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Category Archives: Neurotechnology

Edward Boyden | Big Think – Big Think

Posted: February 25, 2017 at 3:27 pm

Edward Boyden is a professor of Biological Engineering and Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the MIT Media Lab and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT. He leads the Media Labs Synthetic Neurobiology group, which develops tools for analyzing and repairing complex biological systems, such as the brain, and applies them systematically both to reveal ground truth principles of biological function and to repair these systems.

These technologies, often created in interdisciplinary collaborations, include expansion microscopy (which enables complex biological systems to be imaged with nanoscale precision) optogenetic tools (which enable the activation and silencing of neural activity with light,) and optical, nanofabricated, and robotic interfaces (which enable recording and control of neural dynamics).

Boyden has launched an award-winning series of classes at MIT, which teach principles of neuroengineering, starting with the basic principles of how to control and observe neural functions, and culminating with strategies for launching companies in the nascent neurotechnology space. He also co-directs the MIT Center for Neurobiological Engineering, which aims to develop new tools to accelerate neuroscience progress.

Amongst other recognitions, Boyden has received the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences (2016), the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2015), the Society for Neuroscience Young Investigator Award (2015), the Carnegie Prize in Mind and Brain Sciences (2015), the Jacob Heskel Gabbay Award (2013), the Grete Lundbeck Brain Prize (2013), the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award (2013), the NIH Director’s Transformative Research Award (twice, 2012 and 2013), and the Perl/UNC Neuroscience Prize (2011). He was also named to the World Economic Forum Young Scientist list (2013), MIT Technology Reviews international “Top 35 Innovators under Age 35” list (2006), and his work was included in Nature Methods “Method of the Year” in 2010.

Boydens Media Lab group has hosted hundreds of visitors interested in learning how to use new biotechnologies. He also regularly teaches at summer courses and workshops in neuroscience, and delivers lectures to the broader public, including talks at TED (2011) and the World Economic Forum (2012, 2013, 2016).

He received his PhD in neurosciences from Stanford University as a Hertz Fellow, where he discovered that the molecular mechanisms used to store a memory are determined by the content to be learned. Before his doctorate, he received three degrees in electrical engineering, computer science, and physics from MIT. Boyden has contributed to more than 300 peer-reviewed papers, current or pending patents, and articles, and has given over 300 invited talks on the work of the Media Labs Synthetic Neurobiology group.

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Edward Boyden | Big Think – Big Think

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7 reasons you must attend WIRED Health 2017 – Wired.co.uk

Posted: February 24, 2017 at 6:33 pm

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The fourth edition of WIRED Health returns on March 9 to shine a light on the big trends, breakthroughs and innovations from the worlds of medicine and healthcare.

As always, a diverse range of speakers will discuss the most critical themes and health technology inventions, and share their compelling stories and visions. Here are seven reasons why you can’t afford to miss it:

1. Listen to then meet 19 industry-leading speakers, including Jessica Mega, chief medical officer of Verily, Alphabets medical arm, which is working on a cancer-detecting wristband; Jeremy Freeman, science director of the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, which in late 2016 announced a $3 billion investment aimed at ending disease; and Peter Piot, co-discoverer of the Ebola virus and a leading researcher on HIV.

2. Hear from 15 exciting growth-stage companies on the WIRED Health EY Startup Stage, including disease-monitoring app Aparito, healthcare billing firm Eligible, medical robotic developer Ophthorobotics, and xbird, a disease management system that wants to save one million lives by 2020.

Since its launch in 2014, WIRED Healths Startup Stage has been a platform for entrepreneurs on the cusp of major influence to present their new products, solutions and technology. The first winner, sleep health app Sleepio and its parent company Big Health, made headlines in July 2016 for securing $12 million in funding to extend its work in mental health.

3. Network with more than 400 senior delegates from companies including AXA PPP, Barts Health NHS, Braun, Bupa, Chanel, Cisco Systems, Department of Health, Novartis, Galvanic, Gecko Biomedical, IBM, PwC and many more.

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4. Discover the biggest ideas and trends impacting the health sector, gain incredible insights and take home new techniques that can transform your business.

5. Discover a wide range of topics in the eight Main Stage sessions throughout the day. The agendaincludes The threat of epidemics, The end of ageing, Extreme medicine and Unlocking the brain.

6. Outside the Main Stage is the WIRED Health Clinic, an exhibition space where you will be able to interact with new healthcare products and devices. In the past, this space has hosted wearables, new wheelchair technology, groundbreaking prosthetics and neurotechnology tools.

7. Discounted tickets are available. WIRED subscribers are eligible for a ten per cent discount, and there are discounts for NHS and government employees, charities and startups. To enquire about discounts, just email our events team.

Want to know more? Join hundreds of healthcare, pharmaceutical and technology influencers and leaders at the fourth annual event on March 9 at 30 Euston Square. Buy tickets and learn more here.

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3Q: US Patent Office’s Ruling on CRISPR – Bioscience Technology

Posted: February 23, 2017 at 1:22 pm

Last week, the U.S. Patent Trial and Appeal Board issued an important decision in a dispute over intellectual property rights to the powerful gene-editing system known as CRISPR. Using this system, researchers can make changes to a cells genome more easily and with greater precision than they can with other approaches. The method has great potential to advance our understanding of the biology and treatment of human disease.

The Broad Institute and MIT hold several foundational CRISPR-related patents based on research led by Feng Zhang, who is the James and Patricia Poitras Professor in Neuroscience at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT and a core member of the Broad Institute. Zhang is also an associate professor in MITs Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences with a joint appointment in the Department of Biological Engineering.

The University of California at Berkeley has also filed CRISPR-based patent applications, stemming from research led by by Jennifer Doudna of UC Berkeley and Emmanuelle Charpentier, who is currently the director of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin. UC Berkeley and Charpentier asked the U.S. Patent Trial and Appeal Board to declare a patent interference to determine who was the first to invent key CRISPR inventions, suggesting that certain claims identified by UC Berkeley in its application were to the same invention as the claims in the Broad Institutes patents.

The Boards Feb. 15 decision means that the Zhang patents will remain in place, although UC Berkeley is weighing its options, including the possibility of an appeal to the Federal Circuit. MIT News talked with Charles Jennings, director of the McGovern Institute Neurotechnology Program, who also oversees communcations at the Institute, to learn more about the decision and its implication for gene-editing research.

Q: What is CRISPR, and what research is being done at MIT and the Broad Institute?

A: CRISPR is a naturally occurring system by which bacteria and other microorganisms fight viral infections. CRISPR systems, such as CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1, have been harnessed as powerful and efficient tools for genome editing, with far-reaching implications for biology and medicine.

Feng Zhang, a leading pioneer in this work, and his group submitted a paper reporting genome editing in mammalian cells (including human and mouse cells), using two different CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacterial species to target multiple genes in the cells genomes. This paper, which appeared in Science on Jan. 3, 2013 (Cong et al., 2013) is now the most cited paper in the genome-editing field. Since initiating this work, which began in early 2011 soon after Zhang started as a new assistant professor, his group has continued to develop the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. The researchers have also explored the natural diversity of CRISPR systems, which allowed them to discover new systems with advantageous properties distinct from those of CRISPR-Cas9.

Many other groups at MIT (along with thousands of other labs worldwide) are now using Zhangs CRISPR-related tools, which he has made widely available for academic research via the Addgene website, where they have been requested more than 37,000 times.

Q: What did the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office rule on Feb. 15?

A: Zhang and his colleagues have been awarded more than 13 patents for their CRISPR-related work, which is focused primarily on the use of CRISPR in eukaryotic cells. After the first of Zhangs patents were awarded, UC Berkeley suggested a patent proceeding known as an interference be declared, arguing that Zhangs invention was the same as their pending claims.

On Feb. 15, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (which is part of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) granted Broad’s motion for no-interference-in-fact, rejecting UC Berkeley’s arguments.

MIT welcomes this decision, which confirms that the patents and applications of the Broad Institute and MIT for use of CRISPR in eukaryotic cells are patentably distinct from the biochemical experiments in test tubes in the UC Berkeley filing. The Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) confirmed that Zhangs work, which began in 2011, represents a new invention that was not obvious from the prior work of Doudna, Charpentier, and colleagues, which was confined to results in a test tube. Specifically, in the words of the PTAB decision, one of ordinary skill in the art would not have reasonably expected a CRISPR-Cas9 system to be successful in a eukaryotic environment.

Q: How will this decision influence gene-editing research moving forward?

A: The Broad Institute and MIT are committed to making the CRISPR technology widely available for both academic and commercial use, including human therapeutic applications. The Broad Institute, which manages Feng Zhangs CRISPR-related intellectual property (IP) on behalf of both institutions, has developed what we have termed an inclusive innovation model for licensing CRISPR-related IP, in order to maximize the public benefit of this groundbreaking technology. The PTAB decision of Feb. 15 does not alter our policy, and we expect that genome-editing research will continue to move forward rapidly, with potentially transformative benefits for many fields including basic and disease-related research, agriculture, and medicine.

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3Q: US Patent Office’s Ruling on CRISPR – Bioscience Technology

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5th Annual Big Idea Competition Nets Three Winners Colorado … – Colorado College News

Posted: at 1:22 pm

Colorado Colleges fifth annual Big Idea competition, with $50,000 in seed money at stake, yielded three very different and very creative winners.

In first place was FlyPhone, which received $30,000. The was team comprised of six seniors: John Silvester, Dan Keogh, Ben Tweedy, Kiki Kauffman, Teddy Corwin, and Matt Levitan. Pitching the idea to the panel of judges were Tweedy and Kauffman, who explained FlyPhones concept of using a drone to turn a cellphone into a personal cameraman. The essence of their pitch states that By leveraging the power of your smartphone, our purpose-built software and drone body capture HD video from a more natural distance than a selfie stick, while affording a more intimate shot than any other drone on the market.

In second place was Chica Chocolate, which received $10,000. Team members Cassidy Lam 19 and Elise Morgan, who attends the University of Colorado, have been friends since they met in seventh-grade gym class (as did Ben and Jerry, they noted). Their high-quality chocolate truffles are infused with a Chinese herbal formula designed to ease monthly hormone cycles. Chica Chocolates are delivered to customers on a subscription basis.

Also receiving $10,000 was third-place Ogugu, made up of team members Harvey Kadyanji 18, John Roy Ballossini Dommett 18, and Niyanta Khatri ’17.

Ogugu is a business analytics platform empowering owners of micro enterprises with inventory management, bookkeeping, and operations reporting and forecasting. Initially aimed at Tanzanian micro enterprises, it offers an affordable mobile solution aimed at improving the performance, efficiency, and growth of Tanzanian commerce.

Two other teams made it to the final competition, culled from an initial field of 17 teams. They were Spindle, a neurotechnology company that uses a sleep headband to optimize mental performance and expand the capabilities of the human mind. Team members were Ben Hicks 18, Alec Sheffield 18, and Henry Alderson-Smith 18. Also making it to the finals was TREEhouse, which provides a treehouse vacation with a social and environmental emphasis. Team members include Kat Jacaruso 17, Erin Burk 17, and Cora Lubchenco 17.

The judging panel featured entrepreneurs Meriwether Hardie 09, Richard Koo 82, Kishen Mangat 96, Susan Smith Kuczmarski 73, and five-time judge Bob Selig 61.

It was a spectacular job on the part of all five teams, Kuczmarski says, noting the uniqueness and creativity of each. As a judge, Kuczmarski considered each proposal based on a set of criteria: the need for it, its uniqueness, the scalability of the project, financial viability, and what competitive advantage would it have in a market setting. All had different strengths, and it was hard to pick the winner. The first- and second-place winners will advance to the Angel Capital Summit, held March 21 at the University of Denver, where they will compete in the University Startup Challenge.

The Big Idea competition is part of Innovation at CC, designed to promote innovation and entrepreneurship. The competition was held in the Celeste Theatre in the Cornerstone Arts Center, with CC students, faculty, and staff; Colorado Springs community members; and Air Force Academy cadets attending.

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Israel and Indiana: Why You’re Getting an Invitation to the Holy Land … – 93.1 WIBC Indianapolis

Posted: February 22, 2017 at 4:20 am

INDIANAPOLIS–You may not realize it, but your state has its own relationship with Israel. Consul General Aviv Ezra was in Indiana Tuesday to help build that relationship further. He’s the highest-ranking Israeli official in the Midwest, and met with Gov. Holcomb, Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett and members of the Indiana congressional delegation.

“We are the Israeli embassy to the Midwest,” said Ezra. “Part of our goal is to reach out and bring Israel’s priorities here to the Midwest.” Ezra’s office is in Chicago and he covers nine states.

Not Just Business

He said the relationship is based on both business needs and shared values. Ezra said his meting with Holcomb was about both.

“Superb meeting. The governor is one of Israel’s best friends, supportive of the enhancement of the relationship. In terms of shared values we are very honored to have the support of the State of Indiana, with this governor and with his predecessors. The values are synced 100 percent,” said Ezra.

But, he believes that both Indiana and Israel can work together to make business happen for both.

“We feel there’s a lot of things that can be done and one of my jobs is to brand Israel here, but also to brand Indiana in Israel.”

Ezra said there are already 30 Israeli companies in Indiana. He said they are always looking for ways to increase the relationship. He said there have been much development in his country and he believes Indiana has much in common with Israel, with its technology-based business environment.

Not Just Conflicts

“Israel today, unfortunately, is always defined by the prism of the conflict. But, today Israel is totally not just about the conflict. It’s about high-tech, bio-tech, telecommunications, cybertechnology and neurotechnology, neuroscience and nanotechnology and for us, this is something that we want to find the right combination with our friends here in the United States, specifically on the level of the states, to create that win-win environment,” said Ezra.

And, what about you? Ezra said they’d like to have you as a guest.

“We want to bring as many people as possible from Israel here to learn and to map what the possibilities are. And on the other hand we want to have as many visits as possible from Indiana to Israel.”

Ezra said he extended an official invitation for the governor to visit Israel, with a business delegation.

PHOTO: Consul General Aviv Ezra by Chris Davis/Emmis

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Israel and Indiana: Why You’re Getting an Invitation to the Holy Land … – 93.1 WIBC Indianapolis

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Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR Market 2016 Fulcrum Biometrics, Neurotechnology, 360 Biometrics … – Albanian Times

Posted: February 18, 2017 at 4:23 am

Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR Market 2016, presents a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market globally, providing basic overview of Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure, Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR Market report provides development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures. Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market size, share and end users are analyzed as well as segment markets by types, applications and companies.

The study Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR Industry 2016 is a detailed report scrutinizing statistical data related to the Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR industry. Historical data available in the report elaborates on the development of the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market on a Global and national level. The report compares this data with the current state of the market and thus elaborates upon the trends that have brought the market shifts.

The market forces determining the shaping of the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market have been evaluated in detail. In addition to this, the regulatory scenario of the market has been covered in the report from both the Global and local perspective. Market predictions along with the statistical nuances presented in the report render an insightful view of the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market.

The demand and supply side of the market has been extensively covered in the report. The challenges the players in the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market face in terms of demand and supply have been listed in the report. Recommendations to overcome these challenges and optimize supply and demand opportunities have also been covered in this report.

Growth prospects of the overall Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR industry have been presented in the report. However, to give an in-depth view to the readers, detailed geographical segmentation within the globe Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market has been covered in this study. The key geographical regions along with their revenue forecasts are included in the report.

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The competitive framework of the Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR market in terms of the Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR industry has been evaluated in the report. The top companies and their overall share and share with respect to the Globalmarket have been included in the report. Furthermore, the factors on which the companies compete in the market have been evaluated in the report.

This report also presents product specification, manufacturing process, and product cost structure etc. Production is separated by regions, technology and applications. Analysis also covers upstream raw materials, equipment, downstream client survey, marketing channels, industry development trend and proposals. In the end, the report includes Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, investment return analysis, and development trend analysis. In conclusion, it is a deep research report on Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR industry. Here, we express our thanks for the support and assistance from Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR industry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Teams survey and interviews.

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Global Fingerprint Biometrics in the VAR Market 2016 Fulcrum Biometrics, Neurotechnology, 360 Biometrics … – Albanian Times

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Memristor Research Highlights Neuromorphic Device Future – The Next Platform

Posted: February 15, 2017 at 9:25 pm

February 15, 2017 Jeffrey Burt

Much of the talk around artificial intelligence these days focuses on software efforts various algorithms and neural networks and such hardware devices as custom ASICs for those neural networks and chips like GPUs and FPGAs that can help the development of reprogrammable systems. A vast array of well-known names in the industry from Google and Facebook to Nvidia, Intel, IBM and Qualcomm is pushing hard in this direction, and those and other organizations are making significant gains thanks to new AI methods as deep learning.

All of this development is happening at a time when the stakes appear higher than ever for future deep learning hardware. One of the forthcoming exascale machines is mandated to sport a novel architecture (although what that means exactly is still up for debate), and companies like Intel are suddenly talking with renewed vigor about their own internal efforts on neuromorphic processors.

The focus on such AI efforts has turned attention away from work that has been underway for years on developing neuromorphic processors essentially creating tiny chips that work in a similar fashion as the human brain, complete with technologies that mimic synapses and neurons. As weve outlined at The Next Platform, there are myriad projects underway to develop such neuromorphic computing capabilities. IBM, Hewlett Packard Enterprise with its work with memristors Qualcomm through its Brain Corporation venture and other tech vendors are making pushes in that direction, while government agencies like the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and universities like MIT and Stanford and its NeuroGrid project also have efforts underway. Such work also has the backing of federal government programs, such as DARPAs SyNapse and UPSIDE (Unconventional Processing of Signals for Intelligent Data Exploitation) and the National Science Foundation.

Another institution that is working on neuromorphic processor technology is the University of Michigans Electrical Engineering and Computer Science department, an effort led by Professor Wei Lu. Lus group is focusing on the memristors a two-terminal device that essentially is a resistor with memory that retain its stored data even when turned off that can act like synapses to build computers that can act like the human brain and drive machine learning. Weve talked about the growing interest in memristors for use in developing computer systems that can mimic the human brain.

Lus group created a nanoscale memristor that to mimic a synapse by using a mixture of silicon and silver that is housed between a pair of electrodes. Silver ions in the mixture are controlled by voltage applied to the memristor, changing the conductance state, similar to how synaptic connections between neurons rise and fall based on when the neurons fire off electrical pulses. (In the human brain, there are about 10 billion neurons, with each connected to other neurons via about 10,000 synapses.)

Neuromorphic computing proponents like Lu believe that building such brain-like computers will be the key moving forward in driving the development of systems that are smaller, faster and more efficient. During a talk last year at the International Conference for Advanced Neurotechnology, Lu noted the accomplishment of Googles AlphaGo program, but noted that it had to be done on a system powered by 1,202 CPUs and 176 GPUs. He also pointed out that it was designed for a specific task to learn and master Go and that doing so took three weeks of training and some 340 million repeated training reps. Such large compute needs and specific task orientation are among the weaknesses of driving AI in software, he said. AlphaGos win was an example of brute force an inefficient computer using a lot of power (more than the human brain consumes) and designed for s specific job that necessitated a long period of training. He also pointed to IBMs BlueGene/P supercomputer at Argonne National Lab that was used to simulate a cats brain. It used 147,456 CPUs and 144TB of memory to create a simulation that was 83 times slower than that of a real cats brain.

Once again, this is because they tried to emulate this system in software, he said. We dont have the efficient hardware to emulate these biological systems. So the idea is that if we have the hardware, then we can also implement some of the rules or features we learn in biology, not only will we make computers faster, but also you can use it to up with biological system to enhance our brain functions.

Were not trying to do it in software. Were actually trying to build as a fundamental device on hardware a computer network very similar to the biological neuro-network.

His group is doing that through the use of memristor synapses and CMOS components that work like neurons and are built on what Lu described as a crossbar electrical circuit. The crossbar network is comparable to biological systems in the way it operates. An advantage such a system like this has over traditional computers is the synapse-like way memristors operate. Traditional computers are limited by the separation between the CPU and memory.

Such a change could have a significant impact on a $6 billion memory industry that is looking at what comes after flash, he said. Lus team introduced its concept in 2010, and now he is a cofounder of Crossbar ReRAM, a company with $85 million in venture capital backing that was founded that same year and is working to commercialize what the University of Michigan team developed. He said in 2016 that the company already had developed some products for several customers. The company last month announced it is sampling embedded 40nm ReRAM manufactured by Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp. (SMIC) with plans to come out with a 28nm version in the first half of the year.

Categories: Analyze, Compute

Tags: Neuromorphic

IBM Wants to Make Mainframes Next Platform for Machine Learning Why Googles Spanner Database Wont Do As Well As Its Clone

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SentiVeillance 5.0 software development kit (SDK) – Officer.com (press release) (registration) (blog)

Posted: February 6, 2017 at 3:30 pm

Neurotechnologyreleased theirSentiVeillance 5.0software development kit (SDK). This latest version of SentiVeillance incorporates the new VeriLook face recognition algorithm featured inMegaMatcher 9.0, providing five times higher accuracy in identifying full frontal faces and 10 to 15 times higher accuracy for unconstrained facial recognition than the previous release. SentiVeillance 5.0 works with images from surveillance cameras, making it suitable for a wide range of applications in surveillance, security and public safety.

SentiVeillance uses the face recognition algorithm to match face images against internal databases, such as authorized personnel or criminal watch lists. This allows a SentiVeillance-based application to trigger alerts for recognized or unrecognized faces. “Using state of the art technology, called deep neural networks, we were able to significantly improve facial recognition accuracy, especially for unconstrained scenarios,” said Ignas Namajunas, surveillance technologies research lead for Neurotechnology.

The significantly higher accuracy for unconstrained facial identification is based on a smaller False Rejection Rate (FRR) at the same False Acceptance Rate (FAR) value.

In addition to face tracking and recognition, SentiVeillance provides real-time moving object detection; tracking and classification for pedestrians, vehicles and other predefined object classes based on size and speed of movement; and area control by event triggering when people or objects enter, leave or stay in restricted areas.

The SentiVeillance 5.0 SDK is available through Neurotechnology or from distributors worldwide. For more information and trial version, go to:www.neurotechnology.com. As with all Neurotechnology products, the latest version is available as a free upgrade to existing SentiVeillance customers.

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SentiVeillance 5.0 software development kit (SDK) – Officer.com (press release) (registration) (blog)

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UTMB Researchers Discover Reason for Permanent Vision Loss After Head Injury – Galveston.com & Company (press release) (blog)

Posted: at 3:30 pm

UTMB Researchers Discover Reason for Permanent Vision Loss After Head Injury

By: Raul Reyes | Monday, February 06, 2017

Research fromThe University of Texas Medical Branch in Galvestonhas shed new light on what causes the permanent vision loss sometimes seen in the wake of a head injury. The findings are detained inThe American Journal of Pathology.

When someone suffers a head trauma, sometimes there is damage to the optic nerve that is responsible for passing information between the eyes and the brain. When the optic nerve is injured, there are tears and swelling in the affected area that causes the nerve cells to die. This type of injury is called traumatic optic neuropathy, or TON, and results in irreversible vision loss.

At this point, there is no effective treatment for TON and the mechanisms of the optic nerve cell death have been largely unclear.

Wenbo Zhang, UTMB associate professor in the department of ophthalmology & visual sciences, and histeam found that inflammation brought on by white blood cells play a role in head trauma-induced vision loss. Limiting inflammation could decrease nerve damage and preserve cell function, researchers discovered.

Inflammation is part of the bodys defense system against injury and infection and is an important component of wound healing. White blood cells travel to injured areas to help repair the damaged tissue, causing inflammation in the process. Excessive or uncontrolled inflammation can actually make injuries worse and contribute to disease in a couple of different ways by activating cell death processes, clogging and rupturing blood vessels and producing toxic molecules like free radicals.

Our data clearly showed that one of the protein receptors on white blood cells called CXCR3 brings white blood cells to the optic nerve in response to production of its binding partner CXCL10 by damaged nerve tissue, said Zhang. When we deleted CXCR3 or gave mice a drug that blocks the receptors following optic nerve damage, we observed fewer white blood cells on the scene by real-time noninvasive imaging, nerve damage was decreased and nerve cell function was preserved compared with mice that did not receive any intervention following injury.

Yonju Ha, a lead author of this article, said that further studies on this receptor and its role in white blood cell recruitment following tissue injury may aid in the development of new interventions for diseases associated with nerve injury, such as TON, stroke, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.

Other authors include Hua Liu, Shuang Zhu, Panpan Yi, Wei Liu, Jared Nathanson, Rakez Kayed, Bradford Loucas, Jiaren Sun, Massoud Motamedi from UTMB and Laura Frishman from the University of Houston.

The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, the John Sealy Memorial Endowment Fund for Biomedical Research, Retina Research Foundation, the University of Texas System Neuroscience and Neurotechnology Research Institute, Retina Research Foundation and the BrightFocus Foundation.

Raul Reyes, director of media relations at UTMB, has an extensive background in communications with more than 30 years experience in journalism. Before joining UTMB in 2007, he was an editor at The New York Times and also worked as an editor at the Dallas Morning News and the San Antonio Express-News. When he and his wife, Linda, worked at the Houston Chronicle in the 1980s, they used to dream about living and working in Galveston. Some things do come true. Raul is at UTMB and Linda edits a couple of Dallas magazines from their home in Galveston.

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Top 4 Underrated Technologies – The Merkle

Posted: at 3:30 pm

Our society has reaped the rewards from the industrial revolution, as well as the first wave of technological revolution that came right after it. Some of the technology types we use today areawe-inspiring, even though we have started to take themfor granted. Technology is awe-inspiring in every way possible, and this list will go over the top 4 most underrated technologies.

What makes fibre optics so intriguing is how this technology dates back all the way to the year 1840. At that time, Alexander Graham Bell developed the technology to transmit voice signals over an optical beam. We later came to know this technology as the telephone, or landline as it is often referred to in this day and age.

In the Internet world, fibre optics have only just begun to gain mainstream traction. Higher internet speeds allow us to share and gather information more quickly, although fiber optics are not available in every part of the world just yet. Since these cubes or are immune to electrical interference, they are perfect for computer networking in general. Moreover, a fibre optic connection is considered to be more secure.

The term nano robots can be found in better sci-fi novels and TV shows these days. Contrary to what most people would believe, however, nano robots are very real and already exist among us. To be more precise, these robots are often used to determine drugs to the correct part of the body of patients suffering from terminal cancer. A very powerful technological feat that should not be underestimated by any means.

A lot has been said and written about the Internet of Things, despite this technology still being in the very early stages of mainstream traction. Objects who can communicate with other devices over the Internet is a very novel concept, yet it also poses quite a few security challenges. Rest assured a lot more news will come out of the IoT sector in the coming years, as more of these devices will make it into mainstream homes and locations all over the world.

In the year 2017, it almost seems straightforward to replace a missing limb with a prosthetic version. Up until a decade ago, such a concept was impossible to comprehend, as losing an arm or a leg would mean that functionality would be lost to us forever. Thanks to major advancements made in health care, prosthetic limbs have become a normality in recent years, mainly because they are starting to look very real.

Moreover, the early generations of prosthetic limbs were never designed to let its users feel anything in the traditional sense. This situation has come to change as well, thanks to DARPAs hard work of implementing neurotechnology. With realistic-looking prosthetics which become more powerful in functionality as time progresses, the future of prosthetics is looking very bright.

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