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Why is Gary Johnson still in the race – CNNPolitics.com

Posted: October 1, 2016 at 1:51 am

The Libertarian presidential candidate is the subject of intensifying ridicule following his latest televised flub when he couldn’t name a world leader he admired during a Wednesday interview with MSNBC’s Chris Matthews. That follows another embarrassing on-air moment last month when, in response to a question about how he would alleviate the plight of the besieged Syrian city of Aleppo, he responded: “What is Aleppo?”

The gaffes, combined with his failure to make the debate stage and his infinitesimal chance of winning the White House, raise a pressing question: Why is Johnson still in the race?

Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton ribbed Johnson Thursday by pretending to struggle when she was asked to name a world leader she admired. But she made clear her view that she and her Republican counterpart, Donald Trump, are the only viable candidates.

“Either Donald Trump or I will be the President of the United States,” she told reporters on her campaign plane, sending a clear warning to disaffected Democrats flirting with Johnson. “People have to look carefully in making their decision. It will be either him or me.”

But Johnson isn’t going anywhere.

William Weld, Johnson’s running mate, said the latest stumble doesn’t leave him with any doubts.

“He’s a deep person in terms of his thinking and he thinks through things in a way that many other people don’t,” Weld told CNN’s Randi Kaye Thursday on Anderson Cooper 360. “Pop quizzes on television are obviously not his forte but depth of analysis and surprising lines of analysis are his forte. I think he just needs time to expound what he’s thinking.”

Johnson’s decision to stay in the race isn’t just an academic question. He and Weld are doing well enough in swing states to pull votes from both Trump and Clinton. In the latest CNN/ORC poll of Colorado a state Clinton must win and which her campaign thought was already safe Johnson is polling at 13% among likely voters while Clinton trails Trump 42% to 41%.

Third party candidates have traditionally had a rough ride in the two-party US election system none have made a significant national impact since billionaire Ross Perot grabbed 19% of the vote in 1992.

But amid the most polarizing election in years featuring two major party nominees with historic unfavorability ratings, there may be a market for Johnson’s character and ideas.

“Something is obviously different this time,” said Kyle Saunders, a political analyst at Colorado State University. “Part of it is the unpopularity of the two major party candidates. The strongest of partisans are behaving the way they always behave.”

He added: “Those other people who are not the strongest partisans are looking for some other places to cast their ballot.”

And the more that the chattering classes disdain Johnson, the more stubborn he seems to get.

“It’s been almost 24 hours … and I still can’t come up with a foreign leader I look up to,” Johnson tweeted defiantly Thursday.

Johnson’s campaign manager, Ron Nielson, blasted Johnson’s critics as being guilty of “gotcha-ism at its worst” in a Facebook post and said that the oversight just proved that his candidate was just like other Americans.

“Gary Johnson is a real person. A pragmatist and the kind of leader that people can respect and trust,” Nielson wrote. “Unfortunately, as most Americans have come to realize, this is not the case with Clinton and Trump.”

It was not the first time that a presidential candidate has stumbled in a world leader pop quiz that raised doubts about their credentials to be President. In 1999, then-GOP frontrunner George W. Bush was stumped when asked by a Boston reporter to name the leaders of Chechnya, Taiwan, India and Pakistan.

And gaffes don’t seem to derail a candidate in 2016 the way they once did.

After all, Trump has made statements that are far more outrageous than Johnson’s comments — on an almost daily basis — and he is locked in a tight race with Clinton.

It’s debatable whether true Libertarian voters those who support the party because it favors a disentangling from foreign quagmires and a less robust US global role are that bothered that their candidate is not deeply acquainted with the details of the Syrian civil war.

But it’s not just verbal stumbles that are beginning to build pressure on Johnson.

His political position is also eroding because of his failure to hit the 15% polling threshold needed to muscle his way into the debates between Clinton and Trump.

Back in June, Johnson told The New Yorker that if he missed what he called the political “Super Bowl” “There’s no way to win.”

There are reasons — beyond the disdain that a large proportion of the electorate appears to hold for Clinton and Trump — for Johnson to stay in the race.

First, he appears to have the chance to make tangible progress for the Libertarian Party across the nation. In 2012, Johnson ran for President and won just under 1% of the electoral vote. Even if he only cracks 5% this time, that would represent an undeniable step forward for the party.

But there’s a more fundamental reason why Johnson may resist calls to quit.

He explained in an op-ed piece in the New York Times on Wednesday that the American political system, by producing such alienating rivals as Clinton and Trump, has failed. That, he argued, means reformers have no choice but to fight.

“Hyper-partisanship may be entertaining, but it’s a terrible way to try to run a country. We’re the alternative and we’re the only ticket that offers Americans a chance to find common ground,” Johnson wrote.

Johnson also appears to be building a significant base of support among millennial voters — a demographic that Clinton needs to dominate to make it to the White House — but which could fuel Libertarian Party growth in future.

A Bloomberg News/Selzer & Co. poll released Monday found Clinton’s 10-point advantage among younger voters cut to a statistically insignificant four points when Johnson and Stein are included in the race.

While some Democrats who abhor Clinton might be tempted by a fling with Johnson, he is also providing a refuge with Republicans who cannot stomach Trump. Antipathy for the billionaire prompted the Detroit News Thursday to do something it has never done in its 143 year history — endorse someone other than the Republican presidential candidate.

Still, Johnson’s resilience is causing genuine concern for top Democrats.

“There’s one message I want to deliver to everybody: If you don’t vote, that’s a vote for Trump. If you vote for a third-party candidate who’s got no chance to win, that’s a vote for Trump,” President Barack Obama said on the Steve Harvey radio show this week.

Vice presidential nominee Tim Kaine is warning wavering Democrats attracted to Johnson that they risk bringing about an electoral catastrophe similar to the one in Florida in 2000 when Ralph Nader siphoned votes away from Vice President Al Gore. That allowed Bush to claim Florida after the vote count showdown in the US Supreme Court.

“If Gore had been president, we probably wouldn’t had a war in Iraq,” Kaine told Yahoo News’ Katie Couric last week. “Casting a vote, a protest vote, for a third-party candidate that’s going to lose may well affect the outcome. It may well lead to a consequence that is deeply, deeply troubling. That’s not a speculation, we’ve seen it in our country’s history.”

CNN’s Eli Watkins contributed to this report.

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Why is Gary Johnson still in the race – CNNPolitics.com

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Bitcoin Summer School 2016 – Blockchain Technologies

Posted: July 21, 2016 at 2:08 am

We’re running the first summer school on blockchains and cryptocurrencies. We welcome students, researchers and professionals with an interest in cryptocurrencies and blockchains to join us.

We have a great program lined up for 2016. We’re excited to welcome the leading experts on blockchains from industry and academia.

Boston University, USA

University of Innsbruck, AT

Stanford University, USA

Coin Center, USA

IBM Research, CH

Carnegie Mellon University, USA

University College London, UK

University of Edinburgh, UK

University College London, UK

ETH Zurich, CH

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA

Foteini is a postdoctoral researcher in the BU Security group at Boston University.

Aggelos is a Professor at the University of Edinburgh.

Sarah is an Assistant Professor in the departments of Computer Science and Security and Crime Science at UCL.

Bitcoin school is not-for-profit. We are accepting donations in bitcoin to help us run the school.

Thank you for your generosity!

We welcome diversity and are striving to offer equal opportunities to all students. We are dedicated to providing a harassment-free conference experience for everyone, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance, body size, race, or religion.

All stipends are now allocated. Thanks to NSF, IOHK and INTEL for their sponsorship.

The school will be hosted at the Corfu Imperial Hotel.

Participants that wish to stay at the school venue can book their rooms using the code SUMSCH at the discounted rate of 150/night for double- and 130/night for single-occupancy (taxes and breakfast included).

By plane

The best way to reach Corfu is by plane. Aegean Airlines has daily service between Athens and Corfu (3-4 flights per day) and Ryanair flies between Athens and Corfu every Sunday and Friday. Astra-airlines flies from Thessaloniki to Corfu 4 times a week.

Corfu is directly connected to various European cities via charter flights. Ryanair and EasyJet, also provide direct connection with multiple European airports.

By bus and ferry

You could also reach Corfu by bus and boat. The KTEL bus service provides 3 daily connections to Corfu from Athens. The total trip will be around 8 hours.

Corfucoin is the cryptocurrency of the summer school for attendees to play around with, mine and share!

Getting the Corfucoin wallet

Address registry

If you would like to share your Corfucoin address with the other attendees, you may use the address registry.

Mining Corfucoin

Corfucoin is a fork of Litecoin, which uses a scrypt proof-of-work scheme. Corfucoins can be mined by using cpuminer.

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Bitcoin Summer School 2016 – Blockchain Technologies

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Hedonism II | Top Clothing Optional Resorts In Negril, Jamaica

Posted: July 7, 2016 at 4:06 pm

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Hedonism II | Top Clothing Optional Resorts In Negril, Jamaica

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The War on Drugs (band) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: June 17, 2016 at 5:04 am

The War on Drugs

Adam Granduciel from The War on Drugs

The War on Drugs is an American indie rock band from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, formed in 2005. The band consists of Adam Granduciel (vocals, guitar), David Hartley (bass), Robbie Bennett (keyboards), Charlie Hall (drums), Jon Natchez (saxophone, keyboards) and Anthony LaMarca (guitar).

Founded by close collaborators Granduciel and Kurt Vile, The War on Drugs released their debut studio album, Wagonwheel Blues, in 2008. Vile departed shortly after its release to focus on his solo career. The band’s second studio album Slave Ambient was released in 2011 to favorable reviews and extensive touring.

Written and recorded following extensive touring and a period of loneliness and depression for primary songwriter Granduciel, the band’s third album, Lost in the Dream, was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim and increased exposure. Previous collaborator Charlie Hall joined the band as its full-time drummer during the recording process, with saxophonist Jon Natchez and additional guitarist Anthony LaMarca accompanying the band for its world tour.

In 2003, frontman Adam Granduciel moved from Oakland, California to Philadelphia, where he met Kurt Vile, who had also recently moved back to Philadelphia after living in Boston for two years.[3] The duo subsequently began writing, recording and performing music together.[4] Vile stated, “Adam was the first dude I met when I moved back to Philadelphia in 2003. We saw eye-to-eye on a lot of things. I was obsessed with Bob Dylan at the time, and we totally geeked-out on that. We started playing together in the early days and he would be in my band, The Violators. Then, eventually I played in The War On Drugs.”[5]

Granduciel and Vile began playing as The War on Drugs in 2005. Regarding the band’s name, Granduciel noted, “My friend Julian and I came up with it a few years ago over a couple bottles of red wine and a few typewriters when we were living in Oakland. We were writing a lot back then, working on a dictionary, and it just came out and we were like “hey, good band name so eventually when I moved to Philadelphia and got a band together I used it. It was either that or The Rigatoni Danzas. I think we made the right choice. I always felt though that it was the kind of name I could record all sorts of different music under without any sort of predictability inherent in the name”[6]

While Vile and Granduciel formed the backbone of the band, they had a number of accompanists early in the group’s career, before finally settling on a lineup that added Charlie Hall as drummer/organist, Kyle Lloyd as drummer and Dave Hartley on bass.[7] Granduciel had previously toured and recorded with The Capitol Years, and Vile has several solo albums.[8] The group gave away its Barrel of Batteries EP for free early in 2008.[9] Their debut LP for Secretly Canadian, Wagonwheel Blues, was released in 2008.[10]

Following the album’s release, and subsequent European tour, Vile departed from the band to focus on his solo career, stating, “I only went on the first European tour when their album came out, and then I basically left the band. I knew if I stuck with that, it would be all my time and my goal was to have my own musical career.”[5] Fellow Kurt Vile & the Violators bandmate Mike Zanghi joined the band at this time, with Vile noting, “Mike was my drummer first and then when The War On Drugs’ first record came out I thought I was lending Mike to Adam for the European tour but then he just played with them all the time so I kind of had to like, while they were touring a lot, figure out my own thing.”[11]

The lineup underwent several changes, and by the end of 2008, Kurt Vile, Charlie Hall, and Kyle Lloyd had all exited the group. At that time Granduciel and Hartley were joined by drummer Mike Zanghi, whom Granduciel also played with in Kurt Vile’s backing band, the Violators.

After recording much of the band’s forthcoming studio album, Slave Ambient, Zanghi departed from the band in 2010. Drummer Steven Urgo subsequently joined the band, with keyboardist Robbie Bennett also joining at around this time. Regarding Zanghi’s exit, Granduciel noted: “I loved Mike, and I loved the sound of The Violators, but then he wasn’t really the sound of my band. But you have things like friendship, and he’s down to tour and he’s a great guy, but it wasn’t the sound of what this band was.”[12]

The band’s second studio album, Slave Ambient was released to favorable reviews in 2011.

In 2012, Patrick Berkery replaced Urgo as the band’s drummer.[13]

On 4 December 2013 the band announced the upcoming release of its third studio album, Lost in the Dream (March 18, 2014). The band streamed the album in its entirety on NPR’s First Listen site for a week before its release.[14]

Lost in the Dream was featured as the Vinyl Me, Please record of the month in August 2014. The pressing was a limited edition pressing on mint green colored vinyl.

In June 2015, The War on Drugs signed with Atlantic Records for a two-album deal.[15]

Adam Granduciel and Mike Zanghi are both former members of founding guitarist Kurt Vile’s backing band The Violators, with Granduciel noting, “There was never, despite what lazy journalists have assumed, any sort of falling out, or resentment”[16] following Vile’s departure from The War on Drugs. In 2011, Vile stated, “When my record came out, I assumed Adam would want to focus on The War On Drugs but he came with us in The Violators when we toured the States. The Violators became a unit, and although the cast does rotate, weve developed an even tighter unity and sound. Adam is an incredible guitar player these days and there is a certain feeling [between us] that nobody else can tap into. We dont really have to tell each other what to play, it just happens.”

Both David Hartley and Adam Granduciel contributed to singer-songwriter Sharon Van Etten’s fourth studio album, Are We There (2014). Hartley performs bass guitar on the entire album, with Granduciel contributing guitar on two tracks.

Adam Granduciel is currently producing the new Sore Eros album. They have been recording it in Philadelphia and Los Angeles on and off for the past several years.[5]

Current members

Former members

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Entheogen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: at 4:57 am

An entheogen (“generating the divine within”)[4] is any chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context[5] that often induces psychological or physiological changes.

Entheogens have been used to supplement many diverse practices geared towards achieving transcendence, including meditation, yoga, prayer, psychedelic art, chanting, and multiple forms of music. They have also been historically employed in traditional medicine via psychedelic therapy.

Entheogens have been used in a ritualized context for thousands of years; their religious significance is well established in anthropological and modern contexts. Examples of traditional entheogens include traditional psychedelics like peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, and ayahuasca, psychedelic-dissociatives like Tabernanthe iboga, atypical psychedelics like Salvia divinorum, quasi-psychedelics like cannabis, and deliriants like Amanita muscaria. Traditionally a tea, admixture, or potion like bhang is the preferred mode of ingestion.

With the advent of organic chemistry, there now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from the aforementioned plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these respective organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine, ergine, and muscimol. Semi-synthetic (e.g., LSD used by the Neo-American Church) and synthetic drugs (e.g., DPT used by the Temple of the True Inner Light and 2C-B used by the Sangoma) have also been developed.[6] Cannabis is the world’s most widely used psychedelic drug, though it is more accurately referred to as a quasi-psychedelic drug, since its effect profile lacks the hallucinogenic and cognitive effects of traditional psychedelics.

More broadly, the term entheogen is used to refer to any psychoactive drugs when used for their religious or spiritual effects, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure. This terminology is often chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs. Studies such as Timothy Leary’s Marsh Chapel Experiment and Roland Griffiths’ psilocybin studies at Johns Hopkins have documented reports of mystical/spiritual/religious experiences from participants who were administered psychoactive drugs in controlled trials. Ongoing research is limited due to widespread drug prohibition; however, some countries have legislation that allows for traditional entheogen use.

The neologism entheogen was coined in 1979 by a group of ethnobotanists and scholars of mythology (Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Richard Evans Schultes, Jonathan Ott and R. Gordon Wasson). The term is derived from two words of ancient Greek, (entheos) and (genesthai). The adjective entheos translates to English as “full of the god, inspired, possessed”, and is the root of the English word “enthusiasm.” The Greeks used it as a term of praise for poets and other artists. Genesthai means “to come into being.” Thus, an entheogen is a drug that causes one to become inspired or to experience feelings of inspiration, often in a religious or “spiritual” manner.[7]

Entheogen was coined as a replacement for the terms hallucinogen and psychedelic. Hallucinogen was popularized by Aldous Huxley’s experiences with mescaline, which were published as The Doors of Perception in 1954. Psychedelic, in contrast, is a Greek neologism for “mind manifest”, and was coined by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond; Huxley was a volunteer in experiments Osmond was conducting on mescaline.

Ruck et al. argued that the term hallucinogen was inappropriate owing to its etymological relationship to words relating to delirium and insanity. The term psychedelic was also seen as problematic, owing to the similarity in sound to words pertaining to psychosis and also due to the fact that it had become irreversibly associated with various connotations of 1960s pop culture. In modern usage entheogen may be used synonymously with these terms, or it may be chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs. The meanings of the term entheogen were formally defined by Ruck et al.:

In a strict sense, only those vision-producing drugs that can be shown to have figured in shamanic or religious rites would be designated entheogens, but in a looser sense, the term could also be applied to other drugs, both natural and artificial, that induce alterations of consciousness similar to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional entheogens.

In essence, all psychoactive drugs that are biosynthesized in nature by cytota (cellular life), can be used in an entheogenic context or with entheogenic intent. To exclude non-psychoactive drugs that sometimes also are used in spiritual context, the term “entheogen” refers primarily to drugs that have been categorized based on their historical use. Toxicity does not affect a drug’s inclusion (some can kill humans), nor does effectiveness or potency (if a drug is psychoactive, and it has been used in a historical context, then the required dose has also been found).

High caffeine consumption has been linked to an increase in the likelihood of experiencing auditory hallucinations. A study conducted by the La Trobe University School of Psychological Sciences revealed that as few as five cups of coffee a day could trigger the phenomenon.[9]

Many man-made chemicals with little human history have been recognized to catalyze intense spiritual experiences, and many synthetic entheogens are simply slight modifications of their naturally occurring counterparts. Some synthetic entheogens like 4-AcO-DMT are theorized to be prodrugs that metabolize into the natural psychoactive, similar in nature to how the synthetic compound heroin is deacetylated by esterase to the active morphine. While synthesized DMT and mescaline is reported to have identical entheogenic qualities as extracted or plant based sources, the experience may wildly vary due to the lack of numerous psychoactive alkaloids that constitute the material. This is similar to how pure THC is very different than an extract that retains the many cannabinoids of the plant such as cannabidiol and cannabinol.

Yohimbine is an alkaloid naturally found in Pausinystalia yohimbe (Yohimbe), Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian Snakeroot), and Alchornea floribunda (Niando), along with several other active alkaloids. There are no references to these species in traditional use to induce past memories, most likely because their alkaloid content is too low; However, laboratory extracted yohimbine, now commonly sold as sport supplement, may be used in psychedelic therapy to facilitate recall of traumatic memories in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[16]

L. E. Hollister’s criteria for establishing that a drug is hallucinogenic is:[17]

Most NMDA-antagonist dissociative drugs including ketamine, PCP, and DXM are drugs known to easily cause clinical psychological dependence, but also strengthen narcissism, and induces chemical dependence, and NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), when used chronically.

Common recreational drugs that cause chemical dependence have a history of entheogenic use. Perhaps because they could not access traditional entheogens as shamans were very secret with their sacraments who regarded non-visioning sacraments as hedonistic. The drugs mentioned here have occasionally been used by some sh
amans but they are psychoactive drugs that are not classified as hallucinogens (psychedelic, dissociative or deliriant). These drugs are not researched chemicals for psychedelic therapy as they have low therapeutic index.

This means that chewing the leaves or drinking coca tea does not produce the intense high (euphoria, megalomania, depression) people experience with cocaine. However, even if it would produce such effect, the next problem would be cocaine dependence.

Drugs, including some that cause physical dependence, have been used with entheogenic intention, mostly in ancient times.

Alcohol has sometimes been invested with religious significance.

The present day Arabic word for alcohol appears in The Qur’an (in verse 37:47) as al-awl, properly meaning “spirit” or “demon”, in the sense of “the thing that gives the wine its headiness.”[citation needed] The term ethanol was invented 1838, modeled on German thyl (Liebig), from Greek aither (see ether), and hyle “stuff”. Ether in late 14c. meant “upper regions of space,” from Old French ether and directly from Latin aether, “the upper pure, bright air,” from Greek aither “upper air; bright, purer air; the sky,” from aithein “to burn, shine,” from PIE root *aidh- “to burn” (see edifice).[23]

In ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was the god of agriculture, forests and alcoholic drinks of the Gauls.

Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer.[24]

In the ancient Greco-Roman religion, Dionysos (or Bacchus) was the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy, of merry making and theatre. The original rite of Dionysus is associated with a wine cult and he may have been worshipped as early as c. 15001100 BC by Mycenean Greeks. The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state. In his Laws, Plato said that alcoholic drinking parties should be the basis of any educational system, because the alcohol allows relaxation of otherwise fixed views. The Symposium (literally, ‘drinking together’) was a dramatised account of a drinking party where the participants debated the nature of love.

In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, a cup of wine is offered to Demeter which she refuses, instead insisting upon a potion of barley, water, and glechon, known as the ceremonial drink Kykeon, an essential part of the Mysteries. The potion has been hypothesized to be an ergot derivative from barley, similar to LSD.[25]

Egyptian pictographs clearly show wine as a finished product around 4000 BC. Osiris, the god who invented beer and brewing, was worshiped throughout the country. The ancient Egyptians made at least 24 types of wine and 17 types of beer. These beverages were used for pleasure, nutrition, rituals, medicine, and payments. They were also stored in the tombs of the deceased for use in the afterlife.[26] The Osirian Mysteries paralleled the Dionysian, according to contemporary Greek and Egyptian observers. Spirit possession involved liberation from civilization’s rules and constraints. It celebrated that which was outside civilized society and a return to the source of being, which would later assume mystical overtones. It also involved escape from the socialized personality and ego into an ecstatic, deified state or the primal herd (sometimes both).

Some scholars[who?] have postulated that pagan religions actively promoted alcohol and drunkenness as a means of fostering fertility. Alcohol was believed to increase sexual desire and make it easier to approach another person for sex. For example, Norse paganism considered alcohol to be the sap of Yggdrasil. Drunkenness was an important fertility rite in this religion.

Many Christian denominations use wine in the Eucharist or Communion and permit alcohol consumption in moderation. Other denominations use unfermented grape juice in Communion; they either voluntarily abstain from alcohol or prohibit it outright.

Judaism uses wine on Shabbat and some holidays for Kiddush as well as more extensively in the Passover ceremony and other religious ceremonies. The secular consumption of alcohol is allowed. Some Jewish texts, e.g., the Talmud, encourage moderate drinking on holidays (such as Purim) in order to make the occasion more joyous.

Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava. There are similarities in the use of kava between the different cultures, but each one also has its own traditions.

Entheogens have been used by individuals to pursue spiritual goals such as divination, ego death, egolessness, faith healing, psychedelic therapy and spiritual formation.[27]

There are also instances where people have been given entheogens without their knowledge or consent (e.g., tourists in Ayahuasca),[28] as well as attempts to use such drugs in other contexts, such as cursing, psychochemical weaponry, psychological torture, brainwashing and mind control; CIA experiments with LSD were used in Project MKUltra, and controversial entheogens like alcohol are often mentioned in context of bread and circuses.

Entheogens have been used in various ways, e.g., as part of established religious rituals, as aids for personal spiritual development (“plant teachers”),[29][30] as recreational drugs, and for medical and therapeutic use. The use of entheogens in human cultures is nearly ubiquitous throughout recorded history.

Naturally occurring entheogens such as psilocybin and DMT (in the preparation ayahuasca), were, for the most part, discovered and used by older cultures, as part of their spiritual and religious life, as plants and agents that were respected, or in some cases revered for generations and may be a tradition that predates all modern religions as a sort of proto-religious rite.

One of the most widely used entheogens is cannabis, entheogenic use of cannabis has been used in regions such as China, Europe, and India, and, in some cases, for thousands of years. It has also appeared as a part of religions and cultures such as the Rastafari movement, the Sadhus of Hinduism, the Scythians, Sufi Islam, and others.

The best-known entheogen-using culture of Africa is the Bwitists, who used a preparation of the root bark of Tabernanthe iboga.[31] Although the ancient Egyptians may have been using the sacred blue lily plant in some of their religious rituals or just symbolically, it has been suggested that Egyptian religion once revolved around the ritualistic ingestion of the far more psychoactive Psilocybe cubensis mushroom, and that the Egyptian White Crown, Triple Crown, and Atef Crown were evidently designed to represent pin-stages of this mushroom.[32] There is also evidence for the use of psilocybin mushrooms in Ivory Coast.[33] Numerous other plants used in shamanic ritual in Africa, such as Silene capensis sacred to the Xhosa, are yet to be investigated by western science. A recent revitalization has occurred in the study of southern African psychoactives and entheogens (Mitchell and Hudson 2004; Sobiecki 2002, 2008, 2012).[34]

Entheogens have played a pivotal role in the spiritual practices of most American cultures for millennia. The first American entheogen to be subject to scientific analysis was the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii). For his part, one of the founders of modern ethno-botany, the late-Richard Evans
Schultes of Harvard University documented the ritual use of peyote cactus among the Kiowa, who live in what became Oklahoma. While it was used traditionally by many cultures of what is now Mexico, in the 19th century its use spread throughout North America, replacing the deadly toxic mescal bean (Calia secundiflora) who are questioned to be an entheogen at all. Other well-known entheogens used by Mexican cultures include the alcoholic Aztec sacrament, pulque, ritual tobacco (known as ‘picietl’ to the Aztecs, and ‘sikar’ to the Maya (from where the word ‘cigar’ derives), psilocybin mushrooms, morning glories (Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa), and Salvia divinorum.

Indigenous peoples of South America employ a wide variety of entheogens. Better-known examples include ayahuasca (most commonly Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) among indigenous peoples (such as the Urarina) of Peruvian Amazonia. Other entheogens include San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. Trichocereus pachanoi), Peruvian torch cactus (Echinopsis peruviana, syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), and various DMT-snuffs, such as epen (Virola spp.), vilca and yopo (Anadenanthera colubrina and A. peregrina, respectively). The familiar tobacco plant, when used uncured in large doses in shamanic contexts, also serves as an entheogen in South America. Also, a tobacco that contains higher nicotine content, and therefore smaller doses required, called Nicotiana rustica was commonly used.[citation needed]

Entheogens also play an important role in contemporary religious movements such as the Rastafari movement and the Church of the Universe.

Datura wrightii is sacred to some Native Americans and has been used in ceremonies and rites of passage by Chumash, Tongva, and others. Among the Chumash, when a boy was 8 years old, his mother would give him a preparation of momoy to drink. This supposed spiritual challenge should help the boy develop the spiritual wellbeing that is required to become a man. Not all of the boys undergoing this ritual survived.[35]Momoy was also used to enhance spiritual wellbeing among adults . For instance, during a frightening situation, such as when seeing a coyote walk like a man, a leaf of momoy was sucked to help keep the soul in the body.

The indigenous peoples of Siberia (from whom the term shaman was borrowed) have used Amanita muscaria as an entheogen.

In Hinduism, Datura stramonium and cannabis have been used in religious ceremonies, although the religious use of datura is not very common, as the primary alkaloids are strong deliriants, which causes serious intoxication with unpredictable effects.

Also, the ancient drink Soma, mentioned often in the Vedas, appears to be consistent with the effects of an entheogen. In his 1967 book, Wasson argues that Soma was Amanita muscaria. The active ingredient of Soma is presumed by some to be ephedrine, an alkaloid with stimulant and (somewhat debatable)[by whom?] entheogenic properties derived from the soma plant, identified as Ephedra pachyclada. However, there are also arguments to suggest that Soma could have also been Syrian rue, cannabis, Atropa belladonna, or some combination of any of the above plants.[citation needed]

Fermented honey, known in Northern Europe as mead, was an early entheogen in Aegean civilization, predating the introduction of wine, which was the more familiar entheogen of the reborn Dionysus and the maenads. Its religious uses in the Aegean world are bound up with the mythology of the bee.

Dacians were known to use cannabis in their religious and important life ceremonies, proven by discoveries of large clay pots with burnt cannabis seeds in ancient tombs and religious shrines. Also, local oral folklore and myths tell of ancient priests that dreamed with gods and walked in the smoke. Their names, as transmitted by Herodotus, were “kap-no-batai” which in Dacian was supposed to mean “the ones that walk in the clouds”.

The growth of Roman Christianity also saw the end of the two-thousand-year-old tradition of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the initiation ceremony for the cult of Demeter and Persephone involving the use of a drug known as kykeon. The term ‘ambrosia’ is used in Greek mythology in a way that is remarkably similar to the Soma of the Hindus as well.

A theory that natural occurring gases like ethylene used by inhalation may have played a role in divinatory ceremonies at Delphi in Classical Greece received popular press attention in the early 2000s, yet has not been conclusively proven.[36]

Mushroom consumption is part of the culture of Europeans in general, with particular importance to Slavic and Baltic peoples. Some academics consider that using psilocybin- and or muscimol-containing mushrooms was an integral part of the ancient culture of the Rus’ people.[37]

It has been suggested that the ritual use of small amounts of Syrian rue is an artifact of its ancient use in higher doses as an entheogen (possibly in conjunction with DMT containing acacia).[citation needed]

Philologist John Marco Allegro has argued in his book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross that early Jewish and Christian cultic practice was based on the use of Amanita muscaria, which was later forgotten by its adherents. Allegro’s hypothesis is that Amanita use was sacred knowledge kept only by high figures to hide the true beginnings of the Christian cult, seems supported by his own view that the Plaincourault Chapel shows evidence of Christian amanita use in the 13th century.[38]

In general, indigenous Australians are thought not to have used entheogens, although there is a strong barrier of secrecy surrounding Aboriginal shamanism, which has likely limited what has been told to outsiders. A plant that the Australian Aboriginals used to ingest is called Pitcheri, which is said to have a similar effect to that of coca. Pitcheri was made from the bark of the shrub Duboisia myoporoides. This plant is now grown commercially and is processed to manufacture an eye medication. There are no known uses of entheogens by the Mori of New Zealand aside from a variant species of kava.[39] Natives of Papua New Guinea are known to use several species of entheogenic mushrooms (Psilocybe spp, Boletus manicus).[40]

Kava or kava kava (Piper Methysticum) has been cultivated for at least 3000 years by a number of Pacific island-dwelling peoples. Historically, most Polynesian, many Melanesian, and some Micronesian cultures have ingested the psychoactive pulverized root, typically taking it mixed with water. Much traditional usage of kava, though somewhat suppressed by Christian missionaries in the 19th and 20th centuries, is thought to facilitate contact with the spirits of the dead, especially relatives and ancestors.[41]

Some religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic beverages. These include Islam, Jainism, the Bah’ Faith, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Christ, Scientist, the United Pentecostal Church International, Theravada, most Mahayana schools of Buddhism, some Protestant denominations of Christianity, some sects of Taoism (Five Precepts and Ten Precepts), and Hinduism.

The Pali Canon, the scripture of Theravada Buddhism, depicts refraining from alcohol as essential to moral conduct because intoxication causes a loss of mindfulness. The fifth of the Five Precepts states, “Sur-meraya-majja-pamdahn verama sikkhpada samdiymi.” In English: “I undertake to refrain from fermented drink that causes heedlessness.” Technically, th
is prohibition does not include other mind-altering drugs. The canon does not suggest that alcohol is evil but believes that the carelessness produced by intoxication creates bad karma. Therefore, any drug (beyond tea or mild coffee) that affects one’s mindfulness be considered by some to be covered by this prohibition.[citation needed]

Many Christian denominations disapprove of the use of most illicit drugs. The early history of the Church, however, was filled with a variety of drug use, recreational and otherwise.[42]

The primary advocate of a religious use of cannabis plant in early Judaism was Sula Benet, also called Sara Benetowa, a Polish anthropologist, who claimed in 1967 that the plant kaneh bosm – mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible, and used in the holy anointing oil of the Book of Exodus, was in fact cannabis.[43] The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church confirmed it as a possible valid interpretation.[44] The lexicons of Hebrew and dictionaries of plants of the Bible such as by Michael Zohary (1985), Hans Arne Jensen (2004) and James A. Duke (2010) and others identify the plant in question as either Acorus calamus or Cymbopogon citratus.[45] Kaneh-bosm is listed as an incense in the Old Testament. It is generally held by academics specializing in the archaeology and paleobotany of Ancient Israel, and those specializing in the lexicography of the Hebrew Bible that cannabis is not documented or mentioned in early Judaism. Against this some popular writers have argued that there is evidence for religious use of cannabis in the Hebrew Bible,[46] although this hypothesis and some of the specific case studies (e.g., John Allegro in relation to Qumran, 1970) have been “widely dismissed as erroneous, others continue”.[47]

According to The Living Torah, cannabis may have been one of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil mentioned in various sacred Hebrew texts.[48] The herb of interest is most commonly known as kaneh-bosm (Hebrew: -). This is mentioned several times in the Old Testament as a bartering material, incense, and an ingredient in holy anointing oil used by the high priest of the temple. Although Chris Bennett’s research in this area focuses on cannabis, he mentions evidence suggesting use of additional visionary plants such as henbane, as well.[49]

The Septuagint translates kaneh-bosm as calamus, and this translation has been propagated unchanged to most later translations of the old testament. However, Polish anthropologist Sula Benet published etymological arguments that the Aramaic word for hemp can be read as kannabos and appears to be a cognate to the modern word ‘cannabis’,[50] with the root kan meaning reed or hemp and bosm meaning fragrant. Both cannabis and calamus are fragrant, reedlike plants containing psychotropic compounds.

In his research, Professor Dan Merkur points to significant evidence of an awareness within the Jewish mystical tradition recognizing manna as an entheogen, thereby substantiating with rabbinic texts theories advanced by the superficial biblical interpretations of Terence McKenna, R. Gordon Wasson and other ethnomycologists.

Although philologist John Marco Allegro has suggested that the self-revelation and healing abilities attributed to the figure of Jesus may have been associated with the effects of the plant medicines, this evidence is dependent on pre-Septuagint interpretation of Torah and Tenach. Allegro was the only non-Catholic appointed to the position of translating the Dead Sea scrolls. His extrapolations are often the object of scorn due to Allegro’s non-mainstream theory of Jesus as a mythological personification of the essence of a “psychoactive sacrament”. Furthermore, they conflict with the position of the Catholic Church with regard to transubstantiation and the teaching involving valid matter, form, and drug that of bread and wine (bread does not contain psychoactive drugs, but wine contains ethanol). Allegro’s book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross relates the development of language to the development of myths, religions, and cultic practices in world cultures. Allegro believed he could prove, through etymology, that the roots of Christianity, as of many other religions, lay in fertility cults, and that cult practices, such as ingesting visionary plants (or “psychedelics”) to perceive the mind of God, persisted into the early Christian era, and to some unspecified extent into the 13th century with reoccurrences in the 18th century and mid-20th century, as he interprets the Plaincourault chapel’s fresco to be an accurate depiction of the ritual ingestion of Amanita muscaria as the Eucharist.

The historical picture portrayed by the Entheos journal is of fairly widespread use of visionary plants in early Christianity and the surrounding culture, with a gradual reduction of use of entheogens in Christianity.[51] R. Gordon Wasson’s book Soma prints a letter from art historian Erwin Panofsky asserting that art scholars are aware of many “mushroom trees” in Christian art.[52]

The question of the extent of visionary plant use throughout the history of Christian practice has barely been considered yet by academic or independent scholars. The question of whether visionary plants were used in pre-Theodosius Christianity is distinct from evidence that indicates the extent to which visionary plants were utilized or forgotten in later Christianity, including so-called “heretical” or “quasi-” Christian groups,[53] and the question of other groups such as elites or laity within “orthodox” Catholic practice.[54]

Daniel Merkur at the University of Toronto contends that a minority of Christian hermits and mystics could possibly have used entheogens, in conjunction with fasting, meditation, and prayer.[citation needed]

According to R.C. Parker, “The use of entheogens in the Vajrayana tradition has been documented by such scholars as Ronald M Davidson, William George Stablein, Bulcsu Siklos, David B. Gray, Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, Shashibhusan Das Gupta, Francesca Fremantle, Shinichi Tsuda, David Gordon White, Rene de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, James Francis Hartzell, Edward Todd Fenner, Ian Baker, Dr. Pasang Yonten Arya and numerous others.”[55] These scholars have established entheogens were used in Vajrayana (in a limited context) as well as in Tantric Saivite traditions.[55] The major entheogens in the Vajrayana Anuttarayoga Tantra tradition are cannabis and Datura which were used in various pills, ointments, and elixirs. Several tantras within Vajrayana specifically mention these entheogens and their use, including the Laghusamvara-tantra (aka Cakrasavara Tantra), Samputa-tantra, Samvarodaya-tantra, Mahakala-tantra, Guhyasamaja-tantra, Vajramahabhairava-tantra, and the Krsnayamari-tantra.[55] In the Cakrasavara Tantra, the use of entheogens is coupled with mediation practices such as the use of a mandala of the Heruka meditation deity (yidam) and visualization practices which identify the yidam’s external body and mandala with one’s own body and ‘internal mandala’.[56]

In the West, some modern Buddhist teachers have written on the usefulness of psychedelics. The Buddhist magazine Tricycle devoted their entire fall 1996 edition to this issue.[57] Some teachers such as Jack Kornfield have acknowledged the possibility that psychedelics could complement Buddhist practice, bring healing and help people understand their connection with everything which could lead to compassion.[58] Kornfield warns however that addiction can still be a hindrance. Other teachers such as Michelle McDonald-Smith expressed views which saw entheogens as not conductive to Buddhist practice (“I do
n’t see them developing anything”).[59]

R. Gordon Wasson and Giorgio Samorini have proposed several examples of the cultural use of entheogens that are found in the archaeological record.[60][61] Evidence for the first use of entheogens may come from Tassili, Algeria, with a cave painting of a mushroom-man, dating to 8000 BP.[citation needed] Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.[citation needed]

Although entheogens are taboo and most of them are officially prohibited in Christian and Islamic societies, their ubiquity and prominence in the spiritual traditions of various other cultures is unquestioned. “The spirit, for example, need not be chemical, as is the case with the ivy and the olive: and yet the god was felt to be within them; nor need its possession be considered something detrimental, like drugged, hallucinatory, or delusionary: but possibly instead an invitation to knowledge or whatever good the god’s spirit had to offer.”[62]

Most of the well-known modern examples, such as peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, and morning glories are from the native cultures of the Americas. However, it has also been suggested that entheogens played an important role in ancient Indo-European culture, for example by inclusion in the ritual preparations of the Soma, the “pressed juice” that is the subject of Book 9 of the Rig Veda. Soma was ritually prepared and drunk by priests and initiates and elicited a paean in the Rig Veda that embodies the nature of an entheogen:

Splendid by Law! declaring Law, truth speaking, truthful in thy works, Enouncing faith, King Soma!… O [Soma] Pavmana (mind clarifying), place me in that deathless, undecaying world wherein the light of heaven is set, and everlasting lustre shines…. Make me immortal in that realm where happiness and transports, where joy and felicities combine…

The kykeon that preceded initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries is another entheogen, which was investigated (before the word was coined) by Carl Kernyi, in Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Other entheogens in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean include the opium poppy, datura, and the unidentified “lotus” (likely the sacred blue lily) eaten by the Lotus-Eaters in the Odyssey and Narcissus.

According to Ruck, Eyan, and Staples, the familiar shamanic entheogen that the Indo-Europeans brought knowledge of was Amanita muscaria. It could not be cultivated; thus it had to be found, which suited it to a nomadic lifestyle. When they reached the world of the Caucasus and the Aegean, the Indo-Europeans encountered wine, the entheogen of Dionysus, who brought it with him from his birthplace in the mythical Nysa, when he returned to claim his Olympian birthright. The Indo-European proto-Greeks “recognized it as the entheogen of Zeus, and their own traditions of shamanism, the Amanita and the ‘pressed juice’ of Soma but better, since no longer unpredictable and wild, the way it was found among the Hyperboreans: as befit their own assimilation of agrarian modes of life, the entheogen was now cultivable.”[62]Robert Graves, in his foreword to The Greek Myths, hypothesises that the ambrosia of various pre-Hellenic tribes was Amanita muscaria (which, based on the morphological similarity of the words amanita, amrita and ambrosia, is entirely plausible) and perhaps psilocybin mushrooms of the Panaeolus genus.

Amanita was divine food, according to Ruck and Staples, not something to be indulged in or sampled lightly, not something to be profaned. It was the food of the gods, their ambrosia, and it mediated between the two realms. It is said that Tantalus’s crime was inviting commoners to share his ambrosia.

The entheogen is believed to offer godlike powers in many traditional tales, including immortality. The failure of Gilgamesh in retrieving the plant of immortality from beneath the waters teaches that the blissful state cannot be taken by force or guile: When Gilgamesh lay on the bank, exhausted from his heroic effort, the serpent came and ate the plant.

Another attempt at subverting the natural order is told in a (according to some) strangely metamorphosed myth, in which natural roles have been reversed to suit the Hellenic world-view. The Alexandrian Apollodorus relates how Gaia (spelled “Ge” in the following passage), Mother Earth herself, has supported the Titans in their battle with the Olympian intruders. The Giants have been defeated:

When Ge learned of this, she sought a drug that would prevent their destruction even by mortal hands. But Zeus barred the appearance of Eos (the Dawn), Selene (the Moon), and Helios (the Sun), and chopped up the drug himself before Ge could find it.[63]

The legends of the Assassins had much to do with the training and instruction of Nizari fida’is, famed for their public missions during which they often gave their lives to eliminate adversaries.

The tales of the fidais training collected from anti-Ismaili historians and orientalists writers were confounded and compiled in Marco Polos account, in which he described a “secret garden of paradise”.[citation needed] After being drugged, the Ismaili devotees were said be taken to a paradise-like garden filled with attractive young maidens and beautiful plants in which these fidais would awaken. Here, they were told by an “old” man that they were witnessing their place in Paradise and that should they wish to return to this garden permanently, they must serve the Nizari cause.[64] So went the tale of the “Old Man in the Mountain”, assembled by Marco Polo and accepted by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (17741856), a prominent orientalist writer responsible for much of the spread of this legend. Until the 1930s, von Hammers retelling of the Assassin legends served as the standard account of the Nizaris across Europe.[citation needed]

Notable early testing of the entheogenic experience includes the Marsh Chapel Experiment, conducted by physician and theology doctoral candidate, Walter Pahnke, under the supervision of Timothy Leary and the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In this double-blind experiment, volunteer graduate school divinity students from the Boston area almost all claimed to have had profound religious experiences subsequent to the ingestion of pure psilocybin. In 2006, a more rigorously controlled experiment was conducted at Johns Hopkins University, and yielded similar results.[65] To date there is little peer-reviewed research on this subject, due to ongoing drug prohibition and the difficulty of getting approval from institutional review boards.[66]

Furthermore, scientific studies on entheogens present some significant challenges to investigators, including philosophical questions relating to ontology, epistemology and objectivity.[67]

Between 2011 and 2012, the Australian Federal Government was considering changes to the Australian Criminal Code that would classify any plants containing any amount of DMT as “controlled plants”.[68] DMT itself was already controlled under current laws. The proposed changes included other similar blanket bans for other substances, such as a ban on any and all plants containing Mescaline or Ephedrine. The proposal was not pursued after political embarrassment on realisation that this would make the official Floral Emblem of Australia, Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), illegal. The Therapeutic Goods Administration and federal authority had considered a motion to ban the same, but this
was withdrawn in May 2012 (as DMT may still hold potential entheogenic value to native and/or religious peoples).[69]

In 1963 in Sherbert v. Verner the Supreme Court established the Sherbert Test, which consists of four criteria that are used to determine if an individual’s right to religious free exercise has been violated by the government. The test is as follows:

For the individual, the court must determine

If these two elements are established, then the government must prove

This test was eventually all-but-eliminated in Employment Division v. Smith 494 U.S. 872 (1990), but was resurrected by Congress in the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) of 1993.

In City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997) and Gonzales v. O Centro Esprita Beneficente Unio do Vegetal, 546 U.S. 418 (2006), the RFRA was held to trespass on state sovereignty, and application of the RFRA was essentially limited to federal law enforcement.

As of 2001, Arizona, Idaho, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas had enacted so-called “mini-RFRAs.”

Many works of literature have described entheogen use; some of those are:


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Parsing the Second Amendment – CBS News

Posted: March 19, 2016 at 8:41 pm

Any discussion of the right to bear arms has to take note of the Second Amendment. Here’s Anthony Mason:

At the heart of the debate over guns in America is a single, inscrutable sentence: The Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights, whose wording is unusual.

Simon & Schuster

“The Second Amendment says, ‘A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.’ What does that mean?”

The most-disputed clause in the Constitution is the phrase about militias, which were a great concern when the Bill of Rights was written in 1792.

“At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, there was a very big controversy about how to allocate military power,” said Nelson Lund, professor of constitutional law at George Mason University. He says the states feared the new government would try to disarm the 13 state militias, which required every white male over 16 to own a musket.

“The anti-Federalists were very worried that the states would be deprived of their power to resist federal tyranny,” Lund said.

“The militia, sir, is our ultimate safety,” Patrick Henry argued. “We can have no security without it.”

While guns were commonplace then, so were gun regulations. New York and Boston prohibited the firing of guns within city limits.

And in the notes for the Constitutional Convention, Waldman says, “There’s literally not a word about it protecting an individual right for gun ownership for self-protection, hunting, or any of the other things we think about now.”

“There’s one side that believes that this amendment refers specifically and only to militias,” said Mason.

“Well, I know people say that, but it just can’t be true,” replied Lund. “If you look at what the words say, it says ‘The right of the people to keep and bear arms.’ It does not say, ‘The right of the states’ or ‘The right of the militias.’ It says ‘the right of the people.'”

The debate over the Second Amendment came to a head at the Supreme Court in 2008, in a case filed over the Capital’s gun laws, called District of Columbia v. Heller. In a 5-4 vote, the court affirmed an individual’s right to keep and bear arms, striking down D.C.’s ban on handguns in the home.

‘The inherent right of self-defense,” Justice Antonin Scalia wrote in the majority opinion, “has been central to the Second Amendment right.”

But, Scalia added, “The right … is not unlimited,” also leaving room for gun regulation.

Lund said, “It is absolutely a continuing grey area.”

Another grey area is how the court might rule on future Second Amendment issues after the sudden death of Justice Scalia in February.

“So, you know, a lot depends on who replaces Justice Scalia,” said Lund.

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Ron Mason – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: March 6, 2016 at 8:41 pm

Ronald Mason (born January 14, 1940) is a Canadian former ice hockey player, head coach and university executive. A head coach of various American universities, most notably Michigan State University (MSU), he was the most successful coach in NCAA ice hockey history between 1993-2012 with 924 wins, until Jerry York (Boston College) become the new winningest coach with his 925th career win on December 29, 2012.[1] Mason was athletic director at MSU from 2002-08. He currently serves as senior advisor for the USHL Muskegon Lumberjacks.[2] On December 2, 2013, Mason was inducted into the U.S Hockey Hall of Fame.

Ron Mason was born the son of Harvey Mason, a salesman, and Agnes Mackay Mason, an elementary school teacher. He married the former Marion Bell on June 8, 1963. They have two daughters, Tracy (born 1964) and Cindy (born 1968) and two grandsons, Tyler and Travis.[3] Travis is a sophomore defenseman on the Michigan State University hockey team.[4] Mason has one sister, Marion Mason Rowe.

Mason earned a B.A. in physical education from St. Lawrence University in 1964 and a Masters in physical education from the University of Pittsburgh in 1965. Michigan State University awarded Mason an honorary Doctorate in 2001.[5]

Mason played junior hockey with the Ontario Hockey Associations Peterborough Petes and the Ottawa Junior Canadians. From there Mason enrolled at St. Lawrence University in the upstate town of Canton, New York where he lettered in hockey for three years. In his first season at SLU in 1960-61, Mason and the Skating Saints were NCAA national finalists.[1] In 1961-62, Mason and SLU won the school’s first-ever Eastern College Athletic Conference championship and made the NCAA Frozen Four.[1] In his final season, SLU won a school-record 20 games[1] finishing 2061. Mason lead the team in scoring twice[1] earning back-to-back first-team all league honors. Mason was St. Lawrence’s only player to earn that distinction until T. J. Trevelyan was named all league in 2005 and 2006.[6]

Mason coached one NAIA program, Lake Superior State, and two NCAA programs, Bowling Green State and Michigan State in 36 seasons from 1966-2002. He won two national titles: NAIA in 1972 with Lake Superior State and NCAA in 1986 with Michigan State.[7] Ron Mason finished his coaching career as the all-time career victories leader in college hockey history with 924 wins. Boston College’s Jerry York surpassed Mason’s win total on December 31, 2012. Mason is also the career coaching victories leader at Michigan State with 635 wins. He is Bowling Green State’s winningest coach by percentage winning over 71 percent of his 229 games at BGSU.

Mason had 33 seasons with a winning record, 30 seasons winning 20 or more games and 11 seasons winning 30 or more games. Mason won ten CCHA regular season championships and a record 13 CCHA tournament titles. He advanced his teams to the NCAA tournament 22 timessix times as the No. 1 seedmaking the Frozen Four eight times. Mason was the CCHA coach of the year six times. He won the Spencer Penrose Memorial Trophy as the national coach of the year in 1992.[8]

On January 26, 2002, a media report stated Mason would step down as coach at Michigan State to take over the athletic director position at MSU. On January 28, 2002, Mason made it official he would leave his post as head ice hockey coach to become athletic director.[9]

Mason started the hockey program at Lake Superior State University in 1966. In seven seasons at LSSU he produced four 20-win seasons and never lost more than 10 games. He guided the Lakers to the 1972 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) national championship.[3]

In 1973 he moved to Bowling Green State University where he won three Central Collegiate Hockey Association regular season titles and three consecutive CCHA tournament titles in six seasons. In 1977 Bowling Green State earned their first berth in the NCAA tournament. The berth was a first for a team not from the Western Collegiate Hockey Association or Eastern Collegiate Athletic Conference[10] in the NCAA tournament’s 30 year history. It was the first of three consecutive NCAA tournaments under Mason. BGSU won the third-place game over defending national champion Wisconsin in the 1978 NCAA Frozen Four. In 1978-79 Mason coached BGSU to a then NCAA record 37 wins.[11] The record would be broken in 1984-85 by Mason’s own Michigan State team.[12]

Michigan State University Athletic Director Joseph Kearney hired Mason to replace the retiring Amo Bessone on April 1, 1979.[13] In his third season at MSU, Mason guided Michigan State to their first NCAA tournament in 15 seasons. Four seasons later in 1986, Mason led Michigan State to the school’s second national title.[14] Michigan State returned to the championship game the following season but lost to North Dakota. On March 12, 1993, with a 6-5 win over Kent State, Mason passed former Boston College coach Len Ceglarski to become college hockey’s all-time winningest coach with 674 wins.[15] While at MSU, Mason won a conference-record 10 CCHA tournament championships, including a conference-record four straight from 1982-85. In addition, MSU under Mason won seven CCHA regular season titles, earned 19 NCAA tournament appearances, and earned seven NCAA Frozen Four appearances.

Ron Mason began his duties as athletic director on July 1, 2002.[16] Before he officially became athletic director, Mason chose Rick Comley as his successor as hockey coach.

On November 4, 2002, after a disappointing season and a series of off-the-field incidents with players, Mason fired head football coach Bobby Williams with three games left in the season. Mason hired John L. Smith as head football coach on December 20, 2002.[3] Mason fired John L. Smith four years later on November 2, 2006 leaving controversy amongst critics over whether Mason had been effective making his first major hire as athletic director.Following that episode, Mason hired Mark Dantonio as head footbal coach on November 27, 2006 and has since redeemed his coach selection capability.

While athletic director, the Michigan State hockey team won the school’s third national title in 2007. Mason is the only person to have won NCAA ice hockey titles as head coach and athletic director.

Mason placed a priority seat licensing program in Spartan Stadium based on years of holding season tickets, contribution to the Ralph Young Fund, and a licensing fee for better seats on top of the price of season tickets. Further updates to increase revenue in Spartan Stadium included a $64 million USD expansion and improvements which include:[3]

In September 2006, Michigan State University’s Board of Trustees approved a contract extension for Mason extending his contract as MSU’s athletic director through June 2008. He retired from the post of athletic director at Michigan State University on January 1, 2008, and was succeeded by Mark Hollis.[13]

In addition to his success as a coach, Mason helped the CCHA grow to what it is today.[7] When Mason began coaching in 1966 there were only two major conferences in the NCAA, the Eastern College Athletic Conference and the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. Helping build the ice hockey program at Lake Superior State, Mason was left without a conference. In 1972 Mason, along with Bowling Green State University’s Jack Vivian, St. Louis University’s Bill Selman, Ohio State University’s Dave Chambers, Ohio University’s John McComb and the CCHA’s first commissioner Fred Jacoby, formed the Central Collegiate Hockey Association.[10] Mason’s tenure at Bowling Green State produced the CCHA’s first NCAA tournament berth, first appearance in the NCAA Frozen Four and the first national No. 1 ranking.[10]

For his contributions in helping build the CCHA, the conference renamed their tournament trophy the Mason Cup in 200001.[7]

Mason volunteers with the Sparrow Foundation where he established the Ron Mason Fund for Pediatric Rehabilitation which helps children with disabilities. The fund has raised $675,000 for the foundation since 1998.[5] He was also honorary chairperson for the Children’s Miracle Network which has raised $19 million plus since 1989.[5]

In his 36 years, Mason coached a number of outstanding players.

Joe Murphy was first ever NCAA player selected first overall[5][19]

Many former and current college hockey head coaches can trace their lineage back to Ron Mason as shown below either as former players or former assistant coaches for Mason.

National champion Postseason invitational champion Conference regular season champion Conference regular season and conference tournament champion Division regular season champion Division regular season and conference tournament champion Conference tournament champion

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Ron Mason – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Illuminati Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

Posted: January 31, 2016 at 8:42 pm

Illuminati (plural do latim illuminatus, “aquele que iluminado”) a denominao de diversos grupos, alguns histricos, outros modernos, reais ou fictcios. Mas comumente, contudo, o termo “Illuminati” tem sido empregado especificamente para referir-se aos Illuminati da Baviera, uma sociedade secreta da era do Iluminismo fundada em 1 de maio de 1776. Nos tempos modernos, tambm usado para se referir a uma suposta organizao conspiratria que controlaria os assuntos dos vrios Estados secretamente, normalmente como verso moderna ou como continuao dos referidos Illuminati bvaros, como sinnimo e crebro por trs dos acontecimentos que levariam ao estabelecimento de uma Nova Ordem Mundial, com os objetivos primrios de unir o mundo sob uma espcie de tirania global.

Dado que “Illuminati” significa literalmente os iluminados em latim, natural que diversos grupos histricos, no relacionados entre si, se tenham autodenominados de Illuminati. Frequentemente, faziam isso alegando possuir textos gnsticos ou outras informaes arcanas (secretas) no disponveis ao grande pblico.[1]

A designao “Illuminati” esteve em uso tambm desde o sculo XIV pelos Irmos do Livre Esprito, e no sculo XV,[2] o ttulo foi assumido por outros entusiastas que argumentavam que a luz da iluminao provinha, no de uma fonte autorizada, mas secreta, de dentro, como resultado de um estado alterado de conscincia, ou iluminismo, que representaria o esclarecimento espiritual e psquico.

Desta forma, durante os perodos moderno e contemporneo, foi designado por “Illuminati” um nmero de grupos (alguns dos quais tm reivindicado o ttulo), mais ou menos marginal e secreto, e muitas vezes em conflito com autoridades religiosas ou polticas; so eles: os Irmos do Livre Esprito, os Illumins, os Martinistas, o Palladium… e, principalmente os Illuminati da Baviera. Embora as doutrinas desses grupos tenham sido variadas e por vezes contraditrias, a confuso entre eles tem sido muitas vezes mantida e levado s teorias de conspirao de uma sociedade secreta atuando atravs da histria.

A Ordem dos Illuminati da Baviera foi fundada na noite de 30 de abril a 1 de Maio de 1776 (vspera da famosa Noite de Santa Valburga) em uma floresta perto de Ingolstadt (Baviera), no sul da Alemanha, onde um pequeno grupo de jovens criou e prometeu cumprir os fins da sociedade. Entre aqueles que estavam naquela noite, sabe-se apenas a identidade de trs: Adam Weishaupt, Max Merz e Anton von Massenhausen. O fato de que no se sabe exatamente quem estava presente naquela noite foi a causa da especulao sobre o nmero de pessoas que criaram a ordem, alguns dizem que eram apenas quatro e outros argumentam que foram treze. Aps a fundao, Adam Weishaupt (que se proclamou a si mesmo o nome simblico de Spartacus) atraiu seus primeiros seguidores, um estudante de Munique chamado Franz Xavier von Zwack e um baro protestante de Hanver chamado Adolph von Knigge (Frater Philon) que j havia sido iniciado na Maonaria e, posteriormente, desenvolveu o Rito dos Illuminati da Baviera, junto com Weishaupt, a quem foi introduzido na loja de Munique: Theodor zum guten Rath.

Graas s habilidades de von Knigge, os Illuminati rapidamente se espalham pela Alemanha, ustria, Hungria, Sua, Frana, Itlia e outras partes da Europa e afiliando personalidades como Herder (Damasus), Goethe (Abaris), Cagliostro, o Conde de Mirabeau (Leonidas) e o lendrio alquimista o Conde de St. Germain, entre outros. Alguns nobres como o duque de Saxe-Weimar e de Saxe-Gotha, os prncipes Ferdinando de Brunswick e Karl de Hesse, Conde de Stolberg e o Baro Karl Theodor von Dalberg, tambm figuraram dentro da iniciao iluminada.

Incentivado pelo seu sucesso em conseguir recrutar um grande nmero de pensadores, filsofos, artistas, polticos, banqueiros, analistas, etc; Adam Weishaupt tomou a deciso de juntar-se a Maonaria por meio de Von Knigge, e ordenou a infiltrao e dominao da mesma.

Em 16 de julho de 1782, numa reunio da maonaria continental realizada no Convento de Wilhelmsbad, os Illuminati tentaram unificar e controlar sob a sua autoridade todos os ramos da Maonaria. Embora tenham conseguido se infiltrar nas lojas em toda a Europa, a Grande Loja de Inglaterra, a Grande Oriente de Frana e os iluminados tesofos de Swedenborg decidiram no apoiar os planos de Weishaupt, contrariando assim algumas das ambies da Ordem.

Devido ao fracasso do movimento, Von Knigge renunciou pensando que seria intil continuar com os planos e foi para Bremen, onde passou seus ltimos anos. Entretanto, Weishaupt recebia a ofensiva dos Maons da Inglaterra e dos Martinistas, a quem denunciou em seus escritos, argumentando que a Grande Loja de Londres em si foi criada em 1717 por pastores protestantes, que no foram iniciados na Maonaria, isto , que foi fundada por profanos sem documentos vlidos ou provas.

Os Illuminati da Baviera foram um movimento de curta durao de autointitulados livre-pensadores, o ramo mais radical do Iluminismo a cujos seguidores foi atribudo o nome de Illuminati (mas que a si mesmos chamavam de perfectibilistas ou “perfeccionistas”) foi fundado, a 1 de maio de 1776, pelo professor de lei cannica Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), e pelo maom baro Adolph von Knigge na cidade de Ingolstadt, Baviera, atual Alemanha. O grupo foi criado com o nome de “Antigos e Iluminados Profetas da Baviera (Ancient and Illuminated Seers of Bavaria, AISB)” ou “Ordem dos Perfeitos”, mas tem sido chamado de “Ordem Illuminati”, a “Ordem dos Illuminati” e os “Iluminados Bvaros”.[3][4][5][6]

Na Baviera, onde o Eleitor Maximiliano Jos III de Wittelsbach foi sucedido em 1777 pelo seu herdeiro Carl Theodor, a organizao no durou muito at ser suprimida pela polcia sob acusaes de conspirao. Em 1784, o governo bvaro baniu todas as sociedades secretas incluindo os Illuminati e os maons. A estrutura dos Illuminati desmoronou logo, mas enquanto existiu, alguns intelectuais influentes se contaram entre os seus membros. Eles eram recrutados principalmente dentre os maons e ex-maons, juravam obedincia a seus superiores e estavam divididos em trs classes principais: a primeira, conhecida como Berrio, compreendia os graus ascendentes ou ofcios de Preparao, Noviciado, Minerval e Illuminatus Minor; a segunda, conhecida como a Maonaria, consistia dos graus ascendentes de Illuminatus Major e Illuminatus dirigens, esse ltimo algumas vezes chamado de Cavaleiro Escocs; a terceira, designada de Mistrios, estava subdividida nos graus de Mistrios Menores (Presbtero e Regente) e Mistrios Maiores (Magus e Rex). Relaes com as lojas manicas foram estabelecidas em Munique e Frisinga, em 1780.

A ordem tinha ramos na maior parte dos pases europeus, mas o nmero total de membros parece nunca ter sido superior a 2000 durante o perodo de dez anos.[4] O esquema teve a sua atrao para os literatos, como Goethe e Herder, e mesmo para os duques reinantes de Gota e Weimar. Rupturas internas precederam o desmoronamento da organizao, que foi efetivado por um dito do governo bvaro em 1785. A ordem foi encerrada em 1788..[4]

Em 22 de junho de 1784, o Eleitor da Baviera, duque Carl Theodor advertiu sobre o perigo representado pelos Illuminati, e aprovou um decreto contra a sociedade bvara.[7] Weishaupt foi demitido de sua ctedra indo para o exlio em Ratisbona, para lider
ar a Ordem no exterior sob a proteo do duque de Saxe. Em 1785, o edital foi confirmado e assim comeou a perseguio e detenes aos membros da sociedade.[8]

Em seguida, o jornalista Johann Joachim Christoph Bode, se torna o lder de fato da Ordem. Em 1787, vai para a Frana, Estrasburgo e depois a Paris,[9] onde se encontrou com membros da Loja de Filaleto.[10] De acordo com o seu “Travel Journal”, alguns deles, ento, constituem em segredo o ncleo dos “Philadelphes”, uma sociedade semelhante aos Illuminati alemes.

Caados, os Illuminati da Baviera desapareceram completamente do sul da Alemanha, em 1786, aps um portugus chamado Joo ter apanhado cerca de 10, apenas algumas lojas resistiram na Saxnia at 1789. Alguns dos planos dos Illuminati foram revelados por acaso na noite de 10 de julho de 1784, quando um mensageiro de Weishaupt, identificado como o abade Lanz, morreu inesperadamente devido a um raio. Seu corpo foi levado para a Capela de San Emmeran por habitantes do local e entre os seus hbitos foram encontrados documentos importantes que se tratavam de planos secretos para a conquista mundial. A polcia da Baviera investigou os detalhes da conspirao, dando a entender a Francisco I, Sacro Imperador Romano-Germnico, o compl contra todas as monarquias, sobretudo na Frana, onde mais tarde, em 1789, gestaria a chamada Revoluo Francesa e a queda de Lus XVI e Maria Antonieta, seus ltimos monarcas.

Os documentos foram divulgados pelo governo da Baviera, alertando a nobreza e o clero da Europa. No entanto, logo se convenceram de que a conspirao tinha sido destruda devido dissoluo formal dos Illuminati, juntamente com o banimento de Weishaupt e a deteno de muitos de seus adeptos.

Apesar de sua curta durao, os Illuminati da Baviera lanaram uma longa sombra na histria popular, graas aos escritos de seus opositores. Em 1797, o Abade Augustin Barruel publicou o livro Memrias ilustrativas da histria do Jacobinismo, delineando uma teoria envolvendo os Cavaleiros Templrios, os Rosacruzes, os Jacobinos e os Illuminati. Simultnea e independentemente, um maom escocs e professor de Histria Natural, chamado John Robison, comeou a publicar Provas de uma conspirao contra todas as religies e governos da Europa, em 1798. Robinson alegava apresentar evidncias de que uma conspirao dos Illuminati estava dedicada a substituir todas as religies e naes com o humanismo e um governo mundial nico, respectivamente.

Mais recentemente, Antony Cyril Sutton sugeriu que a sociedade secreta Skull and Bones foi fundada como o ramo norte-americano dos Illuminati. Outros pensam que a Scroll and Key tambm tem origem nos Illuminati. Robert Gillete defende que esses Illuminati pretendem, em ltima instncia, estabelecer um governo mundial por meio de assassinatos, corrupo, chantagem, controle dos bancos e outras entidades financeiras, infiltrao nos governos, e causando guerras e revolues, com a finalidade de colocar seus prprios membros em posies cada vez mais altas da hierarquia poltica. Thomas Jefferson reparou na infiltrao da ordem na maonaria, e atribuiu o carter secreto dos Illuminati ao que chamou de a tirania de um dspota e dos sacerdotes.

Ambos parecem concordar que os oponentes dos Illuminati foram os monarcas da Europa e a Igreja. Barruel afirmou que a Revoluo Francesa (1789) foi planejada e controlada pelos Illuminati atravs dos jacobinos, e mais tarde alguns tambm alegaram a responsabilidade deles na Revoluo Russa (1917).

Desde o final do sculo XVIII at meados do sculo XX, muitos pesquisadores tm especulado que os Illuminati sobreviveram sua supresso, por causa de sua infiltrao na Maonaria, e se tornaram o crebro por trs de grandes eventos histricos como a Revoluo Americana,[11] a Revoluo Francesa,[12] a Revoluo Russa,[13] as Guerras Mundiais[13] e os ataques de 11 de setembro de 2001;[14] oAtentado em Boston,o Ataques de novembro 2015 em Paris,Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima. Levando a cabo um plano secreto para subverter as monarquias da Europa e a religio Crist visando a formao de uma Nova Ordem Mundial.

Escritores como Mark Dice,[15]David Icke, Ryan Burke, Jri Lina e Morgan Gricar alm de outros tm argumentado que os Illuminati da Baviera sobreviveram, possivelmente at hoje. Muitas destas teorias prope que os eventos mundiais esto a ser controlados e manipulados por uma sociedade secreta que se autodenomina Illuminati.[16][17] Os tericos afirmam que muitas pessoas notveis foram ou so membros dos Illuminati, incluindo Winston Churchill (que teria alertado a respeito da organizao),[18] a famlia Bush,[19]Barack Obama,[20] a famlia Rothschild,[21][19] a famlia Rockefeller (incluindo David Rockefeller) e Zbigniew Brzezinski, entre outros.[22] O termo “Illuminati” tambm geralmente associado com os membros de instituies e sociedades secretas de inspirao ocultista e / ou globalista: os Skull & Bones, Grupo Mesa Redonda, a Sociedade Fabiana, o Royal Institute of International Affairs, o Council on Foreign Relations, o Bohemian Club, o Clube de Bilderberg, a Comisso Trilateral, o Clube de Roma, a Fundao Carnegie, a Fundao Rockefeller, etc.

Tambm sugerem que os fundadores dos Estados Unidos sendo alguns deles franco-maons estavam influenciados pela corrupo dos Illuminati. Frequentemente o smbolo da pirmide que tudo v no Grande Selo dos Estados Unidos citado como exemplo do olho sempre presente dos Illuminati sobre os americanos.

E tambm citam que usam nas notas a escrita Novus Ordo Seclorum que significa Nova Ordem Secular. Jordan Maxwell, pesquisador dos Iluminati, afirma que ‘Novus Ordo Seclorum” pode ser traduzido para “Nova Ordem Mundial”.

Pouca evidncia pode ser encontrada para apoiar a hiptese de que o grupo de Weishaupt tenha sobrevivido at o sculo XIX. Contudo, diversos grupos tm usado a fama dos Illuminati desde ento para criar seus prprios ritos, alegando serem os Illuminati, incluindo a Ordo Illuminatorum, Die Alten Erleuchteten Seher Bayerns, The Illuminati Order, e outros.”[23][24][25]

Os Aquisitores o nome genrico dado a supostos grupos dissidentes que surgiram com a atuao dos Illuminati no Brasil. Sua origem est quase sempre relacionada renuncia de Jnio Quadros, o presidente que renunciou por no aguentar o peso das “foras terrveis” (“foras ocultas”) e a instaurao do Regime Militar em 1964. O nome Aquisitores uma referncia a prosperidade financeira e a atuao de seus membros na economia do pas, especialmente na regio de So Bernardo do Campo, no ABC Paulista durante a prspera fase pela qual passou a regio na dcada de 1970, no movimento metalrgico e na posterior eleio do Presidente Lula.

Durante a ditadura militar, at pouco depois de 1985, os membros brasileiros dos Illuminati supostamente se organizaram em dois grupos opostos e teoricamente independentes dos Illuminati da Baviera. Estes captulos isolados passaram ambos a reivindicar o antigo nome do grupo como sendo os nicos e verdadeiros Aquisitores. Alguns pesquisadores se esforam para ligar todos os escndalos polticos que ocorreram no pas desde a ditadura militar a estes dois grupos e seus jogos de poder.

Porm, os Aquisitores no so reconhecidos como grupo por historiadores acadmicos, e no existem trabalhos acadmicos que confirmem sua existncia. Um exemplo a investigao nos anos 90 sobre a morte do pre
sidente Juscelino Kubitschek ou a investigao iniciada em 2007 no Rio Grande do Sul sobre a morte de Joo Goulart, que oficialmente morreu de doena cardaca, mas teria sido assassinado pela Operao Condor arquitetada pelos Aquisitores. At o momento nenhuma dessas investigaes apresentou provas palpveis, mas a sucesso de eventos alimenta a curiosidade de alguns: Jango, JK e Lacerda, os trs grandes nomes da oposio ao regime militar morreram todos em espao de meses entre o fim de 1976 e incio de 1977.

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Illuminati Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

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Huck Finns Censorship History – Better Living through …

Posted: November 3, 2015 at 12:42 pm

I have always been fascinated by the many ways that literature influences our lives, but, as a literary scholar, I also know that influence is a very hard thing to prove. Thats why I find censorship to be interesting. When people censor a book, they do so because they assume that it can have an impact, albeit a negative one. Censorship thus works as a kind of indirect compliment. Generally, authors would rather be censored than ignored.

Ben Click, my friend, colleague, and department chair, recently talked about Huckleberry Finns censorship history in a public lecture sponsored by our college library during Banned Book Week. That history, Ben reveals, has turned 180 degrees. When it first appeared, the novel was attacked by moralists and southern racists. Now it is sometimes accused of being racist itself. (I recently defended Twain against charges of racism here). That being said, Ben points out that some of our greatest African American writers have defended it, including Langston Hughes, Ralph Ellison, and, more recently, Toni Morrison. Here is Bens talk.

By Ben Click, Professor of English, St. Marys College of Maryland

I will start by explaining some terms that relate to the purpose and spirit of this evenings talk. Theres a difference between the banning, challenging, and censuring of anything: a movie, a speech, a book. Books may be challenged for inclusion in a library or in a school curriculum, and often challenges yield productive discussions. But banning a book never did anyone much good, and censuring one is just playing with toys that aint yours.

Ben Click

Welcome to Hushing Huck: The Banning of Huckleberry Finn. Of course, I am now leaning more favorably to the title that this years Twain Fellow, English major Alyssa Miller, suggested: Shut the Huck Up: The Banning of Huckleberry Finn. In a way, the two titles offer us an interesting rubric for how the book has been received and thus banned. Hushing reflects the early genteel considerations for why the book needed to be banned. In short, the genteel critique was that the book promoted bad morals and course behavior for young people. Shut the Huck Up seems more like the modern reason for banning the book, with the titular joke residing in the one word: Huck for F*** Theres one particular word that appears 200 times in the novel that fuels the ire of parents, preachers, and critics who claim the book is racistit even riles the ire of those who havent read it! But more about that in a bit.

Few books have felt the highs and lows of critical response like those of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. When a library bans a book, it has labels explaining why: too political too much sex irreligious, or the category that Huck falls under, socially offensive. Thus, it seems a great irony that a Mark Twain quote graces the opening page of all 344 volumes of the Dictionary of Literary Biography: almost the most prodigious asset of a country, and perhaps its most precious possession is its narrative literary product when that product is fine and noble and enduring.

The irony is that, within the literary canon, Twains novel is universally considered just thatfine and noble, and enduringand yet it is also one of the most banned books of all time. Currently, it ranks #14 in the Top 100 Banned or Challenged Books of the last decade. In the decade preceding that it ranked #5. Still, the novel continues to be read by millions everywhere.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been translated into over 53 languages. It has never gone out of print since it was first published in 1885, and it has sold over 20 million copies. In the U.S. alone, there are well over 100 different editions of the book, and a staggering 700 plus in foreign editions. It is celebrating its 125th year anniversary in the same year that we commemorate the 100th anniversary of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twains) passing.

In 1935, Ernest Hemingway claimed that all American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. Its been called our countrys great epic, as Homers was Greeces. British playwright George Bernard Shaw said he learned from Huck Finn that the funniest joke in the world was just telling the truth. It was the book Mark Twain himself considered his best, and it is the book that our college chose for summer reading for our first-year students. Copies of the book have shown up in the most amazing places: Bismarcks writing desk, the private parlor of the President of Chile, in the Czarinas boudoir. It has been converted to just about every form you can imagine: film several times, book adaptations, musical scores, comics, and a hit Broadway production. It is an amazing literary achievement.

It has also been banned ever since it was first published.

Trouble from the Start

In 1876 Twain published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and it was a huge success. He wanted to follow up with a sequel, but it took him over eight years to write and publish Huck Finn. During that time he published three other classics: The Prince and the Pauper, A Tramp Abroad, and Life on the Mississippi. Three main issues plagued the books pre and early release: an obscene engraving, an unfortunate lawsuit, and the Concord Public Library ban.

An Obscene Engraving

One of the 174 woodcut illustrations had been altered and included in the subscription salesmens prospectuses. The New York World published this embarrassment and the story was circulated widely. Heres the original, altered woodcut, and the corrected version next to it:

Heres how the paper described it: A mere stroke of the awl would suffice to give the cut an indecent character never intended by the author or engraver . . . a characteristic which would be repudiated not only by the author, but by all respectable people of the country into whose hands this volume should fall.

The Estes and Lauriat lawsuit

Even before the book was distributed to subscription book agents, the Boston bookseller, Estes and Lauriat, published a catalog that listed the books price below that of the subscription rate that Twains publisher would ask. Twain sued the bookseller, and the story was widely published. In short, although in the right, the lawsuit made Twain look greedy.

The Concord Public Library ban

In mid-March, the Concord Public Library Committee decided unanimously to ban the book, calling it flippant, irreverent, and trashy. One member of the committee said, It deals with a series of adventures of a very low grade of morality; it is couched in the language of a rough, ignorant dialect. . . . The whole book is of a class that is more profitable for the slums than it is for respectable people, and it is trash of the veriest sort.

Even Little Women author Louisa May Alcott lashed out publicly at Twain, saying, If Mr. Clemens cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them.Twain was initially unruffled by the controversy, writing to his publisher: They have expelled Huck from their library as trash & only suitable for the slums. That will sell 25,000 copies for us, sure.

The story got lots of press, and some papers, like the San Francisco Chronicle, defended the book. Twain wrote to his sister Pamela, who was living in California at the time (she probably sent him the Chronicle article), The Chronicle understands the bookthose idiots in Concord are not a court of last resort, & I am not disturbed by their moral gymnastics.

Eventually, however, he became disturbed by the charge of immorality, and in his lecture tour of 1885-86 he laid out the novels central conflict: in a crucial moral emergency a sound heart is a safer guide than an ill-trained conscience. However, within six years of its publication, the book left its detractors behind. Critics such as Brander Matthews called it a great book. Critic Andrew Lang called it nothing less than a masterpiece. The British journal Punch referred to it as a Homeric bookas no other English book is.

The Banning Continues: From questionable morals to racist trash

Despite its critical recognition, the novel was still challenged and banned locally by library boards and religious organizations because of its irreverence, its inappropriateness for children, and its questionable morality. This appeared to be the reason that, in 1902, the Denver Public Library excluded the book from its approved list of books for boys.

But Twain saw things differently. The reason appeared political rather than moral, stemming from Twains scathing attack on General Frederick Funston, who was made a war hero by Teddy Roosevelt for his deeds in the Philippine-American warwhich Twain vocally opposed. Twain wrote to the Denver Post,

Theres nobody for me to attack in this matter even with soft and gentle ridiculeand I shouldnt think of using a grown-up weapon in this kind of nursery. Above all, I couldnt venture to attack the clergy men whom you mention, for I have their habits and live in the same glass house which they are occupying. I am always reading immoral books on the sly, and then selfishly trying to prevent other people from having the same wicked good time.

Almost simultaneously, the Omaha Public Library, in the same month, hushed Huckagain, while the stated reason was its pernicious influence on young people, the real reason most likely was political. Twain ultimately shot back about Huck being censored: Censorship is telling a man he cant have a steak just because a baby cant chew it. All the while he remained critical of the U.S. pursuing its imperialistic impulses. And the book kept getting banned.

And just who are these people condemning Huck? Our wonderfully wise staff of librarians would like me to bury this next comment, but even they support the free revelation of unvarnished TRUTH. Many times it was the librarians themselves banning the book. This was the case in 1905 when the head librarian of the Brooklyn Public Libraries put not only Huck Finn but also Tom Sawyer on the restricted list. The librarian claimed that Huck was a deceitful boy; that he not only itched but scratched; and that he said sweat when he should have said perspiration.

Only one brave librarian voiced an objectionAsa Dickinson, a quiet rebel of obvious intelligence. He wrote to Twain expressing his concern. Twain wrote at least two letters back to Dickinson, both full of typical Twain humor:

The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean; I know this by my own experience, and to this day I cherish an unappeasable bitterness again the unfaithful guardians of my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15. None can do that and ever draw a clean, sweet breath again this side of the grave.

Twain then sarcastically makes the following request: If there is an unexpurgated Bible in the Childrens Department, wont you please help that young woman remove Huck and Tom from that questionable companionship. He asked Dickinson not to allow the press to ever know what his letters said. Dickinson never did.

It was not until after in death in 1910 that Twains stature as an author grew. In his day, he would not be recognized as a great author but merely Americas greatest humorist. Of course, I consider that a tremendous compliment. I agree with W. D. Howells assessment in 1900:

When we look back over our literature, and see what savage and stupid and pitiless things have passed for humor, and then open his page, we seem not only to have invented the only true humorist, but to have invented humor itself. We do not know by what mystery his talent sprang from our soil and flowered in our air, but we know that no such talent has been known to any other; and if we set any bounds to our joy in him, it must be from that innate American modesty, not always perceptible to the alien eye, which forbids us to keep throwing bouquests at ourselves.

Twain himself felt the sting of not being recognized for his great literary achievements. When he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Oxford in 1907, he was troubled that persons of small and temporary consequencepersons of local and evanescent notoriety, person who drift into obscurity and are forgotten inside of ten yearsand never a degree offered me! Of all those thousands, not fifty are known outside of America, and not a hundred are still famous in it.

And so, while Huck had his share of troubles during its pre-publication period and then with contemporary reception, he was given a bit of a reprieve from 1910 (when his creator died) to 1957 (the early stages of the Civil Rights Movement). During that time, it was still banned, but with Twain no longer there to make his case and ridicule the attackers, the praise overshadowed the banning. Plus, Americas preoccupation with a Great Depression and two World Wars kept its mind on seemingly larger issues. This changed in the 1950s with the emergence of the Civil Rights movement.

On Language and Race

In 1957, the New York City Board of Education removed the book from approved textbook lists in elementary and junior high schools, citing it to be racially offensive. (See the above cartoon.) While the local NAACP denied any hand in this removal, it did respond to the Herald Tribune, saying that Twains work was chockfull of racial slurs and belittling racial designations.

Interestingly, they did not object to the use of the word nigger in the text, but rather that the textbook version used (a 1951 Scott, Foresman edition) didnt capitalize the word Negro. This 1951 rewritten and censored version had to follow a teacher- approved list of over 2000 words or phrases. Idiot became fool Jews harp became mouth organ and Hucks entire voice is taken away from him. Instead of the first line being,

You dont know about me without you have read The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but that aint no matter. That book was made by Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly.

it became

You dont know about me unless you have read The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Thus, we begin see the move to edit this great novel to make it acceptable.

As the book neared its centenary about 25 years later, it was banned in Davenport, Iowa, Houston, Texas, and Bucks County, Pennsylvania. It was also challenged by parents in Waukegen and Springfield, Illinois. But the case to censor Huck that received the greatest national attention occurred right up the road in Fairfax County, Virginia. In 1982, as the book moved toward its centenary, the principal at (and heres an irony that Twain would love) the Mark Twain Intermediate School, removed the book from the required reading list on the advice of its Human Rights Committee.

An administrative aide for the school, John H. Wallace, told the Washington Post that the book is poison. It is an Anti-American; it works against the melting pot theory of our country, it works against the idea that all men are created equal; it works against the 14th amendment to the Constitution and against the preamble that guarantees all men life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Three years later he told Ted Koppel on Nightline that the novel is the most grotesque example of racist trash ever written and in essence should be dropped from school reading lists. In her article, NAACP on Huck Finn: Teach Teachers to Be Sensitive; Dont Censor . . . , NAACP Education Director Beverly P. Cole, responded to Wallaces charge: You dont ban Mark Twainyou explain Mark Twain. Quite a different response from the NAACP of 25 years before that helped hush Huck in the NY Public Schools!

In his article The Case Against Huck Finn, Wallace claims that Huckleberry Finn is racist, whether its author intended it to be or not. Of course, Twain was no longer physically alive to respond, but his words do just as well. As he wrote in an 1887 letter, Dont explain your author, read him right and he explains himself.

Ironically, in the last paragraph of his article Wallace writes,

If an educator feels he or she must use Huckleberry Finn in the classroom, I would suggest my revised version, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Adapted, by John H. Wallace. The story is the same, but the words nigger and hell are eradicated. It no longer depicts blacks as inhuman, dishonest, or unintelligent, and it contains a glossary of Twainisms. Most adolescents will enjoy laughing at Jim and Huck in this adaptation.

The preface of Wallaces version reads, Huck and his friend Tom Sawyer have lots of fun playing tricks on Jim and several other characters in the novel.

This period of censorship in the 1980s can be seen in other ways also. In 1982, the publisher of an edition of Twains works thought it necessary to add the following note to the beginning of the book:

A note to the reader: There are racial references and language in this story that may be offensive to the modern reader. He should be aware, however, that these do not reflect the attitude of the publisher of this edition. Moreover, Mark Twains original intention was one of irony, where the insults applied to Jim, the runaway slave, were meant to emphasize Jims nobility and integrity, in contrast to those who cast the slurs. It is in this light that the story should be read.

It should be noted that not all African American readers have felt the book needed such a defense. Note the following voices:

Langston Hughes: Mark Twain, in his presentation of Negroes as human beings, stands head and shoulders about the other Southern writers of his time.

Ralph Ellison: Mark Twain celebrated [the spoken idiom of Negro Americans] in the prose of Huckleberry Finn; without the presence of blacks, the book could not have been written. No Huck and Jim, no American novel as we know it.

Toni Morrison praised Twains use of language and the river as structural device, but identified its silent passages as also part of its genius: when scenes and incidents swell the heart unbearably and precisely because they are unarticulated, and force an act of imagination almost against the will . . . It is classic literature.


This is just part of the long history of censoring, challenging and banning of Huck. The novel is still being challenged. Just three years ago I was at the Twain home in Hartford, his adult home where he wrote parts of Huck Finn. A local school was considering excluding it.

As we conclude, Id like end with two more ironic examples connected to the challenging, banning, and censoring of the book. Along with Huck Finn in the top ten list of banned books is Vladimir Nabokovs 1955 novel, Lolita, banned for too much sex. When the British philosopher Edmund Wilson suggested that Nabokov introduce his son to Twains works, Vera Nabokov was shocked. She considered Tom Sawyer to be an immoral book that teaches bad behavior and suggests to little boys the idea of taking an interest in little girls too young. One wonders if she ever read her husbands banned book!

Two summers ago, I had the privilege to speak at the Sixth International Conference on the State of Mark Twain Studies. On the first night of the conference there was a big dinner to kick-off the conference. After dinner, a lifetime achievement award is given to one of the Twain scholars in attendance. The recipient was a man named Horst Kruse, from the University of Munster in Germany. This 75-year-old man was clearly surprised and humbled by this award. When he got to the podium he began to tell the following story (Im paraphrasing this):

The first time I heard of Mark Twain, I was just a boy of 7. I was at a campcamp with lots of other boys, and a young man in a uniform was reading a book to us all. That book was Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. When we finally left the camp, I never saw any of those boys again. But Im sure we all remembered that timethat time where we were when we first hear of Mark Twain and of Huckleberry Finn. That time was WWII and the Nazis were running things.

His narrative trailed off a bit as we sat in the audience realizing what he had just told us. I hadnt thought of that story until I began to write this talk. And Im not quite sure what to say or how to end this talk except to say that Horst wouldnt have met Twain then if Huck Finn hadnt survived being banned or burned through the years. And that would have been tragic.

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Free speech zone – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: November 2, 2015 at 5:48 am

Free speech zones (also known as First Amendment zones, free speech cages, and protest zones) are areas set aside in public places that are used to restrict the ability for American citizens to exercise their right of free speech in the United States by forcing them into these zones. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that “Congress shall make no law… abridging… the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” The existence of free speech zones is based on U.S. court decisions stipulating that the government may regulate the time, place, and mannerbut not contentof expression.[citation needed]

The Supreme Court has developed a four-part analysis to evaluate the constitutionality of time, place and manner (TPM) restrictions. To pass muster under the First Amendment, TPM restrictions must be neutral with respect to content, narrowly drawn, serve a significant government interest, and leave open alternative channels of communication. Application of this four-part analysis varies with the circumstances of each case, and typically requires lower standards for the restriction of obscenity and fighting words.[citation needed]

Free speech zones have been used at a variety of political gatherings. The stated purpose of free speech zones is to protect the safety of those attending the political gathering, or for the safety of the protesters themselves. Critics, however, suggest that such zones are “Orwellian”,[1][2] and that authorities use them in a heavy-handed manner to censor protesters by putting them literally out of sight of the mass media, hence the public, as well as visiting dignitaries. Though authorities generally deny specifically targeting protesters, on a number of occasions, these denials have been contradicted by subsequent court testimony. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has filed, with various degrees of success and failure, a number of lawsuits on the issue.

Though free speech zones existed prior to the Presidency of George W. Bush, it was during Bush’s presidency that their scope was greatly expanded.[3] These zones have continued through the presidency of Barack Obama; he signed a bill in 2012 that expanded the power of the Secret Service to restrict speech and make arrests.[4]

Many colleges and universities earlier instituted free speech zone rules during the Vietnam-era protests of the 1960s and 1970s. In recent years, a number of them have revised or removed these restrictions following student protests and lawsuits.[citation needed]

During the 1988 Democratic National Convention, the city of Atlanta, Georgia set up a “designated protest zone”[5] so the convention would not be disrupted. A pro-choice demonstrator opposing an Operation Rescue group said Atlanta Mayor Andrew Young “put us in a free-speech cage.”[6] “Protest zones” were used during the 1992 and 1996 United States presidential nominating conventions[7]

Free speech zones have been used for non-political purposes. Through 1990s, the San Francisco International Airport played host to a steady stream of religious groups (Hare Krishnas in particular), preachers, and beggars. The city considered whether this public transportation hub was required to host free speech, and to what extent. As a compromise, two “free speech booths” were installed in the South Terminal, and groups wishing to speak but not having direct business at the airport were directed there. These booths still exist, although permits are required to access the booths.[8]

WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity saw a number of changes to how law enforcement deals with protest activities. “The [National Lawyers] Guild, which has a 35-year history of monitoring First Amendment activity, has witnessed a notable change in police treatment of political protesters since the November 1999 World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle. At subsequent gatherings in Washington, D.C., Detroit, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Miami, Chicago, and Portland a pattern of behavior that stifles First Amendment rights has emerged”.[9] In a subsequent lawsuit, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that “It was lawful for the city of Seattle to deem part of downtown off-limits… But the court also said that police enforcing the rule may have gone too far by targeting only those opposed to the WTO, in violation of their First Amendment rights.”[10]

Free speech zones were used in Boston at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. The free speech zones organized by the authorities in Boston were boxed in by concrete walls, invisible to the FleetCenter where the convention was held and criticized harshly as a “protest pen” or “Boston’s Camp X-Ray”.[11] “Some protesters for a short time Monday [July 26, 2004] converted the zone into a mock prison camp by donning hoods and marching in the cage with their hands behind their backs.”[12] A coalition of groups protesting the Iraq War challenged the planned protest zones. U.S. District Court Judge Douglas Woodlock was sympathetic to their request: “One cannot conceive of what other design elements could be put into a space to create a more symbolic affront to the role of free expression.”.[13] However, he ultimately rejected the petition to move the protest zones closer to the FleetCenter.[14]

Free speech zones were also used in New York City at the 2004 Republican National Convention. According to Mike McGuire, a columnist for the online anti-war magazine Nonviolent Activist, “The policing of the protests during the 2004 Republican National Convention represent[ed] another interesting model of repression. The NYPD tracked every planned action and set up traps. As marches began, police would emerge from their hiding places building vestibules, parking garages, or vans and corral the dissenters with orange netting that read ‘POLICE LINE DO not CROSS,’ establishing areas they ironically called ‘ad-hoc free speech zones.’ One by one, protesters were arrested and detainedsome for nearly two days.”[15] Both the Democratic and Republican National parties were jointly awarded a 2005 Jefferson Muzzle from the Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression, “For their mutual failure to make the preservation of First Amendment freedoms a priority during the last Presidential election”.[13]

Free speech zones were commonly used by President George W. Bush after the September 11 attacks and through the 2004 election. Free speech zones were set up by the Secret Service, who scouted locations where the U.S. president was scheduled to speak, or pass through. Officials targeted those who carried anti-Bush signs and escorted them to the free speech zones prior to and during the event. Reporters were often barred by local officials from displaying these protesters on camera or speaking to them within the zone.[16][3] Protesters who refused to go to the free speech zone were often arrested and charged with trespassing, disorderly conduct and/or resisting arrest.[17][18] A seldom-used federal law making it unlawful to “willfully and knowingly to enter or remain in … any posted, cordoned off, or otherwise restricted area of a building or grounds where the President or other person protected by the Secret Service is or will be temporarily visiting” has also been invoked.[19][20]

Civil liberties advocates argue that Free Speech Zones are used as a form of censorship and public relations management to conceal the existence of popular opposition from the mass public and elected officials.[21] There is much controversy surrounding the creation of these areas the mere existence of such zones is offensive to some people, who maintain that the First Amendment to the United States Constitution makes the entire country an unrestricted free speech zone.[21] The Department of Homeland Security “has even gone so far as to tell local police departments to regard critics of the War on Terrorism as potential terrorists themselves.”[17][22]

The Bush administration has been criticized by columnist James Bovard of The American Conservative for requiring protesters to stay within a designated area, while allowing supporters access to more areas.[18] According to the Chicago Tribune, the American Civil Liberties Union has asked a federal court in Washington D.C. to prevent the Secret Service from keeping anti-Bush protesters distant from presidential appearances while allowing supporters to display their messages up close, where they are likely to be seen by the news media.[18]

The preliminary plan for the 2004 Democratic National Convention was criticized by the National Lawyers Guild and the ACLU of Massachusetts as being insufficient to handle the size of the expected protest. “The zone would hold as few as 400 of the several thousand protesters who are expected in Boston in late July.”[23]

In 1939, the United States Supreme Court found in Hague v. Committee for Industrial Organization that public streets and parks “have immemorially been held in trust for the use of the public and, time out of mind, have been used for purposes of assembly, communicating thoughts between citizens, and discussing public questions.” In the later Thornhill v. Alabama case, the court found that picketing and marching in public areas is protected by the United States Constitution as free speech. However, subsequent rulings Edwards v. South Carolina, Brown v. Louisiana, Cox v. Louisiana, and Adderley v. Florida found that picketing is afforded less protection than pure speech due to the physical externalities it creates. Regulations on demonstrations may affect the time, place, and manner of those demonstrations, but may not discriminate based on the content of the demonstration.

The Secret Service denies targeting the President’s political opponents. “Decisions made in the formulation of a security plan are based on security considerations, not political considerations,” said one Secret Service spokesman.[24]

“These [Free Speech] zones routinely succeed in keeping protesters out of presidential sight and outside the view of media covering the event. When Bush came to the Pittsburgh area on Labor Day 2002, 65-year-old retired steel worker Bill Neel was there to greet him with a sign proclaiming, ‘The Bush family must surely love the poor, they made so many of us.’ The local police, at the Secret Service’s behest, set up a ‘designated free-speech zone’ on a baseball field surrounded by a chain-link fence a third of a mile from the location of Bush’s speech. The police cleared the path of the motorcade of all critical signs, though folks with pro-Bush signs were permitted to line the president’s path. Neel refused to go to the designated area and was arrested for disorderly conduct. Police detective John Ianachione testified that the Secret Service told local police to confine ‘people that were there making a statement pretty much against the president and his views.'”[18][25] District justice Shirley Trkula threw out the charges, stating that “I believe this is America. Whatever happened to ‘I don’t agree with you, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it’?”[16]

At another incident during a presidential visit to South Carolina, protester Brett Bursey refused an order by Secret Service agents to go to a free speech zone half-a-mile away. He was arrested and charged with trespassing by the South Carolina police. “Bursey said that he asked the policeman if ‘it was the content of my sign,’ and he said, ‘Yes, sir, it’s the content of your sign that’s the problem.'”[18] However, the prosecution, led by James Strom Thurmond Jr., disputes Bursey’s version of events.[26] Trespassing charges against Bursey were dropped, and Bursey was instead indicted by the federal government for violation of a federal law that allows the Secret Service to restrict access to areas visited by the president.[18] Bursey faced up to six months in prison and a US$5,000 fine.[18] After a bench trial, Bursey was convicted of the offense of trespassing, but judge Bristow Marchant deemed the offense to be relatively minor and ordered a fine of $500 be assessed, which Bursey appealed, and lost.[27] In his ruling, Marchant found that “this is not to say that the Secret Service’s power to restrict the area around the President is absolute, nor does the Court find that protesters are required to go to a designated demonstration area which was an issue in this case as long as they do not otherwise remain in a properly restricted area.”[27]

Marchant’s ruling however, was criticized for three reasons:

In 2003, the ACLU brought a lawsuit against the Secret Service, ACORN v. Secret Service, representing the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN). “The federal court in Philadelphia dismissed that case in March [2004] after the Secret Service acknowledged that it could not discriminate against protesters through the use of out-of-sight, out-of-earshot protest zones.”[29] Another 2003 lawsuit against the city of Philadelphia, ACORN v. Philadelphia, charged that the Philadelphia Police Department, on orders from the Secret Service, had kept protesters “further away from the site of presidential visits than Administration supporters. A high-ranking official of the Philadelphia police told ACLU of Pennsylvania Legal Director Stefan Presser that he was only following Secret Service orders.”[21][30] However, the court found the ACLU lacked standing to bring the case and dismissed it.[31]

The Secret Service says it does establish ‘public viewing areas’ to protect dignitaries but does not discriminate against individuals based on the content of their signs or speech. ‘Absolutely not,’ said Tom Mazur, a spokesman for the agency created to protect the president. ‘The Secret Service makes no distinction on the purpose, message or intent of any individual or group.’ Civil libertarians dispute that. They cite a Corpus Christi, Texas, couple, Jeff and Nicole Rank, as an example. The two were arrested at a Bush campaign event in Charleston, West Virginia, on July 4, 2004, when they refused to take off anti-Bush shirts. Their shirts read, ‘Love America, Hate Bush’… The ACLU found 17 cases since March 2001 in which protesters were removed during events where the president or vice president appeared. And lawyers say it’s an increasing trend.[32]

The article is slightly mistaken about the contents of the shirts. While Nicole Rank’s shirt did say “Love America, Hate Bush”, Jeff Rank’s shirt said “Regime change starts at home.”[33]

The incident occurred several months after the Secret Service’s pledge in ACORN v. Secret Service not to discriminate against protesters. “The charges against the Ranks were ultimately dismissed in court and the mayor and city council publicly apologized for the arrest. City officials also said that local law enforcement was acting at the request of Secret Service.”[34] ACLU Senior Staff Attorney Chris Hansen pointed out that “The Secret Service has promised to not curtail the right to dissent at presidential appearances, and yet we are still hearing stories of people being blocked from engaging in lawful protest,” said Hansen. “It is time for the Secret Service to stop making empty promises.”[34] The Ranks subsequently filed a lawsuit, Rank v. Jenkins, against Deputy Assistant to the President Gregory Jenkins and the Secret Service. “The lawsuit, Rank v. Jenkins, is seeking unspecified damages as well as a declaration that the actions leading to the removal of the Ranks from the Capitol grounds were unconstitutional.”[34] In August 2007, the Ranks settled their lawsuit against the Federal Government. The government paid them $80,000, but made no admission of wrongdoing.[35] The Ranks’ case against Gregory Jenkins is still pending in the District of Columbia.[36]

As a result of ACLU subpoenas during the discovery in the Rank lawsuit, the ACLU obtained the White House’s previously-classified presidential advance manual.[37] The manual gives people organizing presidential visits specific advice for preventing or obstructing protests. “There are several ways the advance person” the person organizing the presidential visit “can prepare a site to minimize demonstrators. First, as always, work with the Secret Service to and have them ask the local police department to designate a protest area where demonstrators can be placed, preferably not in view of the event site or motorcade route. The formation of ‘rally squads’ is a common way to prepare for demonstrators… The rally squad’s task is to use their signs and banners as shields between the demonstrators and the main press platform… As a last resort, security should remove the demonstrators from the event site.”[37]

The use of free speech zones on university campuses is controversial. Many universities created on-campus free speech zones during the 1960s and 1970s, during which protests on-campus (especially against the Vietnam War) were common. Generally, the requirements are that the university is given advance notice and that they are held in locations that do not disrupt classes.

In 1968, the Supreme Court ruled in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District that non-disruptive speech is permitted in public schools. However, this does not apply to private universities. In September 2004, U.S. District Court Judge Sam Cummings struck down the free speech zone policy at Texas Tech University. “According to the opinion of the court, campus areas such as parks, sidewalks, streets and other areas are designated as public forums, regardless of whether the university has chosen to officially designate the areas as such. The university may open more of the campus as public forums for its students, but it cannot designate fewer areas… Not all places within the boundaries of the campus are public forums, according to Cummings’ opinion. The court declared the university’s policy unconstitutional to the extent that it regulates the content of student speech in areas of the campus that are public forums”.[38]

In 2007, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education released a survey of 346 colleges and Universities in the United States.[39] Of those institutions, 259 (75%) maintain policies that “both clearly and substantially restrict freedom of speech.”

In December 2005, the College Libertarians at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro staged a protest outside the University’s designated protest zones. The specific intent of the protest was to provoke just such a charge, in order to “provoke the system into action into a critical review of what’s going on.”[40] Two students, Allison Jaynes and Robert Sinnott, were brought up on charges under the student code of conduct of “violation of respect”,[41] for refusing to move when told to do so by a university official.[40] The university subsequently dropped honor code charges against the students.[40] “University officials said the history of the free-speech zones is not known. ‘It predated just about everybody here,” said Lucien ‘Skip’ Capone III, the university attorney. The policy may be a holdover from the Vietnam War and civil rights era, he said.'”[40]

A number of colleges and universities have revised or revoked free speech zone policies in the last decade, including: Tufts University,[42]Appalachian State University,[42] and West Virginia University.[42][43] In August, 2006, Penn State University revised its seven-year-old rules restricting the rights of students to protest. “In effect, the whole campus is now a ‘free-speech zone.'”[44]

Controversies have also occurred at the University of Southern California,[45]Indiana University,[46] the University of Nevada, Las Vegas,[47] and Brigham Young University.[48][49]

At Marquette University, philosophy department chairman James South ordered graduate student Stuart Ditsler to remove an unattributed Dave Barry quote from the door to the office that Ditsler shared with three other teaching assistants, calling the quote patently offensive. (The quote was: “As Americans we must always remember that we all have a common enemy, an enemy that is dangerous, powerful, and relentless. I refer, of course, to the federal government.”) South claimed that the University’s free-speech zone rules required Ditsler to take it down. University spokeswoman Brigid O’Brien Miller stated that it was “a workplace issue, not one of academic freedom.”[50][51] Ultimately, the quote was allowed to remain, albeit with attribution.[52]

Designated protest areas were established during the August 2007 Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America Summit in Ottawa, Canada. Although use of the areas was voluntary and not surrounded by fences, some protesters decried the use of designated protest areas, calling them “protest pens.”[53]

During the 2005 WTO Hong Kong Ministerial Conference, over 10,000 protesters were present. Wan Chai Sports Ground and Wan Chai Cargo Handling Basin were designated as protest zones. Police wielded sticks, used gas grenades and shot rubber bullets at some of the protesters. They arrested 910 people, 14 were charged, but none were convicted.

Three protest parks were designated in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, at the suggestion of the IOC. All 77 applications to protest there had been withdrawn or denied, and no protests took place. Four persons who applied to protest were arrested or sentenced to reeducation.[54][55]

In the Philippines, designated free speech zones are called freedom parks.

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