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A History of Cryonics – BEN BEST

Posted: September 22, 2016 at 7:51 pm

by Ben Best

Robert Ettinger is widely regarded as the “father of cryonics” (although he often said that he would rather be the grandson). Mr.Ettinger earned a Purple Heart in World WarII as a result of injury to his leg by an artillery shell. He subsequently became a college physics teacher after earning two Master’s Degrees from Wayne State University. (He has often been erroneously called “Doctor” and “Professor”.) Robert Ettinger was cryopreserved at the Cryonics Institute in July2011 at the age of92. See The Cryonics Institute’s 106th Patient Robert Ettinger for details.

A lifelong science fiction buff, Ettinger conceived the idea of cryonics upon reading a story called The Jameson Satellite in the July 1931 issue of Amazing Stories magazine. In 1948 Ettinger published a short story having a cryonics theme titled The Pentultimate Trump. In 1962 he self-published THE PROSPECT OF IMMORTALITY, a non-fictional book explaining in detail the methods and rationale for cryonics. He mailed the book to 200 people listed in WHO’S WHO IN AMERICA. Also in 1962, Evan Cooper independently self-published IMMORTALITY:PHYSICALLY, SCIENTIFICALLY, NOW, which is also a book advocating cryonics. In 1964 Isaac Asimov assured Doubleday that (although socially undesirable, in his opinion) cryonics is based on reasonable scientific assumptions. This allowed THE PROSPECT OF IMMORTALITY to be printed and distributed by a major publisher. The word “cryonics” had not been invented yet, but the concept was clearly established.

In December, 1963 Evan Cooper founded the world’s first cryonics organization, the Life Extension Society, intended to create a network of cryonics groups throughout the world. Cooper eventually became discouraged, however, and he dropped his cryonics-promoting activities to pursue his interest in sailing. His life was ended by being lost at sea. Cooper’s networking had not been in vain, however, because people who had become acquainted through his efforts formed cryonics organizations in northern and southern California as well as in New York.

In 1965 a New York industrial designer named Karl Werner coined the word “cryonics”. That same year Saul Kent, Curtis Henderson and Werner founded the Cryonics Society of New York. Werner soon drifted away from cryonics and became involved in Scientology, but Kent and Henderson remained devoted to cryonics. In 1966 the Cryonics Society of Michigan and the Cryonics Society of California were founded. Unlike the other two organizations, the Cryonics Society of Michigan was an educational and social group which had no intention to actually cryopreserve people and it exists today under the name Immortalist Society.

A TV repairman named Robert Nelson was the driving force behind the Cryonics Society of California. On January12, 1967 Nelson froze a psychology professor named James Bedford. Bedford was injected with multiple shots of DMSO, and a thumper was applied in an attempt to circulate the DMSO with chest compressions. Nelson recounted the story in his book WE FROZE THE FIRST MAN. Bedford’s wife and son took Bedford’s body from Nelson after six days and the family kept Dr.Bedford in cryogenic care until 1982 when he was transferred to Alcor. Of 17cryonics patients cryopreserved in the period between 1967 and 1973, only Bedford remains in liquid nitrogen.

In 1974 Curtis Henderson, who had been maintaining three cryonics patients for the Cryonics Society of New York, was told by the New York Department of Public Health that he must close down his cryonics facility immediately or be fined $1,000per day. The three cryonics patients were returned to their families.

In 1979 an attorney for relatives of one of the Cryonics Society of California patients led journalists to the Chatsworth, California cemetery where they entered the vault where the patients were being stored. None of the nine “cryonics patients” were being maintained in liquid nitrogen, and all were badly decomposed. Nelson and the funeral director in charge were both sued. The funeral director could pay (through his liability insurance), but Nelson had no money. Nelson had taken most of the patients as charity cases or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis where payments had not been continued. The Chatsworth Disaster is the greatest catastrophe in the history of cryonics.

In 1969 the Bay Area Cryonics Society(BACS) was founded by two physicians, with the assistance of others, notably Edgar Swank. BACS (which later changed its name to the American Cryonics Society) is now the cryonics organization with the longest continuous history in offering cryonics services. In 1972 Trans Time was founded as a for-profit perfusion service-provider for BACS. Both BACS and Alcor intended to store patients in New York, but in 1974 Trans Time was forced to create its own cryostorage facility due to the closure of the storage facility in New York. Until the 1980s all BACS and Alcor patients were stored in liquid nitrogen at Trans Time.

In 1977 Trans Time was contacted by a UCLA cardiothoracic surgeon and medical researcher named Jerry Leaf, who responded to an advertisement Trans Time had placed in REASON magazine. In 1978 Leaf created a company called Cryovita devoted to doing cryonics research and to providing perfusion services for both Alcor and Trans Time.

By the 1980s acrimony between Trans Time and BACS caused the organizations to disassociate. BACS was renamed the American Cryonics Society (ACS) in 1985. Jim Yount (who joined BACS in 1972 and became a Governor two years later) and Edgar Swank have been the principal activists in ACS into the 21st century.

For 26 years from the time of its inception until 1998 the President of Trans Time was Art Quaife. The name “Trans Time” was inspired by Trans World Airlines, which was then a very prominent airline. Also active in Trans Time was Paul Segall, a man who had been an active member of the Cryonics Society of New York. Segall obtained a PhD from the University of California at Berkeley, studying the life-extending effects of tryptophan deprivation. He wrote a book on life extension (which included a section on cryonics) entitled LIVING LONGER, GROWING YOUNGER. He founded a BioTech company called BioTime, which sells blood replacement products. In 2003 Segall deanimated due to an aortic hemorrhage. He was straight-frozen because his Trans Time associates didn’t think he could be perfused. The only other cryonics patients at Trans Time are two brains, which includes the brain of Luna Wilson, the murdered teenage daughter of Robert Anton Wilson. When Michael West (who is on the Alcor Scientific Advisory Board) became BioTime CEO, the company shifted its emphasis to stem cells.

Aside from Trans Time, the other four cryonics organizations in the world which are storing human patients in liquid nitrogen are the Alcor Life Extension Foundation (founded in 1972 by Fred and Linda Chamberlain), the Cryonics Institute (founded in 1976 by Robert Ettinger), KrioRus (located near Moscow in Russia, founded in 2006), and Oregon Cryonics (incorporated by former CI Director Jordan Sparks, and beginning service in May 2014).

Fred and Linda Chamberlain had been extremely active in the Cryonics Society of California until 1971 when they became distrustful of Robert Nelson because of (among other reasons) Nelson’s refusal to allow them to see where the organization’s patients were being stored. In 1972 the Chamberlains founded Alcor, named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. Alcor’s first cryonics patient was Fred Chamberlain’s father who, in 1976, became the world’s first “neuro” (head-only) cryonics patient. (Two-thirds of Alcor patients are currently “neuros”). Trans Time provided cryostorage for Alcor until Alcor acquired its own storage capability in 1982.

After 1976 the Chamberlains encouraged others to run Alcor, beginning with a Los Angeles physician, who became Alcor President. The Chamberlains moved to Lake Tahoe, Nevada where they engaged in rental as well as property management and held annual Life Extension Festivals until 1986. They had to pay hefty legal fees to avoid being dragged into the Chatsworth lawsuits, a fact that increased their dislike of Robert Nelson. In 1997 they returned to Alcor when Fred became President and Linda was placed in charge of delivering cryonics service. Fred and Linda started two companies (Cells4Life and BioTransport) associated with Alcor, assuming responsibility for all unsecured debt of those companies. Financial disaster and an acrimonious dispute with Alcor management led to Fred and Linda leaving Alcor in 2001, filing for bankruptcy and temporarily joining the Cryonics Institute. They returned to Alcor in 2011, and Fred became an Alcor patient in 2012.

Saul Kent, one of the founders of the Cryonics Society of New York, became one of Alcor’s strongest supporters. He was a close associate of Pearson & Shaw, authors of the 1982 best-selling book LIFE EXTENSION. Pearson & Shaw were flooded with mail as a result of their many media appearances, and they gave the mail to Saul Kent. Kent used that mail to create a mailing list for a new mail-order business he created for selling supplements: the Life Extension Foundation(LEF). Millions of dollars earned from LEF have not only helped build Alcor, but have created and supported a company doing cryobiological research (21st Century Medicine), a company doing anti-ischemia research (Critical Care Research), and a company developing the means to apply the research to standby and transport cryonics procedures (Suspended Animation, Inc).

In December1987 Kent brought his terminally ill mother (Dora Kent) into the Alcor facility where she deanimated. The body (without the head) was given to the local coroner (Dora Kent was a “neuro”). The coroner issued a death certificate which gave death as due to natural causes. Barbiturate had been given to Dora Kent after legal death to slow brain metabolism. The coroner’s office did not understand that circulation was artificially restarted after legal death, which distributed the barbiturate throughout the body.

After the autopsy, the coroner’s office changed the cause of death on the death certificate to homicide. In January1988 Alcor was raided by coroner’s deputies, a SWAT team, and UCLA police. The Alcor staff was taken to the police station in handcuffs and the Alcor facility was ransacked, with computers and records being seized. The coroner’s office wanted to seize Dora Kent’s head for autopsy, but the head had been removed from the Alcor facility and taken to a location that was never disclosed. Alcor later sued for false arrest and for illegal seizures, winning both court cases. (See Dora Kent: Questions and Answers)

Growth in Alcor membership was fairly slow and linear until the mid-1980s, following which there was a sharp increase in growth. Ironically, publicity surrounding the Dora Kent case is often cited as one of the reasons for the growth acceleration. Another reason often cited is the 1986 publication of ENGINES OF CREATION, a seminal book about nanotechnology which contained an entire chapter devoted to cryonics (the possibility that nanomachines could repair freezing damage). Hypothermic dog experiments associated with cryonics were also publicized in the mid-1980s. In the late 1980s Alcor Member Dick Clair who was dying of AIDS fought in court for the legal right to practice cryonics in California (a battle that was ultimately won). But the Cryonics Institute did not experience a growth spurt until the advent of the internet in the 1990s. The American Cryonics Society does not publish membership statistics.

Robert Ettinger, Saul Kent and Mike Darwin are arguably the three individuals who had the most powerful impact on the early history of cryonics. Having experimented with the effects of cold on organisms from the time he was a child, Darwin learned of cryonics at the Indiana State Science Fair in 1968. He was able to spend summers at the Cryonics Society of New York (living with Curtis Henderson). Darwin was given the responsibility of perfusing cryonics patients at the age of 17 in recognition of his technical skills.

Born “Michael Federowicz”, Mike chose to use his high school nickname “Darwin” as a cryonics surname when he began his career as a kidney dialysis technician. He had been given his nickname as a result of being known at school for arguing for evolution, against creationism. He is widely known in cryonics as “Mike Darwin”, although his legal surname remains Federowicz.

Not long after Alcor was founded, Darwin moved to California at the invitation of Fred and Linda Chamberlain. He spent a year as the world’s first full-time dedicated cryonics researcher until funding ran out. Returning to Indiana, Darwin (along with Steve Bridge) created a new cryonics organization that accumulated considerable equipment and technical capability.

In 1981 Darwin moved back to California, largely because of his desire to work with Jerry Leaf. In 1982 the Indiana organization merged with Alcor, and in 1983 Darwin was made President of Alcor. In California Darwin, Leaf and biochemist Hugh Hixon (who has considerable engineering skill) developed a blood substitute capable of sustaining life in dogs for at least 4hours at or below 9C . Leaf and Darwin had some nasty confrontations with members of the Society for Cryobiology over that organization’s 1985 refusal to publish their research. The Society for Cryobiology adopted a bylaw that prohibited cryonicists from belonging to the organization. Mike Darwin later wrote a summary of the conflicts between cryonicists and cryobiologists under the title Cold War. Similar experiments were done by Paul Segall and his associates, which generated a great deal of favorable media exposure for cryonics.

In 1988 Carlos Mondragon replaced Mike Darwin as Alcor President because Mondragon proved to be more capable of handling the stresses of the Dora Kent case. Darwin had vast medical knowledge (especially as it applies to cryonics), and possessed exceptional technical skills. He was a prolific and lucid writer much of the material in the Alcor website library was written by Mike Darwin. Darwin worked as Alcor’s Research Director from 1988 to 1992, during which time he developed a Transport Technician course in which he trained Alcor Members in the technical skills required to deliver the initial phases of cryonics service.

For undisclosed reasons, Darwin left Alcor in 1992, much to the distress of many Alcor Members who regarded Mike Darwin as by far the person in the world most capable of delivering competent cryonics technical service. In 1993 a new cryonics organization called CryoCare Foundation was created, largely so that people could benefit from Darwin’s technical skills. Another strongly disputed matter was the proposed move of Alcor from California to Arizona (implemented in February 1994).

About50 Alcor Members left Alcor to join and form CryoCare. Darwin delivered standby, transport and perfusion services as a subcontractor to CryoCare and the American Cryonics Society (ACS). Cryostorage services were contracted to CryoCare and ACS by Paul Wakfer. Darwin’s company was called BioPreservation and Wakfer’s company was called CryoSpan. Eventually, serious personality conflicts developed between Darwin and Wakfer. In 1999 Darwin stopped providing service to CryoCare and Wakfer turned CryoSpan over to Saul Kent. Kent then refused to accept additional cryonics patients at CryoSpan, and was determined to end CryoSpan in a way that would not harm the cryonics patients being stored there.

I (Ben Best) had been CryoCare Secretary, and became President of CryoCare in 1999 in an attempt to arrange alternate service providers for CryoCare. The Cryonics Institute agreed to provide cryostorage. Various contractors were found to provide the other services, but eventually CryoCare could not be sustained. In 2003 I became President of the Cryonics Institute. I assisted with the moving of CryoSpan’s two CryoCare patients to Alcor and CryoSpan’s ten ACS patients to the Cryonics Institute. In 2012 I resigned as President of the Cryonics Institute, and began working for the Life Extension Foundation. Dennis Kowalski became the new CI President.

Mike Darwin continued to work as a researcher at Saul Kent’s company Critical Care Research (CCR) until 2001. Darwin’s most notable accomplishment at CCR was his role in developing methods to sustain dogs without neurological damage following 17minutes of warm ischemia. Undisclosed conflicts with CCR management caused Darwin to leave CCR in 2001. He worked briefly with Alcor and Suspended Animation, and later did consulting work for the Cryonics Institute. But for the most part Darwin has been distanced from cryonics organizations.

The history of the Cryonics Institute (CI) has been less tumultuous than that of Alcor. CI has had primarily two Presidents: Robert Ettinger from April1976 to September2003, and Ben Best to June2012. (Andrea Foote was briefly President in 1994, but soon became ill with ovarian cancer.) Robert Ettinger decided to build fiberglass cryostats rather than buy dewars because CI’s Detroit facility was too small for dewars. Robert Ettinger’s mother became the first patient of the Cryonics Institute when she deanimated in 1977. She was placed in dry ice for about ten years until CI began using liquid nitrogen in 1987 (the same year that Robert Ettinger’s first wife became CI’s second patient). In 1994 CI acquired the Erfurt-Runkel Building in Clinton Township (a suburb northeast of Detroit) for about $300,000. This is roughly the same amount of money as had been bequeathed to CI by CI Member Jack Erfurt (who had deanimated in 1992). Erfurt’s wife (Andrea Foote who deanimated in 1995) also bequeathed $300,000 to CI. Andy Zawacki, nephew of Connie Ettinger (wife of Robert Ettinger’s son David), built a ten-person cryostat in the new facility. Fourteen patients were moved from the old Detroit facility to the new Cryonics Institute facility. Andy Zawacki is a man of many talents. He has been a CI employee since January1985 (when he was 19years old), handling office work (mostly Member sign-ups and contracts), building maintenance and equipment fabrication, but also patient perfusion and cool-down.

Throughout most of the history of cryonics glycerol has been the cryoprotectant used to perfuse cryonics patients. Glycerol reduces, but does not eliminate, ice formation. In the late 1990s research conducted at 21st Century Medicine and at UCLA under the direction of 21st Century Medicine confirmed that ice formation in brain tissue could be completely eliminated by a judiciously chosen vitrification mixture of cryoprotectants. In 2001 Alcor began vitrification perfusion of cryonics patients with a cryoprotectant mixture called B2C, and not long thereafter adopted a better mixture called M22. At the Cryonics Institute a vitrification mixture called CI-VM-1 was developed by CI staff cryobiologist Dr.Yuri Pichugin (who was employed at CI from 2001 to 2007). The first CI cryonics patient was vitrified in 2005.

In 2002 Alcor cryopreserved baseball legend Ted Williams. Two of the Williams children attested that their father wanted to be cryopreserved, but a third child protested bitterly. Journalists at Sports Illustrated wrote a sensationalistic expose of Alcor based on information supplied to them by Alcor employee Larry Johnson, who had surreptitiously tape-recorded many conversations in the facility. The ensuing media circus led to some nasty moves by politicians to incapacitate cryonics organizations. In Arizona, state representative Bob Stump attempted to put Alcor under the control of the Funeral Board. The Arizona Funeral Board Director told the New York Times “These companies need to be regulated or deregulated out of business”. Alcor fought hard, and in 2004 the legislation was withdrawn. Alcor hired a full-time lobbyist to watch after their interests in the Arizona legislature. Although the Cryonics Institute had not been involved in the Ted Williams case, the State of Michigan placed the organization under a “Cease and Desist” order for six months, ultimately classifying and regulating the Cryonics Institute as a cemetery in 2004. In the spirit of de-regulation, the new Republican Michigan government removed the cemetary designation for CI in 2012.

In 2002 Suspended Animation, Inc(SA) was created to do research on improved delivery of cryonics services, and to provide those services to other cryonics organizations. In 2003 SA perfused a cryonics patient for the American Cryonics Society, and the patient was stored at the Cryonics Institute. Alcor has long offered standby and transport services to its Members as an integral part of Membership, but the Cryonics Institute (CI) had not done so. In 2005 the CI Board of Directors approved contracts with SA which would allow CI Members the option of receiving SA standby and transport if they so chose. Several years later, all Alcor standby cases in the continental United States outside of Arizona were handled by SA, and SA COO Catherine Baldwin became an Alcor Director. Alcor has continued to do standby and stabilization in Arizona. Any Alcor Member who is diagnosed as being terminally ill with a prognosis of less than 90 days of life will be reimbursed $10,000 for moving to a hospice in the Phoenix, Arizona area. By 2014, over160 of the roughly 550CI Members who had arrangements for cryopreservation services from CI had opted to also have Standby, Stabilization and Transport(SST) from SA.

A Norwegian ACS Member named Trygve Bauge brought his deceased grandfather to the United States and stored the body at Trans Time from 1990 to 1993. Bauge then transported his grandfather to Nederland, Colorado in dry ice with the intention of starting his own cryonics company. But Bauge was deported back to Norway and the story of his grandfather created a media circus. The town outlawed cryonics, but had to “grandfather the grandfather” who has remained there on dry ice. After a “cooling-off period” locals turned the publicity to their advantage by creating an annual Frozen Dead Guy Days festival which features coffin races, snow sculptures, etc. Many cryonicists insist that dry ice is not cold enough for long-term cryopreservation and that the Nederland festival is negative publicity for cryonics.

After several years of management turnover at Alcor, money was donated to find a lasting President. In January 2011, Max More was selected as the new President and CEO of Alcor. In July 2011 Robert Ettinger was cryopreseved at CI after a standby organized by his son and daughter-in-law. In July 2012 Ben Best ended his 9-year service as CI President and CEO by going to work for the Life Extension Foundation as Director of Research Oversight. The Life Extension Foundation is the major source of cryonics-related research, including funding for 21st Century Medicine, Suspended Animation, Inc., and Advanced Neural Biosciences, and funds many anti-aging research projects as well. Dennis Kowalski became the new CI President. Ben Best retired as CI Director in September 2014.

In January 2011 CI shipped its vitrification solution (CI-VM-1) to the United Kingdom so that European cryonics patients could be vitrified before shipping in dry ice to the United States. This procedure was applied to the wife of UK cryonicist Alan Sinclair in May 2013. In the summer of 2014 Alcor began offering this “field vitrication” service to its members in Canada and overseas.

In 2006 the first cryonics organization to offer cryonics services outside of the United States was created in Russia. KrioRus has a facility in a Moscow suburb where many cryonics patients are being stored in liquid nitrogen. In 2014 Oregon Cryonics (created by former CI Director Jordan Sparks) began providing neuro(head or brain)-only services at low cost for cryopreservation and chemical preservation.

(For details on the current status of the different cryonics organizations, see Comparing Procedures and Policies.)

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A History of Cryonics – BEN BEST

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Best Brands of Garcinia Cambogia – Food Security

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Best Brands of Garcinia Cambogia – Food Security

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A tbbi elektronikus fizeteszkztl eltren a bitcoin nem fgg kzponti kibocstktl s hatsgoktl. A bitcoin a peer-to-peer hlzat csompontjai ltal trolt elosztott adatbzisra tmaszkodik. Az adatbzis tartalmazza a fizetsek adatait, garantlva az elektronikus fizeteszkzkkel szembeni alapvet kvetelmnyeket. A biztonsgot digitlis alrsok s proof-of-work rendszer adja.[2]

A bitcoinok biztonsgosan trolhatk egy pnztrcafjlban, szemlyi szmtgpen, mobiltelefonon, kls adathordzkon, vagy felh alap szolgltatknl, kldskhz s fogadsukhoz pedig csak a kld illetve a fogad bitcoincme szksges. A peer-to-peer felpts s a kzponti irnyts hinya megakadlyozza brmilyen hatsg szmra, hogy a forgalomban lev pnzmennyisget s tranzakcikat kontrolllja vagy befolysolja, ami lehetetlenn teszi a manipulcit s inflci gerjesztst.

Nem hivatalos jellege miatt ISO kdja nincs, de ltalnosan hasznlt megjellse a BTC.

A bitcoint szmos erre specializldott devizatzsde weblapon lehet amerikai dollrra s nhny ms devizra tvltani, illetve vissza, fizetsnl online es “offline” kereskedk/szolgltatk egyarnt elfogadjk, szmuk jelentsen n. Egyes szolgltatk lehetv teszik kereskedk szmra bitcoin elfogadst olyan mdon, hogy a keresked azonnal dollrban vagy egyb szoksos devizban kapja meg a bevtelt. Ezen kvl hasznlhat kzrdek felajnlsokra egyes szervezeteknl.[3]

Mivel a fizets nem egy kzponton keresztl zajlik, a mr megtrtnt tranzakcik visszafordtsra nincs md, szemben a hagyomnyos banki rendszerekkel, ahol csals gyanja esetn, vagy egyb okokbl a bankok s ms pnzintzetek sztornzhatjk a korbban jvhagyott kifizetst.

Ellenttben az orszgok ltal kibocstott fizeteszkzkkel, a bitcoinnak nincs kzponti kibocstja, amely az rfolyam stabilits vagy egyb rdekek szerint intervencit, vagy egyb akcit hajtana vgre.[4] 2013 novemberig valamivel tbb mint 12 milli bitcoin jtt ltre, ezt a szmot a hlzat algoritmikusan hatrozza meg, ahogy azt Nakamoto cikkben lerta. A monetris bvls mrtke elre ismert s brki szmra kvethet, az sszes bitcoinok szma idvel 21 millihoz tart, 2013-ra a teljes mennyisg fele, 2017-re hromnegyede fog rendelkezsre llni. A hatr kzeledtvel a bitcoinok rtke nvekedni kezdhet, deflcihoz vezetve, amennyiben a pnzre a kereslet tovbb n. Ugyanakkor a bitcoinok 8 tizedesjegyig oszthatak, gy ez technikai akadlyt nem jelent, szemben a megszokott pnzeszkzkkel.

A bvls cskken teme sztnzi a korai elfogadkat, akik mg alacsonyabb korai rfolyam mellett jutnak bitcoinokhoz, gy segtve a rendszer sikerre vitelt. A korai elfogadknak ez a kedvezmnyezse szmos kritikt eredmnyezett, gyakran piramisjtkhoz hasonltva a rendszert, m a tmogatk szerint ez az sztnz szksges ahhoz, hogy a hlzat s az infrastruktra beinduljon, egy arnyosabb rszeseds nem ellenslyozn megfelelen azt a kockzatot amit egy j, nem tesztelt fizetsi rendszer hasznlata jelent.[5]

Mivel a tranzakcikat az egsz hlzat fel sztkldik a csompontok, azok teljesen nyilvnosak. Szemben a hagyomnyos pnzgyi intzetekkel, amelyek az gyfelek magnszfrjt a tranzakcikra vonatkoz informcik visszatartsval vdik, ezt a Bitcoin rendszerben az biztostja, hogy a cmek tulajdonosra vonatkoz informcik nem ismertek. Ha pldul Alz kld Bobnak 12 BTC sszeget, akkor a nyilvnos adatok kztt csak az ltszik, hogy kt cm kztt 12 BTC sszeg mozgott. Hacsak valamilyen oknl fogva a rsztvevk nem hozzk nyilvnossgra, hogy az adott cmeknek k a tulajdonosai, szinte lehetetlen ket sszekapcsolni. Ugyanakkor ha egy cmrl egyszer mr kiderlt, hogy kihez tartozik, az ahhoz tartoz korbbi tranzakcik is visszakereshetek.

A hlzaton s az elosztottan trolt adatbzisban a tranzakciknl a kifizet s a kedvezmnyezett kizrlag a bitcoincmvel jelenik meg. Ez a cm nem ms, mint egy kriptogrfiai kulcspr publikus fele, amely lehetv teszi a cm tulajdonosnak (aki a privt kulcsot egyedl birtokolja), hogy a cmn lv egyenleg terhre kiadott tranzakcikat alrja. Mivel egy szemly brmennyi cmet ltrehozhat magnak, amelyekrl nem derl ki, hogy egy emberhez tartoznak, a pnz mozgsnak kvetse szinte lehetetlen.

A hlzatot alkot csompontok kztt nincs kiemelt szerep, a jelenlegi megvalsts szerint mindegyikk a teljes adatbzist trolja, gy a rendszer brmekkora szm csompont kiesse esetn is tovbb mkdik.

Az anonimitst s a kzponti kontroll hinyt elnysnek tallhatjk az illeglis zletet folytatk is. A rendszerrel szembeni egyik leggyakoribb kritika szerint mkdse elsegti a trvnytelen zletek lebonyoltst, s emiatt az egsz fizetsi rendszert illeglisnak kell tekinteni.[6] A trvnyessgi agglyokra egy Bitcoint hasznl drogkeresked weblap irnytotta r a figyelmet.[7]

A Bitcoin protokoll a Nakamoto Satoshi cikkben[8] lert s ltala kzztett kliensben megvalstott elveket kveti.

A nyilvnos kulcs digitlis alrs segtsgvel lehetsg van ellenrizni, hogy egy adott cm tulajdonosa valban hozzjrult-e a cmhez tartoz egyenleg terhre trtn fizetshez. Az egyenleg ellenrzse az adott cmre korbban berkez, hasonlkppen alrt tranzakcik lekrdezsvel oldhat meg. A hlzatban rszt vev felhasznlk mindegyiknek van legalbb egy pnztrcja, amelyben helyben generlt nyilvnos-privt kulcsprok tallhatak. Tranzakci alrshoz a kliensprogram a privt kulcsot hasznlja. Fizets fogadshoz a nyilvnos kulcs egy olvashat formjt kell a msik flnek megadni. Ez az olvashat forma ltalban 33 krli szm karakterbl ll, s mindig egyessel kezddik, mint pldul 15VzdkAvVpZsVAhw84esj14GVXbzUm9VTk.

Az alapvet problma a fentiek biztostsa mellett annak megakadlyozsa, hogy valaki a birtokban lv pnzt tbbszr elkltse. Ennek megakadlyozsra az adatbzis 10 percenknt bvl egy-egy blokkal, ahol az j blokkot egy vletlenszeren vlasztott csompont lltja ssze nllan gy, hogy abban ne legyen tlklts. Az adatbzisba gy bekerlt blokkban szerepl tranzakcikat a tbbi csompont megtrtntnek fogadja el.

Mivel a kvetkez blokkot elllt rsztvev kivlasztsa vletlenszeren trtnik, elfordulhat, hogy tbb blokk jn ltre, egyes csompontok pedig a ksbbi blokkok ltrehozshoz nem ugyanazokat az elzmnyeket hasznljk. A hlzat tagjai az ltaluk elrhet blokkok kzl azokat fogadjk el rvnyesnek amelyekbl a leghosszabb lnc llthat el.

Annak rdekben, hogy ezt kihasznlva ne lehessen egy korbban mr elfogadott tranzakcit meg nem trtntt tenni, az j blokkok adatbzishoz adst a protokoll szndkosan nehzz teszi. A csompontoknak egy j blokk kzzttelekor bizonytaniuk kell, hogy jelents szmtsi teljestmnyt ignyl, nehz kriptogrfiai feladatot oldottak meg, ennek megkvetelt mrtke pedig folyamatosan gy van szablyozva, hogy a hlzaton krlbell 10 percenknt egy csompont legyen kpes ezt teljesteni. Ennek eredmnyeknt a hlzaton a tbbsgi dntst a mgttes szmtsi kapacits hatrozza meg. A hlzat feletti ellenrzs tvtelhez legalbb akkora szmtsi teljestmnyre van szksg, ami a hlzat tbb mint felt adja.

A szksges szmtsi teljestmny felajnlsnak sztnzsre minden egyes kzztett blokk utn a kzztev csompont rszesl az jonnan ltrejtt pnzbl, amelyet a sajt cmre rhat. Jelenleg minden blokkrt 25 Bitcoin jr, ez a ksbbiekben cskkenni fog, a protokoll ltal meghatrozott temben. Az gy kiosztott bitcoinok begyjtsre irnyul erfesztsek eredmnyeknt a hivatalos klienstl fggetlen clprogramok jttek ltre, amelyek kizrlagos clja a minl nagyobb szmtsi kapacits hlzatba kapcsolsa s gy ennek a jutalomnak az elnyerse. Ezt a folyamatot szoktk bnyszatnak (mining) nevezni, utalva arra, hogy a nemesfmek bnyszathoz hasonlan j rtkhordoz kerl forgalomba. Jelenleg a kapacits nagy rszt videkrtyk ltalnos cl processzorn fut clprogramok adjk.

Annak rdekben, hogy a 21 millis hatrhoz kzeledve is fenntarthat legyen az sztnzs, lehetsg van a tranzakcikhoz jutalk belltsra. Az egyes blokkokban szerepl tranzakcikhoz tartoz jutalkokat az adott blokkot kzztev node sajt cmre rhatja, gy sztnzve a blokkok ltrehozst. Ez azonban nem ktelez, jelenleg az tranzakcik nagy rsze jutalk nlkl trtnik.

Ahhoz hogy minden cmhez tartoz egyenleg ellenrizhet legyen, a korbbi tranzakcik mindegyikt trolni kell, gy az adatbzis mrete folyamatosan n. A mkdsi elv miatt legalbb nhny csompontnak trolnia kell a teljes adatbzist, de nem kell felttlenl az sszesnek. Jelenleg (2011 jnius) az adatbzis alig pr szz megabjt, gy minden kliens megkapja a teljes msolatot az els indts utn nem sokkal.

Nakamoto elkpzelse szerint ha az adatbzis nagyobb vlik, olyan kliensekre lesz szksg, amelyek az adatbzisnak csak a relevns rszt troljk. Erre a clra egy olyan Merkle fa szolgl, ami lehetv teszi, hogy a kliens az adatbzisnak olyan rszeit eldobja, amikrl tudja, hogy a jvben nem lesz r szksge, mikzben a megmarad rsz kriptogrfiai integritsa megmarad.

Az eredeti nylt forrskd kliens minden nagyobb platformra lefordtott vltozatban is elrhet, a bitcoinok kldshez s fogadshoz szksges minden funkcit tartalmaz, folyamatosan fejlesztik. A blokkok generlsra azonban csak a CPU hasznlatval kpes, GPU-alap generlshoz kln szoftver szksges.

A C++-ban rt kliensen kvl elrhetek ms kliensek is, a projekt kzponti oldaln az rdekldk ttekintst kaphatnak az elrhet alternatvkrl. Az jabb kliensek egy rsze nem ignyli a teljes blokklnc letltst, ehelyett egy tvoli gpen fut teljes bitcoin kliensre tmaszkodik, gy lnyegesen egyszerbben hasznlhat. (pl. Multibit, electrum)

A blokkok kzzttelhez szksges kriptogrfiai feladatok megoldsra klnll, nylt forrskd programok szolglnak, amelyek tbbsge a modern, programozhat grafikus hardvereket hasznlja a hlzat ltal ignyelt nehz kriptogrfiai feladat elvgzsre. Mivel a csompontok nagy szma miatt ma mr egy-egy felhasznlnak elenyszen kis eslye van egy blokkot megoldani s az rte jr jutalmat megszerezni, ezeket a programokat lehetsg van gy belltani, hogy egy szerver irnytsa alatt kzsen dolgozzanak. Ekkor ha az egyttmkd programok kzl egy megtallja a megoldst, a jutalmon osztoznak a rsztvevk.

A Bitcoin f fejlesztje Satoshi Nakamoto lnven publiklta a szoftvert. Ksbb Craig Steven Wright azt lltotta, hogy Satoshi,[9] de ksbb hitelt rdemlen nem tmasztotta ezt al. Sokig hittk, hogy Satoshi Nakamoto egy japn programoz, de ennek ellentmondott precz brit formai angolsga, amivel lerta a rendszert, s az amerikai szlengje, amivel frumozott, ami azt engedi felttelezni, hogy inkbb egy csoport ll a Bitcoin kibocstsa mgtt mintsem egy konkrt szemly. A Bitcoin szoftvert Satoshi Nakamoto eredetileg Windowsra rta csak meg, a linuxos vltozat ltrehozsban nagy szerepet jtszott Martti Malmi.

A legels blokkban az albbi zenet szerepel:

“The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks”

Ami magyar nyelvre sz szerint fordtva a kvetkezket jelenti:

“The Times 2009. janur 3., a pnzgyminiszter a hatrn van a bankok msodik kisegtsnek.”

Megoszlanak a vlemnyek arrl, hogy ez milyen cllal kerlt bele, egyesek szerint csupn idblyegz szerept tlti be (az els blokk a tovbbiakkal ellenttben rtelemszeren nem tud korbbiakra hivatkozni s gy bizonytani, hogy adott idpont utn jtt ltre), msok az zenetet a pnzgyi rendszer kritikjaknt vlik rtelmezni.

A bitcoint folyamatosan szmos kritika ri, jogi, gazdasgi, technolgiai megfontolsok alapjn egyarnt.

A nvnlklisg kivl terep a bnzk szmra: pnzmosshoz, nvtelen zsarolshoz hasznlhat, gyerekporn s illeglis hacker tevkenysg fizetsge lehet, br az amerikai szentus tagjai is megjegyeztk, hogy illeglis tevkenysg folytatshoz a kszpnz a leghatkonyabb fizet eszkz.

A kzponti rszablyozs hinya az rfolyamot nagyon vltozkonny teszi, a teljes monetris bzishoz kpest alacsony forgalom mellett mozg r pedig gyakran szlssges mozgsokat, hirtelen felfutsokat s drasztikus sszeomlsokat eredmnyez. Emiatt s a korai hasznlk ltal birtokolt nagy mennyisg bitcoin miatt szoktk piramisjtkhoz hasonltani a rendszert.

A tranzakcik visszafordthatatlansga egyes esetekben megnehezti a vsrlk tversekkel szembeni vdelmt, valamint a hagyomnyos banki rendszerekkel ellenttben ha valamilyen rosszindulat program eltulajdont bitcoinokat, azokat a hagyomnyos bankszmlkkal ellenttben eslytelen visszaszerezni. Ezt a kritikt azonban a rendszert hasznlk azon az alapon utastjk el, hogy a tradicionlis rendszerekben a kresemny utni kompenzci nem ingyenes, hanem be van ptve a pnzgyi szolgltatk zleti modelljbe. A bitcoin protocol bta, fejleszts alatt ll, tbbek kztt a beptett “escrow” funkci sem aktv mg.

A hlzat biztonsgt garantl s frissen kibocstott bitcoinokkal jutalmazott bnyszs 2013-ra jelents iparr ntt, az egymssal versenyz szereplk hatalmas szmtsi erforrsokat zemeltetnek. Ez hatalmas hardver- s energiaignnyel jr, ami sokak szerint flsleges s tlz trsadalmi kltsg egy fizetsi rendszer fenntartsrt. Ez a kritika sem felttlenl rendelkezik alappal, amg nincs rendelkezsre ll pontos adat a megszokott pnzgyi szolgltatk energia ignyrl, az egsz rendszert figyelembe vve (POS eszkzk, ATM-ek, banki pletek, stb). Ezekkel szemben a bitcoin rendszer llandan zemel, kzpontostatlan mivolta miatt nincs sznet a szolgltatsban.

Ez a szcikk rszben vagy egszben a Bitcoin cm angol Wikipdia-szcikk ezen vltozatnak fordtsn alapul. Az eredeti cikk szerkesztit annak laptrtnete sorolja fel.

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Problem gambling – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: September 20, 2016 at 7:19 pm

Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as “gambling addiction” or “compulsive gambling”) is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop. Problem gambling is often defined by whether harm is experienced by the gambler or others, rather than by the gambler’s behavior. Severe problem gambling may be diagnosed as clinical pathological gambling if the gambler meets certain criteria. Pathological gambling is a common disorder that is associated with both social and family costs.

The DSM-5 has re-classified the condition as an addictive disorder, with sufferers exhibiting many similarities to those who have substance addictions. The term gambling addiction has long been used in the recovery movement.[1] Pathological gambling was long considered by the American Psychiatric Association to be an impulse control disorder rather than an addiction.[2] However, data suggest a closer relationship between pathological gambling and substance use disorders than exists between PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder, largely because the behaviors in problem gambling and most primary substance use disorders (i.e., those not resulting from a desire to “self-medicate” for another condition such as depression) seek to activate the brain’s reward mechanisms while the behaviors characterizing obsessive-compulsive disorder are prompted by overactive and misplaced signals from the brain’s fear mechanisms.[3]

Research by governments in Australia led to a universal definition for that country which appears to be the only research-based definition not to use diagnostic criteria: “Problem gambling is characterized by many difficulties in limiting money and/or time spent on gambling which leads to adverse consequences for the gambler, others, or for the community.”[8] The University of Maryland Medical Center defines pathological gambling as “being unable to resist impulses to gamble, which can lead to severe personal or social consequences”.[9]

Most other definitions of problem gambling can usually be simplified to any gambling that causes harm to the gambler or someone else in any way; however, these definitions are usually coupled with descriptions of the type of harm or the use of diagnostic criteria.[citation needed] The DSM-V has since reclassified pathological gambling as “gambling disorder” and has listed the disorder under substance-related and addictive disorders rather than impulse-control disorders. This is due to the symptomatology of the disorder resembling an addiction not dissimilar to that of substance-abuse.[10] There are both environmental and genetic factors that can influence on gambler and cause some type of addiction.[11] In order to be diagnosed, an individual must have at least four of the following symptoms in a 12-month period:[12]

According to the Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery, evidence indicates that pathological gambling is an addiction similar to chemical addiction.[13] It has been observed that some pathological gamblers have lower levels of norepinephrine than normal gamblers.[14] According to a study conducted by Alec Roy, formerly at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, norepinephrine is secreted under stress, arousal, or thrill, so pathological gamblers gamble to make up for their under-dosage.[15]

According to a report from Harvard Medical School’s division on addictions, there was an experiment constructed where test subjects were presented with situations where they could win, lose, or break even in a casino-like environment. Subjects’ reactions were measured using fMRI, a neuroimaging technique. And according to Hans Breiter, co-director of the Motivation and Emotion Neuroscience Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, “monetary reward in a gambling-like experiment produces brain activation very similar to that observed in a cocaine addict receiving an infusion of cocaine.”[16][17] Studies have compared pathological gamblers to substance addicts, concluding that addicted gamblers display more physical symptoms during withdrawal.[18]

Deficiencies in serotonin might also contribute to compulsive behavior, including a gambling addiction.[19] There are three importat points discovered after these antidepressant studies:[20]

A limited study was presented at a conference in Berlin, suggesting opioid release differs in problem gamblers form the general population, but in a very different way from alcoholics or other substance abusers.[21]

The findings in one review indicated the sensitization theory is responsible.[22] Dopamine dysregulation syndrome has been observed in the aforementioned theory in people with regards to such activities as gambling.[23]

Some medical authors suggest that the biomedical model of problem gambling may be unhelpful because it focuses only on individuals. These authors point out that social factors may be a far more important determinant of gambling behaviour than brain chemicals and they suggest that a social model may be more useful in understanding the issue.[24] For example, an apparent increase in problem gambling in the UK may be better understood as a consequence of changes in legislation which came into force in 2007 and enabled casinos, bookmakers, and online betting sites to advertise on TV and radio for the first time and which eased restrictions on the opening of betting shops and online gambling sites.[25]

Pathological gambling is similar to many other impulse control disorders such as kleptomania.[26] According to evidence from both community- and clinic-based studies, individuals who are pathological gamblers are highly likely to exhibit other psychiatric problems concurrently, including substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, or personality disorders.[27]

Pathological gambling shows several similarities with substance abuse. There is a partial overlap in diagnostic criteria; pathological gamblers are also likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs. The “telescoping phenomenon” reflects the rapid development from initial to problematic behavior in women compared with men. This phenomenon was initially described for alcoholism, but it has also been applied to pathological gambling. Also biological data provide a support for a relationship between pathological gambling and substance abuse.[28]

In a 1995 survey of 184 Gamblers Anonymous members in Illinois, Illinois State professor Henry Lesieur found that 56 percent admitted to some illegal act to obtain money to gamble. Fifty-eight percent admitted they wrote bad checks, while 44 percent said they stole or embezzled money from their employer.[29] Compulsive gambling can affect personal relationships. In a 1991 study of relationships of American men, it was found that 10% of compulsive gamblers had been married more than twice. Only 2% of men who did not gamble were married more than twice.[30] According to statistics by the BGM (British Medical Journal), families of problem gamblers are more likely to experience child abuse or other forms of domestic violence.[31]

A gambler who does not receive treatment for pathological gambling when in his or her desperation phase may contemplate suicide.[32] Problem gambling is often associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population.[33][34]

Early onset of problem gambling increases the lifetime risk of suicide.[35] However, gambling-related suicide attempts are usually made by older people with problem gambling.[36] Both comorbid substance use[37][38] and comorbid mental disorders increase the risk of suicide in people with problem gambling.[36] A 2010 Australian hospital study found that 17% of suicidal patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital’s emergency department were problem gamblers.[39] In the United States, a report by the National Council on Problem Gambling showed approximately one in five pathological gamblers attempt suicide. The council also said that suicide rates among pathological gamblers were higher than any other addictive disorder.[40]

David Phillips, a sociologist from the University of California-San Diego, found “visitors to and residents of gaming communities experience significantly elevated suicide levels”. According to him, Las Vegas, the largest gaming market in the United States, “displays the highest levels of suicide in the nation, both for residents of Las Vegas and for visitors to that setting”. In Atlantic City, the second-largest gaming market, he found “abnormally high suicide levels for visitors and residents appeared only after gambling casinos were opened”.[41]

Several psychological mechanisms are thought to be implicated in the development and maintenance of problem gambling.[42] First, reward processing seems to be less sensitive with problem gamblers. Second, some individuals use problem gambling as an escape from the problems in their lives (an example of negative reinforcement). Third, personality factors play a role, such as narcissism, risk-seeking, sensation-seeking and impulsivity. Fourth, problem gamblers suffer from a number of cognitive biases, including the illusion of control,[43] unrealistic optimism, overcondence and the gambler’s fallacy (the incorrect belief that a series of random events tends to self-correct so that the absolute frequencies of each of various outcomes balance each other out). Fifth, problem gamblers represent a chronic state of a behavioral spin process, a gambling spin, as described by the criminal spin theory.[44]

The most common instrument used to screen for “probable pathological gambling” behavior is the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) developed by Lesieur and Blume (1987) at the South Oaks Hospital in New York City.[45] In recent years the use of SOGS has declined due to a number of criticisms, including that it overestimates false positives (Battersby, Tolchard, Thomas & Esterman, 2002).

The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria presented as a checklist is an alternative to SOGS, it focuses on the psychological motivations underpinning problem gambling and was developed by the American Psychiatric Association. It consists of ten diagnostic criteria. One frequently used screening measure based upon the DSM-IV criteria is the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS). The Canadian Problem Gambling Inventory (CPGI) and the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) are newer assessment measures. The Problem Gambling Severity Index, which focuses on the harms associated with problem gambling, is composed of nine items from the longer CPGI.[46] The VGS is also harm based and includes 15 items. The VGS has proven validity and reliability in population studies as well as Adolescents and clinic gamblers.

Most treatment for problem gambling involves counseling, step-based programs, self-help, peer-support, medication, or a combination of these. However, no one treatment is considered to be most efficacious and no medications have been approved for the treatment of pathological gambling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Only one treatment facility[47] has been given a license to officially treat gambling as an addiction, and that was by the State of Virginia.[48]

Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a commonly used treatment for gambling problems. Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, GA uses a 12-step model that emphasizes a mutual-support approach. There are three in-patient treatment centers in North America.[49] One form of counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms and gambling-related urges. This type of therapy focuses on the identification of gambling-related thought processes, mood and cognitive distortions that increase one’s vulnerability to out-of-control gambling. Additionally, CBT approaches frequently utilize skill-building techniques geared toward relapse prevention, assertiveness and gambling refusal, problem solving and reinforcement of gambling-inconsistent activities and interests.[50]

As to behavioral treatment, some recent research supports the use of both activity scheduling and desensitization in the treatment of gambling problems.[51] In general, behavior analytic research in this area is growing [52] There is evidence that the SSRI paroxetine is efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling.[53] Additionally, for patients suffering from both pathological gambling and a comorbid bipolar spectrum condition, sustained release lithium has shown efficacy in a preliminary trial.[54] The opioid antagonist drug nalmefene has also been trialled quite successfully for the treatment of compulsive gambling.[55]

Other step-based programs are specific to gambling and generic to healing addiction, creating financial health, and improving mental wellness. Commercial alternatives that are designed for clinical intervention, using the best of health science and applied education practices, have been used as patient-centered tools for intervention since 2007. They include measured efficacy and resulting recovery metrics.[medical citation needed]

Motivational interviewing is one of the treatments of compulsive gambling. The motivational interviewing’s basic goal is promoting readiness to change through thinking and resolving mixed feelings. Avoiding aggressive confrontation, argument, labeling, blaming, and direct persuasion, the interviewer supplies empathy and advice to compulsive gamblers who define their own goal. The focus is on promoting freedom of choice and encouraging confidence in the ability to change.[56]

A growing method of treatment is peer support. With the advancement of online gambling, many gamblers experiencing issues use various online peer-support groups to aid their recovery. This protects their anonymity while allowing them to attempt recovery on their own, often without having to disclose their issues to loved ones.[medical citation needed]

Research into self-help for problem gamblers has shown benefits.[57] A study by Wendy Slutske of the University of Missouri concluded one-third of pathological gamblers overcome it by natural recovery.[58]

According to the Productivity Commission’s 2010 final report into gambling, the social cost of problem gambling is close to 4.7 billion dollars a year. Some of the harms resulting from problem gambling include depression, suicide, lower work productivity, job loss, relationship breakdown, crime and bankruptcy.[59] A survey conducted in 2008 found that the most common motivation for fraud was problem gambling, with each incident averaging a loss of $1.1 million.[59]

In Europe, the rate of problem gambling is typically 0.5 to 3 percent.[60] The “British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007”, conducted by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission, found approximately 0.6 percent of the adult population had problem gambling issuesthe same percentage as in 1999.[61] The highest prevalence of problem gambling was found among those who participated in spread betting (14.7%), fixed odds betting terminals (11.2%) and betting exchanges (9.8%).[61] In Norway, a December 2007 study showed the amount of present problem gamblers was 0.7 percent.[62]

In the United States, the percentage of pathological gamblers was 0.6 percent, and the percentage of problem gamblers was 2.3 percent in 2008.[63] Studies commissioned by the National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act has shown the prevalence rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent.[64] Nevada has the highest percentage of pathological gambling; a 2002 report estimated 2.2 to 3.6 percent of Nevada residents over the age of 18 could be called problem gamblers. Also, 2.7 to 4.3 percent could be called probable pathological gamblers.[65]

According to a 1997 meta-analysis by Harvard Medical School’s division on addictions, 1.1 percent of the adult population of the United States and Canada could be called pathological gamblers.[66] A 1996 study estimated 1.2 to 1.9 percent of adults in Canada were pathological.[67] In Ontario, a 2006 report showed 2.6 percent of residents experienced “moderate gambling problems” and 0.8 percent had “severe gambling problems”.[68] In Quebec, an estimated 0.8 percent of the adult population were pathological gamblers in 2002.[69] Although most who gamble do so without harm, approximately 6 million American adults are addicted to gambling.[70]

Signs of a gambling problem include:[medical citation needed]

Both casinos and poker machines in pubs and clubs facilitate problem gambling in Australia. The building of new hotels and casinos has been described as “one of the most active construction markets in Australia”; for example, AUD$860 million was allocated to rebuild and expand the Star Complex in Sydney.[71]

A 2010 study, conducted in the Northern Territory by researchers from the Australian National University (ANU) and Southern Cross University (SCU), found that the proximity of a person’s residence to a gambling venue is significant in terms of prevalence. Harmful gambling in the study was prevalent among those living within 100 metres of any gambling venue, and was over 50% higher than among those living ten kilometres from a venue. The study’s data stated:

“Specifically, people who lived 100 metres from their favourite venue visited an estimated average of 3.4 times per month. This compared to an average of 2.8 times per month for people living one kilometre away, and 2.2 times per month for people living ten kilometres away”.[72]

According to the Productivity Commission’s 2010 report into gambling, 0.5% to 1% (80,000 to 160,000) of the Australian adult population suffered with significant problems resulting from gambling. A further 1.4% to 2.1% (230 000 to 350 000) of the Australian adult population experienced moderate risks making them likely to be vulnerable to problem gambling.[73] Estimates show that problem gamblers account for an average of 41% of the total gaming machine spending.[74]

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Problem gambling – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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THE NEW UTOPIA – Libertarian

Posted: at 7:18 pm

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MeMetics – Your Trusted Online News and How-to Site

Posted: at 7:12 pm

Business News Editor September 11, 2016

If you frequently look for jobs online, chances are that you may have applied for one vacancy that

Hello there folks. Safari is generally preinstalled on Mac from the earliest starting point, yet numerous Mac proprietors

You do not need an occasion to celebrate love, but if there is one, there are more reasons

A blast chillers key purpose is to reduce the temperature of the food it contains quickly, with a

They say that information rules the world. This statement particularly resonates with forward-thinking companies who realize the value

Since Apple introduced the iPhone and iPad, other technology companies have taken the same route in making the

We bundle up in the winter months to avoid exposing our skin to chilly temps. Given this, it

If you are considering starting up your own company abroad, there are many options available to you. Each

When it comes to finding some of the best mobile apps, it can be difficult to narrow it

Clinical trials are coming to an end for Indias Quest Life Sciences organisation after marketing approval for an

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The Abolition of Work and Other Essays: Bob Black …

Posted: at 7:11 pm

Bob Black (born Robert Charles Black, Jr. in 1951) is an American anarchist, and author of books such as Anarchy After Leftism, Friendly Fire (New Autonomy Series), and Beneath the Underground.

This book contains various essays, mostly written from 1977-1985. They have previously appeared in a very large variety of periodicals (e.g., Beatniks from Space; Church of the Latter Day Punk; Loompanics Unlimited Book Catalog; Semiotext(e); Twisted Imbalance, etc.).

He begins the title essay by stating, “No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world.” (Pg. 17) He later elaborates, “Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us then even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education.” (Pg. 22) He concludes with the exhortation, “Workers of the world… relax!” (Pg. 33)

His observations are often pointed and humorous: e.g., “Remember, pain is just God’s way of hurting you” (Pg. 37); “A libertarian is just a Republican who takes drugs” (pg. 141); “The typical Loompanics reader is, I conjecture, a surrealist trapped in the body of an engineer.” (Pg. 154)

Black’s writing is quite interesting, and of interest to libertarians, individualists, anarchists, and other free spirits.

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The Abolition of Work and Other Essays: Bob Black …

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Conscious Evolution (Kansas City, MO) – Meetup

Posted: at 7:09 pm

If you…

Become frustrated with “group think” mentality, and limited belief systems… Seek balance for High-frequency living… Seek meaning in life and understanding about the world… Wish to wake from the dream and illusion of who we think we are and move toward your authentic being, Welcome!

Most people are born originals, but die copies…

…Human evolution is a natural process with infinite potentials. We are not yet a finished product! In fact, there is no limit to the levels of evolution we can achieve, both as individuals and as a world society. We have within our capacity the ability to guide our own development as consciousness beings, and many of us are doing exactly that…

…Humanity as a sum total however, seems to be limited by its own concepts of life and right living. The only real limitations upon our continued growth as a species, are those concepts we continue to impose…

–Matthew Webb, The World Mind Society

The Groups topics: Consciousness, Evolution, Science, New Age, Mind – Body, Philosophy, Psychology, Spirituality, Metaphysics, Meditation, Awakening, Enlightenment, Light Workers, Unity, Oneness, Discussion, Humanism, Agnostics, Seekers, Singles, Friends, Indigo, Personal Growth, Self Help, Self- Discovery, Self-Realization, Self-Improvement, Life Transformation, Creativity, Community, Social, Volunteers, Peace, Green, Environment, Course in Miracles, Secret, Law of Attraction, Dreams, Reiki, Energy, Quantum, Healing, Holistic, Alternative Health, Near-Death Experience, Paranormal, Shamanism, Psychic, Reincarnation, Past Life, Soul Travel, Medium, Channeling, Astrology, Numerology, More..

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Conscious Evolution (Kansas City, MO) – Meetup

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Hedonistic Theories – Philosophy Home Page

Posted: September 18, 2016 at 8:14 am

Abstract: The refinement of hedonism as an ethical theory involves several surprising and important distinctions. Several counter-examples to hedonism are discussed.

I. Hedonistic theories are one possible answer to the question of “What is intrinsic goodness?”

Similar theories might involve enjoyment, satisfaction, happiness, as concepts substituted for pleasure. A major problem of hedonism is getting clear as of what pleasure and pain consist. Are pleasures events, properties, states, or some other kind of entity?

II. The hedonistic position can be substantially refined.

Some persons have mistakenly taken this distinction to mean that “Therefore, you can’t generalize about what actions should be done because they would differ for different people; hence, ethics is relative.”

Think about how this statement is logically related to C.L. Kleinke’s observation in his book Self-Perception that “What distinguishes emotions such as anger, fear, love, elation, anxiety, and disgust is not what is going on inside the body but rather what is happening in the outside environment.” (C.L. Kleinke, Self-Perception (San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1978), 2.)

III. The hedonist doesn’t seek pleasure constantlya constant indulgence of appetites makes people miserable in the long run.

When hungry, seek food; when poor, seek money; when restless, seek physical activity. We don’t seek pleasure in these situations. As John Stuart Mill stated, “Those only are happy who have their minds fixed on some object other than their own happiness Aiming thus at something else, they find happiness along the way.”

IV. John Hospers proposes three counter-examples to hedonism.

Recommended Sources

Hedonism:A discussion of hedonism from the Stanford Encyclopedia with some emphasis relating to egoism and utilitarianism by Andrew Moore.

Hedonism: An outline of some basic concepts hedonistic philosophy with brief mention of Epicurus, Bentham, Mill, and Freud from the Wikipedia.

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Hedonistic Theories – Philosophy Home Page

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Atopic eczema | DermNet New Zealand

Posted: at 8:09 am

Home Topics AZ Atopic eczema

Author: Dr Amy Stanway, Department of Dermatology, Waikato Hospital, February 2004.

Atopic eczema is a chronic, itchy skin condition that is very common in children but may occur at any age. It is also known as eczema, atopic dermatitis and neurodermatitis. It is the most common form of dermatitis.

Atopic eczema usually occurs in people who have an ‘atopic tendency’. This means they may develop any or all of three closely linked conditions; atopic eczema, asthma and hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Often these conditions run within families with a parent, child or sibling also affected. A family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever is particularly useful in diagnosing atopic eczema in infants.

Atopic eczema arises because of a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. These include defects in skin barrier function making the skin more susceptible to irritation by soap and other contact irritants, the weather, temperature and non-specific triggers: see Causes of atopic eczema.

There is quite a variation in the appearance of atopic eczema between individuals. From time to time, most people have acute flares with inflamed, red, sometimes blistered and weepy patches. In between flares, the skin may appear normal or suffer from chronic eczema with dry, thickened and itchy areas.

The presence of infection or an additional skin condition, the creams applied, the age of the person, their ethnic origin and other factors can alter the way eczema looks and feels.

There are however some general patterns to where the eczema is found on the body according to the age of the affected person.

More images of atopic eczema and flexural dermatitis.

Atopic eczema affects 15-20% of children but is much less common in adults. It is impossible to predict whether eczema will improve by itself or not in an individual. Sensitive skin persists life-long.

It is unusual for an infant to be affected with atopic eczema before the age of four months but they may suffer from infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis or other rashes prior to this. The onset of atopic eczema is usually before two years of age although it can manifest itself in older people for the first time.

Atopic eczema is often worst between the ages of two and four but it generally improves after this and may clear altogether by the teens.

Certain occupations such as farming, hairdressing, domestic and industrial cleaning, domestic duties and care-giving expose the skin to various irritants and, sometimes, allergens. This aggravates atopic eczema. It is wise to bear this in mind when considering career options it is usually easier to choose a more suitable occupation from the outset than to change it later.

Treatment of atopic eczema may be required for many months and possibly years.

It nearly always requires:

In some cases, management may also include one of more of the following:

Longstanding and severe eczema may be treated with an immunosuppressive agent.

Excerpt from:
Atopic eczema | DermNet New Zealand

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