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The Evolutionary Perspective
Category Archives: Cloning
Posted: June 24, 2017 at 2:21 pm
Published time: 24 Jun, 2017 08:49 Edited time: 24 Jun, 2017 10:16
Lab-produced dogs cloned from bio material taken from the two best representatives of the Yakutian Laika species have arrived in Russia from South Korea for genetic research. One met its original mother as a Ruptly crew filmed the moment.
The puppies, which were cloned by South Koreas Sooam Biotech Research Foundation, one of the worlds leading dog cloning laboratories, arrived in Yakutsk, the capital of Siberias Yakutia Republic, on Friday. The research was led by Dr. Hwang Woo Suk and his team.
The scientists succeeded in cloning the Yakutian Laikas, a type of hunting dog from Northern Russia and Russian Siberia, from a 12-year-old male and a 6-year-old female.
One of cloned puppies is a two-month-old girl named Kyrachana, which means beautiful in the Yakutian language. Another is a 3-month-old boy named Belekh, which means present.
Ruptly visited the farm where Kyrachana is now living when she met her original mother for the first time.
I cant really believe that it [the puppy] is a clone. If you look at the original, you can see that they both look alike,the dogs owner Dmitry said, adding that the puppy had been cloned from a part of the mother dogs ear.
The collaboration with the South Korean scientific laboratory is aimed at saving the original Yukutian Laika breed, whose population has seen drastic decline over past decades due to cross-breeding.
The canines were cloned in the Sooam Biotech Research Foundation, which is focused on advanced biotechnology for industrial and biomedical applications using animal cloning and pluripotent stem cells combined with transgenic technology, the companys website says.
However, not all of the cloned dogs are pets. The laboratory has replicated the best military and police dogs to assist the South Korean police, and many cloned dogs currently work in police forces in the US and China.
In November of 2016, the company sent three cloned Belgian Malinois to join police forces in Yakutsk.
Animal cloning is not allowed everywhere in the world. In 2015, the EU Parliament banned the cloning of animals, as well as importing their descendants.
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Posted: June 15, 2017 at 7:21 am
Having cloned sheep and who knows what else, wouldnt it be a good idea for scientists to begin cloning the worlds endangered species? Is there any reason not to?
Cloning technology has improved dramatically since 1996 when Dolly the sheep became the first mammal to originate from a somatic cell (any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells). We now have a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming, a process that gives a cell the capacity to generate all the different types of cells that make up the organism called totipotency. As a result, many species have been successfully cloned, including those of amphibians, fish, insects and mammals. But cloning is still inefficient, with a maximum of 5 per cent of cloned embryos developing into healthy offspring.
There have been several attempts at cloning endangered or even extinct species, such as the gaur and the Pyrenean ibex. These have been largely unsuccessful. Generally, hundreds of embryos have to be created, of which only a handful can be implanted. And of those, only a couple are born, but these often die soon after birth.
The problem in most cases is sexual isolation, which is part of the speciation process, in which one species eventually evolves into two separate ones. These become incapable of reproducing with each other because their reproductive cells are no longer compatible or the embryo of one species cannot be carried by a mother of the other. Both issues affect cloning.
One species where cloning has been successful is the African wildcat. Although wild, this species is still genetically close enough to the domestic tabby for interspecies embryo transfer to be slightly more efficient. More importantly, cloned animals were then able to mate and reproduce among themselves.
But the main problem with cloning remains: it eliminates genetic diversity. The whole point is to reproduce an exact copy of an individual, such as a champion racehorse. Most higher organisms, however, reproduce sexually, which leads to the offspring bearing a combination of characteristics from both parents. This genetic mix and match allows species to adapt to their environment and reduces negative traits or diseases within the population. A diverse genetic pool is essential for a species to survive in the wild.
So although cloning might help preserve some species in critical times, the best way to avoid their extinction is to protect their environment and stop senseless poaching of wild animals.
Alena Pance, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK
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Posted: at 7:21 am
Some of the wild horses in Abaco.
ON April 4, the government approved a proposal to restore life to an extinct sub-breed of Spanish horses through cloning, according to a press release from the Wild Horses of Abaco Preservation Society (WHOA).
The WHOA said government approval of the proposal to initiate the cloning process and to bring the horses back to Abaco enables it and another group, Arkwild Inc — a charity in the US — to begin major fundraising to make the restoration a reality by restoring the horses’ preserve to excellent condition prior to the arrival of the clones.
“The Abaco island horses thrived on the island of Abaco…when they were imported in the late 1800s,” the press release noted. “Human intrusions and an increasingly toxic environment led to a decline. A 25-year effort to save the horses ended on July 23, 2015 when the last mare died.
“Living tissue was saved from that last mare and in a dramatic series of events –worthy of an international suspense thriller — the tissue was airlifted to the US where ViaGen, a Texas firm engaged in cloning, found the cells viable and nurtured enough to clone two mares.
“Pro bono services valued at close to $2m have been pledged to the cloning effort by companies and individuals in the US.”
The group also explained its plans for the horses’ preserve.
“Along with the dramatic restoration of the herd, the horses’ preserve will become a showcase for equine assisted therapy, alternative energy systems, ecotourism and many related activities consistent with UN (United Nations) sustainable development goals.
“In an environment that is unique in the world, a unique horse once again will roam the pine forests of Abaco, 200 miles out at sea.
“Genetically unique after over a hundred years of isolation on Abaco, the Abaco horses were direct descendants of the distinctive horses of the Conquistadores who led the first major forays into the ‘New World.’ Those June 12, 2017 horses could best be described as ‘Jeeps,’ being tough, steady, sturdy and needing far less water and feed than standard domestic horses,” the preservation society noted.
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Posted: June 10, 2017 at 7:12 pm
Cloning Yourself in Photos or Videos
How many times have you seen a video or photo where a subject or even the artist themselves appear in it multiple times and wondered how they did that? Having a background in graphic design, I always guessed you just merge the footage or photos …
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Posted: June 8, 2017 at 11:13 pm
Australian grapes are unique. So unique they have the potential to surpass other new world wines such as popular varieties found in America.
Michael McCarthy, Primary Research Scientist for Viticulture at South Australias Research Development Institute, has been testing cloned grapes in Australias warmer wine territories. The aim of the experiment is to test how the cloned grapes will react to warmer climates particularly when temperatures in Australia are expected to rise dramatically in 50 years time (due to climate change). McCarthy explains the importance of the experiment:
Maybe the rest of the world might be more interested in some of our material. We have clones that just don’t exist in the rest of the world anymore because our planting is clean. Phylloxera is not an issue, root-borne virus transmission is not an issue. We have planting material in Australia that is probably unique to the rest of the world.
McCarthy discussed the issue with vignerons operating in colder climates in Orange and central west New South Wales. The grapes cloned in one region may work just as well in other regions, saving many of Australias cooler wine regions.
[We are] understanding how wine styles within regions may change as that region warms up going into the future. What we are trying to do is identify sites across Australia that have the same clones in common. We take out the clonal difference and look at the wine style from cool to hot regions. So if this currently cool region becomes a warm region in 50 years’ time how will those wine styles change?
The area in question is famous for Chardonnay which happens to be Australias number one white wine export, despite a decline of Australian consumption.
The call for Australian wine overseas, particularly our Chardonnay, is evident. As recently as last year 765 million litres of Australian wine was sent abroad valuing at $2.2 billion. According to trade minister Steve Ciobo:
Unlike other countries, Australias winemakers are not restricted by rules governing what they can plant or the types of wines they can produce. This has allowed innovation to thrive, driving Australias reputation for quality, consistency and diversity
China was revealed to be Australian winemakers best customer, with the US, UK and Canada following.
The experiment will hopefully enable winemakers to continue growing quality grapes despite the predicted rise in temperatures in the next 50 years.
Posted: June 7, 2017 at 5:20 pm
Marijuana growers have two choices when it comes to starting new plants: grow from seed, or grow from clone.
Nowadays, its easier to buy marijuana clones than ever before, especially if youre in Colorado or Washington.
And marijuana clones do offer advantages that growing cannabis from seed cant offer
Growing from clones youre sure to have allfemales, and as long as you do the cloning yourself, you know who the mother plant is and how your clones will grow, yield, and get you high.
But theres an art and science to marijuana cloning, and weve devoted several articles to it. In this one, we give you five rules for more-successful marijuana cloning:
Take your cannabis cuttings from a healthy motherplant.Cloning gives yougenetic duplicates of your marijuaan motherplant.
If your motherplants are strong, healthy, and have potent genetics, your clones are getting the best start possible.
Avoid using motherplants that are sick, or that are plagued with pests. The only exception to this is if the sickness or pests can be purged from the clones using interventions.
In general though, if the mothers are bad, the clones will be too.
Give Your Marijuana Clones a Consistent Climate.Most cannabis clones prefer temperatures slightly higher than your ideal grow room temperature, and they dont like a day and night cycle with a temperature drop at night.
Thats why most growers root their cuttings under fluorescent lighting that stays on 24 hours a day. The lighting itself creates temperature stabilization.
Temperatures between 74-77Fahrenheit are in the range you want.
If you go colder than that, the cuttings root development might stall or just never happen at all, especially if your cutting root zone is below 69 degrees F.
You can increase your marijuana cuttings root zone temperature by using a propagation heating mat.
If youre growing in true hydroponics like deep water culture or aeroponics, use an aquarium heater to warm up your water temperatures.
If your cuttings root zone goes much warmer than 79 degrees F though, you run the risk of creating an environment favorable to damping off or root rot microorganisms that can ruin your cuttings.
In that case, you get a chiller, or you control clone environment so temperatures in the root zone are in the ideal range.
Clones like high humidity: Your cuttings need a humid environment in the 75-95% humidity range until theyve created roots and are able to intake water through them.
Thats why many marijuana cloners use humidity domes. Other growers say the domes can create root rot or stem root conditions, so they prefer to mist their cannabis clones rather than putting a dome over them.
The best domes for marijuana cloning have aeration vents built in. You want to un-dome or ventilate your cuttings several times a day so they get fresh air.
Just remember, with clones its best to go for too much humidity rather than not enough. Until your clones have functioning roots, if theyre in dry air, theyll die.
Use kind hydroponics lighting. You can use high-output fluorescent, LED, or plasma lighting for optimal marijuana cloning. HID hydroponics lighting is too intense for clones.
Keep your lights on 24 hours a day, and make sure that your clones arent too close to the bulbs or LED chips. Clones can easily burn.
Use sterile equipment and materials.You already figured out that your scissors, razor blade, or other tool for cutting clones has to be clean.
But you also want to make sure you trays, cloning domes, and root zone media are clean and sterile too.
Dont re-use cloning cubes or cloning powders and gels. Start fresh every time. You can read more about cloning powders and gels in this really useful article.
When you follow these marijuana cloning tips along with the tips in the other cloning articles linked within this article, your clone success rate should be nearly 100%.
If youre taking 20 clones and seeing only 10 of them survive, somethings wrong, and you want to closely re-evaluate your cannabis cloning techniques, the equipment and environment you use for cloning,and your marijuana motherplants.
We want you to enjoy 100% marijuana cloning success!
Aeroponics, Cannabis, Cloning, featured, Fluorescent, Growing Medical Marijuana, HID, Humidity, LED, Lighting, marijuana seeds, Mother Plant, Rooting, Temperature
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Posted: at 5:20 pm
In prepared testimony for the Senate Intelligence Committee, James Comey will detail a series of meetings and phone conversations with President Donald Trump in 2017, as the former FBI Director says that he felt pressured by Mr. Trump to end an investigation of top Trump aide Michael Flynn, and that the President repeatedly asked the FBI to tell the public that he was not under investigation. You can read the full testimony from Comey, which was released by the Senate Intelligence Committee. Here are some of the details from the former FBI Director: 1. Comey: President Trump asked him for loyalty. At a January 27 dinner that involved only the two of them, Comey said he told Mr. Trump that as the FBI Director, he was not on anybodys side politically. Comey quotes the President as saying soon after, I need loyalty, I expect loyalty. That was followed by an awkward silence, according to Comey. 2. Comey: Trump asked him to drop Flynn investigation. The former FBI Director says that after attending a February 14 Oval Office meeting with other top officials, he was asked to stay behind by the President, who quickly made clear the topic. I want to talk about Mike Flynn, Comey quotes Mr. Trump, in talking about the investigation of Flynn, who had just resigned as the Presidents National Security Adviser. I hope you can see your way clear to letting this go, to letting Flynn go. He is a good guy. I hope you can let this go, Comey quotes Mr. Trump. 3. The cloud of the Russia investigation. The next conversation recounted in Comeys testimony occurred on March 30 in a phone call, as Comey says the President referred to the Russia probe as a cloud over his presidency. During that meeting, Comey says Mr. Trump asked multiple times for the FBI to publicly say that there was no direct investigation of the President. He repeatedly told me, We need to get that fact out,’ Comey recounted. 4. More concern about the Russia cloud. The last conversation between the two men was also by telephone on April 11. Comey says the President asked why there had not been any announcement that he was not under investigation, as Comey said he was told that the cloud was hampering his work as President. 5. There were other conversations not detailed. In his testimony, the former FBI Director says he can recall nine one-on-one conversations with President Trump in four months there in person and six on the phone. This testimony does not go through all of those there is no indication given as to why those were not included. BREAKING: Comey to tell Senate committee he found Trump request to end Flynn investigation ‘very concerning.’ AP Politics (@AP_Politics) June 7, 2017
Posted: at 5:20 pm
Australia’s winemakers are uniquely placed with grape types which, if cloned, could challenge established varieties in major markets such as the USA.
That is the view of Primary Research Scientist for Viticulture at South Australia’s Research Development Institute Michael McCarthy.
He has been involved in the testing of cloned grapes from warm regions.
This is to gauge how they will perform in areas predicted to be warmer in 50 years’ time due to climate change.
“Maybe the rest of the world might be more interested in some of our material,” Dr McCarthy said.
“We have clones that just don’t exist in the rest of the world anymore because our planting is clean.
“Phylloxera is not an issue, root-borne virus transmission is not an issue. We have planting material in Australia that is probably unique to the rest of the world.”
Dr McCarthy was in Orange in the central west of New South Wales discussing the issue with vignerons operating in the area known for its cool climate wines.
Grapes cloned from one area of Australia may perform just as well in another region, although have different characteristics even within the new area.
“[We are] understanding how wine styles within regions may change as that region warms up going into the future,” he said.
“What we are trying to do is identify sites across Australia that have the same clones in common.
“We take out the clonal difference and look at the wine style from cool to hot regions.
“So if this currently cool region becomes a warm region in 50 years’ time how will those wine styles change?”
The region is known for chardonnay, which is Australia’s number one white wine export, despite a decline in domestic consumption in recent years.
However this has changed with chardonnay enjoying a resurgence on the home tables.
Winemakers from the Orange region pointed out that the style of wine can change just by planting vines at different heights above sea level.
President of the Orange Vigneron Association and winemaker Justin Jarrett believed lessons had been learnt from the heady days when demand for chardonnay was exceptionally high.
“When you look at the Australian wine industry we don’t want to be at the bottom of the wine ladder. You want to be up the top,” he said.
“You want to deliver a product that people are prepared to pay more for.”
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Sorry, ‘Jurassic Park’ fans: Scientists say dinosaur cloning probably isn’t going to happen – Travel+Leisure
Posted: at 5:20 pm
Scientists at the University of Manchester have cast doubt over previous research that claimed the discovery of a protein from extinct dinosaur species.
Earlier research published in the journal Science claimed protein peptides had survived from a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex. This discovery led to a proliferation of “Jurassic Park”-esque theories claiming that scientists could possibly clone the DNA and recreate the extinct dinosaurs, as happens in the classic 1993 Steven Spielberg film.
The team from Manchester found that the reported proteins could have also come from cross-contamination with the bones of ostriches or alligators, both of which were used in labs where the original studies took place, according to a press release on these new findings.
The researchers of this most recent study were quick to point out that they did not set out to disprove the findings of their colleagues, nor did their own findings definitively negate the possibility of dinosaur cloning. They had originally been studying collagen fingerprints, or the protein inside bones, and how long it can survive over time.
All this research is saying is that contamination cannot be ruled out, Mike Buckley, a zoo-archeologist someone who studies ancient animals at the University of Manchester and one of the chief researchers, told Travel + Leisure.
They found that collagen had not been proven to survive more than 3.5 million years and that the proteins the original paper claimed came from dinosaurs may very well have come from another animal.
For fans of the Jurassic Park movie franchise or those excited for the upcoming Jurassic World 2 premiere, the research might be disappointing, but its not all bad news. Ancient DNA is a field of study that paleontologists are still exploring, and nothing can be ruled out.
The more we understand how these ancient molecules survive, the idea is were more likely to be able to find real, ancient DNA which you could then take advantage of, Buckley said.
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