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Author Archives: mhlcc
Posted: August 29, 2016 at 7:30 am
Paul says the candidate supports ‘smaller government and more personal liberties.’
By Associated Press
06/09/14 11:36 AM EDT
Former presidential candidate Ron Paul on Monday added his name to the list of tea party supporters of Chris McDaniel’s effort to deny longtime Republican Sen. Thad Cochran of Mississippi a seventh term.
McDaniel and Cochran were heading toward a June 24 runoff that illustrates the split within the GOP between its anti-establishment, tea party-flavored wing and its more staid establishment base. Neither candidate captured the required 50 percent of the vote in last week’s primary.
Story Continued Below
Tea party and anti-tax groups have rushed to McDaniel’s side in an effort to block Cochran’s reelection. FreedomWorks, the Club for Growth and the Tea Party Express have sent cash and staff to Mississippi to help McDaniel.
The winner of the runoff faces former Rep. Travis Childers, a Democrat.
“Chris McDaniel has been a fighter in the Mississippi Senate for smaller government and more personal liberties,” Paul said in a statement released through the McDaniel campaign.
Paul’s son, GOP Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky, has not backed a candidate in Mississippi.
Ron Paul backs tea party challenger Chris McDaniel in …
Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:36 pm
Origem: Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre.
Ayn Rand, nascida Alisa Zinov’yevna Rosenbaum (em cirlico russo: ; So Petersburgo, 2 de fevereiro de 1905 Nova Iorque, 6 de maro de 1982) foi uma escritora, dramaturga, roteirista e filsofa norte-americana de origem judaico-russa, mais conhecida por desenvolver um sistema filosfico chamado de Objetivismo, e por seus romances.
Nascida e educada na Rssia, Rand emigrou para os Estados Unidos em 1926. Ela trabalhou como roteirista em Hollywood, e teve uma pea produzida na Broadway, no perodo de 1935 a 1936.
Alcanou a fama com seu romance The Fountainhead (que foi lanado no Brasil com o ttulo de A Nascente, e deu origem a um filme homnimo conhecido no Brasil por Vontade Indmita), publicado em 1943. Em 1957 lanou seu melhor e mais conhecido trabalho, o romance filosfico Atlas Shrugged (no Brasil, Quem John Galt?, inicialmente lanado em 1987 e, posteriormente, relanado em 2010 como A Revolta de Atlas).
Sua filosofia e sua fico enfatizam, sobretudo, suas noes de individualismo, autossustentao e capitalismo. Seus romances preconizam o individualismo filosfico e a livre iniciativa econmica.
Um admirador de Ayn Rand, David Nolan, organizou, em 1971, o Partido Libertrio Americano, cujo programa original tinha os traos que ela mesma defendia nos anos 40. Posteriormente, ela brigou com libertrios como Murray Rothbard e passou a criticar o partido pelo fato da filosofia dela ter se distanciado a da escola austraca.
Um de seus principais pupilos foi Alan Greenspan, mais tarde presidente da Reserva Federal (o sistema de bancos centrais dos Estados Unidos).
Ela se posicionou tambm como uma anti-arabista e sionista durante o conflito rabe-israelense.
Posted: at 4:32 pm
Space-A travel is a means by which members of United States Uniformed Services (United States Military, reservists and retirees, United States Department of Defense civilian personnel (under certain circumstances), and these groups’ family members, are permitted to travel on aircraft under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Defense when excess capability allows.
Space available travel is a privilege that derives, in part, from United States Code, title 10, section 4744, which states, “officers and members of the Military Departments, and their families, when space is available, may be transported on vessels operated by any military transport agency of the Department of Defense”. Space available travel is defined as “travel aboard DoD owned or controlled aircraft and occurs when aircraft are not fully booked with passengers traveling under orders”.
It is a privilege offered to United States Uniformed Services members. Retired members are given the privilege in recognition of their career and because they are eligible for recall to active duty. The criteria for extending the privilege to other categories of passengers is their support to the mission being performed by Uniformed Services members and to the enhancement of active duty Service members’ quality of life.
There are rules and guidelines which apply to such travel. Uniformed personnel may only travel Space-A while on leave or pass for the full duration of their Space-A trip, and Space-A travel can not be used in conjunction with travel required by the service. Space A travel may not be used for personal financial gain or in connection with business enterprises or employment. Other nations’ laws and policies, as well as U.S. foreign policy, may limit the ability to travel using Space-A.
Aside from members of the United States Marine Corps, travelers do not have to be in uniform for their flights.
Eligible passengers wanting to travel using DoD Space-A travel are required to sign up at the departing location and are then placed on a locally managed Space-A register. The registration process varies depending on the location, but most locations allow signups via electronic mail, fax, or postal mail.
Each location’s passenger service center maintains their own Space-A register. Each person signing up is placed on this register using category of travel, signup date and signup time.
Based on status (active duty military, retired military, emergency traveler, etc.), Space-A travel applicants are assigned a category of travel from 1 to 6, which categorizes their priority of movement, 1 being the highest priority. Thus, an applicant with priority 1 will gain a place on an available aircraft over an applicant with priority 4, for example.
The number of space-available seats may not be known until the flight’s “Roll Call” just prior to the flight departs. After sorting the signup register by category of travel and signup date, the passenger terminal personnel follow a selection procedure. If there is sufficient seating for everyone desiring a seat, then everyone boards; otherwise, a cutoff point is determined.
The branches of service eligible for Space-A travel are:
Space-A travel is not without its pitfalls. Unlike traditional commercial air traffic, military flights are not always assigned predictable takeoff times. Many factors go into planning a military flight, with space-required cargo and passengers forming the basis of planning. There is no consideration given to potential Space-A travelers during the planning process.
The majority of flights that passengers take occur on: C-5, C-17, C-40, C-130, KC-10, and KC-135 aircraft.
Space-A travelers might meet abrupt, sometimes even in-flight, changes in travel. This need for pre-planning has given rise to a small industry surrounding such travel. Non-governmental enterprises (for the most part, publishers) produce products, initially through books and maps, with more recent incarnations as websites which provide travelers with information regarding Space-A travel.
The following information Space-A links are hosted by volunteer retired military:
Originally posted here:
Posted: at 4:26 pm
Immortality Power/Ability to:
The power to never age and recover from almost any injury. Opposite to Mortality.
Users possess an infinite life span, and can shrug off virtually any kind of physical damage. Some users are the defensive type, simply preventing such damage from appearing (invulnerability/protection), while others are the regenerative type, surviving and quickly recovering from anything you throw at them.
Some may only possess the power of:
Reliant Immortality (Concept-Dependent Immortality, Self-Puppetry)
See Also: Immortality and Complete Immortality.
Zeus (Greek mythology) is immortal Father of Gods and ruler of Olympus.
Sun Wukong (Journey Into The West) become unable to die or be harmed in any way after eating both the food of the heavens and erasing his name off death’s register.
Teitoku Kakine (A Certain Magical Index) achieved a form of immortality by creating a human tissues (and a new body) out of his Dark Matter.
Ladylee (A Certain Magical Index) is an immortal, in that when she grew weary of living, she sought to use powerful magic to kill her, which did not work.
Tenzen Yakushiji (Basilisk) having his symbiote “eat” away his wounds and restoring any ravages of time or battle, even reattaching his head by sealing the cut.
Creed Diskenth (Black Cat) possesses the God’s Breath nano-machines within his body, regenerating even fatal wounds in seconds and maintaining his youth, thus granting him immortality aside from any brain damage being irreparable.
Ssuke Aizen (Bleach) gained immortality after fusing with the Hgyoku.
C.C (Code Geass) is immortal.
V.V (Code Geass) is immortal.
Garlic Jr. (Dragon Ball) made a wish via the Dragon Balls for eternal life, and will regenerate from any and all injuries seamlessly.
Kager (Flame of Recca) using a forbidden spell that opens a time portal, but it traps her outside of space-time, rendering her completely immortal.
The Truth (Fullmetal Alchemist) is invincible, immortal and invulnerable.
Utsuro (Gintama) possesses immortality by harnessing the Altana energy of Earth to prevent aging and recover from wounds and diseases.
Kouka (Gintama) possessed immortality by harnessing the Altana energy of Kouan to prevent aging and recover from wounds and diseases. However, when she left the planet for good, she weakened overtime and died.
Yta (Mermaid Saga) is a 500 years old immortal since unwittingly eating mermaid’s flesh.
Mana (Mermaid Saga) is a 15 years old immortal since being fed mermaid’s flesh.
Masato (Mermaid Saga) is an 800 years old immortal since eating mermaid’s flesh.
Orochimaru (Naruto) considers himself immortal with his Living Corpse Reincarnation to transfer his soul to another body and his Cursed Seals as anchors of his conscious.
Hidan’s (Naruto) main advantage is his inability to die by physical damage, though he is vulnerable to death by lack of nutrient.
Kakuzu (Naruto) attained a form of immortality (though he denies to think of it as such) by tearing hearts out of others and integrating them into himself, extending his lifespan. He kept five inside him at all times.
Madara Uchiha (Naruto) claims he has achieved complete immortality due to hosting the Shinju, as he regenerated form his torso being blown apart. Only when the tailed beasts were all pulled out of him did he die.
Kaguya tsutsuki (Naruto) is immortal, in that she has tremendous regenerative powers, and that the only way to defeat her is to seal her person away by splitting her chakra into the nine tailed beasts.
Gemma Himuro (Ninja Scroll) putting his severed body parts back together, even his head is possible, rendering him immortal.
Due to her race, Jibril (No Game No Life) has age 6407 years old, she has incredibly vast knowledge and high magical abilities, in two words; she live with gathering many old and new knowledge, in other words; she can no longer age or die.
Rin Asogi (RIN ~Daughters of Mnemosyne~) is immortal, due to a magic spore from Yggdrasil. she can even handle more alcohol than a normal person.
Free (Soul Eater) is a werewolf from the Immortal Clan, and therefore, immortal. He can only be harmed and killed by the “Witch-Hunt”.
Koj Akatsuki (Strike the Blood) is revealed to be immortal, even by vampire standards after regenerating from complete decapitation.
Tta Konoe (UQ Holder) cannot regrow limbs unless they are completely destroyed, but otherwise is immortal and can reattach any of it, including his head.
Karin Yki (UQ Holder) has one of the highest ranked forms of immortality, stating that she’s “not permitted to get hurt or die”
Elder Toguro (Yu Yu Hakusho) stated that his regenerative powers enables him from dying. This prevented him from dying from Kurama’s torturous Sinning Tree.
Zeref (Fairy Tail) was cursed by Ankhseram with his contradiction curse which gives him uncontrollable Death Magic and Immortality.
Ban (Nanatsu no Taizai) acquired immortality after drinking the Fountain of Youth.
Porky Minch (Earthbound) has abused Time Travel so much that his body is stuck in the current timeline and cannot age nor die.
It is believed that Ganondorf (The Legend of Zelda) is immortal due to the Triforce of Power.
Clockwerk (Sly Cooper) has kept himself alive for millennia thanks to his cybernetic body and his jealousy and hatred of the Cooper Clan.
Solaris (Sonic the Hedgehog) is a super-dimensional life form and the Sun God of Solenna, and exists in all timelines that he is immortal unless he is killed simultaneously in every temporal point.
Presea Combatir (Tales of Symphonia) is immortal and invulnerable because of a combination of her exsphere and her special ability Suppress
Kaguya Houraisan (Touhou Project) drank the Hourai Elixir, which grants her immortal in every sense of the word: she does not age, is immune to disease, and can regenerate from even being completely disintegrated.
Though he can be imprisoned and sealed away, Grima (Fire Emblem) can only be truly and permanently killed by his own hand.
Snow White (Valkyrie Crusade) is a immortal princess that is always trying to die, but nothing works.
Shadow the Hedgehog (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Chip/Light Gaia (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Dogmeat (Fallout 4) cannot die
Doomsday (DC Comics), being immune to all that once killed him.
Ra’s al Ghl (DC Comics) is granted immortality by the Lazarus Pit’s effects.
Lobo (DC Comics) possessing regenerative powers of such a level that he can recreate his entire body from nothing more than a puddle of his blood, as he is banned from Death.
Resurrection Man (DC Comics) is immortal, and will return to life no matter how many times he is killed, returning with a new power associated to how he was killed.
Hercules (Marvel Comics) an Olympic half God.
Deadpool (Marvel Comics) is in the same boat as Thanos, both banished from death.
Gaea (Marvel Comics), the Elder Goddess of Nature.
Loki (Marvel Comics), the God of Mischief, is immortal.
Zeus (Marvel Comics), the King of the Olympic Gods.
Atlas (Marvel Comics) no longer ages and is functionally immortal because of the ionic energy that empowers him.
Adam Destine (Marvel Comics) is immortal and invulnerable to physical harm.
Mr. Immortal (Marvel Comics) having evolved beyond death cannot be killed permanently, and will always come back to life without so much as a scar.
Count Nefaria (Marvel Comics) no longer ages and is functionally immortal because of the ionic energy that empowers him.
Wonder Man (Marvel Comics) no longer ages and is functionally immortal because of the ionic energy that empowers him.
Dr. Manhattan (Watchmen) is immortal due to his physiology.
Pariah Dark (Danny Phantom) is the powerful immortal, former king of ghosts.
Peter Griffin (Family Guy) Peter Griffin has survived many life threatening situations and came back unscathed.
Ernie the Giant Chicken (Family Guy) always comes back for a rematch despite Peter Griffin always dealing a fatal blow on Ernie.
Lord Voldemort (Harry Potter) acquired immortality by splitting his soul and hiding the fragments in various objects as anchors, though when his body was destroyed, he existed as a spectral form that many others would prefer death over.
Fawkes (Harry Potter) is a phoenix, who will be reborn with all of his memories intact upon death, and thus immortal, being the only known creatures in the wizarding world to have natural immortality.
Adam Monroe (Heroes) possessed immortality due to his tremendously advanced regeneration ability, though once the ability is taken away from him, he died within seconds.
The Dog Talisman (Jackie Chan Adventures) grants its master invincibility.
Nathan Young (MisFits) is immortal.
General Immortus (Teen Titans) knows the strategy of every battle in history because he was there to see it.
Starscream (Transformers G1) possesses an immortal Spark, soul energy, meaning even if his physical vessel is destroyed he will live on.
Jason Voorhees (Friday the 13th) can only be truly and permanently killed by his own family members.
The Beast (Doctor Who) claims to have existed before our universe was created
Candyman (Candyman) has lived for centuries
Ashildr AKA Me (Doctor Who) is effectively immortal due to being given a Mire computer chip.
Posted: at 9:30 am
A micronation sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project is a political entity that intends to replace, resemble, mock, or exist on equal footing with a recognised and/or sovereign state.
Some micronations are created with serious intent, while others exist as a hobby or stunt.
The term micronation, which literally means small nation, is a neologism. The first reference in English to the word micronation in a popular book appears in the 1978 edition of The People’s Almanac #2, where David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace write:
“Established in 1972 by a declaration of sovereignty by a group of Californians, the Republic of Minerva has more claim to authenticity than most micronations because it actually has some land, although it disappears at high tide. The republic consists of two coral reefs 17 miles apart in the South Pacific Ocean some 3,400 miles southwest of Honolulu and 915 miles northeast of Auckland, New Zealand.”
The term has since come to be used also retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognised entities, some of which date to as far back as the 17th century. Micronations should not be confused with internationally recognised but geographically tiny nations such as Fiji, Monaco, and San Marino, for which the term microstate is more commonly used.
Micronations generally have a number of common features:
A criterion which distinguishes micronations from imaginary countries, eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations, is that these latter entities do not usually seek to be recognised as sovereign.
The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not. The academic study of micronations and microstates is termed ‘micropatrology’, and the hobby or activity of establishing and operating micronations is known as micronationalism.
The Principality of Sealand is one of the more recognised micronations in the world.
The 17th century saw the rise to prominence of a world order dominated by the existing concept of the nation-state, following the Treaty of Westphalia. However, the earliest recognisable micronations can be dated to the 18th Century. Most were founded by eccentric adventurers or business speculators, and several were remarkably successful. These include the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, ruled by the Clunies-Ross family, and Sarawak, ruled by the “White Rajas” of the Brooke family. Both were independent personal fiefdoms in all but name, and survived until well into the 20th Century.
Less successful were the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (1860-1862) in southern Chile and Argentina, and the Kingdom of Sedang (1888-1890) in French Indochina. The oldest extant micronation to arise in modern times is the Kingdom of Redonda, founded in 1865 in the Caribbean. It failed to establish itself as a sovereign nation-state, but has nonetheless managed to survive into the present day as a unique literary foundation with its own king and aristocracy although it is not without its controversies; there are presently at least four competing claimants to the Redondan throne.
M. C. Harman, owner of the UK island of Lundy in the early decades of the 20th century, issued private coinage and postage stamps for local use. Although the island was ruled as a virtual fiefdom, its owner never claimed to be independent of the United Kingdom. Thus, Lundy can at best be described as a precursor to later territorial micronations.
The 1960s and 1970s saw a ‘micronational renaissance’, with the foundation of a number of territorial micronations, some of which still persist to this day. The first of these, the Principality of Sealand, was founded in 1967 on an abandoned World War II gun platform in the North Sea, and has endured a military coup, court rulings and rough weather throughout its existence. Others were based on schemes requiring the construction of artificial islands, but only two are known to have risen above sea level.
The Republic of Rose Island was a 400 square metre platform built in international waters off the Italian town of Rimini, in the Adriatic Sea in 1968. It is reported to have issued stamps, minted currency, and declared Esperanto to be its official language. Shortly after completion, however, it was destroyed by the Italian Navy.
The Republic of Minerva was set up in 1972 as a libertarian new country project by Nevada businessman Michael Oliver. Oliver’s group conducted dredging operations at the Minerva Reefs, a shoal located in the Pacific Ocean south of Fiji. They succeeded in creating a small artificial island, but their efforts at securing international recognition met with little success, and near-neighbour Tonga sent a military force to the area and annexed it.
On April 1, 1977, bibliophile Richard Booth, declared the UK town of Hay-on-Wye an “independent republic” with himself as its king. The town has subsequently developed a healthy tourism industry based literary interests, and “King Richard” (whose sceptre consists of a recycled toilet plunger) continues to dole out Hay-on-Wye peerages and honours to anyone prepared to pay for them. The official website for Hay-on-Wye, however, admits that the declaration of independence, along with the later claim to have annexed the USA and renaming it the “US of Hay” were all merely publicity stunts.
Micronationalism has since evolved mainly into hobbies, and with younger participants. Although no all-compassing authority on micronations exists, nor any comprehensive listing, it is known that a number of widely diverse communities and sectors persist throughout the micronational world, often on the internet.
The internet provided micronationalism with a new outlet, and the number of entities able to be termed as ‘micronations’ skyrocketed from around 2000 onwards as a result. Exact figures may never be known, but it is thought that many thousands of micronations now exist throughout the world. However, with this new outlet of the internet came a large anomaly between micronationalists and micronations. Before the advent of micronationalism on the internet, micronations were few and far between, and were able to coax many hundreds of people in their citizenry. At present, many micronations are ‘One-man micronations’ or ‘Egostans’, with only one or two people being citizens of the micronation. The majority are based in English-speaking countries, but a significant minority arose elsewhere in other countries as well.
Micronational activities were disproportionately common throughout Australia in the final three decades of the 20th century. The Principality of Hutt River started the ball rolling in 1970, when Prince Leonard (born Leonard George Casley) declared his farming property independent after a dispute over wheat quotas. 1976 witnessed the creation of the Province of Bumbunga on a rural property near Snowtown, South Australia, by an eccentric British monarchist named Alex Brackstone, and a dispute over flood damage to farm properties led to the creation of the Independent State of Rainbow Creek in northeastern Victoria by Tom Barnes in 1979. In New South Wales, a political protest by a group of Sydney teenagers led to the 1981 creation of the Empire of Atlantium, and a mortgage foreclosure dispute led George and Stephanie Muirhead of Rockhampton, Queensland to secede as the Principality of Marlborough in 1993. Although some newer micronations, like Ding Dong, were created purely for the experience of forming and running a micronation.
Yet another Australian secessionist state came into existence on May 1, 2003, when Peter Gillies declared the independence of his 66 hectare northern New South Wales farm as the Principality of United Oceania after an unresolved year-long dispute with Port Stephens Council over Gillies’ plans to construct a private residence on the property.
In the present day, the following categories are generally accepted as being standard:
Micronations of the first type tend to be fairly serious in outlook, involve sometimes significant numbers of relatively mature participants, and often engage in highly sophisticated, structured activities that emulate the operations of real-world nations. A few examples of these include:
These micronations also tend to be fairly serious, and involve significant numbers of people interested in recreating the past, especially the Roman or Mediaeval past, and living it in a vicarious way. Examples of these include:
With literally thousands in existence, micronations of this type are by far the most common. They are ephemeral, and tend to be Internet-based, rarely surviving more than a few months, although there are notable exceptions. They generally involve a handful of people, and are concerned primarily with arrogating to their founders the outward symbols of statehood. The use of grand-sounding titles, awards, honours, and heraldic symbols derived from European feudal traditions, and the conduct of ‘wars’ with other micronations, are common manifestations of their activities. Examples include:
Micronations of this type include stand-alone artistic projects, deliberate exercises in creative online and offline fiction, artistic creations, and even popular films. Examples include:
These types of micronations are typically associated with a political or social reform agenda. Some are maintained as media and public relations exercises. Examples of this type include:
A number of micronations have been established for fraudulent purposes, by seeking to link questionable or illegal financial actions with seemingly legitimate nations. Some examples of these are:
A small number of micronations are founded with genuine aspirations to be sovereign states. Many are based on historical anomalies or eccentric interpretations of law, and tend to be easily confused with established states. These types of micronations are usually located in small (usually disputed) territorial enclaves, generate limited economic activity founded on tourism, philatelic and numismatic sales, and are at best tolerated or at worst ignored by other nations. This category includes:
New-country projects are attempts to found completely new nation-states. They typically involve plans to construct artificial islands (few of which are ever realised), and a large percentage have embraced or purported to embrace libertarian or democratic principles. Examples include:
Seasteading is a lifestyle of making the oceans, or at least water-borne craft, one’s home. Most seasteads historically have been sailing craft, whether perhaps demonstrated by the the Chinese Junk, modified canoes of Oceania, or even the famous Pirates of Libertaria. In modern times in the west the cruising sailboat has begun to be used in the same manner. The term seasteading is of uncertain origin, used at least as early as the turn of the century by Uffa Fox, and others; many feel that catamaran designer and historian James Wharram and his designs represent ideal seasteads. More recently, American sailor and ecological philosopher Jerome FitzGerald has been a leading and effective proponent of seasteading, mostly teaching the concept through the environmental/sailing organisation “The Oar Club”. The Seasteader’s Institute in Hilo, Hawaii offers classes, boat-building opportunities, education in forage foods, diving, and other aspects of a Seasteading lifestyle.
Some theoretical seasteads are floating platforms which could be used to create sovereign micronations, or otherwise serve the ends of ocean colonisation. The concept is introduced in a paper by Wayne Gramlich, and later in a book by Gramlich, Patri Friedman and Andy House, which is available for free online. Their research aims at a more practical approach to developing micronations, based on currently available technology and a pragmatic approach to financial aspects.
The authors argue that seasteading has the potential to drastically lower the barrier to entry to the governing industry. This allows for more experimentation and innovation with varying social, political, and economic systems. Potential business opportunities include data havens, offshore aquaculture, and casinos, as well as the gamut of typical business endeavours.
There has been a small but growing amount of attention paid to the micronation phenomenon in recent years. Most interest in academic circles has been concerned with studying the apparently anomalous legal situations affecting such entities as Sealand and the Hutt River Province, in exploring how some micronations represent grassroots political ideas, and in the creation of role-playing entities for instructional purposes.
In 2000, Professor Fabrice O’Driscoll, of the University Aix-Marseille University, published a book about micronations: Ils ne sigent pas l’ONU (“They are not in the United Nations”), with more than 300 pages dedicated to the subject.
Several recent publications have dealt with the subject of particular historic micronations, including Republic of Indian Stream (University Press), by Dartmouth College geographer Daniel Doan, The Land that Never Was, about Gregor MacGregor, and the Principality of Poyais, by David Sinclair (ISBN 0-7553-1080-2).
In May 2000, an article in the New York Times entitled “Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online” brought the phenomenon to a wider audience for the first time. Similar articles were published by newspapers such as the French Liberation, the Italian La Repubblica, the Greek “Ta Nea”, by O Estado de So Paulo in Brazil, and Portugal’s Viso at around the same time.
The Democratic Empire of Sunda, which claims to be the Government of the Kingdom of Sunda (an ancient kingdom, in present-day Indonesia) in exile in Switzerland, made media headlines when two so-called princesses, Lamia Roro Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misri, 21, and Fathia Reza Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misiri, 23, were detained by Malaysian authorities at the border with Brunei, on 13 July 2007, and are charged for entering the country without a valid pass.
In August 2003 a Summit of Micronations took place in Helsinki at Finlandia Hall, the site of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). The summit was attended by delegations such as the Principality of Sealand, Neue Slowenische Kunst|NSK, Ladonia, the Transnational Republic, and by scholars from various academic institutions.
From November 7 through December 17, 2004, the Reg Vardy Gallery at the University of Sunderland (UK) hosted an exhibition on the subject of micronational group identity and symbolism. The exhibition focused on numismatic, philatelic and vexillological artefacts, as well as other symbols and instruments created and used by a number of micronations from the 1950s through to the present day. A summit of micronations conducted as part of this exhibition was attended by representatives of Sealand, Elgaland-Vargaland, New Utopia, Atlantium, Frestonia and Fusa. The exhibition was reprised at the Andrew Kreps Gallery in New York City from 24 June29 July of the following year. Another exhibition about micronations opened at Paris’ Palais de Tokyo in early 2007.
The Sunderland summit was later featured in a 5-part BBC light entertainment television series called “How to Start Your Own Country” presented by Danny Wallace. The series told the story of Wallace’s experience of founding a micronation, Lovely, located in his London flat. It screened in the UK in August 2005. Similar programs have also aired on television networks in other parts of Europe.
On 9 September 2006, The Guardian newspaper reported that the travel guide company Lonely Planet had published the world’s first travel guide devoted to micronations, the Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations (ISBN 1741047307).
Hello, you may ask yourself “what is that micronation? Never heard of it”. Well it’s because I established it (for fun). Though I still … 2015-12-22T17:31:30Z
Hi. Welcome to MicroWiki. Only administrators are allowed to create threads in the announcement board. 2015-12-24T15:11:00Z
Ah, I understand the confusion. Yes, to users on this site, this is MicroWiki. However, from a .org user’s perspective, this site has the nickn… 2014-06-21T13:03:01Z
Well, I understand you, the only reason for my post on this forum is that WUS is almost not active and I love myself that moves a little and t… 2014-06-21T14:29:31Z
The rest is here:
Posted: at 9:20 am
Digital Asset Holdings has announced it intends to open-source DAML, the smart contracting language it acquired from startup Elevence earlier this year. Though no date has been set for the transition, the Blythe Masters-led blockchain startup credited its bid to advance industry adoption of the tech as the impetus for the move. However, Digital Asset said work needs to be done to increase DAMLs functionality and documentation so that it is ready for use outside the startup. The company wrote: By making DAML more widely available, we intend to enable clients, partners and other vendors to develop, modify and extend DAML Libraries for use with the Digital Asset Platform or other platforms, fostering a vibrant ecosystem of vendors and…
Advertised sites are not endorsed by us. They may be unsafe, untrustworthy, or illegal in your jurisdiction. After experimenting the payment of bus tickets with virtual currency, Bitcoin, since 2 August 2016, a French companyhas become the first in its sector to set up this type of payment across Europe. Isilines is a new offering of the leading long-distance passenger transport by bus operator in Europe, Transdev Group, a French-based international private public transport group. Isilines lines is growing to cover the entire French territory. Transdevs other subsidiary is Eurolines, a private transporters association created in 1985. The grouphas more than 30 years of experience in this market, offering easy access, safe and environmentally…
The number of attacks on computers is increasing almost exponentially these days. The latest one to make news is the Rex Linux Trojan. This Swiss knife of a malicious program is a piece of work capable of running DDoS attacks, hold the infected computer for ransom (ransomware) and even mine Bitcoin without the users knowledge. Built on Googles Go platform, the Trojan was first identified by cyber security firms three months ago. The earlier version of Rex Linux Trojan was much weaker and it was found targeting Drupal websites. Security experts were able to defeat the ransomware easily. However, Rex Linux Trojan as evolved since then to become a considerable threat. According to reports, the malware uses peer to peer communication…
Advertised sites are not endorsed by us. They may be unsafe, untrustworthy, or illegal in your jurisdiction. E-commerce giant Rakutenhas acquired the IP assets of the Bitnet payment platform and opened a blockchain lab in Belfast, U.K. Rakuten Blockchain Lab (RBL) will be a research and development organization focused on blockchain technology and its applications tofintech and e-commerce. Rakuten invested in Bitnet Technologies Ltd., a blockchain-powered digital payments platform, in 2014. Rakuten began accepting bitcoin payments last year using Bitnet, CCN reported. Rakuten.com is similar to Amazon in that it serves as a platform for multiple merchants, all of whom have been able toaccept bitcoin through theBitnet partnership. Bitnet Veterans To…
It is Tuesday morning, and time to take a look at the bitcoin price for the first time today. Action overnight was pretty weak, as it has been for the majority of the last few days, and we didnt really get any opportunity to get in and out the markets as we would have liked. This doesnt mean that we arent going to see any action today, but it may weaken our key levels purely because we havent had any recent breakouts. As has been pretty standard so far this week, we are going to stick with a really tight range, and try to go at price on a breakout of our range, entering scalp positions towards relatively tight targets. This way we get to keep our risk management tight, but still get the opportunity to draw a small profit from the market on…
The Bundy Ranch has had its PayPal accounts blocked. The Bundys, a US family of cattle ranchers in Nevada, rose to fame (notoriety?) in 2014 for refusing to pay the federal government for grazing rights on federal lands. This conflict resulted in an armed standoff between federal agents and supporters of the Bundys, many of them members of private militias from across the country. The standoff ended without violence, and members of the Bundy family had been receiving donations in support of their plight through PayPal. The Facebook page run to support the Bundy family and their struggle against the federal government posted the bad news early on Tuesday morning: Another nail in the coffin of traditional payment systems as a reliable donation source The refusal of…
The way we vote relies on a system that has undergone little to no changes over the past few decades. Some countries switched from paper ballots to electronic voting, but the process remains the same. Over in Australia, the postal service indicated they want to use blockchain technology for digital voting. This should improve efficiency and provide more transparency. A recent submission was made to the Victorian Electoral Matters Committee regarding blockchain-based voting. The current voting process is cumbersome, far from efficient, and rather costly. By embracing blockchain solutions, all of these concerns would be alleviated, while improving the counting of votes at the same time. The Blockchain is A Versatile Technology Many people know the blockchain as the…
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In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA. The double helical structure of a nucleic acid complex arises as a consequence of its secondary structure, and is a fundamental component in determining its tertiary structure. The term entered popular culture with the publication in 1968 of The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, by James Watson.
The DNA double helix polymer of nucleic acid, held together by nucleotides which base pair together. In B-DNA, the most common double helical structure found in nature, the double helix is right-handed with about 1010.5 base pairs per turn. This translates into about 20-21 nucleotides per turn. The double helix structure of DNA contains a major groove and minor groove. In B-DNA the major groove is wider than the minor groove. Given the difference in widths of the major groove and minor groove, many proteins which bind to B-DNA do so through the wider major groove.
The double-helix model of DNA structure was first published in the journal Nature by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, (X,Y,Z coordinates in 1954) based upon the crucial X-ray diffraction image of DNA labeled as “Photo 51”, from Rosalind Franklin in 1952, followed by her more clarified DNA image with Raymond Gosling,Maurice Wilkins, Alexander Stokes, and Herbert Wilson, as well as base-pairing chemical and biochemical information by Erwin Chargaff. The previous model was triple-stranded DNA.
The realization that the structure of DNA is that of a double-helix elucidated the mechanism of base pairing by which genetic information is stored and copied in living organisms and is widely considered one of the most important scientific discoveries of the 20th century. Crick, Wilkins, and Watson each received one third of the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their contributions to the discovery. (Franklin, whose breakthrough X-ray diffraction data was used to formulate the DNA structure, died in 1958, and thus was ineligible to be nominated for a Nobel Prize.)
Hybridization is the process of complementary base pairs binding to form a double helix. Melting is the process by which the interactions between the strands of the double helix are broken, separating the two nucleic acid strands. These bonds are weak, easily separated by gentle heating, enzymes, or physical force. Melting occurs preferentially at certain points in the nucleic acid.T and A rich sequences are more easily melted than C and G rich regions. Particular base steps are also susceptible to DNA melting, particularly T A and T G base steps. These mechanical features are reflected by the use of sequences such as TATA at the start of many genes to assist RNA polymerase in melting the DNA for transcription.
Strand separation by gentle heating, as used in PCR, is simple, providing the molecules have fewer than about 10,000 base pairs (10 kilobase pairs, or 10 kbp). The intertwining of the DNA strands makes long segments difficult to separate. The cell avoids this problem by allowing its DNA-melting enzymes (helicases) to work concurrently with topoisomerases, which can chemically cleave the phosphate backbone of one of the strands so that it can swivel around the other. Helicases unwind the strands to facilitate the advance of sequence-reading enzymes such as DNA polymerase.
The geometry of a base, or base pair step can be characterized by 6 coordinates: Shift, slide, rise, tilt, roll, and twist. These values precisely define the location and orientation in space of every base or base pair in a nucleic acid molecule relative to its predecessor along the axis of the helix. Together, they characterize the helical structure of the molecule. In regions of DNA or RNA where the “normal” structure is disrupted, the change in these values can be used to describe such disruption.
For each base pair, considered relative to its predecessor, there are the following base pair geometries to consider:
Rise and twist determine the handedness and pitch of the helix. The other coordinates, by contrast, can be zero. Slide and shift are typically small in B-DNA, but are substantial in A- and Z-DNA. Roll and tilt make successive base pairs less parallel, and are typically small.
Note that “tilt” has often been used differently in the scientific literature, referring to the deviation of the first, inter-strand base-pair axis from perpendicularity to the helix axis. This corresponds to slide between a succession of base pairs, and in helix-based coordinates is properly termed “inclination”.
At least three DNA conformations are believed to be found in nature, A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA. The “B” form described by James D. Watson and Francis Crick is believed to predominate in cells. It is 23.7 wide and extends 34 per 10 bp of sequence. The double helix makes one complete turn about its axis every 10.4-10.5 base pairs in solution. This frequency of twist (known as the helical pitch) depends largely on stacking forces that each base exerts on its neighbours in the chain. The absolute configuration of the bases determines the direction of the helical curve for a given conformation.
A-DNA and Z-DNA differ significantly in their geometry and dimensions to B-DNA, although still form helical structures. It was long thought that the A form only occurs in dehydrated samples of DNA in the laboratory, such as those used in crystallographic experiments, and in hybrid pairings of DNA and RNA strands, but DNA dehydration does occur in vivo, and A-DNA is now known to have biological functions. Segments of DNA that cells have been methylated for regulatory purposes may adopt the Z geometry, in which the strands turn about the helical axis the opposite way to A-DNA and B-DNA. There is also evidence of protein-DNA complexes forming Z-DNA structures.
Other conformations are possible; A-DNA, B-DNA, C-DNA, E-DNA,L-DNA (the enantiomeric form of D-DNA), P-DNA, S-DNA, Z-DNA, etc. have been described so far. In fact, only the letters F, Q, U, V, and Y are now[update] available to describe any new DNA structure that may appear in the future. However, most of these forms have been created synthetically and have not been observed in naturally occurring biological systems. There are also triple-stranded DNA forms and quadruplex forms such as the G-quadruplex.
Twin helical strands form the DNA backbone. Another double helix may be found by tracing the spaces, or grooves, between the strands. These voids are adjacent to the base pairs and may provide a binding site. As the strands are not directly opposite each other, the grooves are unequally sized. One groove, the major groove, is 22 wide and the other, the minor groove, is 12 wide. The narrowness of the minor groove means that the edges of the bases are more accessible in the major groove. As a result, proteins like transcription factors that can bind to specific sequences in double-stranded DNA usually make contacts to the sides of the bases exposed in the major groove. This situation varies in unusual conformations of DNA within the cell (see below), but the major and minor grooves are always named to reflect the differences in size that would be seen if the DNA is twisted back into the ordinary B form.
Alternative non-helical models were briefly considered in the late 1970s as a potential solution to problems in the replication of DNA in plasmids and chromatin. However, the models were set aside in favor of the double-helical model due to subsequent experimental advances such as X-ray crystallography of DNA duplexes and later the nucleosome core particle, as well as the discovery of topoisomerases, and these non-double-helical models are not currently accepted by the mainstream scientific community.
Single-stranded nucleic acids do not adopt a helical formation, and are described by models such as the random coil or worm-like chain.
DNA is a relatively rigid polymer, typically modelled as a worm-like chain. It has three significant degrees of freedom; bending, twisting and compression, each of which cause particular limitations on what is possible with DNA within a cell. Twisting/torsional stiffness is important for the circularisation of DNA and the orientation of DNA bound proteins relative to each other and bending/axial stiffness is important for DNA wrapping and circularisation and protein interactions. Compression/extension is relatively unimportant in the absence of high tension.
DNA in solution does not take a rigid structure but is continually changing conformation due to thermal vibration and collisions with water molecules, which makes classical measures of rigidity impossible. Hence, the bending stiffness of DNA is measured by the persistence length, defined as:
This value may be directly measured using an atomic force microscope to directly image DNA molecules of various lengths. In an aqueous solution, the average persistence length is 46-50nm or 140-150 base pairs (the diameter of DNA is 2nm), although can vary significantly. This makes DNA a moderately stiff molecule.
The persistence length of a section of DNA is somewhat dependent on its sequence, and this can cause significant variation. The variation is largely due to base stacking energies and the residues which extend into the minor and major grooves.
The entropic flexibility of DNA is remarkably consistent with standard polymer physics models, such as the Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model. Consistent with the worm-like chain model is the observation that bending DNA is also described by Hooke’s law at very small (sub-piconewton) forces. However, for DNA segments less than the persistence length, the bending force is approximately constant and behaviour deviates from the worm-like chain predictions.
This effect results in unusual ease in circularising small DNA molecules and a higher probability of finding highly bent sections of DNA.
DNA molecules often have a preferred direction to bend, i.e. anisotropic bending. This is, again, due to the properties of the bases which make up the DNA sequence – a random sequence will have no preferred bend direction, i.e. isotropic bending.
Preferred DNA bend direction is determined by the stability of stacking each base on top of the next. If unstable base stacking steps are always found on one side of the DNA helix then the DNA will preferentially bend away from that direction. As bend angle increases then steric hindrances and ability to roll the residues relative to each other also play a role, especially in the minor groove. A and T residues will be preferentially be found in the minor grooves on the inside of bends. This effect is particularly seen in DNA-protein binding where tight DNA bending is induced, such as in nucleosome particles. See base step distortions above.
DNA molecules with exceptional bending preference can become intrinsically bent. This was first observed in trypanosomatid kinetoplast DNA. Typical sequences which cause this contain stretches of 4-6 T and A residues separated by G and C rich sections which keep the A and T residues in phase with the minor groove on one side of the molecule. For example:
The intrinsically bent structure is induced by the ‘propeller twist’ of base pairs relative to each other allowing unusual bifurcated Hydrogen-bonds between base steps. At higher temperatures this structure, and so the intrinsic bend, is lost.
All DNA which bends anisotropically has, on average, a longer persistence length and greater axial stiffness. This increased rigidity is required to prevent random bending which would make the molecule act isotropically.
DNA circularization depends on both the axial (bending) stiffness and torsional (rotational) stiffness of the molecule. For a DNA molecule to successfully circularize it must be long enough to easily bend into the full circle and must have the correct number of bases so the ends are in the correct rotation to allow bonding to occur. The optimum length for circularization of DNA is around 400 base pairs (136nm), with an integral number of turns of the DNA helix, i.e. multiples of 10.4 base pairs. Having a non integral number of turns presents a significant energy barrier for circularization, for example a 10.4 x 30 = 312 base pair molecule will circularize hundreds of times faster than 10.4 x 30.5 317 base pair molecule.
Longer stretches of DNA are entropically elastic under tension. When DNA is in solution, it undergoes continuous structural variations due to the energy available in the thermal bath of the solvent. This is due to the thermal vibration of the molecule combined with continual collisions with water molecules. For entropic reasons, more compact relaxed states are thermally accessible than stretched out states, and so DNA molecules are almost universally found in a tangled relaxed layouts. For this reason, a single molecule of DNA will stretch under a force, straightening it out. Using optical tweezers, the entropic stretching behavior of DNA has been studied and analyzed from a polymer physics perspective, and it has been found that DNA behaves largely like the Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model under physiologically accessible energy scales.
Under sufficient tension and positive torque, DNA is thought to undergo a phase transition with the bases splaying outwards and the phosphates moving to the middle. This proposed structure for overstretched DNA has been called “P-form DNA”, in honor of Linus Pauling who originally presented it as a possible structure of DNA.
The mechanical properties of DNA under compression have not been characterized due to experimental difficulties in preventing the polymer from bending under the compressive force.
The B form of the DNA helix twists 360 per 10.4-10.5 bp in the absence of torsional strain. But many molecular biological processes can induce torsional strain. A DNA segment with excess or insufficient helical twisting is referred to, respectively, as positively or negatively “supercoiled”. DNA in vivo is typically negatively supercoiled, which facilitates the unwinding (melting) of the double-helix required for RNA transcription.
Within the cell most DNA is topologically restricted. DNA is typically found in closed loops (such as plasmids in prokaryotes) which are topologically closed, or as very long molecules whose diffusion coefficients produce effectively topologically closed domains. Linear sections of DNA are also commonly bound to proteins or physical structures (such as membranes) to form closed topological loops.
Francis Crick was one of the first to propose the importance of linking numbers when considering DNA supercoils. In a paper published in 1976, Crick outlined the problem as follows:
In considering supercoils formed by closed double-stranded molecules of DNA certain mathematical concepts, such as the linking number and the twist, are needed. The meaning of these for a closed ribbon is explained and also that of the writhing number of a closed curve. Some simple examples are given, some of which may be relevant to the structure of chromatin.
Analysis of DNA topology uses three values:
Any change of T in a closed topological domain must be balanced by a change in W, and vice versa. This results in higher order structure of DNA. A circular DNA molecule with a writhe of 0 will be circular. If the twist of this molecule is subsequently increased or decreased by supercoiling then the writhe will be appropriately altered, making the molecule undergo plectonemic or toroidal superhelical coiling.
When the ends of a piece of double stranded helical DNA are joined so that it forms a circle the strands are topologically knotted. This means the single strands cannot be separated any process that does not involve breaking a strand (such as heating). The task of un-knotting topologically linked strands of DNA falls to enzymes known as topoisomerases. These enzymes are dedicated to un-knotting circular DNA by cleaving one or both strands so that another double or single stranded segment can pass through. This un-knotting is required for the replication of circular DNA and various types of recombination in linear DNA which have similar topological constraints.
For many years, the origin of residual supercoiling in eukaryotic genomes remained unclear. This topological puzzle was referred to by some as the “linking number paradox”. However, when experimentally determined structures of the nucleosome displayed an over-twisted left-handed wrap of DNA around the histone octamer, this “paradox” was considered to be solved by the scientific community.
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Nucleic acid double helix – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Ayn Rand (2. februar 1905 i Sankt Petersborg 6. marts 1982 i New York), fdt Alisa Sinovjevna Rosenbaum (Russisk: ) var en Russisk/amerikansk forfatter og filosof, bedst kendt for sin filosofi kaldet objektivisme og bgerne Kun den strke er fri (Engelsk: The Fountainhead) og – og verden sklvede (Engelsk: Atlas Shrugged).
Hun blev fdt i St. Petersborg i Rusland som den ldste af tre dtre af en jdisk, men hovedsageligt agnostisk, familie. Hendes forldre var Sinovij Sakharovitj Rosenbaum og Anna Borisovna Rosenbaum, og hendes to yngre sstre var Natasja (1907) og Eleanora “Nora” (1910). Hun var tolv under den russiske revolution i 1917, og hendes familieliv blev forstyrret af opkomsten af Bolsjevik-partiet. Hendes faders apotek blev konfiskeret af sovjetterne, og familien flygtede til Krim for at komme sig konomisk og her frdiggjorde hun grundskolen. Hendes personlige oplevelser af det kommunistiske regime var med til at forme hendes politiske livsbane. Ayn Rand emigrerede til USA i 1925, resten af familien, p nr Eleanora, dde alle under 2. verdenskrig. Eleanora dde i 1999.
Fra en tidlig alder fattede Ayn Rand en interesse for litteratur og film, og op igennem sin barndom lste hun mange af de klassiske romantiske forfattere, Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo senere beskrev hun Victor Hugo som sin favoritforfatter. P St. Petersborgs Universitet lste hun filosofi og historie, og var her mest optaget af Edmond Rostand, Friedrich Schiller og Fjodor Dostojevskij, svel som filosofferne Nietzsche (Sledes talte Zarathustra) og isr Aristoteles (Organon (Logik)) som hun ans som verdenshistoriens mest afgrende filosof. I 1924 optoges hun p fakultetet for dramaturgi for at studere til filmmanuskriptforfatter. Men i 1925 blev hun tildelt et visum til USA for at besge sin familie, og efter et kort ophold hos noget familie i Chicago besluttede hun sig for aldrig at vende tilbage til Sovjet hvis kommunistiske regime hun afskyede. I stedet tog hun til Los Angeles/Hollywood for at forsge sig som filmmanuskriptforfatter og ndrede i den forbindelse sit navn til “Ayn Rand”. “Ayn” er en tilpasning af det finske navn “Aino”, og “Rand” kommer sandsynligvis af at hendes oprindelige navn Alisa Sinovjevna Rosenbaum.
I Hollywood startede Ayn Rand med at tage forskelligt forefaldende arbejde, det var her, hun som statist i en indspilning af Cecil B. DeMilles King of Kings, opsgte sin kommende mand, skuespilleren Frank O’Connor. De to blev gift i 1929, og i 1931 blev Ayn Rand amerikansk statsborger.
Hendes frste professionelle succes som forfatter kom i 1932 med salget af filmanuskriptet Red Pawn til filmselskabet Universal Studios. I 1934 skrev hun stykket The Night of January 16th som hun havde stor succes med, og i 1936 udgav hun romanerne Vi der lever (originaltitel: We the Living, p dansk 1945) og i 1938 Anthem. Grundet isr Vi der levers anti-kommunistiske tema (selvbiografisk beskrivelse af det kommunistiske regimes brutalitet) og det politiske klima i 1930ernes, hvor amerikanske intellektuelle ofte var pro-kommunistiske og forblndede af Sovjet, var bgerne svre at f udgivet og blev begge drligt modtaget med meget negativ omtale til flge. Anthem kunne ikke engang udgives i USA, men mtte udgives af et engelsk forlag. Ayn Rand beskriver selv Vi der lever som sin mest selvbiografiske roman, men hverken Vi der lever eller Anthem, skrevet fr hun fandt sin egen stil, kan betegnes som vrende reprsentative for hendes forfatterskab. Vi der lever blev senere, uden Ayn Rands tilladelse, filmatiseret i Italien som Noi vivi og Addio, Kira, men blev dog hurtigt censureret, efter det blev benbart for fascisterne, at de var lige s antifascistiske som de var antikommunistiske. Filmene blev genredigeret, nu med Ayn Rands tilladelse, og genudgivet i 1986.
I 1935 pbegyndte Ayn Rand manuskriptet til Kun den strke er fri (Originaltitel: The Fountainhead), som i modstning til Vi der levers politiske tema tog udgangspunkt i etiske dilemmaer; frihed, uafhngighed og personlig integritet. Bogens hovedperson, Howard Roark, er frste instans af Ayn Rands gennemgende arketype af den ideelle mand, der gennem personlig integritet og strben formr at stte sine ideer igennem. Kun den strke er fri skulle tage hende syv r at frdiggre, og som med hendes tidligere bger vise sig ualmindeligt svr at f udgivet. Tolv forlag afviste Kun den strke er fri, fr den i 1943 blev antaget af Bobbs-Merrill. Men trods disse besvrligheder samt drlig modtagelse af kritikere og tidens intellektuelle begyndte salget langsomt at tage fart, hovedsageligt gennem mund-til-mund-anbefalinger, og endte med at blive en verdensomspndende bestseller og give Ayn Rand blivende finansiel uafhngighed. Kun den strke er fri blev filmatiseret i 1949 med Gary Cooper og Patricia Neal i hovedrollerne, et stykke Ayn Rand selv skrev filmmanuskriptet til.
Under McCarthy-perioden vidnede hun om, hvad hun s som kommunistisk infiltration i Hollywood.
Ayn Rands strste og mest ambitise bog, Og verden sklvede (Atlas Shrugged), pbegyndt 1946, blev allerede ved udgivelsen i 1957 p forlaget Random House en international bestseller. Og verden sklvede anses som hendes mest gennemfrte og komplette udfrelse i fiktion af filosofien objektivisme og i appendikset til Og verden sklvede findes denne korte opremsning af hendes filosofi:
Min filosofi er i sin essens konceptet af mennesket som heroisk skabning med egen lykke som moralsk forml med livet, med produktiv skabelse som dets mest noble aktivitet, og fornuft som det eneste absolutte.
Bogens tema er menneskets rolle i samfundet. Ayn Rand opstiller den kapitalistiske ivrkstter og industrialist som et af de mest rvrdige medlemmer af samfundet og modsatte sig med alt hvad hun havde den populre dmonisering af samme. I Og verden sklvede forestiller hun sig sledes en verden, hvor statens stigende regulering, nationalisering og beskatning af erhvervslivet, fr de amerikanske industrialister til at g i strejke og trkke sig tilbage fra samfundet, hvorefter den amerikanske konomi langsomt men sikkert begynder at kollapse, godt hjulpet p vej af statens forsg p at adressere problemet ved at endnu flere restriktioner p en allerede restriktiv konomi. P trods af bogens centrale politiske omdrejningspunkt, tager bogen ogs s forskellige emner op som sex, musik, medicin og menneskelige kunnen.
Og verden sklvede skulle vise sig at vre Ayn Rands sidste sknlitterre vrk. Under arbejdet flyttede hun og hendes mand til New York, hvor Ayn Rand kom i forbindelse med en rkke personer der var blevet interesseret i hendes filosofiske tanker og sammen skabte de objektivismebevgelsen til at udbrede hendes filosofi. Denne gruppe mennesker omfattede bl.a. Nathaniel Branden, hans kone Barbara, Leonard Peikoff og Alan Greenspan senere USAs centralbankdirektr.
I 1960’erne og 1970’erne skrev og foredrog Ayn Rand om sin filosofi. Hendes essays i denne periode blev for strstedelen udgivet i tidsskriftet The Objectivist Newsletter (19621965), og senere det strre The Objectivist, (19661971), og til slut The Ayn Rand Letter (1971-1976)
Frank O’Connor, Ayn Rands mand, dde i 1979. Ayn Rand dde af hjertestop den 6. marts 1982 i sin lejlighed i New York. Hun er begravet i Kenisco Cemetery, Valhalla, New York, ved siden af sin mand.
Mere end to rtier efter sin dd har Ayn Rand de sidste r oplevet noget, der kunne minde om en renssance, med en stigende interesse for hendes ideer og et stigende salg af hendes bger. Alene sidste r blev der solgt over en halv million af Ayn Rands bger. I alt er der solgt over 23 millioner eksemplarer.
I 2003 fik de to administrerende direktrer for Saxo Bank, Lars Seier Christensen og Kim Fournais, optrykt Atlas Shrugged med eget omslag og forord i 10.000 eksemplarer, og sendte den ud til alle ministre, borgmestre og amtsborgmestre, til virksomhedslederne i Danmarks to tusind strste virksomheder; til diverse meningsdannere, samt til kunderne.
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