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Author Archives: Vegaspos
Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:36 pm
Liberal (av latin liberalis, ‘som har med ein fri mann gjera’, og liber, ‘fri’), er ei nemning brukt p ulike mtar innan politikk og filosofi.
Ein skil vanlegvis i moderne norsk sprkbruk mellom det vere liberal og det vere liberalistisk. Det vere liberal p eit omrde betyr da noko slikt som vere open, romsleg, tolerant. Det vere liberalist betyr at ein er tilhengar av konomisk liberalisme. Ein kan alts vere liberal utan vere liberalist, og omvendt.
Som generell politisk merkelapp blir nemninga liberal som regel bruka av det borgarlege venstre, i Noreg partiet Venstre. Dei som kallar seg eller blir kalla liberalistar er vanlegvis lenger ute p hgresida, men grensa er flytande. Bde dei liberale og liberalistane er tilhengarar av kapitalisme.
I USA, derimot, er tydinga av ordet liberal ei heilt anna. Her er det nrmast eit skjellsord brukt om folk ein meiner er for venstreorienterte.
Posted: at 4:34 pm
Se voc perdeu alguma coisa da Brasil Offshore ou esqueceu de anotar alguma coisa que voc viu por l, o Planejador de Visitas pode te ajudar.
Encontre expositores, produtos, conferncias, palestrantes e muito mais. Mesmo que o evento tenha acabado, voc ainda tem a possibilidade de ver o que aconteceu e contatar os expositores.
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Posted: at 4:32 pm
Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft. Spacecraft carrying people may be operated directly, by human crew, or it may be either remotely operated from ground stations on Earth or be autonomous, able to carry out a specific mission with no human involvement.
The first human spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard. Humans have been continually present in space for 700849902926700000015years and 297days on the International Space Station. All early human spaceflight was crewed, where at least some of the passengers acted to carry out tasks of piloting or operating the spacecraft. After 2015, several human-capable spacecraft are being explicitly designed with the ability to operate autonomously.
Since the retirement of the US Space Shuttle in 2011, only Russia and China have maintained human spaceflight capability with the Soyuz program and Shenzhou program. Currently, all expeditions to the International Space Station use Soyuz vehicles, which remain attached to the station to allow quick return if needed. The United States is developing commercial crew transportation to facilitate domestic access to ISS and low Earth orbit, as well as the Orion vehicle for beyond-low Earth orbit applications.
While spaceflight has typically been a government-directed activity, commercial spaceflight has gradually been taking on a greater role. The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight, and a number of non-governmental companies have been working to develop a space tourism industry. NASA has also played a role to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Commercial Crew Development (CCDev). With its 2011 budget proposals released in 2010, the Obama administration moved towards a model where commercial companies would supply NASA with transportation services of both people and cargo transport to low Earth orbit. The vehicles used for these services could then serve both NASA and potential commercial customers. Commercial resupply of ISS began two years after the retirement of the Shuttle, and commercial crew launches could begin by 2017.
Human spaceflight capability was first developed during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR), which developed the first intercontinental ballistic missile rockets to deliver nuclear weapons. These rockets were large enough to be adapted to carry the first artificial satellites into low Earth orbit. After the first satellites were launched in 1957 and 1958, the US worked on Project Mercury to launch men singly into orbit, while the USSR secretly pursued the Vostok program to accomplish the same thing. The USSR launched the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin into a single orbit in Vostok 1 on a Vostok 3KA rocket, on April 12, 1961. The US launched its first astronaut, Alan Shepard on a suborbital flight aboard Freedom 7 on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, on May 5, 1961. Unlike Gagarin, Shepard manually controlled his spacecraft’s attitude, and landed inside it. The first American in orbit was John Glenn aboard Friendship 7, launched February 20, 1962 on a Mercury-Atlas rocket. The USSR launched five more cosmonauts in Vostok capsules, including the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova aboard Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963. The US launched a total of two astronauts in suborbital flight and four in orbit through 1963.
US President John F. Kennedy raised the stakes of the Space Race by setting the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely by the end of the 1960s. The US started the three-man Apollo program in 1961 to accomplish this, launched by the Saturn family of launch vehicles, and the interim two-man Project Gemini in 1962, which flew 10 missions launched by Titan II rockets in 1965 and 1966. Gemini’s objective was to support Apollo by developing American orbital spaceflight experience and techniques to be used in the Moon mission.
Meanwhile, the USSR remained silent about their intentions to send humans to the Moon, and proceeded to stretch the limits of their single-pilot Vostok capsule into a two- or three-person Voskhod capsule to compete with Gemini. They were able to launch two orbital flights in 1964 and 1965 and achieved the first spacewalk, made by Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2 on March 8, 1965. But Voskhod did not have Gemini’s capability to maneuver in orbit, and the program was terminated. The US Gemini flights did not accomplish the first spacewalk, but overcame the early Soviet lead by performing several spacewalks and solving the problem of astronaut fatigue caused by overcoming the lack of gravity, demonstrating up to two weeks endurance in a human spaceflight, and the first space rendezvous and dockings of spacecraft.
The US succeeded in developing the Saturn V rocket necessary to send the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon, and sent Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders into 10 orbits around the Moon in Apollo 8 in December 1968. In July 1969, Apollo 11 accomplished Kennedy’s goal by landing Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon July 21 and returning them safely on July 24 along with Command Module pilot Michael Collins. A total of six Apollo missions landed 12 men to walk on the Moon through 1972, half of which drove electric powered vehicles on the surface. The crew of Apollo 13, Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Haise, survived a catastrophic in-flight spacecraft failure and returned to Earth safely without landing on the Moon.
Meanwhile, the USSR secretly pursued human lunar lunar orbiting and landing programs. They successfully developed the three-person Soyuz spacecraft for use in the lunar programs, but failed to develop the N1 rocket necessary for a human landing, and discontinued the lunar programs in 1974. On losing the Moon race, they concentrated on the development of space stations, using the Soyuz as a ferry to take cosmonauts to and from the stations. They started with a series of Salyut sortie stations from 1971 to 1986.
After the Apollo program, the US launched the Skylab sortie space station in 1973, manning it for 171 days with three crews aboard Apollo spacecraft. President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev negotiated an easing of relations known as dtente, an easing of Cold War tensions. As part of this, they negotiated the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, in which an Apollo spacecraft carrying a special docking adapter module rendezvoused and docked with Soyuz 19 in 1975. The American and Russian crews shook hands in space, but the purpose of the flight was purely diplomatic and symbolic.
Nixon appointed his Vice President Spiro Agnew to head a Space Task Group in 1969 to recommend follow-on human spaceflight programs after Apollo. The group proposed an ambitious Space Transportation System based on a reusable Space Shuttle which consisted of a winged, internally fueled orbiter stage burning liquid hydrogen, launched by a similar, but larger kerosene-fueled booster stage, each equipped with airbreathing jet engines for powered return to a runway at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Other components of the system included a permanent modular space station, reusable space tug and nuclear interplanetary ferry, leading to a human expedition to Mars as early as 1986, or as late as 2000, depending on the level of funding allocated. However, Nixon knew the American political climate would not support Congressional funding for such an ambition, and killed proposals for all but the Shuttle, possibly to be followed by the space station. Plans for the Shuttle were scaled back to reduce development risk, cost, and time, replacing the piloted flyback booster with two reusable solid rocket boosters, and the smaller orbiter would use an expendable external propellant tank to feed its hydrogen-fueled main engines. The orbiter would have to make unpowered landings.
The two nations continued to compete rather than cooperate in space, as the US turned to developing the Space Shuttle and planning the space station, dubbed Freedom. The USSR launched three Almaz military sortie stations from 1973 to 1977, disguised as Salyuts. They followed Salyut with the development of Mir, the first modular, semi-permanent space station, the construction of which took place from 1986 to 1996. Mir orbited at an altitude of 354 kilometers (191 nautical miles), at a 51.6 inclination. It was occupied for 4,592 days, and made a controlled reentry in 2001.
The Space Shuttle started flying in 1981, but the US Congress failed to approve sufficient funds to make Freedom a reality. A fleet of four shuttles was built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. A fifth shuttle, Endeavour, was built to replace Challenger which was destroyed in an accident during launch which killed 7 astronauts on January 28, 1986. Twenty-two Shuttle flights carried a European Space Agency sortie space station called Spacelab in the payload bay from 1983 to 1998.
The USSR copied the reusable Space Shuttle orbiter, which it called Buran. It was designed to be launched into orbit by the expendable Energia rocket, and capable of robotic orbital flight and landing. Unlike the US Shuttle, Buran had no main rocket engines, but used its orbital maneuvering engines to insert itself into orbit; but it had airbreathing jet engines for powered landings. A single unmanned orbital test flight was successfully made in November 1988. A second test flight was planned by 1993, but the program was cancelled due to lack of funding and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Two more orbiters were never completed, and the first one was destroyed in a hangar roof collapse in May 2002.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought an end to the Cold War and opened the door to true cooperation between the US and Russia. The Soviet Soyuz and Mir programs were taken over by the Russian Federal Space Agency, now known as the Roscosmos State Corporation. The Shuttle-Mir Program included American Space Shuttles visiting the Mir space station, Russian cosmonauts flying on the Shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft for long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
In 1993, President Bill Clinton secured Russia’s cooperation in converting the planned Space Station Freedom into the International Space Station (ISS). Construction of the station began in 1998. The station orbits at an altitude of 409 kilometers (221nmi) and an inclination of 51.65.
The Space Shuttle was retired in 2011 after 135 orbital flights, several of which helped assemble, supply, and crew the ISS. Columbia was destroyed in another accident during reentry, which killed 7 astronauts on February 1, 2003.
After Russia’s launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, Chairman Mao Zedong intended to place a Chinese satellite in orbit by 1959 to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), However, China did not successfully launch its first satellite until April 24, 1970. Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai decided on July 14, 1967, that the PRC should not be left behind, and started China’s own human spaceflight program. The first attempt, the Shuguang spacecraft copied from the US Gemini, was cancelled on May 13, 1972.
China later designed the Shenzhou spacecraft resembling the Russian Soyuz, and became the third nation to achieve independent human spaceflight capability by launching Yang Liwei on a 21-hour flight aboard Shenzhou 5 on October 15, 2003. China launched the Tiangong-1 space station on September 29, 2011, and two sortie missions to it: Shenzhou 9 June 1629, 2012, with China’s first female astronaut Liu Yang; and Shenzhou 10, June 1326, 2013.
The European Space Agency began development in 1987 of the Hermes spaceplane, to be launched on the Ariane 5 expendable launch vehicle. The project was cancelled in 1992, when it became clear that neither cost nor performance goals could be achieved. No Hermes shuttles were ever built.
Japan began development in the 1980s of the HOPE-X experimental spaceplane, to be launched on its H-IIA expendable launch vehicle. A string of failures in 1998 led to funding reduction, and the project’s cancellation in 2003.
Under the Bush administration, the Constellation Program included plans for retiring the Shuttle program and replacing it with the capability for spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit. In the 2011 United States federal budget, the Obama administration cancelled Constellation for being over budget and behind schedule while not innovating and investing in critical new technologies. For beyond low earth orbit human spaceflight NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to be launched by the Space Launch System. Under the Commercial Crew Development plan, NASA will rely on transportation services provided by the private sector to reach low earth orbit, such as Space X’s Falcon 9/Dragon V2, Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser, or Boeing’s CST-100. The period between the retirement of the shuttle in 2011 and the initial operational capability of new systems in 2017, similar to the gap between the end of Apollo in 1975 and the first space shuttle flight in 1981, is referred to by a presidential Blue Ribbon Committee as the U.S. human spaceflight gap.
After the early 2000s, a variety of private spaceflight ventures were undertaken. Several of the companies formed by 2005, including Blue Origin, SpaceX, Virgin Galactic, and XCOR Aerospace have explicit plans to advance human spaceflight. As of 2015[update], all four of those companies have development programs underway to fly commercial passengers before 2018.
Commercial suborbital spacecraft aimed at the space tourism market include Virgin Galactic SpaceshipTwo, and XCOR’s Lynx spaceplane which are both under development and could reach space before 2017. More recently, Blue Origin has begun a multi-year test program of their New Shepardvehicle with plans to test in 20152016 while carrying no passengers, then adding “test passengers” in 2017, and initiate commercial flights in 2018.
SpaceX and Boeing are both developing passenger-capable orbital space capsules as of 2015, planning to fly NASA astronauts to the International Space Station as soon as 2018. SpaceX will be carrying passengers on Dragon 2 launched on a Falcon 9 launch vehicle. Boeing will be doing it with their CST-100 launched on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V launch vehicle. Development funding for these orbital-capable technologies has been provided by a mix of government and private funds, with SpaceX providing a greater portion of total development funding for this human-carrying capability from private investment. There have been no public announcements of commercial offerings for orbital flights from either company, although both companies are planning some flights with their own private, not NASA, astronauts on board.
Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space on 25 July 1984.
Sally Ride became the first American woman in space in 1983. Eileen Collins was the first female shuttle pilot, and with shuttle mission STS-93 in 1999 she became the first woman to command a U.S. spacecraft.
The longest single human spaceflight is that of Valeri Polyakov, who left Earth on 8 January 1994, and did not return until 22 March 1995 (a total of 437 days 17 h 58 min 16 s). Sergei Krikalyov has spent the most time of anyone in space, 803 days, 9 hours, and 39 minutes altogether. The longest period of continuous human presence in space is 700849902926700000015years and 297days on the International Space Station, exceeding the previous record of almost 10 years (or 3,634 days) held by Mir, spanning the launch of Soyuz TM-8 on 5 September 1989 to the landing of Soyuz TM-29 on 28 August 1999.
For many years, only the USSR (later Russia) and the United States had their own astronauts. Citizens of other nations flew in space, beginning with the flight of Vladimir Remek, a Czech, on a Soviet spacecraft on 2 March 1978, in the Interkosmos programme. As of 2010[update], citizens from 38 nations (including space tourists) have flown in space aboard Soviet, American, Russian, and Chinese spacecraft.
Human spaceflight programs have been conducted by the former Soviet Union and current Russian Federation, the United States, the People’s Republic of China and by private spaceflight company Scaled Composites.
Space vehicles are spacecraft used for transportation between the Earth’s surface and outer space, or between locations in outer space. The following space vehicles and spaceports are currently used for launching human spaceflights:
The following space stations are currently maintained in Earth orbit for human occupation:
Numerous private companies attempted human spaceflight programs in an effort to win the $10 million Ansari X Prize. The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight. SpaceShipOne captured the prize on 4 October 2004, when it accomplished two consecutive flights within one week. SpaceShipTwo, launching from the carrier aircraft White Knight Two, is planned to conduct regular suborbital space tourism.
Most of the time, the only humans in space are those aboard the ISS, whose crew of six spends up to six months at a time in low Earth orbit.
NASA and ESA use the term “human spaceflight” to refer to their programs of launching people into space. These endeavors have also been referred to as “manned space missions,” though because of gender specificity this is no longer official parlance according to NASA style guides.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has begun work on pre-project activities of a human space flight mission program. The objective is to carry a crew of two to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and return them safely to a predefined destination on Earth. The program is proposed to be implemented in defined phases. Currently, the pre-project activities are progressing with a focus on the development of critical technologies for subsystems such as the Crew Module (CM), Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Crew Escape System, etc. The department has initiated pre-project activities to study technical and managerial issues related to crewed missions. The program envisages the development of a fully autonomous orbital vehicle carrying 2 or 3 crew members to about 300km low earth orbit and their safe return.
The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a plan to land humans on Mars by the 2030s. The first step in this mission begins sometime during 2020, when NASA plans to send an unmanned craft into deep space to retrieve an asteroid. The asteroid will be pushed into the moons orbit, and studied by astronauts aboard Orion, NASAs first human spacecraft in a generation. Orions crew will return to Earth with samples of the asteroid and their collected data. In addition to broadening Americas space capabilities, this mission will test newly developed technology, such as solar electric propulsion, which uses solar arrays for energy and requires ten times less propellant than the conventional chemical counterpart used for powering space shuttles to orbit.
Several other countries and space agencies have announced and begun human spaceflight programs by their own technology, Japan (JAXA), Iran (ISA) and Malaysia (MNSA).
There are two main sources of hazard in space flight: those due to the environment of space which make it hostile to the human body, and the potential for mechanical malfunctions of the equipment required to accomplish space flight.
Planners of human spaceflight missions face a number of safety concerns.
The immediate needs for breathable air and drinkable water are addressed by the life support system of the spacecraft.
Medical consequences such as possible blindness and bone loss have been associated with human space flight.
On 31 December 2012, a NASA-supported study reported that spaceflight may harm the brain of astronauts and accelerate the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
In October 2015, the NASA Office of Inspector General issued a health hazards report related to space exploration, including a human mission to Mars.
Medical data from astronauts in low earth orbits for long periods, dating back to the 1970s, show several adverse effects of a microgravity environment: loss of bone density, decreased muscle strength and endurance, postural instability, and reductions in aerobic capacity. Over time these deconditioning effects can impair astronauts performance or increase their risk of injury.
In a weightless environment, astronauts put almost no weight on the back muscles or leg muscles used for standing up, which causes them to weaken and get smaller. Astronauts can lose up to twenty per cent of their muscle mass on spaceflights lasting five to eleven days. The consequent loss of strength could be a serious problem in case of a landing emergency. Upon return to Earth from long-duration flights, astronauts are considerably weakened, and are not allowed to drive a car for twenty-one days.
Astronauts experiencing weightlessness will often lose their orientation, get motion sickness, and lose their sense of direction as their bodies try to get used to a weightless environment. When they get back to Earth, or any other mass with gravity, they have to readjust to the gravity and may have problems standing up, focusing their gaze, walking and turning. Importantly, those body motor disturbances after changing from different gravities only get worse the longer the exposure to little gravity. These changes will affect operational activities including approach and landing, docking, remote manipulation, and emergencies that may happen while landing. This can be a major roadblock to mission success.
In addition, after long space flight missions, male astronauts may experience severe eyesight problems. Such eyesight problems may be a major concern for future deep space flight missions, including a crewed mission to the planet Mars.
Without proper shielding, the crews of missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) might be at risk from high-energy protons emitted by solar flares. Lawrence Townsend of the University of Tennessee and others have studied the most powerful solar flare ever recorded. That flare was seen by the British astronomer Richard Carrington in September 1859. Radiation doses astronauts would receive from a Carrington-type flare could cause acute radiation sickness and possibly even death.
Another type of radiation, galactic cosmic rays, presents further challenges to human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit.
There is also some scientific concern that extended spaceflight might slow down the bodys ability to protect itself against diseases. Some of the problems are a weakened immune system and the activation of dormant viruses in the body. Radiation can cause both short and long term consequences to the bone marrow stem cells which create the blood and immune systems. Because the interior of a spacecraft is so small, a weakened immune system and more active viruses in the body can lead to a fast spread of infection.
During long missions, astronauts are isolated and confined into small spaces. Depression, cabin fever and other psychological problems may impact the crew’s safety and mission success.
Astronauts may not be able to quickly return to Earth or receive medical supplies, equipment or personnel if a medical emergency occurs. The astronauts may have to rely for long periods on their limited existing resources and medical advice from the ground.
Space flight requires much higher velocities than ground or air transportation, which in turn requires the use of high energy density propellants for launch, and the dissipation of large amounts of energy, usually as heat, for safe reentry through the Earth’s atmosphere.
Since rockets carry the potential for fire or explosive destruction, space capsules generally employ some sort of launch escape system, consisting either of a tower-mounted solid fuel rocket to quickly carry the capsule away from the launch vehicle (employed on Mercury, Apollo, and Soyuz), or else ejection seats (employed on Vostok and Gemini) to carry astronauts out of the capsule and away for individual parachute landing. The escape tower is discarded at some point before the launch is complete, at a point where an abort can be performed using the spacecraft’s engines.
Such a system is not always practical for multiple crew member vehicles (particularly spaceplanes), depending on location of egress hatch(es). When the single-hatch Vostok capsule was modified to become the 2 or 3-person Voskhod, the single-cosmonaut ejection seat could not be used, and no escape tower system was added. The two Voskhod flights in 1964 and 1965 avoided launch mishaps. The Space Shuttle carried ejection seats and escape hatches for its pilot and copilot in early flights, but these could not be used for passengers who sat below the flight deck on later flights, and so were discontinued.
The only in-flight launch abort of a crewed flight occurred on Soyuz 18a on April 5, 1975. The abort occurred after the launch escape system had been jettisoned, when the launch vehicle’s spent second stage failed to separate before the third stage ignited. The vehicle strayed off course, and the crew separated the spacecraft and fired its engines to pull it away from the errant rocket. Both cosmonauts landed safely.
In the only use of a launch escape system on a crewed flight, the planned Soyuz T-10a launch on September 26, 1983 was aborted by a launch vehicle fire 90 seconds before liftoff. Both cosmonauts aboard landed safely.
The only crew fatality during launch occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after liftoff, due to failure of a solid rocket booster seal which caused separation of the booster and failure of the external fuel tank, resulting in explosion of the fuel. All seven crew members were killed.
The single pilot of Soyuz 1, Vladimir Komarov was killed when his capsule’s parachutes failed during an emergency landing on April 24, 1967, causing the capsule to crash.
The crew of seven aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia were killed on reentry after completing a successful mission in space on February 1, 2003. A wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon heat shield had been damaged by a piece of frozen external tank foam insulation which broke off and struck the wing during launch. Hot reentry gasses entered and destroyed the wing structure, leading to breakup of the orbiter vehicle.
There are two basic choices for an artificial atmosphere: either an Earth-like mixture of oxygen in an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium, or pure oxygen, which can be used at lower than standard atmospheric pressure. A nitrogen-oxygen mixture is used in the International Space Station and Soyuz spacecraft, while low-pressure pure oxygen is commonly used in space suits for extravehicular activity.
Use of a gas mixture carries risk of decompression sickness (commonly known as “the bends”) when transitioning to or from the pure oxygen space suit environment. There have also been instances of injury and fatalities caused by suffocation in the presence of too much nitrogen and not enough oxygen.
A pure oxygen atmosphere carries risk of fire. The original design of the Apollo spacecraft used pure oxygen at greater than atmospheric pressure prior to launch. An electrical fire started in the cabin of Apollo 1 during a ground test at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 on January 27, 1967, and spread rapidly. The high pressure (increased even higher by the fire) prevented removal of the plug door hatch cover in time to rescue the crew. All three, Gus Grissom, Edward H. White, and Roger Chaffee, were killed. This led NASA to use a nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere before launch, and low pressure pure oxygen only in space.
The March 1966 Gemini 8 mission was aborted in orbit when an attitude control system thruster stuck in the on position, sending the craft into a dangerous spin which threatened the lives of Neil Armstrong and David Scott. Armstrong had to shut the control system off and use the reentry control system to stop the spin. The craft made an emergency reentry and the astronauts landed safely. The most probable cause was determined to be an electrical short due to a static electricity discharge, which caused the thruster to remain powered even when switched off. The control system was modified to put each thruster on its own isolated circuit.
The third lunar landing expedition Apollo 13 in April 1970, was aborted and the lives of the crew, James Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise, were threatened by failure of a cryogenic liquid oxygen tank en route to the Moon. The tank burst when electrical power was applied to internal stirring fans in the tank, causing the immediate loss of all of its contents, and also damaging the second tank, causing the loss of its remaining oxygen in a span of 130 minutes. This in turn caused loss of electrical power provided by fuel cells to the command spacecraft. The crew managed to return to Earth safely by using the lunar landing craft as a “life boat”. The tank failure was determined to be caused by two mistakes. The tank’s drain fitting had been damaged when it was dropped during factory testing. This necessitated use of its internal heaters to boil out the oxygen after a pre-launch test, which in turn damaged the fan wiring’s electrical insulation, because the thermostats on the heaters did not meet the required voltage rating due to a vendor miscommunication.
As of December 2015[update], 22 crew members have died in accidents aboard spacecraft. Over 100 others have died in accidents during activity directly related to spaceflight or testing.
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Posted: at 4:31 pm
Humanity is approaching an inevitable moment in our history when we will be able to create computer systems with greater-than-human intelligence, bio-engineer our species and re-design matter through nanotechnology. These future technologies will transform the course of civilization. THE SINGULARITY sidesteps the sci-fi cliches about robots versus humans, presenting an intellectually thrilling debate that begins with a basic question: What kind of humans do we want to become? Written by Anonymous
Originally posted here:
Posted: at 4:19 pm
Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria). The human mitochondrial genome is the entirety of hereditary information contained in human mitochondria. Mitochondria are small structures in cells that generate energy for the cell to use, and are hence referred to as the “powerhouses” of the cell.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is not transmitted through nuclear DNA (nDNA). In humans, as in most multicellular organisms, mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother’s ovum. There are theories, however, that paternal mtDNA transmission in humans can occur under certain circumstances.
Mitochondrial inheritance is therefore non-Mendelian, as Mendelian inheritance presumes that half the genetic material of a fertilized egg (zygote) derives from each parent.
Eighty percent of mitochondrial DNA codes for mitochondrial RNA, and therefore most mitochondrial DNA mutations lead to functional problems, which may be manifested as muscle disorders (myopathies).
Because they provide 30 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule in contrast to the 2 ATP molecules produced by glycolysis, mitochondria are essential to all higher organisms for sustaining life. The mitochondrial diseases are genetic disorders carried in mitochondrial DNA, or nuclear DNA coding for mitochondrial components. Slight problems with any one of the numerous enzymes used by the mitochondria can be devastating to the cell, and in turn, to the organism.
In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) forms closed circular molecules that contain 16,569, DNA base pairs, with each such molecule normally containing a full set of the mitochondrial genes. Each human mitochondrion contains, on average, approximately 5 such mtDNA molecules, with the quantity ranging between 1 and 15. Each human cell contains approximately 100 mitochondria, giving a total number of mtDNA molecules per human cell of approximately 500.
Because mitochondrial diseases (diseases due to malfunction of mitochondria) can be inherited both maternally and through chromosomal inheritance, the way in which they are passed on from generation to generation can vary greatly depending on the disease. Mitochondrial genetic mutations that occur in the nuclear DNA can occur in any of the chromosomes (depending on the species). Mutations inherited through the chromosomes can be autosomal dominant or recessive and can also be sex-linked dominant or recessive. Chromosomal inheritance follows normal Mendelian laws, despite the fact that the phenotype of the disease may be masked.
Because of the complex ways in which mitochondrial and nuclear DNA “communicate” and interact, even seemingly simple inheritance is hard to diagnose. A mutation in chromosomal DNA may change a protein that regulates (increases or decreases) the production of another certain protein in the mitochondria or the cytoplasm; this may lead to slight, if any, noticeable symptoms. On the other hand, some devastating mtDNA mutations are easy to diagnose because of their widespread damage to muscular, neural, and/or hepatic tissues (among other high-energy and metabolism-dependent tissues) and because they are present in the mother and all the offspring.
Mitochondrial genome mutations are passed on 100% of the time from mother to all her offspring. So, if a female has a mitochondrial trait, all offspring inherit it. However, if a male has a mitochondrial trait, no offspring inherit it. The number of affected mtDNA molecules inherited by a specific offspring can vary greatly because
It is possible, even in twin births, for one baby to receive more than half mutant mtDNA molecules while the other twin may receive only a tiny fraction of mutant mtDNA molecules with respect to wildtype (depending on how the twins divide from each other and how many mutant mitochondria happen to be on each side of the division). In a few cases, some mitochondria or a mitochondrion from the sperm cell enters the oocyte but paternal mitochondria are actively decomposed.
Genes in the human mitochondrial genome are as follows.
It was originally incorrectly believed that the mitochondrial genome contained only 13 protein-coding genes, all of them encoding proteins of the electron transport chain. However, in 2001, a 14th biologically active protein called humanin was discovered, and was found to be encoded by the mitochondrial gene MT-RNR2 which also encodes part of the mitochondrial ribosome (made out of RNA):
Unlike the other proteins, humanin does not remain in the mitochondria, and interacts with the rest of the cell and cellular receptors. Humanin can protect brain cells by inhibiting apoptosis. Despite its name, versions of humanin also exist in other animals, such as rattin in rats.
Mitochondrial rRNA is encoded by MT-RNR1 (12S) and MT-RNR2 (16S).
The following genes encode tRNA:
In humans, the light strand of mtDNA carries 28 genes and the heavy strand of mtDNA carries only 9 genes. Eight of the 9 genes on the heavy strand code for mitochondrial tRNA molecules. Human mtDNA consists of 16,569 nucleotide pairs. The entire molecule is regulated by only one regulatory region which contains the origins of replication of both heavy and light strands. The entire human mitochondrial DNA molecule has been mapped.
The genetic code is, for the most part, universal, with few exceptions: mitochondrial genetics includes some of these. For most organisms the “stop codons” are “UAA”, “UAG”, and “UGA”. In vertebrate mitochondria “AGA” and “AGG” are also stop codons, but not “UGA”, which codes for tryptophan instead. “AUA” codes for isoleucine in most organisms but for methionine in vertebrate mitochondrial mRNA.
There are many other variations among the codes used by other mitochondrial m/tRNA, which happened not to be harmful to their organisms, and which can be used as a tool (along with other mutations among the mtDNA/RNA of different species) to determine relative proximity of common ancestry of related species. (The more related two species are, the more mtDNA/RNA mutations will be the same in their mitochondrial genome).
Using these techniques, it is estimated that the first mitochondria arose around 1.5 billion years ago. A generally accepted hypothesis is that mitochondria originated as an aerobic prokaryote in a symbiotic relationship within an anaerobic eukaryote.
Mitochondrial replication is controlled by nuclear genes and is specifically suited to make as many mitochondria as that particular cell needs at the time.
Mitochondrial transcription in Human is initiated from three promoters, H1, H2, and L (heavy strand 1, heavy strand 2, and light strand promoters). The H2 promoter transcribes almost the entire heavy strand and the L promoter transcribes the entire light strand. The H1 promoter causes the transcription of the two mitochondrial rRNA molecules.
When transcription takes place on the heavy strand a polycistronic transcript is created. The light strand produces either small transcripts, which can be used as primers, or one long transcript. The production of primers occurs by processing of light strand transcripts with the Mitochondrial RNase MRP (Mitochondrial RNA Processing). The requirement of transcription to produce primers links the process of transcription to mtDNA replication. Full length transcripts are cut into functional tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA molecules.
The process of transcription initiation in mitochondria involves three types of proteins: the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 (TFB1M, TFB2M). POLRMT, TFAM, and TFB1M or TFB2M assemble at the mitochondrial promoters and begin transcription. The actual molecular events that are involved in initiation are unknown, but these factors make up the basal transcription machinery and have been shown to function in vitro.
Mitochondrial translation is still not very well understood. In vitro translations have still not been successful, probably due to the difficulty of isolating sufficient mt mRNA, functional mt rRNA, and possibly because of the complicated changes that the mRNA undergoes before it is translated.
The Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase (Pol gamma, encoded by the POLG gene) is used in the copying of mtDNA during replication. Because the two (heavy and light) strands on the circular mtDNA molecule have different origins of replication, it replicates in a D-loop mode. One strand begins to replicate first, displacing the other strand. This continues until replication reaches the origin of replication on the other strand, at which point the other strand begins replicating in the opposite direction. This results in two new mtDNA molecules. Each mitochondrion has several copies of the mtDNA molecule and the number of mtDNA molecules is a limiting factor in mitochondrial fission. After the mitochondrion has enough mtDNA, membrane area, and membrane proteins, it can undergo fission (very similar to that which bacteria use) to become two mitochondria. Evidence suggests that mitochondria can also undergo fusion and exchange (in a form of crossover) genetic material among each other. Mitochondria sometimes form large matrices in which fusion, fission, and protein exchanges are constantly occurring. mtDNA shared among mitochondria (despite the fact that they can undergo fusion).
Mitochondrial DNA is susceptible to damage from free oxygen radicals from mistakes that occur during the production of ATP through the electron transport chain. These mistakes can be caused by genetic disorders, cancer, and temperature variations. These radicals can damage mtDNA molecules or change them, making it hard for mitochondrial polymerase to replicate them. Both cases can lead to deletions, rearrangements, and other mutations. Recent evidence has suggested that mitochondria have enzymes that proofread mtDNA and fix mutations that may occur due to free radicals. It is believed that a DNA recombinase found in mammalian cells is also involved in a repairing recombination process. Deletions and mutations due to free radicals have been associated with the aging process. It is believed that radicals cause mutations which lead to mutant proteins, which in turn led to more radicals. This process takes many years and is associated with some aging processes involved in oxygen-dependent tissues such as brain, heart, muscle, and kidney. Auto-enhancing processes such as these are possible causes of degenerative diseases including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and coronary artery disease.
Because mitochondrial growth and fission are mediated by the nuclear DNA, mutations in nuclear DNA can have a wide array of effects on mtDNA replication. Despite the fact that the loci for some of these mutations have been found on human chromosomes, specific genes and proteins involved have not yet been isolated. Mitochondria need a certain protein to undergo fission. If this protein (generated by the nucleus) is not present, the mitochondria grow but they do not divide. This leads to giant, inefficient mitochondria. Mistakes in chromosomal genes or their products can also affect mitochondrial replication more directly by inhibiting mitochondrial polymerase and can even cause mutations in the mtDNA directly and indirectly. Indirect mutations are most often caused by radicals created by defective proteins made from nuclear DNA.
In total, the mitochondrion hosts about 3000 different types of proteins, but only about 13 of them are coded on the mitochondrial DNA. Most of the 3000 types of proteins are involved in a variety of processes other than ATP production, such as porphyrin synthesis. Only about 3% of them code for ATP production proteins. This means most of the genetic information coding for the protein makeup of mitochondria is in chromosomal DNA and is involved in processes other than ATP synthesis. This increases the chances that a mutation that will affect a mitochondrion will occur in chromosomal DNA, which is inherited in a Mendelian pattern. Another result is that a chromosomal mutation will affect a specific tissue due to its specific needs, whether those may be high energy requirements or a need for the catabolism or anabolism of a specific neurotransmitter or nucleic acid. Because several copies of the mitochondrial genome are carried by each mitochondrion (2-10 in humans), mitochondrial mutations can be inherited maternally by mtDNA mutations which are present in mitochondria inside the oocyte before fertilization, or (as stated above) through mutations in the chromosomes.
Mitochondrial diseases range in severity from asymptomatic to fatal, and are most commonly due to inherited rather than acquired mutations of mitochondrial DNA. A given mitochondrial mutation can cause various diseases depending on the severity of the problem in the mitochondria and the tissue the affected mitochondria are in. Conversely, several different mutations may present themselves as the same disease. This almost patient-specific characterization of mitochondrial diseases (see Personalized medicine) makes them very hard to accurately recognize, diagnose and trace. Some diseases are observable at or even before birth (many causing death) while others do not show themselves until late adulthood (late-onset disorders). This is because the number of mutant versus wildtype mitochondria varies between cells and tissues, and is continuously changing. Because cells have multiple mitochondria, different mitochondria in the same cell can have different variations of the mtDNA. This condition is referred to as heteroplasmy. When a certain tissue reaches a certain ratio of mutant versus wildtype mitochondria, a disease will present itself. The ratio varies from person to person and tissue to tissue (depending on its specific energy, oxygen, and metabolism requirements, and the effects of the specific mutation). Mitochondrial diseases are very numerous and different. Apart from diseases caused by abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA, many diseases are suspected to be associated in part by mitochondrial dysfunctions, such as diabetes mellitus, forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease, lactic acidosis, specific forms of myopathy, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinsons’s disease, stroke, male infertility and which are also believed to play a role in the aging process.
Human mtDNA can also be used to help identify individuals. Forensic laboratories occasionally use mtDNA comparison to identify human remains, and especially to identify older unidentified skeletal remains. Although unlike nuclear DNA, mtDNA is not specific to one individual, it can be used in combination with other evidence (anthropological evidence, circumstantial evidence, and the like) to establish identification. mtDNA is also used to exclude possible matches between missing persons and unidentified remains. Many researchers believe that mtDNA is better suited to identification of older skeletal remains than nuclear DNA because the greater number of copies of mtDNA per cell increases the chance of obtaining a useful sample, and because a match with a living relative is possible even if numerous maternal generations separate the two. American outlaw Jesse James’s remains were identified using a comparison between mtDNA extracted from his remains and the mtDNA of the son of the female-line great-granddaughter of his sister. Similarly, the remains of Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), last Empress of Russia, and her children were identified by comparison of their mitochondrial DNA with that of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, whose maternal grandmother was Alexandra’s sister Victoria of Hesse. Similarly to identify Emperor Nicholas II remains his mitochondrial DNA was compared with that of James Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife, whose maternal great-grandmother Alexandra of Denmark (Queen Alexandra) was sister of Nicholas II mother Dagmar of Denmark (Empress Maria Feodorovna).
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Human mitochondrial genetics – Wikipedia, the free …
Posted: August 23, 2016 at 9:17 am
To see pictures from each of the races listed below – Click HERE
7,000+ crazy runners (Geezer Doug proudly included, of course!)
Article and photos by columnist David Whiting: OC Register ___________________ Doug has enjoyed running Big Baz’s Winter Trail Run Series since 1998! 15 years worth! http://www.BigBazTrailRaces.com
“Sportsman of the Year”
Check out the “DOUGumentary” QuickTime Movie Trailer at: http://www.3launch.com
Gore-Tex TRANSROCKIES http://www.Transrockies.com (Doug’s Facebook page has 100’s of photos from TransRockies) The 2012 TransRockies 6 day endurance race covered a total of 125 miles of trails between 8,000′ and 12,538′ elevations and had 21,000′ of total ascents!
Team California Old Goats Doug (age 73) and ultra running legend Gordy Ainsleigh (age 64) – also ran the2011 six day TransRockies endurance trail race together.
2012 was Doug’s 5th year in a row running the 6 day TransRockies race. Gordy & Dous are already signed up for the 2014 TransRockies! Doug’s 6th year.
August 14, 2012 Team California Old Goats Gordy & Doug at the top of HOPE PASS – 12,538′ elevation.
Hah! 6 pack abs compliments of PHOTOSHOP & Mark Kelly, PhD.
March 2013: I hit 74 on March 28, 2012. To celebrate my 74th birthdayI ran a bit more than 74 miles of my favorite trails in 4 days (74.13 miles according to my Garmin GPS).
I also did 70@70 in 3 days w/19,000′ of climbs four years ago; 71@71 in 6 days; 72@72 in 5 days & 73@73 in 4 days
Doug & Yoda birthday present w/grand daughter Sierra & daughter Michelle (Do or do NOT.. There is no TRY!)
SkyTran – Personal MagLev Transportation
Malewicki has been an invited keynote speaker on SkyTran and our new Wind Turbine retrofit business (based on our SkyTran technology and patents) to Dubai (April 2010 with Dr. Greg Smedley CEO/founder of One-Cycle-Control, Inc.) and to Macau, China (July 2011). Details on these and several local presentations in California HERE
The photo on the left is Doug pointing to the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the world’s tallest building at 2,716.5′. That is just over 1/2 mile up! http://www.burjkhalifa.ae
In Macau & Beijing, China
The interview is mostly about my SkyTran invention, but also talks about the advanced Wind Turbine work we are doing and even the low cost electric first stage boosters for Micro-satellite launches. Some of that was discussed in the IEEE paper that you can read below.
My SkyTran invention was featured on the cover of he July 2008 issue of Popular Science (or their artist’s version of what THEY think our pods should look like). “GREEN MEGALOPOLIS – An eco-savvy blueprint for tomorrow’s megacity points the way to fresh air, clean water and traffic that never jams.”
Starting on page 49, five more pages have our MagLev SkyTran in the future city art done by a second artist. Includes a nice paragraph that mentions our company UniModal LLC. Love their online animation at: http://www.popsci.com/futurecity/plan.html (SkyTran is the 4th- click on their FLASH animation).
Check out: http://www.SkyTran.us
The key to this solid state, personalized MagLev systems capacity performance falls out of math and physics analysis. SkyTran will greatly reduce energy used in the transportation of people; eliminate the pollution associated with commuting; greatly enhance safety of personal travel and reduce travel costs.
The California Commuter – 157 MPG at freeway speeds
The California Commuter PLANS & TECHNICAL BOOKLET are also available as electronical PDF’s. (Faster, cheaper & ZERO shipping costs!)
The improved eCC will have 25% less aerodynamic drag and will obtain 400 MPGe at a steady 65 MPH.
IMAGINE a penny per mile!
Robosaurus – the FIRE BREATHING monster robot
ROBOSAURUS THE FIRE BREATHING, CAR EATING, ELECTROHYDROMECHANICAL, 40 foot tall, 58,000 pound, TRANSFORMING MONSTER ENTERTAINMENT ROBOT. GOING ONCE… GOING TWICE… GONE! On January 19, 2008 after 18 years of operation, Robosaurus was sold at the famed Barrett-Jackson Auction in Scottsdale, Arizona . MORE Two of Dougs USA Patents are for his Robosaurus invention. He founded Monster Robots, Inc. and was involved in finding all investors and product sponsors. Doug did all the structural design and engineering (loads determinations, weights and stress analysis). Along with all the electronic, hydraulic and control system packaging and functional testing. The creature, which was built in 1.5 years, has been doing shows since 1990. The most recent NDT (non-destructive-testing) inspection of all welded joints was performed at 250,000 miles and showed no weld fatigue degradation.
One man sitting up in the creatures cranium controls Robosaurus. Doug had to develop an innovative wearable control system to enable a single pilot to simultaneously control 18 proportional hydraulic motions. Each hydraulic valve is controlled by a P-Q Controls Inc. of Bristol, Connecticut computer valve board that converts the simple on-off electrical switch signals given by the pilot in the head into proper proportional fluid flow rates to the various hydraulic cylinders and pumps.
Much of the Robosaurus structural design involved tradeoffs to enable transformation to a legal trailer for hauling the 58,000-pound, fire breathing, beast from show to show. Robosaurus meets highway size and weight requirements for all 50 States.
FLYING and DARPA FLYING MACHINES
UMAAVs (Unmanned Morphing Aerial Attack Vehicles)a conceptual development contract for DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency).
Rather than just doing a extensive theoretical aerodynamic and structural analysis for his innovative designs,Doug’s company AeroVisions, Inc. built and flew Radio Control modelsto demonstrate his various morphing concepts.
July 2005, Doug was the plenary speaker for the DARPA Morphing Aircraft Structures Conference in San Diego.After sensing & confirming the bad guys, morphing UAVs of the future will be able to transform and divedownat Mach 0.9 and pull 5 g maneuvers to take out targets. Will save calling in the F-16 jet jocks and waiting 20 minutes for them to arrive. A computer generated movie of a typical mission of Dougs favorite proposed UMAAV, aptly named THE DROID OF DEATH, can be seen at the above UMAAV link.
DAREDEVIL Engineering Projects
NOTICE: April 18, 2014 AeroVisions, LLC and the Big Ed (Beckley Media LLC) have mutually terminated the relationship to build a rocket powered motorcycle system for Big Ed to jump the Snake River Canyon. We are no longer involved in engineering or developing his jump bike system. There were numerous reasons we could not participate:
1) AeroVisions negotiating with Beckley Media’s attorney for months without reaching a fair agreement.
2) AeroVisions agreed to warrantee the jump bike & jump system. Beckley wanted us to warrant the rider as well.
3) In April, Beckley insisted on changing the engineering funding source to a new 3rd party. Negotiating with that party’s attorney would have just added more delay.
4) AeroVisions constantly expressed urgency to start engineering, since time was rapidly evaporating to complete the project with confidence by September 7, 2014. We needed adequate time to design, engineer, fabricate and fully test all systems plus train the pilot to establish a high level of confidence to insure a 99.5% probability of success for the rider. Rushing and only achieving 70% probability of success by starting at this late date to us was unacceptable.
5) Extending the jump date to July 4th, 2015 was also unacceptable to Beckley Media.
6) The AeroVisions proposed jump bike would be a genuine drivable motorcycle that could “jump” over 1/2 mile in distance and land on its wheels on the other side. It would NOT be a non-road worthy, non-motorcycle, rocket powered missile that would slide up a launch rail like a child’s model rocket toy.
All we can say is best of luck to Big Ed in “gettin’ er done” safely this September.
Rest in Peace Oct 17,1938 – Nov 30, 2007.
Doug Malewicki was the designer and engineer of Evel Knievel’s steam rocket powered SkyCycle X-1 canyon jumping motorcycle. Doug is shown here shaking hands with Evel at the machine’s unveiling at the Twin Falls, Idaho Snake River canyon jump site on May 6, 1972. On the left is rocket pioneer, Robert Truax who invented and holds the patents on Steam Rocket engines. Wearing sunglasses is Facundo Campoy, one of Truax’s partners.
Niagara Falls Aerospace Museum Rocket Belt Conference PHOTOS Click HERE to see the online PBS interviews & flight videos from the conference
NUCLEAR WAR – Doug’s 1965 Game Invention
As time passed, the weapons used in the basic game became obsolete, so expansion sets with newer futuristic weapons were created:
1965 – The original Nuclear War 1982 – Nuclear Escalation 1992 Nuclear Proliferation 1996 Nuclear War Booster Packs 2004 Weapons of Mass Destruction (YES – that is THE DROID OF DEATH on the cover of the newest game!)
Doug and his original Nuclear War game were inducted into the Adventure Game Hall of Fame in 1998. 2015 will be the 50th Anniversary of Nuclear War! F. B. I. will celebrate with a NEW SPECIAL EDITION!
Droid phone screen shot Still ticking after 48 years! The RadioAPPtive Fallout Spinner is now available in the DROID & iPhone marketplaces. (SEARCH: Nuclear War Spinner)
You use the touch screen to swipe the arrow to get it moving. As it spins, it makes Geiger Counter ticking sounds. When it stops you will hear the results. Hilarious voiceover comments in an over-the-top Russkie accent by actress Claudia Christian, well known for her TV character – Commander Ivanova of the SciFi hit series Babylon 5. [Special thanks to Rick Roszko, Rick Loomis & Steve Johnson]
“LOST WORLDS” COMBAT FANTASY BOOKS
Michelle has taken up trail running like her dad & has evolved into a top ranked ultra distance speedster. Over the years Michelle set numerous female course records for 50K and 50 mile race distances – including six as overall winner where she “chicked” all the men!
She won first female & fourth overall at the Javelina Jundred 100 mile trail race in Arizona in a 19:42 time. She was 4 hours ahead of the second place female! Pictures
ORDER PAGE Hard to find Rocket Books on 90% Hydrogen Peroxide, Steam and Solid Propellant rocket systems; California Commuter Car plans; Air Car plans; Nuclear War games/T-Shirts! We take PayPal payments for USA & foreign orders. PayPal processes most credit cards too.
Click HERE to see MORE pictures of Doug Malewicki’s other inventions and read his free TIPS for new inventors.
Doug’s favorite quotes (besides Yoda!)
“Life is what you make it; always has been; always will be.” — Grandma Moses
See more here:
Doug Malewicki’s patented inventions and engineering …
Posted: August 21, 2016 at 11:16 am
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Creative living project Creative Sanctuary and Freedom Farm Creekside Commons Cohousing Creekside Community Crossroads Medieval Village Crow Moon Crystal Creek Permaculture Cluster Crystal Waters Permaculture Village Cully Grove Culture Unplugged Currawinya Currently unnamed Currents Curtis Pike Intentional Community cw Het Hallehuis CW Lismortel Cypress VIllages D Acres of New Hampshire D&C 59:14-21 Dacha Project Dallas Cohousing Dalzell South Carolina Catholic Worker Damanhur, Federation of Communities Dancing Bones Dancing Creek Farm Dancing Hearts Community Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage Dancing Spirits Community House Dancing Waters Permaculture Co-op Dandelion Dandelion Village Daniel Brady Danu Healing Community, Farm and Nature School Dark Stone Bromelias Practice Center Davis Domes Daybreak Cohousing Debs House Dedetepe eco-farm Deepwoods Farm community Dehnaten Holistic Community Delaware Street Commons Delhi Village Denton Cohousing Denver Space Center Desert Light Circle Desert Moon Spiritual Center Desert Surprise House Desert Willow Detroit Street Family Co-op Dharma Digger Street dimensional living Discipleship Community House of Tallahassee Diverse Matrix Community Dome Village Katrina Dominican Crossroads Dos Pinos Dos Tortugas Ecuador Douceur et Harmonie: Domain Maman Terre Down Home Ranch Down-to-Earth Eco-Village Downeast Cohousing Community Doyle Street Dragon Belly Farm Dragon Sky Farms Vegan Community Dream School Dream River Ranch, LLC Dreamland Co-Living Dreamship Community Drexel House Dripping Springs Organic Ranch Drumlin Co-operative Dudley Co-op Dunmire Hollow Community Durham Central Park Cohousing Community Durika Foundation Dusun Medinah Duwamish Cohousing Duma E.A.R.T.H-(Extending Awareness, Reaching To Heal) Connecticut Eagles Nest Eagletree Herbs Earnshaw Ecohouse Earth Angeles garden Earth EcoVillage Earth Energies Eco Village Earth Friends Intentional Community Earth Mountain View Earth Mountain View Educationnal Research Center Earth Re-Leaf Earth Rising Sanctuary Earth Tribe Earth Tribe Delaware Earth Tribe Trust Learning Center EarthArt Village Earthaven Ecovillage EarthChild Collective Earthdance Earthlands EARTHSHIP UK INTENTIONAL LIVING EarthSky tribe Earthsong Eco-Neighbourhood Earthwalk Sustainable Living Centre Earthwise Valley Earthworks Eco Village Earthworm Collective Earthworm Housing Co-operative EARTHYACHT East Bay Cohousing East Blair Housing Co-op East Brook Community Farm East River Community East Wind East-of-Eden Eastern Light Project Eastern Village Cohousing Eastside Cohousing Echo Hills Cottages Eco Acres Eco Chateau Eco communitylk Eco Island Eco Velatropa ECO VILLAGE INTENTIONAL COMMUNITY Eco Yoga Farm Eco Yoga Park eco-Farm Elata Eco-Tribe Eco-village Moldova ecoaldea espiral de luz ecoaldea espiral de luz -1- Ecoaldea Gratitud Ecoaldea Huehuecoyotl Ecocentro de Transicin Semilla Paz Ecoculture Village ecofarmfl EcoJoya EcoLetu EcoReality Co-op EcoTerra Community Ecotopia/Ithaca Ecovila Clareando Ecovila da Montanha Ecovila perto de Serra Grande Ecovilla Gaia Ecovillage AR EcoVillage at Ithaca, TREE, the third neighborhood Ecovillage Charlottesville EcoVillage Dungeness Valley EcoVillage Ithaca Ecovillage Kostunici Ecovillage Network UK Ecovillage New Jersey EcoVillage of Loudoun County ECOVILLAGE VIVER SIMPLES Ed’s house Eden Community Eden Sanctuary EdenWild Edgehill 12 Edges Edinstvo ecovillage Egge 7 Eight Limbs Housing Cooperative Eighteenth Ave Peace House Ekobius Ecovillage (Ecology Crossroads) Ekobyn Blarna El Bloque El Santuario Altavista Elamala Elbereth Elder Commons Elderberry Village Elders On The Watchtower ElderSpirit Community at Trailview Elemental Eden Elemental Kindom Eliopoli Ella Baker Graduate House Ella Jo Baker Intentional Community Cooperative, Inc. Elm Creek Trails Elm Street Co-op Eloin Elsworth-Bowie Cooperative Emerald City Emerald Earth Sanctuary Emerald Grove Intentional Community Emergency Communities Emerson Commons Cohousing Emerson Tenants Cooperative Emma Goldman Finishing School Emmaus Haarzuilens Emmaus House ENARGEIA Enchanted Garden Intentional Community Endless Enigma Farm Energy Of Life Institute Enlinca Eno Commons Enright Ridge Urban Eco-village Esperanza de Sol de Finca Amanecer Essense of Eden – The Eden Project Etherion Ringing Cedars Intentional Community Eugene Cohousing Downtown Eureka Institute Evening Rain Farm Event Farm EVO: The Emerald Village in Vista, CA EX TRANSSEXUAL seeks Jesus followers for Martinsburg WV Ex-Hacienda La Petaca Explore, Thrive, Create Expressive Arts Alliance Faerie Camp Destiny Fairview House Faith House Ottawa Falconblanco Falls Church Cohousing Familia Feliz (ESP1) Familia Feliz (GER1) Family Family Farm Hostel Family Focused Sustainable Homestead Community Family Of Light Center Farmer Paul’s Ranch Farming in Willamette Valley region Farmpound farmvilleinreallife Faslane Peace Camp Father Divine’s Peace Mission Movement Fedorovtsy Feralculture Ferency House Ferme Paysanne RDF Fern Hollow Ecovillage Fernwood Urban Village Cohousing Festina Lente FIASCO Fiji Organic Village Finca Fruicin: Permaculture Land Cooperative Finca Las Brisas Costa Rica Finca Morpho Finca Nuevo Mundo Verde Finca Quijote de Esperanza Finca Sagrada Finca Sukkot Findhorn Foundation and Community Finney Farm Fiopa Community/Fiopa Consensus Collective Fiori Hill FIREWEED UNIVERSE CITY Five Sixty House Flagstaff Creative Cohousing Flatlanders Drydock Flatlanders Inn Fletcher Collective Flexico Florida Coast Integral Community Flower City Cohousing Community Flower Mound Senior Cohousing Floyd EcoVillage Folk Art Guild / East Hill Farm Followers of the Way Footbridge For the Creation of Intentional Communities Foreningen EKBO Forgebank Forgotten Formally Ant Hill Collective, Now wild seed collective Forming, need founders Fort Awesome fortunity FOSL – The Foundation of Sustainable Living found in montana FOUNDATION Foundational Living Colony of New Eden Fowler Mobile Home Park Fox Valley Sustainable Co-housing Franklinton Homestead Free Greens Farm Free Spirits Community Freedom Acres Freedom Farm Freedom South Texas Freedom-Universe Freedom72938 Freelandia! A Home of Sacred Spaces and Abundant Living Freethinkers Ecovillage Fresh Start Fresno Cohousing (a.k.a. La Querencia) Friendly Glen Cohousing FRIENDS SOUTHWEST CENTER Friends’ Cooperative House Frog Song Front Range Eco Town Frugal Living NYC Full Creeks Collective Fundacion Amalai Flleshave Gabriel’s Garden Gagetown Sustainability Complex Gaia Grove Ecovillage Gaia Shifts Gaia Vista Gaia’s Garden Gaian Progeny Villages GaiaYoga Gardens (of Earthly Delights) Gainesville Cohousing Gambhira Eco Yoga Village Ganas Garland Ave Cohousing Gathering Inn Community Gay Hawaii Lalala Gay Men’s Rural Community Gay Wisconsin Gecko Villa Gemeenschappelijk Wonen Nieuwegein Gemeinschaft Sulzbrunn Gemeinschaft Tortuga Genesee Gardens Cohousing Genisis Villiage Gentle World Inc. Germantown Commons Gerrie’s Glorious Greens Organic farm/The Worm factory Gesundheit! Institute GH Community Girlhouse Glacier Village Gladheart Farm Glen Ard Glenora Farm Global Community Communications Alliance Global Village of Bagni di Lucca Global-Natives at Mt. SoNNoS (Spirit of Nature) GlowHouse God’s last church Godsland Goin’ Om Gold Light Ranch Golden Eagle Friends Golden Girls on The Hill Golden Heart Village Golden Nectar Farm Goldenrod Land Co-op Golem Housing Co-operative Gondwana Sanctuary Good Roots Intentional Community Goodenough Community Goolawah Rural Land Sharing Co-op Goose Pond Community Gorge Cohousing Gorham Cohousing Govardhan Ecovillage Govinda’s Sanctuary Grace Heart Fellowship Grace Life Community Grace Sustainable Community Grateful 4 Grace Great Oak Cohousing Greater World Community Green Acres Green Acres Permaculture Village Green Bridge Farm Green Earth City – Pilot Project Green Grove Cohousing Community Green House Green House Cooperative Green Menagerie Green Quill Farm Green Street Urban Farm Health and Spiritual Homestead Green Valley Village Greenbriar greenhaus Greening Life Community GreenLife EcoRetreat Greenmount eco-co-housing GreenSong Sanctuary Greensoul Greenwave Gregory House Greyrock Commons Gricklegrass GRO-Rainbow-Community Grow Community Growing Home Gulf Islands Eco-Community Forming Gut Stolzenhagen Guwahi Eco Village GYMNOS – A neo-primitive tribe forming Gypsy Heart H.E.R. Co-operative Tribal Living Hacienda Guaraguao Hairakhandi Love Center Hakugyokoru Halcyon Commons Cooperative Urban Neighborhood Haley House HamakuaHarvest hammer house artist’s collective Handy Booboo Hanoar Haoved Vehalomed – Tnuat Habogrim (Adult movement) Happy Acres Happy Camp Republic Happy House Harambee Cooperative Harbin Hot Springs Harbourside Cohousing Harmonious Earth Community Foundation harmony & health Harmony Commune Harmony Farm Harmony Green Village Harmony Lakes Cohousing Harmony Living Harmony Village Harper Valley Farm Harrisonburg Cohousing Harrow Ashram Hart’s Mill Ecovillage Hartford IC Hayes Co-Housing Hazelwood Farm Community Headlands Headwaters Garden & Learning Center HEAL Heal The Soil Healing Castle Healing Earth New Amish Healing Grace Sanctuary Healing Hearts Sufi Dargah Healing Rain Health in Hawaii / Kolapa House of Charity Heart and Spoon Community House Heart House Medicine Heart Land Heart-Culture Farm Community HeARTbeat Collective Heartbeet Lifesharing Hearth Hearthstone Heartland Heartland Ecovillage Heartsong HeartTribe Village & Chrysalis Heartwood Cohousing Heartwood Community Incorporated Te Ngakau O Te Rakau Heartwood Institute Heartwood Refuge Heathcote Community. HeavenOnEarth Hebrews West Hedonisia Hawaii Sustainable Community Heinzist Tribe Hemp Nation Hen House Sangha Henderson Cooperative House Hermitage Foundation Hertha Hesed Community Cooperative Het Carre Hickory Grove Hickory Nut Forest Hickory Ridge Hidden Creek Cohousing Hidden Grove Hidden Meadow High Cove High Desert Coho High-Desert Permaculture Research Institute Higher Ground Cohousing Highland Goddess Temple and Commune Highline Crossing Cohousing Community HighTop Village Hikki Hermitage Hillegass House Hilo Cohousing Himalayan Institute Hip Mama’s In-town Village Hippie Arbor Hippie for Life HM157 HMS Possibility Hobbitstee (De) Hockerton Housing Project Hoffman Collective Hollow’s End Neighborhood Cooperative Holy Angels Monastery Home Alive Home for art Homeland Homeport Collective, The Homestead Sanctuary homestead point permiculture Homewood Cohousing Honey Acres Farm Honeyeaters Honolulu Housing Hui Honua Oia’i’o Kauai Hopewell Community House of Yacob Houston Access to Urban Sustainability HUB Hamt-Drbrn Humanity Healing Humble House Hummingbird Community Hundredfold Farm Cohousing Community Huntington Open Women’s Land (HOWL) Hygieia Homestead Hypatia Cooperative House I Street Co-op I-City Ian Southwest IC-Neo ICC Austin IDA IDEAAS Ranch IDEAL SOCIETY, Institute for the Development in Education, Arts and Leisure Immaculate Conception Benedictine Priory In La Kesh In Lak’ech Village InanItah Indiana Cohousing Indiana Self-Sufficiency Indigene Community Indigo (Big Island of Hawaii) Industrial Revolution Infintel – The Glenville Center for Conscious Evolution INGENIUM Expressive Arts Village Inner Peace & Prosperity – Creative Community Innisfree Village Intentional Communities Desk (ICD) Intentional Community House in West Louisville Intentional Faith Community Houses Intentional Living NYC intentional permaculture community Inter-Cooperative Council (ICC-Michigan) International Cooperative House (ICH) Into the Amazon Jungle Intown Neighborhood Place Intuitive and Intentional Living Iowa City Cohousing/Prairie Hill Ipsalu House Iron Mountain Ishmael Acres Island Cohousing Isle of Erraid It’s Really You – IzReaL.eu Ithaka Ittoen Iya for LandCulture and Resistance iYi TANGRA Alternative Community Jackson Place Cohousing Jamaica Plain Cohousing James Russell House Jasper Hall JehushuaCommune Jesus Christ’s Community at Hebron Jesus Christians Jesus People USA (JPUSA) Jesus’ Lakeside Retreat Jewel Creek Organic Farm & Ecovillage Jewel of the Sun (La Joya del Sol) Jewish Intentional Community Jindibah Intentional Community Jourdan Valley Joy of the Lord Covenant Community Worldwide,Inc Joy Town Farm Joyful Lifestyle JP Custom Living Jubilee Cohousing Julian Woods Community Jump Off Community Land Trust Juniper Hill Farm Jupiter Hollow Kailash Ecovillage Kakwa Ecovillage Cooperative Kalani Oceanside Retreat Kalikalos Kana-Gemeinschaft Kanatsiohareke (Ga na jo ha lay gay) Kanjini Co-Op Kapievi Karmily Haven & Farm Kashi Ashram Kasteel Nieuwenhoven Katywil Farm Community KaWay Monti NGO Kent Cooperative Housing Kentucky Tiny House Builder Community Kerala Commune Keveral Farm Keystone Ecological Urban Center Khakalaki Farm Ki bhavana Buddhism Kibbutz “Shoshana” (Rose) Kibbutz Kahila Buhyahad Kibbutz Ketura Kibbutz Migvan Kibbutz Mishol Kibbutz Tamuz Kibeti Ecovillage Kids Gardening Eden Kimbercote Farm Kin’s Domain Ringing Cedar Project Kindred Spirits King House Kingdom of Bahoudii Kingfisher Cohousing on Brookdale Kingman Hall Kingston House Kins Oases Foundation Kintore Farm Knotty Forest Kohatu Toa Eco-Village Koinonia Farm koLeA – Klosterdorf Komaja Kommune Niederkaufungen Kommunity Kondoria Kommunitt Beuggen Konohana Family Kookaburra Park Eco-Village Koots Ecovillage Kopali Communities Koro Island Community Kotare Village Kristian David School Kulana Goddess Sanctuary Kumah South Florida! Kwei Yagola L’Arche Australia L’Arche Canada L’Ecovillage du Prigord L’Inuksuk L’isola La Bergerie La Casa Querencia La Cit cologique de Ham-Nord La Ecovilla La Florida La Grande Cense Cohousing La Madera Community La Paz Eco Village La Poudrire La Rocca La’akea Community La’akea Permaculture Community Lafayette Morehouse Lah Lah Land Lake Claire Cohousing Lake Ellen Community Lake View Community Lake Village Homestead Farm Lama Foundation Lammas Lanark Ecovillage Land Lifeways Farm Land of Dawes Land Share BC Landelijke Vereniging Centraal Wonen Landsby Initiativ Lane County Catholic Worker Larimer Cohousing Community las Indias Laughing Dog Farm/CSA Laurel Nest Laurieston Hall Housing Co-operative Ltd. Lawrence Road House of Hospitality Laytonville Ecovillage LE CASE Ecovillage Le Manoir LEAPNOW: Transforming Education Lebensgarten Steyerberg Lebenshaus Schwbische Lebensraum Lee Abbey Aston Household Community Lemuria Center Lemurian Embassy Eco Village Retreat Lester House Lethbridge Sustainable Living Association Lettuce Bee Farm Leyton co-housing Libertalia Libertarian Village Liberties Liberty Village Cohousing Lichen Life Center Association Life community Noah’s Ark Life Works – A Home for Men who want to belong and have fun doing it. Lifeseed LifeWay Covenant Community Light Light of Freedom, Inc. Lily Plain Green Linder House Lindsbergs Kursgrd Listening Tree Cooperative Lisu Lodge Hill Tribe Adventure Little Flower Community Little River Tenancy in Common Little White Pines Live the Dream : Penfield House Living Earth Village Living Energy Farm Living Miracles Worldwide Living Presence Living Roots Ecovillage Living Spaces Living Well Community LivingStone Monastery Loaves and Fishes Community Loblolly Greenway Cohousing (LGC) Logan Square Cooperative Lolia Place Ecovillage Lomah Ecovillage London Community Lonesome Coconut Ranch Long Branch Environmental Education Center Long Haul Long Ridge Lane Los Angeles Eco-Village Los Portales Los Visionarios Lost Pine Earth Builders and Educational Center Lost Valley Education Center Lothlorien Farm (Lothlorien Rural Co-op) Lothlrien Cooperative House Lotus House Lotus Lodge Lovare Homestead love and wisdom estates Loving Earth Sanctuary LUBINKA Luminaria Sanctuary Luquillo Farm Sanctuary Luther House Lydia’s House Lyons Valley Village Maa Land Co-op Machaseh Mackenzie Heights Collective Madison Community Cooperative (MCC) Madison Street House Madre Grande Monastery Madrigal Madrona Center Magic Maharishi Peace Palace Fairfield Iowa Maiden, Mother, Crone Collective Maison Emmanuel Centre ducatif Maitreya Mountain Village Maitri House Malu ‘Aina Mama Roja Mammoth Pools Mana Gardens Mandala Mannawood Community Land Trust Many Tribes – New Tribalists Australia Manzanita Village Map Map Map Map Map Map Map Map Map Map Maple Ridge Marin Cohousing Mariposa Grove Marsh Commons Masala Co-op Maxwelton Creek Cohousing May Creek Farm Mayfair village of Denver- mcusa Mobile Communities USA Me Lucky Farms Meade County Kentucky Meadow Sky Meadow Wood Cohousing Community Mechatigan Garden Medieval/Fantasy Village Melbourne Cohousing Network Mele Nahiku Men’s Cohousing MendoDragon Mens Vision House Mercy & Grace Community Meristem Cooperative Merri Cohousing Merry Springs Health & Wellness Messiah Ministries Small Christian Community Messianic Hebrew Nazarene Israelite Vision metasofa artists community Metro Cohousing at Culver Way Mexico Oasis Micah House Micah Village Micah’s House Miccosukee Land Co-op Michigan Ecovillage Michigan House Michigan Womyn’s Music Festival mid-Missouri Cohousing Adventure Middle Road Community, The Middlesex Senior Cohousing Initiative Milagro Bay Milagro Cohousing Millrace Cohousing Mills Community House Millstone Co-op Millworks Cohousing MIM’s Place of Community Cooperative-Indiana Mimosa House Minnie’s House Misignwa Tribe Mission Peak Cohousing in Fremont Molino Creek Farming Collective Monan’s Rill Monasterio Mysticos Monkey Bone Ranch Monkton Wyld Court Mont Hope City Monterey Cohousing Moonlight Meadows Moonlighting Moonshadow Moonshine Tribe Moora Moora Co-operative Community Morningland Monastery Morninglory MorningSun Mosaic MOSAIC Co-op Mosaic Commons Moss Milk Commons Transformational Learning Community moss on the rocks farm Mother Earth Mother Earth Green Center Mother tribe in NYC Motheroak permaculture coop Mothers Trust Ashram/Lakeshore Interfaith Community mothership sanctuary Mount Madonna Center Mountain View Cohousing Community Mourne Grange Camphill Village Community MSU Student Housing Cooperative Mt. Joy Ecovillage Mt. Murrindal Cooperative Muddy Creek Satyagraha Muir Commons Mulberry Hill Mulvey Creek Land Co-operative Munksgrd Music Jamboree Muyol Willka Hampi (Project Taruka) MyHood Mystique Community N Street Cohousing Nahziryah Monastic Community Nakamura House Nama Namaste NAMASTE… Multi-Cultural, Sustainable Living Community of Belize C.A. Namast Greenfire Nanjemoy Collective Narara Ecovillage Nashville West Cohousing Natewa Bay Homestead Native Way Eco Naturafoundations Natural Farming, a Life Practice. Living Directly, Closely with the Earth Natural Island Dragonmill Natural Wisdom NATURALMENTE – Retreat Center (Nucleum for the Reconnection with the Essence within the Being) Nature’s Pace Sanctuary Nature’s Path Eco-community Nature, On It’s Way Naturist Eco Village Nazarenes of Niagara NBCOHO Free Land Net Zero Community Neighborhood for Mindful Living, A Cohousing Community Nelson Land Group Neopolitan Neot Semadar Nerd vs Nature.com Neruda Network for a New Culture Nevada City Co-housing New Braj New Brighton Cohousing New Community Cooperative New Covenant Farms New Creation Christian Community New Culture DC New Dawn Project New Earth New Earth Mountain Village New Earth Song Cohousing LLC New England Farm Village Project New Jerusalem Community New Jewish Communities New Koinonia New Kurukshetra New Leaf Eco Commuity New Lebanon Mobile Home Park New Medina Village New Mexico Farmer Nomads Circuit Community New Natives New Oasis For Life-the Second Home of Lifechanyuan (New Site I ) New Roots Cooperative New Talavana New Tribal Nation New View Cohousing New Vrindaban New World at Anela’s Hawaiian Farm New York City Cohousing Group Newberry Place Cohousing Community Newbold House NEXT EVOLUTION COMMUNITY Next Step Integral Niche / Tucson Community Land Trust Nickel City Housing Cooperative NieuCommunities No Name No name No Name no where ranch Noldorath Forest Community Nomad Cohousing Nomadic Peoples Republic none Noosa Forest Retreat Holisitc Permaculture Community North American Students of Cooperation North Coast Retreat North Mountain Community Land Trust Northern Berkshire Cohousing Community Northern California EcoVillage Network Northern Lights Northern Sun Farm Co-op not yet named Nottingham Cooperative Nsumi Collective Nubanusit Neighborhood & Farm NW NJ Ecovillage Nyland O’Keeffe House O’Quinn Mountain Village World Community O.U.R ECOVILLAGE Oak Creek Commons Oak Forest Collaborative Oak Park Community Oak Spirit Sanctuary Shamanic Wiccan Church of Nature Oakcreek Community–Stillwater Oklahoma Oakland Morehouse Oakleigh Meadow Cohousing Oasis Oasis – Women’s Hacker House Oasis de Lentiourel Oasis Eco-Village Oasis Farm Oasis Gardens Oasis Homestead Obed Hostel Oberlin Student Cooperative Association (OSCA) Oblate Community of St Paul – IOCU Occupy DFW OE Fenghuang Collective Ofek Shalom Cooperative House Ohio Homestead Community OIKOS INTENTIONAL COMMUNITY OJAI PRIVATE CO-OP Okanogan Permaculture School – Community Okunevo Ol’ Wondermoth Olam Habah Village Old Catholic Benedictines of the Resurrection Olympia Cooperative Housing Association Omaha Green Cohousing Omega House Omega Institute for Holistic Studies One Accord One Another Community One Community One Heart Community One Island One New Man – Kingdom Of God One Song Eco-Spirit Village one world commune/philippines chapter Ontario Eco-Village (s) Project (s) Open Circle Open House OpenFree Optimum Living Alliance Oran Mor Community Orange Twin Conservation Community Orca Landing Order of Melchizedek Order of Saint Benedict organic music space Organic Tribe Foundation Organic Vegetarian Tantra Yoga Homestead ORIGO WELLNESS SANCTURARY Orthodox Commune Osa Mountain Village Osho Miasto Osterweil House Oswego Center For Sustainable Living Otamatea Eco-Village Our community vision, Looking for a tribe! Our Lady of Mepkin Abbey ourtowncommunity Outpost Homestead Owen House Oxen Community (working title) Ozark Dawn for Women Only! (Male Visitors Welcome) PAANCI International Pachamama Bliss Monkey Healing Center PachaMama Village Pacific Cultural Center Pacific Gardens Cohousing Community Pacifica Pacifica Intentional Community PaciVegan Pair O’Dice Machers Farm Paititi Ecovillage Panterra Paradise Paradise Gardens Paradise Hills Organic Farm Paradise in Argentina Park Ridge Nonprofit Center Parker Street Co-op Pathways CoHousing PAZ Ecovillage PDX Commons Peace and Freedom Peace Trail International Peaceatorium Peacefield Farm Peaceful Babe Farm PeaceMob Gardens Peachtree Community peleaina peaceful arts Penington Friends House Peninsula Park Commons Pennine Camphill Community Penyon Bay Ecological Village People’s Research Center peregrinus perma Nomadbase north lower Austria (osterreich PermaBurn Permaculture-inspired Farming Community Permala Permalogica Permaship Phoenix Commons Pi’ilani Piedmont Ecovillage Pika at M.I.T. pika at MIT Pilot House Pinakarri Community Inc Pine Grove Community Forming Pine Street Cohousing Pinecone Farms PinellasCohousing Pineolia Pinnacle Cohousing Pioneer Co-op Pioneer Living Community Pioneer Valley Piracanga EcoCommunity Piscataquis Village Project Pitt st Placitas Sage Cohousing Plainfield Christian Science Church, Independent Planet Repair Institute Plankton House Plants for a Future Play nexus Pleasant Glade Pleasant Hill Cohousing Pleasant Valley Sanctuary Plenitude Ecovillage Plow Creek Plowshare Farm Polcum Springs Polestar Gardens Community Poo Frog Ranch Poole’s Land Popai Hawaii Eco Beachfront Homestead/Organic Sustainable Farm Pope Street Reserve Cohousing Porlammin Luontoyhteis Port Townsend EcoVillage Portland Cohousing Possibilitarian Regenerative Community Homestead (PORCH) Pot Luck Farms Powhatan Ecovillage PRAG House Pragtree Farm Prairie Creek Settlement Prairie Onion Cohousing Prairie Sky Cohousing Cooperative Prairiemoon sustainable living Praterra Pratt-Ashland Cooperative Prescott College Primitive Spring House Primitive Vegan/Vegetarian Princeton Cooperative Progressive Valley Co-op Project Anononia Project Humanity & Earth Project Off Road Project PA house co op Project TriStar PROJETORGONE Providence Zen Center ProWoKultA Proyecto O Couso Prudence Crandall House Psalm 133 Ministries – A Hebrew Roots Mindset, Spirit-Filled, Yahshua is Messiah – Torah Observant Puget Ridge Cohousing Pumpkin Hollow Retreat Center Puna Green Angel Farm Punta Mona Pura Fruta Pura Tierra Eco Village Intentional Community – Costa Rica Purani Valley Purple Rose Collective Putney Commons Q Q’Inti Calli, Spiritual & Holistic Health Retreat Quailamoon Quaker House Residential Community Quaker Intentional Village-Canaan Quaker Monastery Quayside Village Que Fina Collective Quercus QuestionMark Farm Quetzalcoatl Community Quetzalcoatl, Shaman’s Community Quince Cohousing Quindaro Gardens Mutual Aid Society for Low-cost Living and Retirement in Kansas City Quinta do Vale do Carvalho Qumbya Co-op Radical Living Radish Collective Rainbow Cottage Rainbow Mansion Rainbow Valley Agricultural Cooperative Rainbow Valley Community Rainbows End RainSong Raleigh Cohousing Ralston Creek CoHousers RanchHome – Your Farm and Ranch Home Rancho Delicioso rancho gallo rico Rancho La Chicotona (Survival community) Rancho La Salud Village Rancho Margot Rancho San Roque Rancho Sol y Mar Rancho Amigos Eco Village Rancholargo Granja Cultural RareBirds Housing Cooperative Ravens’ Roost Cohousing Ravin&Savvy Raw-Wisdom Vegan Community Raw/Organic/Superfood/Permaculture/Low-no impact housing Rawtreat RealityCheck Reba Place Fellowship Rebel! Rebuild! Rewild Red Clover Red Clover Collective Red Earth Farms Red Horseshoe Ranch Red Water Acres Redding Revival Community Redfield Community Reevis Mountain School Refsnsgade Refugio Regen Co-op of Pomona Renaissance Gardens Renaissance House Renaissance Humanist Community Renaissance Village Homes Cohousing Reservoir Hill Mutual Homes Rest For Weary Homes – Oshawa Intentional Community – Ecovillage – http://www.durhamtakesaction.ca Community / Social Justice / Fun Restoration.community Retiringearlyfromratrace Co housing Initiative Revelation Sky Rhiannon Community Richmond Cohousing Riddle Farm Rio Tranquillo Riparia River City Housing Collective River Farm River Ridge River Rock Commons Rivers Edge DWCC Riverside Co-housing Riverside Cohousing Riverside Community Riverside Raincross Cohousing Riverton Community Housing Road to Home co-living Roberts Creek Cohousing RobinWood Berlin Rock Garden Springs Rock Ridge Community, Inc Rocky Corner Cohousing Rocky Hill Cohousing Rocky Top Living Roots Cooperative Rose Creek Village RoseWind Cohousing Rosewood Manor Roughcraft Ecovillage Round River Community Rowe Camp & Conference Center Ruby Farms Russmaican the world a better Race Ruths’ House Saba Cooperative SabbathHouse Sacred Earth Sacred Earth Community Sacred Garden of EdenHope Sacred Garden Sanctuary Sacred Mountain Sanctuary Sacred Spiral Family – Open Source Creed and Intentional Community Sacred Suenos Saddiqi Rose Sadhana Forest Safe Haven Ranch Safe Haven Village Sage Valley SageHill Place sailing the farm – sailing/boatbuilding coop. Saint Francis & Therese Catholic Worker House Saint Francis Catholic Worker House of Hospitality Saint Michael’s Eco Village Sal’s Place Salmon Falls Land Association Salt Spring Centre of Yoga San Andres San Antonio Cohousing San Diego Eco-housing San Diego Spiritual Retreat Center San Diego Spiritual Retreat Center – Lakeside House Base Camp San Mateo Ecovillage Sanctuary Sanctuary in NW Ohio Sanctuary of DRAGOYOGARD & EISMER (European Institute for SOUND MEDICINE Education & Research) Sanctuary Village Sanctuary: Urban Axis Sand River Cohousing Sandhill Farm Sandywoods Farm Sangha of Earth Awakening Sanna Culturemanor Santa Barbara Student Housing Cooperative Santa Monica CoHousing Group Santa Rosa Creek Commons Sapling Community Sasona Cooperative Sassafras Bandits Permaculture Farm Sat Yoga Ashram Savannah Tribe Intentional Community Savitar Kin’s Domains Sawyer Hill EcoVillage SBA Farms Collective Schloss Blumenthal School of Integrated Living (SOIL) Seattle Aging in Community Secular-humanist collapse preparedness group Sede Kavannah Sede Kavannah, Livermore Sedona Unlimited SEED International Ecovillage near Cahuita National Park SeedPod Co-op SEEEDs Seekers and Settlers Seekers of Unity in the Body of Christ Self-Sustaining Society SelfDesign Learning Community Selva Rica Seneca Treehouse Project Senior Activists Living Together Sequoia Village Cohousing Serene Light Gardens Serenity Serenity Cabin Serenity Gardens Eco Village Servants of Jesus Community Setivalley Integrated Organic Farm Seven Acres Cooperative Seven Suns Community Shadow Mountain Cohousing Shadowlake Village Shakty Global Shalom House Shamanic Living Center Shambala SHANGRI LA Shannon Farm Community Shanti-shanti village Sharing Circle Gardens Sharing Springs Sharingwood Cohousing She Farm Sheep River Commons Eco Village Shekinah Eco Village Shepherd Village Shepherdsfield Community Sherman St. Artists Coop Sherwood Co-op Shiloah Valley Community Shiloh Springs EcoVillage Short Mountain Sanctuary, Inc. 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Complementary and alternative medicine comes in a broad range of forms. Here’s a look at five widely practiced types of complementary and alternative medicine:
According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), the most commonly used complementary medicine approaches in the U.S. fall into one of two subgroups: natural products or mind-body practices.
Often sold in dietary supplement form, natural products may include herbs, probiotics, antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, chemicals such as glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (two supplements said to aid in the treatment of osteoarthritis), and a variety of other substances.
In the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (or NHIS, a report conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics), researchers determined that 17.7 percent of American adults had used a dietary supplement other than vitamins and minerals in the past year. The most commonly used natural product was fish oil, an omega-3-rich substance said to protect against conditions such as heart disease.
The second category of most commonly practiced complementary medicine approaches, according to the NCCIH, mind-body therapies typically involve using specific techniques to boost the mind’s capacity to influence bodily function and enhance health.
Hypnotherapy is a popular type of mind-body therapy. Also known as hypnosis, it’s been found to promote weight loss, alleviate back pain, and aid in smoking cessation in some scientific studies.
A self-directed practice long used to promote calm, meditation is a mind-body therapy that shows promise as an approach to achieving healthier blood pressure and sounder sleep.
There’s also some evidence that meditation may benefit people struggling with chronic pain.
Although yoga is often practiced as a form of exercise and a means of reducing stress, it’s also used as a mind-body therapy. Indeed, some research indicates that yoga may help manage conditions like anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and depression.
The NCCIH notes that yoga’s popularity has significantly increased in recent years, with almost twice as many U.S. adults practicing yoga in 2012 as in 2002.
Other types of mind-body therapies include biofeedback, guided imagery, and music therapy.
Many proponents of complementary and alternative medicine use therapies and healing practices from alternative medical systems, such as homeopathy and naturopathic medicine.
Alternative medical systems also include traditional medical systems from other countries, such as Ayurveda (a form of alternative medicine that originated in India) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Within TCM are a number of therapies frequently used in the U.S.
today, including acupuncture, acupressure, and herbal medicine.
This type of complementary and alternative medicine is based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body.
In some cases, manipulative and body-based methods involve participating in classes or individual sessions with the aim of changing your movement habits. For example, the Alexander Techniqueinvolves relearning basic movements (such as standing and sitting) in order to reduce muscle tension, while the Feldenkrais Method involves creating new patterns of movement in order to improve physical function and overall wellbeing.
Other types of manipulative and body-based methods used in complementary and alternative medicine focus on applying specific treatments to address health issues. These methods include reflexology, osteopathy, and rolfing.
Two of the most popular and well-researched types of manipulative and body-based methods are chiropractic and massage therapy.
Another type of complementary and alternative medicine, energy therapies are generally based on the idea that energy fields surround and penetrate the human body. Practitioners of energy therapies often aim to manipulate biofields by applying pressure and/or placing the hands in or through these energy fields.
While the existence of such energy fields has not been scientifically proven, there’s some evidence that certain energy therapies may have beneficial effects.
For instance, preliminary research has shown that practicing qigong may help control chronic pain and lower blood pressure while Therapeutic Touch may help soothe osteoarthritis pain. In addition, there’s some evidence that reiki may help lessen pain, promote healthy sleep, and reduce anxiety.
Birocco N, Guillame C, Storto S, Ritorto G, Catino C, Gir N, Balestra L, Tealdi G, Orecchia C, Vito GD, Giaretto L, Donadio M, Bertetto O, Schena M, Ciuffreda L. “The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit.” Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2012 Jun;29(4):290-4.
Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. “External qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.” J Pain. 2007 Nov;8(11):827-31.
Lee MS, Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. “Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.” J Hypertens. 2007 Aug;25(8):1525-32.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. “What Is Complementary, Alternative or Integrative Health?” NCCIH Pub No.: D347. March 2015.
Disclaimer: The information contained on this site is intended for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for advice, diagnosis or treatment by a licensed physician. It is not meant to cover all possible precautions, drug interactions, circumstances or adverse effects. You should seek prompt medical care for any health issues and consult your doctor before using alternative medicine or making a change to your regimen.
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The majority of adults in the United States take one or more dietary supplements either every day or occasionally. Today’s dietary supplements include vitamins, minerals, herbals and botanicals, amino acids, enzymes, and many other products. Dietary supplements come in a variety of forms: traditional tablets, capsules, and powders, as well as drinks and energy bars. Popular supplements include vitamins D and E; minerals like calcium and iron; herbs such as echinacea and garlic; and specialty products like glucosamine, probiotics, and fish oils.
All products labeled as a dietary supplement carry a Supplement Facts panel that lists the contents, amount of active ingredients per serving, and other added ingredients (like fillers, binders, and flavorings). The manufacturer suggests the serving size, but you or your health care provider might decide that a different amount is more appropriate for you.
If you don’t eat a nutritious variety of foods, some supplements might help you get adequate amounts of essential nutrients. However, supplements can’t take the place of the variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Good sources of information on eating well include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate.
Scientific evidence shows that some dietary supplements are beneficial for overall health and for managing some health conditions. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones strong and reducing bone loss; folic acid decreases the risk of certain birth defects; and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils might help some people with heart disease. Other supplements need more study to determine their value. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not determine whether dietary supplements are effective before they are marketed.
Many supplements contain active ingredients that can have strong effects in the body. Always be alert to the possibility of unexpected side effects, especially when taking a new product.
Supplements are most likely to cause side effects or harm when people take them instead of prescribed medicines or when people take many supplements in combination. Some supplements can increase the risk of bleeding or, if a person takes them before or after surgery, they can affect the person’s response to anesthesia. Dietary supplements can also interact with certain prescription drugs in ways that might cause problems. Here are just a few examples:
Keep in mind that some ingredients found in dietary supplements are added to a growing number of foods, including breakfast cereals and beverages. As a result, you may be getting more of these ingredients than you think, and more might not be better. Taking more than you need is always more expensive and can also raise your risk of experiencing side effects. For example, getting too much vitamin A can cause headaches and liver damage, reduce bone strength, and cause birth defects. Excess iron causes nausea and vomiting and may damage the liver and other organs.
Be cautious about taking dietary supplements if you are pregnant or nursing. Also, be careful about giving them (beyond a basic multivitamin/mineral product) to a child. Most dietary supplements have not been well tested for safety in pregnant women, nursing mothers, or children.
If you suspect that you have had a serious reaction from a dietary supplement, let your health care provider know. He or she may report your experience to the FDA. You may also submit a report to the FDA by calling 800-FDA-1088 or completing a form online. In addition, report your reaction to the dietary supplement company by using the contact information on the product label.
Dietary supplements are complex products. The FDA has established good manufacturing practices (GMPs) for dietary supplements to help ensure their identity, purity, strength, and composition. These GMPs are designed to prevent the inclusion of the wrong ingredient, the addition of too much or too little of an ingredient, the possibility of contamination, and the improper packaging and labeling of a product. The FDA periodically inspects facilities that manufacture dietary supplements.
In addition, several independent organizations offer quality testing and allow products that pass these tests to display their seals of approval. These seals of approval provide assurance that the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants. These seals of approval do not guarantee that a product is safe or effective. Organizations that offer this quality testing include:
Don’t decide to take dietary supplements to treat a health condition that you have diagnosed yourself, without consulting a health care provider.
If you don’t know the answers to these questions, use the information sources listed in this brochure and talk to your health care providers.
Let your health care providers (including doctors, pharmacists, and dietitians) know which dietary supplements you’re taking so that you can discuss what’s best for your overall health. Your health care provider can help you determine which supplements, if any, might be valuable for you.
Keep a record of the supplements you take in one place, just as you should be doing for all of your medicines. Note the specific product name, the dose you take, how often you take it, and the reason why you use each one. You can also bring the products you use with you when you see your health care provider.
Dietary supplements are products intended to supplement the diet. They are not drugs and, therefore, are not intended to treat, diagnose, mitigate, prevent, or cure diseases. The FDA is the federal agency that oversees both dietary supplements and medicines.
In general, the FDA regulations for dietary supplements are different from those for prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Unlike drugs, which must be approved by the FDA before they can be marketed, dietary supplements do not require premarket review or approval by the FDA. While the supplement company is responsible for having evidence that their products are safe and the label claims are truthful and not misleading, they do not have to provide that evidence to the FDA before the product is marketed.
Dietary supplement labels may carry certain types of health-related claims. Manufacturers are permitted to say, for example, that a dietary supplement addresses a nutrient deficiency, supports health, or is linked to a particular body function (like immunity or heart health). Such a claim must be followed by the words, “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.”
Manufacturers must follow certain good manufacturing practices to ensure the identity, purity, strength, and composition of their products. If the FDA finds a product to be unsafe or otherwise unfit for human consumption, it may take enforcement action to remove the product from the marketplace or work with the manufacturer to voluntarily recall the product.
Also, once a dietary supplement is on the market, the FDA monitors information on the product’s label and package insert to make sure that information about the supplement’s content is accurate and that any claims made for the product are truthful and not misleading. The Federal Trade Commission, which polices product advertising, also requires all information about a dietary supplement product to be truthful and not misleading.
The federal government can take legal action against companies and Web sites that sell dietary supplements when the companies make false or deceptive statements about their products, if they promote them as treatments or cures for diseases, or if their products are unsafe.
The National Institutes of Health supports research on dietary supplements.
The Food and Drug Administration issues rules and regulations and provides oversight of dietary supplement labeling, marketing, and safety.
The Federal Trade Commission polices health and safety claims made in advertising for dietary supplements.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information on a variety of food and nutrition topics.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides an encyclopedia of health topics, personal health tools, and health news.
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