necessarily also atheists, it cannot be denied that atheism is clearly perceived to be implied in certain phases of all these systems. There are so many shades and gradations of thought by which one form of a philosophy merges into another, so much that is opinionative and personal woven into the various individual expositions of systems, that, to be impartially fair, each individual must be classed by himself as atheist or theist. Indeed, more upon his own assertion or direct teaching than by reason of any supposed implication in the system he advocated must this classification be made. And if it is correct to consider the subject from this point of view, it is surprising to find to what an exceedingly small number the supposed atheistic ranks dwindle. In company with Socrates, nearly all the reputed Greek atheists strenuously repudiated the charge of teaching that there were no gods. Even Bion , who, according to Diogenes Laertius (Life of Aristippus , XIII, Bohn’s tr.), adopted the scandalous moral teaching of the atheist Theodorus, turned again to the gods whom he had insulted, and when he came to die demonstrated in practice what he had denied in theory. As Laertius says in his “Life of Bion”, he “who never once said, ‘I have sinned but spare me

Epicurus, the founder of that school of physics which limited all causes to purely natural ones and consequently implied, if he did not actually assert, atheism, is spoken of as a man whose “piety towards the gods and (whose) affection for his country was quite unspeakable” (ib., Life of Epicurus, V). And though Lucretius Carus speaks of the downfall of popular religion which he wished to bring about (De Rerum natura, I, 79-80), yet, in his own letter to Henaeceus (Laert., Life of Epicurus, XXVII), he states plainly a true theistic position: “For there are gods: for our knowledge of them is indistinct. But they are not of the character which people in general attribute to them.” Indeed, this one citation perfectly illustrates the fundamental historic meaning of the term, atheism.

The naturalistic pantheism of the Italian Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) comes near to, if it is not actually a profession of, atheism; while Tomaso Campanella (1568-1639), on the contrary, in his nature-philosophy finds in atheism the one impossibility of thought, Spinoza (1632-77), while defending the doctrine that God certainly exists, so identifies Him with finite existence that it is difficult to see how he can be defended against the charge of atheism even of the first type. In the eighteenth century, and especially in France, the doctrines of materialism were spread broadcast by the Encyclopedists. La Mettrie, Holbach, Fererbach, and Fleurens are usually classed among the foremost materialistic atheists of the period. Voltaire, on the contrary, while undoubtedly helping on the cause of practical atheism, distinctly held its theoretic contrary. He, as well as Rousseau, was a deist. Comte, it will be remembered , refused to be called an atheist. In the last century Thomas Huxley, Charles Darwin , and Herbert Spencer, with others of the evolutionistic school of philosophy, were, quite erroneously, charged with positive atheism. It is a charge which can in no way be substantiated; and the invention andonism of Ernst Hackel , goes far towards forming an atheistic system of philosophy. But even the last named admits that there may be a God, though so limited and so foreign to the deity of theists that his admission can hardly remove the system from the first category of theoretic atheism.

Among the unscientific and unphilosophical there have from time to time been found dogmatic atheists of the first type . Here again, however, many of those popularly styled atheists are more correctly described by some other title. There is a somewhat rare tract, “Atheism Refuted in a Discourse to prove the Existence of God by T.P.” British Museum Catalogue, “Tom Paine”, who was at one time popularly called an atheist. And perhaps, of the few who have upheld an indubitable form of positive theoretic atheism, none has been taken seriously enough to have exerted any influence upon the trend of philosophic or scientific thought. Robert Ingersoll might be instanced, but though popular speakers and writers of this type may create a certain amount of unlearned disturbance, they are not treated seriously by thinking men, and it is extremely doubtful whether they deserve a place in any historical or philosophical exposition of atheism.

REIMMAN, Historia atheismi et atheorum . . . (Hildesheim, 1725); TOUSSAINT in Dict. de thologie, s.v. (a good bibliography); JANET AND SEAILLES, History of the Problems of Philosophy (tr., London, 1902), II; HETTINGER, Natural Religion (tr., New York, 1890); FLINT, Anti-theistic Theories (New York, 1894); LILLY, The Great Enigma (New York, 1892); DAURELLE, L Atheisme devant la raison humaine (Paris, 1883); WARD, Naturalism and Agnosticism (New York, 1899); LADD, Philosophy of Religion (New York, 1905); II; BOEDDER, Natural Theologh (New York, 1891); BLACKIE, Natural History of Atheism (New York, 1878); The Catholic World, XXVII, 471: BARRY, The End of Atheism in the Catholic World, LX, 333; SHEA, Steps to Atheism in The Am, Cath. Quart. Rev., 1879, 305; POHLE, lehrbuck d. Dogmatik (Paderborn, 1907) I; BAUR in Kirchliches Handlexikon (Munich, 1907), s.v. See also bibliography under AGNOSTICISM, MATERIALISM, PANTHEISM, and THEISM. For the refuation of ATHEISM see the article GOD.)

APA citation. Aveling, F. (1907). Atheism. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

MLA citation. Aveling, Francis. “Atheism.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. .

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Beth Ste-Marie.

Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. 1907. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.

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Exercise Boss Lift Nov 2012 – Gary Kennedy, Metropolitan, Fire

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