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Ayn Rand Predicted an American Slide toward Fascism …

Posted: November 25, 2016 at 10:19 am

In a letter written on March 19, 1944, Ayn Rand remarked: Fascism, Nazism, Communism and Socialism are only superficial variations of the same monstrous themecollectivism. Rand would later expand on this insight in various articles, most notably in two of her lectures at the Ford Hall Forum in Boston: The Fascist New Frontier (Dec. 16, 1962, published as a booklet by the Nathaniel Branden Institute in 1963); and The New Fascism: Rule by Consensus (April 18, 1965, published as Chapter 20 in Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal [CUI] by New American Library in 1967).

The world conflict of today is the conflict of the individual against the state.

Rand knew better than to accept the traditional left-right dichotomy between socialism (or communism) and fascism, according to which socialism is the extreme version of left-ideology and fascism is the extreme version of right-ideology (i.e., capitalism). Indeed, in The Ayn Rand Letter (Nov. 8, 1971) she characterized fascism as socialism for big business. Both are variants of statism, in contrast to a free country based on individual rights and laissez-faire capitalism. As Rand put it in Conservativism: An Obituary (CUI, Chapter 19):

The world conflict of today is the conflict of the individual against the state, the same conflict that has been fought throughout mankinds history. The names change, but the essenceand the resultsremain the same, whether it is the individual against feudalism, or against absolute monarchy, or against communism or fascism or Nazism or socialism or the welfare state.

The placement of socialism and fascism at opposite ends of a political spectrum serves a nefarious purpose, according to Rand. It serves to buttress the case that we must avoid extremism and choose the sensible middle course of a mixed economy. Quoting from Extremism, Or The Art of Smearing (CUI, Chapter 17):

If it were true that dictatorship is inevitable and that fascism and communism are the two extremes at the opposite ends of our course, then what is the safest place to choose? Why, the middle of the road. The safely undefined, indeterminate, mixed-economy, moderate middlewith a moderate amount of government favors and special privileges to the rich and a moderate amount of government handouts to the poorwith a moderate respect for rights and a moderate degree of brute forcewith a moderate amount of freedom and a moderate amount of slaverywith a moderate degree of justice and a moderate degree of injusticewith a moderate amount of security and a moderate amount of terrorand with a moderate degree of tolerance for all, except those extremists who uphold principles, consistency, objectivity, morality and who refuse to compromise.

In both of her major articles on fascism (cited above) Rand distinguished between fascism and socialism by noting a rather technical (and ultimately inconsequential) difference in their approaches to private property. Here is the relevant passage from The New Fascism: Rule by Consensus:

Observe that both socialism and fascism involve the issue of property rights. The right to property is the right of use and disposal. Observe the difference in those two theories: socialism negates private property rights altogether, and advocates the vesting of ownership and control in the community as a whole, i.e., in the state; fascism leaves ownership in the hands of private individuals, but transfers control of the property to the government.

Ownership without control is a contradiction in terms: it means property, without the right to use it or to dispose of it. It means that the citizens retain the responsibility of holding property, without any of its advantages, while the government acquires all the advantages without any of the responsibility.

In this respect, socialism is the more honest of the two theories. I say more honest, not betterbecause, in practice, there is no difference between them: both come from the same collectivist-statist principle, both negate individual rights and subordinate the individual to the collective, both deliver the livelihood and the lives of the citizens into the power of an omnipotent government and the differences between them are only a matter of time, degree, and superficial detail, such as the choice of slogans by which the rulers delude their enslaved subjects.

Contrary to many conservative commentators during the 1960s, Rand maintained that America was drifting toward fascism, not socialism, and that this descent was virtually inevitable in a mixed economy. A mixed economy is an explosive, untenable mixture of two opposite elements, freedom and statism, which cannot remain stable, but must ultimately go one way or the other (Extremism, or The Art of Smearing). Economic controls generate their own problems, and with these problems come demands for additional controlsso either those controls must be abolished or a mixed economy will eventually degenerate into a form of economic dictatorship. Rand conceded that most American advocates of the welfare state are not socialists, that they never advocated or intended the socialization of private property. These welfare-statists want to preserve private property while calling for greater government control over such property. But that is the fundamental characteristic of fascism.

A mixed economy is ruled by pressure groups. It is an amoral, institutionalized civil war of special interests and lobbies.

Rand gave us some of the finest analyses of a mixed economyits premises, implications, and long-range consequencesever penned by a free-market advocate. In The New Fascism, for example, she compared a mixed economy to a system that operates by the law of the jungle, a system in which no ones interests are safe, everyones interests are on a public auction block, and anything goes for anyone who can get away with it. A mixed economy divides a country into an ever-growing number of enemy camps, into economic groups fighting one another for self preservation in an indeterminate mixture of defense and offense. Although Rand did not invoke Thomas Hobbes in this context, it is safe to say that the economic chaos of a mixed economy resembles the Hobbesian war of all against all in a state of nature, a system in which interest groups feel the need to screw others before they get screwed themselves.

A mixed economy is ruled by pressure groups. It is an amoral, institutionalized civil war of special interests and lobbies, all fighting to seize a momentary control of the legislative machinery, to extort some special privilege at one anothers expense by an act of governmenti.e., by force.

Of course, Rand never claimed that America had degenerated into full-blown fascism (she held that freedom of speech was a bright line in this respect), but she did believe that the fundamental premise of the altruist-collectivist moralitythe foundation of all collectivist regimes, including fascismwas accepted and preached by modern liberals and conservatives alike. (Those who mistakenly dub Rand a conservative should read Conservatism: An Obituary [CUI, Chapter 19], a scathing critique in which she accused conservative leaders of moral treason. In some respects Rand detested modern conservatives more than she did modern liberals. She was especially contemptuous of those conservatives who attempted to justify capitalism by appealing to religion or to tradition.) Rand illustrated her point in The Fascist New Frontier, a polemical tour de force aimed at President Kennedy and his administration.

There is no such thing as the public interest except as the sum of the interests of individual men.

Rand began this 1962 lecture by quoting passages from the 1920 political platform of the German Nazi Party, including demands for an end to the power of the financial interests, profit sharing in big business, a broad extension of care for the aged, the improvement of public health by government, an all-around enlargement of our entire system of public education, and so forth. All such welfare-state measures, this platform concluded, can only proceed from within on the foundation of The Common Good Before the Individual Good.

Rand had no problem quoting similar proposals and sentiments from President Kennedy and members of his administration, such as Kennedys celebrated remark, And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what America will do for youask what you can do for your country. The particulars of Rands speech will come as no surprise to those familiar with her ideas, but I wish to call attention to her final remarks about the meaning of the public interest. As used by Kennedy and other politicians, both Democratic and Republican, this fuzzy phrase has little if any meaning, except to indicate that individuals have a duty to sacrifice their interests for the sake of a greater, undefined good, as determined by those who wield the brute force of political power. Rand then stated what she regarded as the only coherent meaning of the public interest.

[T]here is no such thing as the public interest except as the sum of the interests of individual men. And the basic, common interest of all menall rational menis freedom. Freedom is the first requirement of the public interestnot what men do when they are free, but that they are free. All their achievements rest on that foundationand cannot exist without them.

The principles of a free, non-coercive social system are the only form of the public interest.

I shall conclude this essay on a personal note. Before I began preparing for this essay, I had not read some of the articles quoted above for many, many years. In fact, I had not read some of the material since my college days 45 years ago. I therefore approached my new readings with a certain amount of trepidation. I liked the articles when I first read them, but would they stand the test of time? Would Rands insights and arguments appear commonplace, even hackneyed, with the passage of so much time? Well, I was pleasantly surprised. Rand was exactly on point on many issues. Indeed, if we substitute President Obama, for President Kennedy or President Johnson many of her points would be even more pertinent today than they were during the 1960s. Unfortunately, the ideological sewer of American politics has become even more foul today than it was in Rands day, but Rand did what she could to reverse the trend, and one person can only do so much. And no one can say that she didnt warn us.

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Ayn Rand Predicted an American Slide toward Fascism …

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Voices for Reason Blog | The Ayn Rand Institute

Posted: November 10, 2016 at 5:42 pm

POST by The Editors| View all Posts November 09, 2016

Thanks to our contributors, ARI is able to show students how Ayn Rands ideas can empower them to live free and thrive in a big way.

In this episode of The Yaron Brook Show, Yaron Brook comments on the unusually intellectual response to his talks in Europe and illustrates how philosophy shapes history, particularly the positive impact of Aristotles ideas. Also, Brook discusses why he wont debate Stefan Molyneux, the political and economical state of Greece, race realism and free will.

The rich are getting richer in a system rigged in their favor. True or false? Hear two sides of the economic inequality story in the upcoming debate between Yaron Brook, ARI executive chairman, and Jonathan Haughton, Beacon Hill Institute senior economist.

The 2016 Ayn Rand Student Conference in Atlanta, Georgia, is about to begin.

Why is voter rage so rampant? What has brought out this ugliness and hate? How can you exercise your rights and keep out of the emotionalism plaguing America?

Join Tara Smith, ARI board member and professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, for a panel discussion of her latest book Judicial Review in an Objective Legal System.

This talk examines the development, operation and performance of monetary systems in the absence of government intervention. Topics covered include the spontaneous evolution of money, the rise of banks, bank self-regulation under competition and crisis management in the absence of a central bank.

What exactly is globalism? Are trade deals like NAFTA desirable? Should one go into politics? Is tuition-free college education a good idea?

What do you call a payment of money for the release of a prisoner? Yes, its a ransom. But not if the recipient is Iran. That, the Obama administration calls a triumph of diplomacy.

It looks like the upcoming 2016 Ayn Rand Student Conference is going to be the largest student Objectivist conference ever. The conferences theme is free will. But what exactly is free will? Does it even exist? How do you know? Whats the Objectivist perspective? And what implications, if any, does it have for how you live your life?

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Voices for Reason Blog | The Ayn Rand Institute

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The One Argument Ayn Rand Couldnt Win New York Magazine

Posted: November 8, 2016 at 3:47 pm

(Photo: Leonard McCombe/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Whenever Ayn Rand met someone newan acolyte whod traveled cross-country to study at her feet, an editor hoping to publish her next novelshe would open the conversation with a line that seems destined to go down as one of historys all-time classic icebreakers: Tell me your premises. Once youd managed to mumble something halfhearted about loving your family, say, or the Golden Rule, Rand would set about systematically exposing all of your logical contradictions, then steer you toward her own inviolable set of premises: that man is a heroic being, achievement is the aim of life, existence exists, A is A, and so forththe whole Objectivist catechism. And once you conceded any part of that basic platform, the game was pretty much over. Shed start piecing together her rationalist Tinkertoys until the mighty Randian edifice towered over you: a rigidly logical Art Deco skyscraper, 30 or 40 feet tall, with little plastic industrialists peeking out the windowsa shining monument to the glories of individualism, the virtues of selfishness, and the deep morality of laissez-faire capitalism. Grant Ayn Rand a premise and youd leave with a lifestyle.

Stated premises, however, rarely get us all the way down to the bottom of a philosophy. Even when we think weve reached bedrock, theres almost always a secret subbasement blasted out somewhere underneath. William James once argued that every philosophic system sets out to conceal, first of all, the philosophers own temperament: that pre-rational bundle of preferences that urges him to hop on whatever logic-train seems to be already heading in his general direction. This creates, as James put it, a certain insincerity in our philosophic discussions: the potentest of all our premises is never mentionedWhat the system pretends to be is a picture of the great universe of God. What it isand oh so flagrantly!is the revelation of how intensely odd the personal flavor of some fellow creature is.

No one would have been angrier about this claim, and no one confirms its truth more profoundly, than Ayn Rand. Few fellow creatures have had a more intensely odd personal flavor; her temperament could have neutered an ox at 40 paces. She was proud, grouchy, vindictive, insulting, dismissive, and rash. (One former associate called her the Evel Knievel of leaping to conclusions.) But she was also idealistic, yearning, candid, worshipful, precise, and improbably charming. She funneled all of these contradictory elements into Objectivism, the home-brewed philosophy that won her thousands of Cold Warera followers and that seems to be making some noise once again in our era of bailouts and tea parties. (Glenn Beck and Ron Paul are Rand fans; Alan Greenspan, once a member of her inner circle, had his faith in the markets rationality shaken by the crash.)

Its easy to chuckle at Rand, smugly, from the safe distance of intervening decades or an opposed ideology, but in personher big black eyes flashing deep into the night, fueled by nicotine, caffeine, and amphetaminesshe was apparently an irresistible force, a machine of pure reason, a free-market Spock who converted doubters left, right, and center. Eyewitnesses say that she never lost an argument. One of her young students (soon to be her young lover) staggered out of his first all-night talk session referring to her, admiringly, as Mrs. Logic. And logic, in Rands hands, seemed to enjoy superpowers it didnt possess with anyone else. She claimed, for instance, that she could rationally explain every emotion shed ever had. Tell me what a man finds sexually attractive, she once wrote, and I will tell you his entire philosophy of life. One convert insisted that she knows me better after five hours than my analyst does after five years. The only option was to yield or stay away. (I should admit here my own bias: I was a card-carrying Objectivist from roughly age 16 to 19, during which time I did everything short of changing my last name to Randersona phase Im deeply embarrassed by, but also secretly grateful for.)

Rand insisted, over and over, that the details of her life had nothing to do with the tenets of her philosophy. She would cite, on this subject, the fictional architect Howard Roark, hero of her novel The Fountainhead: Dont ask me about my family, my childhood, my friends or my feelings. Ask me about the things I think. But the things she thought, it turns out, were very much dependent on her family, her childhood, her friends, and her feelingsor at least on her relative lack of all that.

Anne Hellers new biography, Ayn Rand and the World She Made, allows us to poke our heads, for the first time, into the Russian-Americans overheated philosophical subbasement. After reading the details of Rands early life, I find it hard to think of Objectivism as very objective at allit looks more like a rational program retrofitted to a lifelong temperament, a fantasy world created to cancel the nightmare of a terrifying childhood. This is the comedy, the tragedy, and the power of Rand: She built a glorious imaginary empire on that nuclear-grade temperament, then devoted every ounce of her will and intelligence to proving it was all pure reason.

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The One Argument Ayn Rand Couldnt Win New York Magazine

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Posted: October 29, 2016 at 11:52 am

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Link: Ayn Rand: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle

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Objetivismo, la filosofa de Ayn Rand | La Rebelin de Atlas …

Posted: October 25, 2016 at 7:48 am

Ayn Rand, llam a su filosofa, “Objetivismo”, describindola como la filosofa para vivir en la tierra. El objetivismo es un sistema integrado de pensamientos, que define principios abstractos en los que el hombre debe pensar y actuar si es que quiere vivir la vida propia de un hombre. En primer lugar, Ayn Rand, present su filosofa a travs de las novelas, ambas best-sellers, “The Fountainhead” (1943), traducida al castellano como “El Manantial”, y “Atlas Shrugged” (1957), como “La Rebelin de Atlas”. En estas se presenta al hombre como un ser herico, un individuo racional digno de vivir en la tierra, ya que puede lograr lo mejor de s msmo. Posteriormente, present su filosofa en forma de no-ficcin.


La realidad, el mundo exterior, la existencia independiente de la conciencia del hombre; independiente de cualquier conocimiento, creencias, sentimientos, deseos o temores. Esto significa que A es A, los hechos son hechos, las cosas son lo que son; y la tarea de la conciencia del hombre es percibir la realidad, no crearla o inventarla. As, el objetivismo, rachaza toda creencia en lo supernatural, y cualquier aclamacin de individuales o grupos que dicen crear su propia realidad.


La razn del hombre es completamente competente de conocer los hechos de la realidad. La razn, facultad conceptual, es la facultad que identifica e integra el material provisto por los sentidos del hombre. La razn es el nico medio del hombre para adquirir conocimientos. As, el objetivismo, rechaza al misticismo (no acepta a la fe y a los sentimientos, como medios de conocimiento); y al escepticismo (que proclama la imposibilidad del conocimiento y/o estar seguro de algo). La naturaleza humana: El hombre es un ser racional. La razn, nico medio de conocimiento del hombre, es su medio de supervivencia. El hombre es un ser de conciencia volitiva, por eso el ejercicio de la razn depende de la eleccin de cada individuo. Tu conciencia es lo que sols llamar alma o espritu; y a lo que llams ‘libre albedro’, es a la libertad que tiene tu mente de pensar o no. Esta es la nica eleccin que tienes. Es la eleccin que controla tadas las otras elecciones que hacs; y determina tu vida y tu caracter . As, el objetivismo, rechaza toda forma de determinismo; la creencia de que el hombre es vctima de fuerzas que escapan a su control (como ser: dios, el destino, los genes, condiciones de nacimiento o econmicas).


La razn del hombre es la nica fuente que le permite juzgar valores y guiarlo hacia la accin. Un estndar de tica correcto es: la supervivencia del hombre como hombre, es decir, lo requerido por su naturaleza para sobrevivir como un ser racional (y, no una momentnea supervivencia fsica como un bruto sin mente). La virtud bsica del hombre es su racionalidad, y sus tres valores fundamentales son: razn, propsito, auto-estima. El hombre es un fin en s msmo, y no un medio para los fines de los dems; debe vivir por su propio propsito, sin sacrificarse para otros o sacrificar a otros para s; debe trabajar por su propio inters racional y lograr su propia felicidad como el propsito moral ms alto de su vida. As, el objetivismo, rechaza cualquier forma de altruismo (que dice que la moralidad consiste en vivir para otros o para la sociedad).


El principio social bsico de la tica objetivista es que ningn hombre tiene el derecho de buscar valores ajenos por medio de la fuerza fsica. Ningn hombre o grupo tiene el derecho de usar la fuerza fsica contra otros; con exepcin de cuando acta en propia defensa y solo contra quienes inicien su uso. Los hombres deben tratar unos con otros como comerciantes, dando valor por valor, por medio de un libre y mutuo consentimiento y mutuo beneficio. El nico sistema social que erradica de las relaciones humanas, la fuerza fsica, es el capitalismo de laissez-faire (libre comercio). El capitalismo es un sistema basado en el reconocimiento de los derechos individuales, y protege a los hombres de aquellos que inician el uso de la fuerza fsica. As, el objetivismo, rechaza cualquier forma de colectivismo, como lo son, el fasismo y el socialismo. Tambin rechaza la actual ‘economa mixta’, nocin de que el gobierno debera regular la economa y redistribuir la riqueza.


El arte es una re-creacin selectiva de la realidad, acorde al juicio metafsico del artista; es concretizar su visin fundamental de la existencia. Ayn Rand, describe su aproximacin al arte como: “Realismo Romntico”: “Yo soy Romntica en el sentido de que presento a los hombres como deberan ser. Soy Realista en el sentido de que los ubico aqu, ahora y en esta tierra”. El propsito de las novelas de Ayn Rand no es didctico; es artstico: la proyeccin de un hombre ideal: “Mi propsito, primera causa y desencadenante, es el retrato de Howard Roark o John Galt o Hank Rearden o Francisco d’Anconia como un fin en s msmo, y no como un propsito para un fin posterior”.

Dijo uno de los presentes: – Convnceme de que la lgica es til. – Quires que te lo demuestre? – S. – Entonces….es necesario que recurra a una demostracin. Y al ver que el otro asenta le dijo: – Si te engao con sofismas, cmo hars, pues, para darte cuenta? El otro guard silencio. – Ya ves como te das cuenta de que la lgica es necesaria y que, apartndote de ella, ni siquiera puedes llegar a saber si es necesaria o no. Epicteto, Conversaciones, II, 25.

La democracia es dos lobos y una oveja votando sobre que se va a comer. La Libertad es la oveja, armada, impugnando el resultado. Benjamin Franklin

info @ objetivismo . com

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Objetivismo, la filosofa de Ayn Rand | La Rebelin de Atlas …

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Ayn Rand –

Posted: September 2, 2016 at 6:00 am

The HBO show’s creator may or may not be a Randian, but a version of her philosophy runs through his body of work

Carl Barney has run a lucrative nonprofit education empire under the principles of the libertarian figurehead

The Uber model just doesn’t work for other industries. The price points always fail — and that’s a good thing

Yesterday, the House Speaker apologized for calling America’s impoverished “takers.” But he hasn’t changed a bit

Snyder working on an adaptation of Rand’s novel makes perfect sensejust look at his body of work VIDEO

John Boehner is laying the groundwork for a “Draft Ryan” campaign at the GOP convention. The whole thing is absurd

Values voters, Tea Party conservatives, faux-populists grifting for book deals and Fox spots — meet today’s GOP

Fans feel “so betrayed” seeing the “Star Wars” heartthrob in an “Atlas Shrugged” shirt

The brilliant critic Evgeny Morozov discusses the myths Silicon Valley tells about itself, and why we believe them

The most effective ways to expose their contradictions and faulty logic

A stern, serious Krugman says anyone who doesn’t believe the GOP’s real gold standard fervor is deluding themselves

Freedom now means winner-take-all capitalism, and it’s slowly morphing our political system into a plutocracy

We’ve been a fed a myth about heroic individuals — and that allows the 1 percent to prosper at everyone’s expense

The Wisconsin congressman may be a radical, but he’s also a product of the insider cronyism the Tea Party abhors

Read about Paul Ryan and you might think he is a thoughtful, right-of-center policy wonk, not an Ayn Rand ideologue

The wingnut pundit resents the liberal tone of TV, but turns out cartoonish, right-leaning prose

What’s causing the GOP’s slide into complete dysfunction? It’s not overheated rhetoric; it’s the politics of race

EXCLUSIVE: New transcript of Rand at West Point in ’74 enthusiastically defends extermination of Native Americans

Conservatives have long wielded “socialism” as a pejorative — but Sanders owns it and is transforming politics

The objectivist classic is brimming with historical revisionism, faulty economic theory and dubious sexual politics

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Ayn Rand –

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Ayn Rand Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:36 pm

Origem: Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre.

Ayn Rand, nascida Alisa Zinov’yevna Rosenbaum (em cirlico russo: ; So Petersburgo, 2 de fevereiro de 1905 Nova Iorque, 6 de maro de 1982) foi uma escritora, dramaturga, roteirista e filsofa norte-americana de origem judaico-russa, mais conhecida por desenvolver um sistema filosfico chamado de Objetivismo, e por seus romances.

Nascida e educada na Rssia, Rand emigrou para os Estados Unidos em 1926. Ela trabalhou como roteirista em Hollywood, e teve uma pea produzida na Broadway, no perodo de 1935 a 1936.

Alcanou a fama com seu romance The Fountainhead (que foi lanado no Brasil com o ttulo de A Nascente, e deu origem a um filme homnimo conhecido no Brasil por Vontade Indmita), publicado em 1943. Em 1957 lanou seu melhor e mais conhecido trabalho, o romance filosfico Atlas Shrugged (no Brasil, Quem John Galt?, inicialmente lanado em 1987 e, posteriormente, relanado em 2010 como A Revolta de Atlas).

Sua filosofia e sua fico enfatizam, sobretudo, suas noes de individualismo, autossustentao e capitalismo. Seus romances preconizam o individualismo filosfico e a livre iniciativa econmica[1].

Ela ensinava:

Um admirador de Ayn Rand, David Nolan, organizou, em 1971, o Partido Libertrio Americano, cujo programa original tinha os traos que ela mesma defendia nos anos 40.[2] Posteriormente, ela brigou com libertrios como Murray Rothbard[3] e passou a criticar o partido[4] pelo fato da filosofia dela ter se distanciado a da escola austraca.[5][6]

Um de seus principais pupilos foi Alan Greenspan, mais tarde presidente da Reserva Federal (o sistema de bancos centrais dos Estados Unidos).[7][8]

Ela se posicionou tambm como uma anti-arabista e sionista durante o conflito rabe-israelense.[9]

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Ayn Rand Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

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Ayn Rand – IMDb

Posted: August 19, 2016 at 4:19 am

Edit Personal Details Other Works: Newsletter: “The Ayn Rand Letter” See more Publicity Listings: 1 Biographical Movie | 17 Print Biographies | 1 Portrayal | 1 Interview | 1 Article | See more Height: 5’2″(1.57m) Edit Did You Know? Personal Quote: Today, we live in the Age of Envy. “Envy” is not the emotion I have in mind, but it is the clearest manifestation of an emotion that has remained nameless; it is the only element of a complex emotional sum that men have permitted themselves to identify. Envy is regarded by most people as a petty, superficial emotion and, therefore, it serves as a semihuman cover for so inhuman an emotion that … See more Trivia: Was a “friendly witness” before the House Un-American Activities Committee, testifying on alleged Communist “influences” in Hollywood. See more Trademark: In her books, characters often give very long speeches, sometimes stretching over dozens of pages, explaining their philosophy of life. Rand used this as an opportunity to elaborate Objectivism, the philosophic system she is credited with creating, but also to showcase her view of other philosophic systems whose characteristic concepts conflicted with those of Objectivism. See more Message Boards Recent Posts

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Ayn Rand – IMDb

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Ayn Rand – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopdi

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Ayn Rand (2. februar 1905 i Sankt Petersborg 6. marts 1982 i New York), fdt Alisa Sinovjevna Rosenbaum (Russisk: ) var en Russisk/amerikansk forfatter og filosof, bedst kendt for sin filosofi kaldet objektivisme og bgerne Kun den strke er fri (Engelsk: The Fountainhead) og – og verden sklvede (Engelsk: Atlas Shrugged).

Hun blev fdt i St. Petersborg i Rusland som den ldste af tre dtre af en jdisk, men hovedsageligt agnostisk, familie. Hendes forldre var Sinovij Sakharovitj Rosenbaum og Anna Borisovna Rosenbaum, og hendes to yngre sstre var Natasja (1907) og Eleanora “Nora” (1910). Hun var tolv under den russiske revolution i 1917, og hendes familieliv blev forstyrret af opkomsten af Bolsjevik-partiet. Hendes faders apotek blev konfiskeret af sovjetterne, og familien flygtede til Krim for at komme sig konomisk og her frdiggjorde hun grundskolen. Hendes personlige oplevelser af det kommunistiske regime var med til at forme hendes politiske livsbane. Ayn Rand emigrerede til USA i 1925, resten af familien, p nr Eleanora, dde alle under 2. verdenskrig. Eleanora dde i 1999.

Fra en tidlig alder fattede Ayn Rand en interesse for litteratur og film, og op igennem sin barndom lste hun mange af de klassiske romantiske forfattere, Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo senere beskrev hun Victor Hugo som sin favoritforfatter. P St. Petersborgs Universitet lste hun filosofi og historie, og var her mest optaget af Edmond Rostand, Friedrich Schiller og Fjodor Dostojevskij, svel som filosofferne Nietzsche (Sledes talte Zarathustra) og isr Aristoteles (Organon (Logik)) som hun ans som verdenshistoriens mest afgrende filosof. I 1924 optoges hun p fakultetet for dramaturgi for at studere til filmmanuskriptforfatter. Men i 1925 blev hun tildelt et visum til USA for at besge sin familie, og efter et kort ophold hos noget familie i Chicago besluttede hun sig for aldrig at vende tilbage til Sovjet hvis kommunistiske regime hun afskyede. I stedet tog hun til Los Angeles/Hollywood for at forsge sig som filmmanuskriptforfatter og ndrede i den forbindelse sit navn til “Ayn Rand”. “Ayn” er en tilpasning af det finske navn “Aino”, og “Rand” kommer sandsynligvis af at hendes oprindelige navn Alisa Sinovjevna Rosenbaum.

I Hollywood startede Ayn Rand med at tage forskelligt forefaldende arbejde, det var her, hun som statist i en indspilning af Cecil B. DeMilles King of Kings, opsgte sin kommende mand, skuespilleren Frank O’Connor. De to blev gift i 1929, og i 1931 blev Ayn Rand amerikansk statsborger.

Hendes frste professionelle succes som forfatter kom i 1932 med salget af filmanuskriptet Red Pawn til filmselskabet Universal Studios. I 1934 skrev hun stykket The Night of January 16th som hun havde stor succes med, og i 1936 udgav hun romanerne Vi der lever (originaltitel: We the Living, p dansk 1945) og i 1938 Anthem. Grundet isr Vi der levers anti-kommunistiske tema (selvbiografisk beskrivelse af det kommunistiske regimes brutalitet) og det politiske klima i 1930ernes, hvor amerikanske intellektuelle ofte var pro-kommunistiske og forblndede af Sovjet, var bgerne svre at f udgivet og blev begge drligt modtaget med meget negativ omtale til flge. Anthem kunne ikke engang udgives i USA, men mtte udgives af et engelsk forlag. Ayn Rand beskriver selv Vi der lever som sin mest selvbiografiske roman, men hverken Vi der lever eller Anthem, skrevet fr hun fandt sin egen stil, kan betegnes som vrende reprsentative for hendes forfatterskab. Vi der lever blev senere, uden Ayn Rands tilladelse, filmatiseret i Italien som Noi vivi og Addio, Kira, men blev dog hurtigt censureret, efter det blev benbart for fascisterne, at de var lige s antifascistiske som de var antikommunistiske. Filmene blev genredigeret, nu med Ayn Rands tilladelse, og genudgivet i 1986.

I 1935 pbegyndte Ayn Rand manuskriptet til Kun den strke er fri (Originaltitel: The Fountainhead), som i modstning til Vi der levers politiske tema tog udgangspunkt i etiske dilemmaer; frihed, uafhngighed og personlig integritet. Bogens hovedperson, Howard Roark, er frste instans af Ayn Rands gennemgende arketype af den ideelle mand, der gennem personlig integritet og strben formr at stte sine ideer igennem. Kun den strke er fri skulle tage hende syv r at frdiggre, og som med hendes tidligere bger vise sig ualmindeligt svr at f udgivet. Tolv forlag afviste Kun den strke er fri, fr den i 1943 blev antaget af Bobbs-Merrill. Men trods disse besvrligheder samt drlig modtagelse af kritikere og tidens intellektuelle begyndte salget langsomt at tage fart, hovedsageligt gennem mund-til-mund-anbefalinger, og endte med at blive en verdensomspndende bestseller og give Ayn Rand blivende finansiel uafhngighed. Kun den strke er fri blev filmatiseret i 1949 med Gary Cooper og Patricia Neal i hovedrollerne, et stykke Ayn Rand selv skrev filmmanuskriptet til.

Under McCarthy-perioden vidnede hun om, hvad hun s som kommunistisk infiltration i Hollywood.

Ayn Rands strste og mest ambitise bog, Og verden sklvede (Atlas Shrugged), pbegyndt 1946, blev allerede ved udgivelsen i 1957 p forlaget Random House en international bestseller. Og verden sklvede anses som hendes mest gennemfrte og komplette udfrelse i fiktion af filosofien objektivisme og i appendikset til Og verden sklvede findes denne korte opremsning af hendes filosofi:

Min filosofi er i sin essens konceptet af mennesket som heroisk skabning med egen lykke som moralsk forml med livet, med produktiv skabelse som dets mest noble aktivitet, og fornuft som det eneste absolutte.

Bogens tema er menneskets rolle i samfundet. Ayn Rand opstiller den kapitalistiske ivrkstter og industrialist som et af de mest rvrdige medlemmer af samfundet og modsatte sig med alt hvad hun havde den populre dmonisering af samme. I Og verden sklvede forestiller hun sig sledes en verden, hvor statens stigende regulering, nationalisering og beskatning af erhvervslivet, fr de amerikanske industrialister til at g i strejke og trkke sig tilbage fra samfundet, hvorefter den amerikanske konomi langsomt men sikkert begynder at kollapse, godt hjulpet p vej af statens forsg p at adressere problemet ved at endnu flere restriktioner p en allerede restriktiv konomi. P trods af bogens centrale politiske omdrejningspunkt, tager bogen ogs s forskellige emner op som sex, musik, medicin og menneskelige kunnen.

Og verden sklvede skulle vise sig at vre Ayn Rands sidste sknlitterre vrk. Under arbejdet flyttede hun og hendes mand til New York, hvor Ayn Rand kom i forbindelse med en rkke personer der var blevet interesseret i hendes filosofiske tanker og sammen skabte de objektivismebevgelsen til at udbrede hendes filosofi. Denne gruppe mennesker omfattede bl.a. Nathaniel Branden, hans kone Barbara, Leonard Peikoff og Alan Greenspan senere USAs centralbankdirektr.

I 1960’erne og 1970’erne skrev og foredrog Ayn Rand om sin filosofi. Hendes essays i denne periode blev for strstedelen udgivet i tidsskriftet The Objectivist Newsletter (19621965), og senere det strre The Objectivist, (19661971), og til slut The Ayn Rand Letter (1971-1976)

Frank O’Connor, Ayn Rands mand, dde i 1979. Ayn Rand dde af hjertestop den 6. marts 1982 i sin lejlighed i New York. Hun er begravet i Kenisco Cemetery, Valhalla, New York, ved siden af sin mand.

Mere end to rtier efter sin dd har Ayn Rand de sidste r oplevet noget, der kunne minde om en renssance, med en stigende interesse for hendes ideer og et stigende salg af hendes bger. Alene sidste r blev der solgt over en halv million af Ayn Rands bger. I alt er der solgt over 23 millioner eksemplarer.

I 2003 fik de to administrerende direktrer for Saxo Bank, Lars Seier Christensen og Kim Fournais, optrykt Atlas Shrugged med eget omslag og forord i 10.000 eksemplarer, og sendte den ud til alle ministre, borgmestre og amtsborgmestre, til virksomhedslederne i Danmarks to tusind strste virksomheder; til diverse meningsdannere, samt til kunderne.

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Ayn Rand – Wikipedia, den frie encyklopdi

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Ayn Rand’s Ideas – An Overview |

Posted: August 16, 2016 at 4:34 pm

Ayn Rand wrote volumes urging people to be selfishThe Objectivist ethics proudly advocates and upholds rational selfishnesswhich means: the values required for mans survival qua manwhich means: the values required for human survivalnot the values produced by the desires, the emotions, the aspirations, the feelings, the whims or the needs of irrational brutes, who have never outgrown the primordial practice of human sacrifices, have never discovered an industrial society and can conceive of no self-interest but that of grabbing the loot of the moment… The Objectivist Ethics, 31View Full Lexicon Entry.

What? Arent people already too selfish? Just do whatever you feel like, be a thoughtless jerk, and exploit people to get ahead. Easy, right? Except that acting thoughtlessly and victimizing others, Rand claims, is not in your self-interest.

What Rand advocates is an approach to life thats unlike anything youve ever heard before. Selfishness, in her philosophy, means:

At the dawn of our lives, writes Rand, we seek a noble vision of mans nature and of lifes potential. Rands philosophy is that vision. Explore it for yourself.

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