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Dolly (sheep) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: September 18, 2016 at 8:23 am

Dolly (5 July 1996 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.[2][3] She was cloned by Sir Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics, based near Edinburgh. The funding for Dolly’s cloning was provided by PPL Therapeutics and the UK’s Ministry of Agriculture.[4] She was born on 5 July 1996 and died from a progressive lung disease 5 months before her seventh birthday.[5] She has been called “the world’s most famous sheep” by sources including BBC News and Scientific American.[6][7]

The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. On Dolly’s name, Wilmut stated “Dolly is derived from a mammary gland cell and we couldn’t think of a more impressive pair of glands than Dolly Parton’s”.[1]

Dolly was born on 5 July 1996 and had three mothers (one provided the egg, another the DNA and a third carried the cloned embryo to term).[8] She was created using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its cell nucleus removed. The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother.[9] Dolly was the first clone produced from a cell taken from an adult mammal. The production of Dolly showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic totipotent state, creating a cell that can then go on to develop into any part of an animal.[10] Dolly’s existence was announced to the public on 22 February 1997.[1] It gained much attention in the media. A commercial with Scottish scientists playing with sheep was aired on TV, and a special report in TIME Magazine featured Dolly the sheep.[4]Science featured Dolly as the breakthrough of the year. Even though Dolly was not the first animal cloned, she received media attention because she was the first cloned from an adult cell.[11]

Dolly lived her entire life at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. There she was bred with a Welsh Mountain ram and produced six lambs in total. Her first lamb, named Bonnie, was born in April 1998.[5] The next year Dolly produced twin lambs Sally and Rosie, and she gave birth to triplets Lucy, Darcy and Cotton in the year after that.[12] In late 2001, at the age of four, Dolly developed arthritis and began to walk stiffly. This was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs.[13]

On 14 February 2003, Dolly was euthanised because she had a progressive lung disease and severe arthritis.[14] A Finn Dorset such as Dolly has a life expectancy of around 11 to 12 years, but Dolly lived 6.5 years. A post-mortem examination showed she had a form of lung cancer called Jaagsiekte,[15] which is a fairly common disease of sheep and is caused by the retrovirus JSRV.[16] Roslin scientists stated that they did not think there was a connection with Dolly being a clone, and that other sheep in the same flock had died of the same disease.[14] Such lung diseases are a particular danger for sheep kept indoors, and Dolly had to sleep inside for security reasons.

Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly’s death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned.[17] One basis for this idea was the finding that Dolly’s telomeres were short, which is typically a result of the aging process.[18][19] The Roslin Institute stated that intensive health screening did not reveal any abnormalities in Dolly that could have come from advanced aging.[17]

In 2016 scientists reported no defects in thirteen cloned sheep, including four from the same cell line as Dolly. The first study to review the long-term health outcomes of cloning, the authors found no evidence of late-onset, non-communicable diseases other than some minor examples of oseteoarthritis and concluded “We could find no evidence, therefore, of a detrimental long-term effect of cloning by SCNT on the health of aged offspring among our cohort.”[20][21]

After cloning was successfully demonstrated through the production of Dolly, many other large mammals were cloned, including pigs,[22][23]deer,[24]horses[25] and bulls.[26] The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. The attempt to clone a banteng bull was more successful, as were the attempts to clone mouflon (a form of wild sheep), both resulting in viable offspring.[27] The reprogramming process cells need to go through during cloning is not perfect and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development.[28][29] Making cloned mammals was highly inefficient in 1996 Dolly was the only lamb that survived to adulthood from 277 attempts. However, by 2014 Chinese scientists were reported to have 7080% success rates cloning pigs[23] and in 2016, a Korean company, Sooam Biotech was producing 500 cloned embryos a day.[30] Wilmut, who led the team that created Dolly, announced in 2007 that the nuclear transfer technique may never be sufficiently efficient for use in humans.[31]

Cloning may have uses in preserving endangered species and may become a viable tool for reviving extinct species.[32] In January 2009, scientists from the Centre of Food Technology and Research of Aragon, in northern Spain announced the cloning of the Pyrenean ibex, a form of wild mountain goat, which was officially declared extinct in 2000. Although the newborn ibex died shortly after birth due to physical defects in its lungs, it is the first time an extinct animal has been cloned, and may open doors for saving endangered and newly extinct species by resurrecting them from frozen tissue.[33][34]

In July, 2016, four identical clones of the Dolly sheep (Daisy, Debbie, Dianna and Denise) were alive and healthy at nine years old.[35][36]

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The Shadow Brokers’ NSA hack is extremely weird – Business …

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 9:21 am

National Security Agency

Earlier this week, a group calling itself the “Shadow Brokers” announced that it was selling a number of cyber weapons auction-style that it claimed were hacked and stolen from an alleged NSA hacking group dubbed “The Equation Group.”

Beside the fact that the National Security Agency getting hacked is eyebrow-raising in itself, the leak of the data and the claim from this mystery group that it’s just trying to make money doesn’t seem to add up.

Here’s why.

According to ex-NSA insiders who spoke with Business Insider, the agency’s hackers don’t just put their exploits and toolkits online where they can potentially be pilfered. The more likely scenario for where the data came from, says ex-NSA research scientist Dave Aitel, is an insider who downloaded it onto a USB stick.

Instead of a “hack,” Aitel believes, it’s much more likely that this was a more classic spy operation that involved human intelligence.

“This idea that a group of unknown hackers are going to take on the NSA seems unlikely as well,” Aitel told Business Insider. “There’s a long arm and a long memory to the US intelligence community, and I don’t think anyone wants to be on the other end of that without good reason. I don’t necessarily think a million bitcoin is a good-enough reason.”

Paul Szoldra/Business Insider

One of the many strange things about this incident is the very public nature of what transpired. When a hacker takes over your computer, they don’t start activating your webcam or running weird programs because you’d figure out pretty quickly that something was up and you’d try to get rid of them.

The same is true for the NSA.

If the Shadow Brokers owned the NSA’s command and control server, then it would probably be a much better approach to just sit back, watch, and try to pivot to other interesting things that they might be able to find.

Instead, the group wrote on Pastebin, a website where you can store text, that “we follow Equation Group traffic. We find Equation Group source range. We hack Equation Group. We find many many Equation Group cyber weapons,” which immediately signals to this alleged NSA hacker group that they have a big problem.

Though this seems problematic, it’s probable that the group no longer has access to the server, so it no longer cares about getting back on it. Since the files are years old, this could be the case. But it’s still out of the ordinary since any claim like this can be later investigated by the victim, which will be going through everything trying to figure out who they are.

If this was some random hacking group, then it would’ve been better to keep their mouth shut, especially when their victim is the NSA.

Software exploits are digital gold for hackers, since they often give a key inside a system or network that no one has ever noticed before, and thus, hasn’t fixed. Which is why the marketplace for these “zero-day” exploits is so lucrative. We’re talking hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for this kind of code.

Most of the time, an exploit is either found by a security research firm, which then writes about it and reports it to the company so it can fix the problem. Or, a hacker looking for cash will take that found exploit and sell it on the black market.

So it would make sense for a group like Shadow Brokers to want to sell their treasure trove, but going public with it is beyond strange.

“From my perspective, its extremely bizarre behavior,” an ex-NSA hacker who spoke on condition of anonymity told Business Insider. “Most groups who either identify or trade in exploits do one of two things. If you identify, like a security research firm [does] … they’ll typically publish their findings. They’re really in the best interest of the companies and users who use these products.”

The source added: “In the other scenarios, folks who sort of deal in the exploit markets. They quietly sell these things. To come out with this public auction is the more bizarre variance of that that I’ve ever seen. So it’s not clear what the intent here is.”

screenshot/The BBC

If you ask ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, the public leak and claims of the Shadow Brokers seem to have Russian fingerprints all over them, and it serves as a warning from Moscow to Washington. The message: If your policymakers keep blaming us for the DNC hack, then we can use this hack to implicate you in much more.

“That could have significant foreign policy consequences,” Snowden wrote on Twitter. “Particularly if any of those operations targeted US allies. Particularly if any of those operations targeted elections.”

Aitel seems to agree, though he criticized Snowden as being, at some level, a “voice piece” for Russian intelligence now, since he lives in asylum in Moscow.

“He has the same theory the DNC hack happened. The US political people got upset. They probably made the NSA do a covert response,” Aitel speculated. “This is another response to the NSA’s covert response. There’s a lot of sort of very public messages here going back and forth, which is interesting to look at.”

Aitel also doesn’t think that anyone is going to actually pony up the money required to win the auction. And that prediction is probably going to be right, since WikiLeaks claims that it already has the archive.

“We had already obtained the archive of NSA cyber weapons released earlier today,” its official Twitter account wrote, “and will release our own pristine copy in due course.”

The Shadow Brokers did not respond to an emailed request for comment.

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Famous Users of Psychedelics – How to Use Psychedelics for …

Posted: July 3, 2016 at 6:41 pm

Psychedelics have been used by many of the most creative and successful individuals in our society. Because of the stigma surrounding psychedelics, only a small percentage of these people have spoken publicly about their experiences. Here are a few who have. Right now, this list is just white men! We’d love to feature some well-known people of color and women– please let us know if you have any suggestions.

Steve Jobs and his Apple co-Founder Steve Wozniak took LSD many times at the beginning of their career. Their experiences are discussed in Walter Isaacson’s biography of Steve Jobs.

“Taking LSD was a profound experience, one of the most important things in my life. LSD shows you that there’s another side to the coin, and you cant remember it when it wears off, but you know it. It reinforced my sense of what was importantcreating great things instead of making money, putting things back into the stream of history and of human consciousness as much as I could.”

Steve Jobs Founder, Apple

Susan Sarandon discussed ayahuasca and mushrooms in an interview with the Daily Beast.

“Ive done Ayahuasca and Ive done mushrooms and things like that. But I like those drugs in the outdoorsIm not a city-tripper… I like doing it in the Grand Canyon, or in the woods. You want to be prepared and not have responsibilities. It does remind you of your space in the universeyour place in the universeand reframe things for you. I think you can have some very profound experiences.”

Susan Sarandon Actor

Frances McDormand described her experiences with LSD and psychedelic mushrooms in a 2014 interview with the Daily Beast.

“I really, really enjoyed LSD. And I really enjoyed mushrooms very much. Its unfortunate, I think, that drugs were not handled properly. Politically, theyve been used to separate the economic classes. Thankfully, its all getting fixed now with the marijuana laws. But with LSD, because it was countercultural, and because it was used as an experimental drug, it was not marketed properly. It if had been marketed properly, we would have it…. We needed a PR person for that LSD! It was very profound. Very profound.”

Frances McDormand Actor

Tim Ferriss is a multi-bestselling author of the Four-Hour Workweek and the Four-Hour Body. He has spoken repeatedly about his use of psychedelics and his advice about what he considers a safe and productive approach.

“The billionaires I know, almost without exception, use hallucinogens on a regular basis,” Ferriss said. “[They’re] trying to be very disruptive and look at the problems in the world … and ask completely new questions.” – Tim Ferris, CNN.com

In this video he addresses the subject in depth:

Cary Grant was used LSD with his therapist many times and was an advocate. Vanity Fair wrote about his experiences in detail in this article from 2010.

“The Curious Story Behind the New Cary Grant headlined the September 1, 1959, issue of Look magazine, and inside was a glowing account of how, because of LSD therapy, “at last, I am close to happiness.” He later explained that “I wanted to rid myself of all my hypocrisies. I wanted to work through the events of my childhood, my relationship with my parents and my former wives. I did not want to spend years in analysis.”

Vanity Fair

Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for dramatically improving the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is an essential tool of modern biology research. Albert Hofmann, the inventor of LSD, was told by Kary that LSD had helped him develop his PCR invention (Wired, 2008).

“Back in the 1960s and early ’70s I took plenty of LSD. A lot of people were doing that in Berkeley back then. And I found it to be a mind-opening experience. It was certainly much more important than any courses I ever took.”

Kary Mullis California Monthly, 1994

“What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?” He replied, “I don’t know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it.”

Kary Mullis BBC Horizon Interview, 1997

Psychedelics have been misunderstood and misrepresented for decades. That’s changing. Please help us share safe, responsible information on using psychedelics by sending this page to friends, and posting to Facebook, Twitter, and Google:

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PayPal Founder Peter Thiel Continues to Tout Anti-Government …

Posted: June 28, 2016 at 2:43 am

Peter Thiel, the founder of PayPal, is sick of paying taxes, and hes not going to stand for it any more. Rather than unilaterally secede from the government and face the indignity of being hauled to court as a tax-defying sovereign citizen, however, the super-rich hedge fund manager plans to start his own country.

Thiels no dummy: He knows that all the land on earth is already controlled by some nation or another.

Thats why he plans to establish his new country on the high seas. Thiel is an avid fan of seasteading, an ultra-libertarian concept in which autonomous ocean communities stationed in international waters would experiment with different forms of governance, competing for citizens fealty and wealth.

I no longer believe that freedom and democracy are compatible, Thiel wrote in a 2009 manifesto published by the libertarian Cato Institute. Since 1920, the vast increase in welfare beneficiaries and the extension of the franchise to women two constituencies that are notoriously tough for libertarians have rendered the notion of capitalist democracy into an oxymoron. Bemoaning the fate of the smartest libertarians who, he claims, were so bummed out by the state of capitalism that they escaped not only to alcohol but beyond it, he outlined a vision of the future free from the quixotic desires of the poor, stupid, and X-chromosomed among us.

The driving ideal of PayPal, he wrote, was to create a new world currency, free from all government control and dilution the end of monetary sovereignty, as it were.

Seasteading, he continued, is merely another means of achieving freedom from government control.

Seasteading is the brainchild of Patri Friedman, a former Google software engineer whose grandfather, Milton Friedman, was the Nobel Prize-winning free market economist. In 2008, Thiel provided the seed money to found, along with Friedman, the Seasteading Institute, which according to its website envision[s] a vibrant startup sector for governments.

The world needs a place where those who wish to experiment with building new societies can go to test out their ideas, it says. All land on Earth is already claimed, making the oceans humanitys next frontier.

In other words, seasteading would allow experimentation with all kinds of cool governments. Always wanted to live on an anarcho-syndicalist commune? How about a benevolent dictatorship? Or maybe your ideal is something like the Principality of Outer Baldonia, a now-defunct micro-nation off the coast of Nova Scotia whose declaration of independence endowed fishermen with inalienable rights including the right to lie and be believed, and the right of freedom from questioning, nagging, shaving, interruption, women, taxes, politics, war, monologues, cant and inhibition. Outer Baldonia even had its own currency the Tunar, named for a game fish abundant in its waters.

With seasteading, all this and more would be possible.

Thiel already is helping to fund one floating utopia Blueseed, a proposed vessel to be anchored in international waters 12 miles off the coast of Silicon Valley. Blueseed, which plans to launch by early 2014, intends to circumvent U.S. immigration law and be a haven for the boldest, brightest, and most talented tech entrepreneurs from around the world.

The Seasteading Institute has even bigger plans. Last November, it released a location study for larger, untethered ship-based and large-scale city scenarios, which took into account the factors that would be required for more elaborate autonomous ocean communities.

Seasteading isnt the only sci-fi idea Thiel has invested in. In 2009, the quirky libertarian pledged up to $3.5 million to the Methuselah Foundation, a nonprofit group that funds research on Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS). In 2004, Aubrey de Grey, the foundations gaunt and long-bearded founder, told the BBC he thinks the first person who will live to 1,000 could be 60 already.

At 44, having invested in avoiding both death and taxes, Thiel must be feeling ahead of the game.

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Genetic Engineering (song) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: June 12, 2016 at 12:39 am

“Genetic Engineering” is a song by British band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, released as the first single from their fourth studio album Dazzle Ships. Frontman Andy McCluskey has noted that the song is not an attack on genetic engineering, as many assumed at the time, including veteran radio presenter Dave Lee Travis upon playing the song on BBC Radio 1. McCluskey stated: “I was very positive about the subject. People didn’t listen to the lyrics…I think they automatically assumed it would be anti.”[2]

Charting at number 20 on the UK Singles Chart, “Genetic Engineering” ended the band’s run of four consecutive Top 10 hits in the UK. It was also a Top 20 hit in several European territories, and peaked at number 5 in Spain. It missed the United States Billboard Hot 100 but made number 32 on the Mainstream Rock chart. US critic Ned Raggett retrospectively lauded the “soaring”, “enjoyable” single in a positive review of Dazzle Ships for AllMusic, asserting: “Why it wasn’t a hit remains a mystery.”[3]

Critics in prominent music publications have suggested that the first 45 seconds of the song were a direct influence on Radiohead’s “Fitter Happier”, which appears on that band’s 1997 album OK Computer.[3][4][5] Theon Weber in Stylus argued that the Radiohead track is “deeply indebted” to “Genetic Engineering”.[4] The synthesized speech featured on the track is taken from a Speak & Spell, an educational electronic toy developed by Texas Instruments in the 1970s intended to teach children with spelling.

The new song “4-Neu” was featured on the B side of both the 7″ and 12″ versions. The song was not included on the Dazzle Ships album and remained exclusive to this release until its inclusion in the Navigation: The OMD B-Sides album in 2001 and then on the remastered special edition of Dazzle Ships in 2008. The song continues the band’s tradition of including more experimental tracks as B sides to singles. The song title is a tribute to 70’s German band Neu!, a Krautrock band that were an important influence on Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys prior to OMD.[6] “4-Neu” was never performed live until the special performance of Dazzle Ships at The Museum of Liverpool in November 2014 and at the Dazzle Ships / Architecture & Morality live performances in London and Germany in May 2016.[7]

Side one

Side two

Side one

Side two

A promotional video for Genetic Engineering was made and is included on the Messages – Greatest Hits CD/DVD release (2008).

Apart from the extended ‘312mm version’ the band also recorded the song for a John Peel radio session in 1983. This version was made available on the Peel Sessions 1979-1983 album release (2000).

OMD played the song live on The Tube during its first series in February 1983.

The song was performed live during the Dazzle Ships promotional tour but rarely since then, until more recent live performances shows in 2014 and 2016.[12]

“Genetic Engineering” was covered by indie rock band Eggs and released as a single in 1994.[13]

It was also covered by Another Sunny Day as a limited edition single in 1989 and as an extra track on the re-release of on their ‘London Weekend’ album.

Optiganally Yours recorded a cover for a “very low-key tribute compilation”.[14]

More recently, it has been covered by the indie rock band Oxford Collapse as part of the Hann-Byrd EP released in 2008.

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Australian computer scientist claims he created Bitcoin – May …

Posted: May 2, 2016 at 3:43 pm

Australian computer scientist Craig Steven Wright has publicly identified himself as “Satoshi Nakamoto,” founder of the widely-used cryptocurrency Bitcoin.

Wright has told three media organizations — the BBC, the Economist and GQ — that he is the father of Bitcoin. The computer scientist has also published a blog post that he says includes cryptographic proof for the claim.

Bitcoin was created in 2009, but the identity of its founder has remained shrouded in secrecy. The creator used the name “Satoshi Nakamoto,” but many experts have assumed the moniker was a pseudonym.

Speculation over the mystery flourished in recent years, and multiple media outlets carried out investigations that sought to unmask the founder. At least a dozen of people have in the past been named as Bitcoin creators.

Newsweek, for example, reported in 2014 that a retired engineer named Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto was the one. But Nakamoto forcefully denied the report, saying he had never even heard of the currency.

The New Yorker ran an article in 2011 that suggested a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College could be the founder. The student denied the claim.

Related: Alleged Bitcoin creator denies he’s the one

In 2015, tech publications Wired and Gizmodo put forward Wright’s name. “Either Wright invented Bitcoin, or he’s a brilliant hoaxer who very badly wants us to believe he did,” Wired wrote at the time. Australian media reported at that time that a house believed to be owned by Wright has been searched by the Australian Federal Police in connection to a tax issue.

But many questions remained unanswered.

The blog published by Wright on Monday seeks to remove all doubts. In it, the computer scientist claims to verify the cryptographic keys to a key Bitcoin “block,” or group of transactions, that dates to the early days of the currency.

Two leading Bitcoin developers, Jon Matonis and Gavin Andersen, came forward on Monday, backing Wright’s claims.

Andersen, who is the chief scientist at the Bitcoin Foundation, said Wright demonstrated the supposed verifications keys to him at a meeting in London a couple of weeks ago. “After spending time with him I am convinced beyond a reasonable doubt: Craig Wright is Satoshi,” he said in a blog post.

Matonis, who is the founding director at Bitcoin Foundation, said he was also convinced Wright was the founder of Bitcoin, after attending a private proof session with him.

Related: What is Bitcoin?

But many other Bitcoin developers remain skeptical. They say the blog itself proves nothing, publishing something that has been “out there” for a while. They also claim cryptographic keys found on Wright’s blog posts have been backdated.

“The page copies a signature out of the Bitcoin Blockchain from 2009,” said Greg Maxwell, the chief technology office at Blockstream, a Bitcoin startup.

Wright reportedly demonstrated the procedure for the Economist, which reported that, “as far as we can tell he indeed seems to be in possession of the keys.”

But even the Economist, which agreed not to write about the computer scientist until the blog post was published, has doubts.

“Our conclusion is that Mr. Wright could well be Mr Nakamoto, but that important questions remain,” the magazine said in its report.

Wright did not immediately respond to a request for comment Tuesday. “Some people will believe, some people won’t,” he told the BBC. “And to tell you the truth, I don’t really care.”

He told the Economist and the BBC he was not seeking publicity. “I don’t want money, I don’t want fame, I don’t want adoration. I just want to be left alone,” he said in a video posted by the BBC.

On his blog, Wright said he came out as the founder of Bitcoin to “set the record straight” and “dispel the myths out there and unleash its potential to change the world for the better.”

CNNMoney (London) First published May 2, 2016: 4:59 AM ET

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NATO Wikipedia ting Vit

Posted: February 1, 2016 at 7:43 pm

NATO l tn tt ca T chc Hip c Bc i Ty Dng (ting Anh: North Atlantic Treaty Organization; ting Php: Organisation du Trait de l’Atlantique Nord v vit tt l OTAN) l mt lin minh qun s thnh lp nm 1949 bao gm M v mt s nc chu u. Tr s chnh t ti Brussels, B,[3] v t chc thit lp mt lin minh phng th trong cc nc thnh vin thc hin phng th chung khi b tn cng bi bn ngoi.

Mc ch thnh lp ca NATO l ngn chn s pht trin nh hng ca ch ngha cng sn v Lin X lc ang trn pht trin rt mnh chu u c th gy phng hi n an ninh ca cc nc thnh vin. Vic thnh lp NATO dn n vic cc nc cng sn thnh lp khi Warszawa lm i trng. S knh ch v chy ua v trang ca hai khi qun s i ch ny l cuc i u chnh ca Chin tranh Lnh trong na cui th k 20.

Nhng nm u tin thnh lp, NATO ch l mt lin minh chnh tr. Tuy nhin, do cuc chin tranh Triu Tin tc ng, mt t chc qun s hp nht c thnh lp. Nghi ng rng lin kt ca cc nc chu u v M yu i cng nh kh nng phng th ca NATO trc kh nng m rng ca Lin X, Php rt khi NATO nm 1966. Nm 2009, vi s phiu p o ca quc hi di s lnh o ca chnh ph ca tng thng Nicolas Sarkozy, Php quay tr li NATO.

Sau khi bc tng Berlin sp nm 1989, t chc b li cun vo cuc phn chia nc Nam T, v ln u tin tham d qun s ti Bosna v Hercegovina t 1992 ti 1995 v sau th bom Serbia vo nm 1999 trong cuc ni chin Kosovo. T chc ngoi ra c nhng quan h tt p hn vi nhng nc thuc khi i u trc y trong nhiu nc tng thuc khi Warszawa gia nhp NATO t nm 1999 n 2004. Ngy 1 thng 4 nm 2009, s thnh vin ln n 28 vi s gia nhp ca Albania v Croatia.[4] T sau s kin 11 thng 9 nm 2001, NATO tp trung vo nhng th thch mi trong c a qun n Afghanistan v Iraq.

Chi ph qun s ca NATO chim 70% chi ph qun s th gii, ring M chim khong 50%, Anh, Php, c v gp li chim 15% chi ph qun s th gii.

Hy Lp v Th Nh K gia nhp t chc vo thng 2 nm 1952. Nm 1955 Cng ho Lin bang c (lc ch c phn Ty c) gia nhp, nm 1990 nc c thng nht m rng t cch thnh vin cho vng lnh th ng c tc Cng ho Dn ch c c. Ty Ban Nha gia nhp ngy 30 thng 5 nm 1982. Nm 1999, 3 nc thnh vin khi Warszawa c gia nhp NATO l Ba Lan, Cng ho Sc v Hungary.

Php l mt thnh vin NATO, nhng nm 1966 rt khi b ch huy qun s. Sau tng hnh dinh NATO chuyn t Paris n Bruxelles. Thng 4 nm 2009, Php quay tr li b ch huy qun s NATO, tr thnh thnh vin y , chm dt 43 nm vng bng. Iceland l thnh vin duy nht ca NATO khng c qun i ring v th lc lng qun i Hoa K thng trc ti Iceland m nhim vai tr Lc lng Phng v Iceland.

Ngy 29 thng 3 nm 2004, Slovenia, Slovakia, cc nc khi Warszawa c gm Bulgaria, Romania, cc nc vng Baltic thuc Lin X trc y l Estonia, Latvia v Litva chnh thc gia nhp NATO. Thng 4 cng nm, cc nc ny ln u tin d hp hi ng NATO.

Ngy 1 thng 4 nm 2009, Croatia v Albania chnh thc c kt np vo NATO sau 1 nm np n xin gia nhp.

Ngoi ra, NATO cn c chng trnh hnh ng thnh vin (MAP). Hin ti MAP gm Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina v Montenegro.

Bn Chin lc An ninh Quc gia, do Tng thng Putin k hm th Nm 31/12/2015, m t vic m rng ca Nato l mt mi e da i vi nc Nga. Chin lc An ninh Quc gia Nga c cp nht su nm mt ln. Phng vin chuyn v ngoi giao ca BBC, Bridget Kendall, ni rng ng Putin ang tm kim nhng n by nhm lm suy yu mi quan h ca chu u vi Hoa K, vi hy vng l s n mt ngy nc Nga tr thnh i tc chin lc chnh ca chu u. [5]

c thm Early period

c thm Late Cold War period

c thm Post Cold War period

c thm General histories

c thm Other Issues

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Big Bang Theory

Posted: January 14, 2016 at 9:44 am

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Big Bang Theory – The Premise The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment.

According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as “singularity” around 13.7 billion years ago. What is a “singularity” and where does it come from? Well, to be honest, we don’t know for sure. Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics. They are thought to exist at the core of “black holes.” Black holes are areas of intense gravitational pressure. The pressure is thought to be so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density (a mathematical concept which truly boggles the mind). These zones of infinite density are called “singularities.” Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something – a singularity. Where did it come from? We don’t know. Why did it appear? We don’t know.

After its initial appearance, it apparently inflated (the “Big Bang”), expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside of an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.

Big Bang Theory – Common Misconceptions There are many misconceptions surrounding the Big Bang theory. For example, we tend to imagine a giant explosion. Experts however say that there was no explosion; there was (and continues to be) an expansion. Rather than imagining a balloon popping and releasing its contents, imagine a balloon expanding: an infinitesimally small balloon expanding to the size of our current universe.

Another misconception is that we tend to image the singularity as a little fireball appearing somewhere in space. According to the many experts however, space didn’t exist prior to the Big Bang. Back in the late ’60s and early ’70s, when men first walked upon the moon, “three British astrophysicists, Steven Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose turned their attention to the Theory of Relativity and its implications regarding our notions of time. In 1968 and 1970, they published papers in which they extended Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space.1, 2 According to their calculations, time and space had a finite beginning that corresponded to the origin of matter and energy.”3 The singularity didn’t appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy – nothing. So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don’t know. We don’t know where it came from, why it’s here, or even where it is. All we really know is that we are inside of it and at one time it didn’t exist and neither did we.

Big Bang Theory – Evidence for the Theory What are the major evidences which support the Big Bang theory?

Big Bang Theory – The Only Plausible Theory? Is the standard Big Bang theory the only model consistent with these evidences? No, it’s just the most popular one. Internationally renown Astrophysicist George F. R. Ellis explains: “People need to be aware that there is a range of models that could explain the observations.For instance, I can construct you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations.You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds. In my view there is absolutely nothing wrong in that. What I want to bring into the open is the fact that we are using philosophical criteria in choosing our models. A lot of cosmology tries to hide that.”4

In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an attractive alternative to the standard theory, an alternative which also accounts for the evidences listed above.5 Dr. Gentry claims that the standard Big Bang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm (the Friedmann-lemaitre expanding-spacetime paradigm) which he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. He chooses instead to base his model on Einstein’s static-spacetime paradigm which he claims is the “genuine cosmic Rosetta.” Gentry has published several papers outlining what he considers to be serious flaws in the standard Big Bang model.6 Other high-profile dissenters include Nobel laureate Dr. Hannes Alfvn, Professor Geoffrey Burbidge, Dr. Halton Arp, and the renowned British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle, who is accredited with first coining the term “the Big Bang” during a BBC radio broadcast in 1950.

Big Bang Theory – What About God? Any discussion of the Big Bang theory would be incomplete without asking the question, what about God? This is because cosmogony (the study of the origin of the universe) is an area where science and theology meet. Creation was a supernatural event. That is, it took place outside of the natural realm. This fact begs the question: is there anything else which exists outside of the natural realm? Specifically, is there a master Architect out there? We know that this universe had a beginning. Was God the “First Cause”? We won’t attempt to answer that question in this short article. We just ask the question:

Does God Exist?


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Big Bang Theory

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In the Wake of Charlie Hebdo, Free Speech Does Not Mean …

Posted: September 26, 2015 at 7:40 pm

On Wednesday morning, the French satirical paper Charlie Hebdo was attacked by three masked gunmen, armed with kalashnikovs, who stormed the building and killed ten of its staff and two police officers. The gunmen are currently understood to be Muslim extremists. This attack came minutes after the paper tweeted this drawing of ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi.

(Best wishes, by the way. Baghdadi: And especially good health!)

An armed attack on a newspaper is shocking, but it is not even the first time Hebdo has been the subject of terrorist attacks. Gawker has a good summary of past controversies and attacks involving Hebdo. Most famously, the magazines offices were firebombed in 2011, after they printed an issue depicting the Prophet Muhammad on the cover.

In the face of such an obvious attack on free speech, voicing anything except grief-stricken support is seen by many as disrespectful. Tom Spurgeon at The Comics Reporter, one of the first American comics sources to thoroughly cover the attack, quickly tweeted this:

When faced with a terrorist attack against a satirical newspaper, the appropriate response seems obvious. Dont let the victims be silenced. Spread their work as far as it can possibly go. Laugh in the face of those savage murderers who dont understand satire.

In this case, it is the wrong response.

Heres whats difficult to parse in the face of tragedy: yes,Charlie Hebdo is a French satirical newspaper. Its staff is white. (Update:Charlie Hebdos staff it not all white. See note below.) Its cartoons often represent a certain, virulently racist brand of French xenophobia. While they generously claim to attack everyone equally, the cartoons they publish are intentionally anti-Islam, and frequently sexist and homophobic.

Here, for context, are some of the cartoons they recently published.

(Yes, that last one depicts Boko Haram sex slavesas welfare queens.)

These are, by even the most generous assessment, incredibly racist cartoons.Hebdos goal is to provoke, and these cartoons make it very clear who the white editorial staff was interested in provoking: Frances incredibly marginalized, often attacked, Muslim immigrant community.

Even in a fresh-off-the-press, glowing BBC profile of Charb, Hebdos murdered editor, he comes across as a racist asshole.

Charb had strongly defended Charlie Hebdos cartoons featuring the Prophet Muhammad.

Muhammad isnt sacred to me, he told the Associated Press in 2012, after the magazines offices had been fire-bombed.

I dont blame Muslims for not laughing at our drawings. I live under French law. I dont live under Koranic law.

Now, I understand that calling someone a racist asshole after their murder is a callous thing to do, and I dont do it lightly. This isnt ambiguous,though: the editorial staff ofHebdo consistently aimed to provoke Muslims. They ascribe to the same edgy-white-guy mentality that many American cartoonists do: nothing is sacred, sacred targets are funnier, lighten up, criticism is censorship. And just like American cartoonists, they and their supporters are wrong. White men punching down is not a recipe for good satire, and needs to be called out. People getting upset does not prove that the satire was good. And, this is the hardest part, the murder of the satirists in question does not prove that their satire was good. Their satire was bad, and remains bad. Their satire was racist, and remains racist.

The response to the attacks by hack cartoonists the world over has been swift. While many are able to keep pretty benign:

Several of the cartoons sweeping Twitter stooped to drawing hook-nosed Muslim caricatures, reminiscent of Hebdos house style.

Perhaps most offensively, this Shaw cartoon (incorrectly attributed to Robert Mankoff) from a few years back swept Twitter, paired with the hashtag #CharlieHebdo:

Political correctness did not kill twelve people at the Charlie Hebdo offices. To talk about the attack as an attack by political correctness is the most disgusting, self-serving martyr bullshit I can imagine. To invoke this (bad) Shaw cartoon in relation to the Hebdo murders is to assert that cartoons should never be criticized. To invoke this garbage cartoon is to assert that white, male cartoonists should never have to hear any complaints when they gleefully attack marginalized groups.

Changing your twitter avatar to a drawing of the Prophet Muhammad is a racist thing to do, even in the face of a terrorist attack. The attitude that Muslims need to be punished is xenophobic and distressing. The statement, JE SUIS CHARLIE works to erase and ignore the magazines history of xenophobia, racism, and homophobia. For us to truly honor the victims of a terrorist attack on free speech, we must not spread hateful racism blithely, and we should not take pride in extreme attacks on oppressed and marginalized peoples.

A call TO ARMS

is gross and inappropriate. To simplify the attack on theCharlie Hebdo offices as Good, Valiant Westerners vs. Evil, Savage Muslims is not only racist, its dangerously overstated. Cartoonists (especially political cartoonists) generally reinforce the status quo, and they tend to be white men. Calling fellow cartoonists TO ARMS is calling other white men to arms against already marginalized people. The inevitable backlash against Muslims has begun in earnest.

This is the worst.

The fact that twelve people are dead over cartoons is hateful, and I can only pray that their attackers are brought to justice. Free speech is an important part of our society, but, it should always go without saying, free speech does not mean freedom from criticism. Criticism IS speech to honor free speech martyrs by shouting down any criticism of their work is both ironic and depressing.

In summary:

Nobody should have been killed over those cartoons.

Fuck those cartoons. ________

Update by Noah: Jacob initially stated that Charlie Hebdos staff is white. In fact, CH did have non-white staffers, including copy editor Mustapha Orrad, who was murdered by the terrorists, and journalist Zineb El Rhazoui. Jacob said that his point was that Charlie Hebdos chief editor was white, and that The controversial cartoonists being mourned as free-speech martyrs are all white men. For all HU posts on Satire and Charlie Hebdo click here.

Tags: Charlie Hebdo, Jacob Canfield, racism, Satire and Charlie Hebdo Roundtable, terrorism

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Free Speech – Natalie Bennett (Green Party), 17th March 2015 – Video

Posted: April 11, 2015 at 7:53 am

Free Speech – Natalie Bennett (Green Party), 17th March 2015
From BBC 3.

By: Brock Election

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Free Speech – Natalie Bennett (Green Party), 17th March 2015 – Video

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