Tag Archives: danish

Vineyard Power vying for offshore wind farm – Cape Cod Times (subscription)

Posted: February 18, 2017 at 4:38 am

Doug Fraser @dougfrasercct

CHATHAM This June, the state will solicit bids seeking offshore wind farms to produce 400 megawatts of electricity. Its the first of four phases of what state officials hope will be 1,600 megawatts of offshore power; 15 percent of what the state uses annually, enough power to replace what will eventually be lost when Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station shuts down.

Submitting a bid in June will be the first tangible step for a group of Marthas Vineyard residents who started the Vineyard Power energy cooperative six years ago in response to a lot of the things they didnt like about the nowdefunct Cape Wind project. It has 1,400 members and claims the cooperative represents 5,000 people on the island.

Richard Andre, president of Vineyard Power, said their prospects improved dramatically when Gov. Charlie Baker signed legislation in August that required that powerutilities solicit and contract for 1,600 megawatts of offshore wind power as part of their energy portfolio by 2027.

Then, we knew we would have a buyer for our power, Andre said.

Vineyard Power representatives came to the headquarters of the Cape CodCommercial Fishermens Alliance in Chatham on a stormy Wednesday to get feedback from fishermen.

Perhaps it was fitting that there werent many fishermen in the audience, because Andre said that unlike Cape Wind, which was sued by Vineyard fishermen and hotly contestedby many Cape fishermen, they havent received any negative feedback.

We identified our site in 2009 as an area with the least amount of fishery conflicts, Andre said.

The process was helped considerably by the federal government in 2009 when theBureau of Energy Management mapped out areas of the ocean with good wind and relatively few conflicting uses or environmental concerns. John Pappalardo, CEO of the Cape Cod Commercial Fishermens Alliance, was part of the team that helped to eliminate large areas that were valuable for fishing, shellfishing or for fish habitat.

This zone was much larger. We shaved a huge piece out of it primarily because of scallops, Pappalardo said.

At over 500 feet tall, the 40 to 70 turbines that would be constructed in the first phase would be spaced more than a half mile apart. Andre told the audience there would be no reduced speed or areas closed to navigation or fishing. It has not been determined yet whether there could be anything like a kelp or mussel farming operation using components of the turbine. There would be money available to reimburse fishermen displaced during construction work.

By locating them 12 miles offshore, Andre said the turbines would only be visible on extremely clear days and, even then, would be far off in the distance.

We wanted a different model than Cape Wind. We wanted there to be local benefit, local employment, and local input into the project, Andre told the audience. Weve met with over 20 fishing groups since March of 2016.

Vineyard Power partnered with Vineyard Wind, which holds the lease on the 260 square miles of ocean 12 miles south of the island. Vineyard Wind is a subsidiary of Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners, a Danish company that invests pension funds from NorthernEurope. It has $3.5 billion in assets, Andre said, and is primarily focused on renewable energy projects. CIP has managed and invested in over 1,000 megawatts of offshore wind turbines currently being built in Europe, according to its website.

Three companies, Deepwater Wind, another Danish company, Dong Energy, and Vineyard Power hold the three federal leases in federal waters south of the Vineyard that were designated as appropriate for offshore wind through an ocean zoning process. In September, the three companies signed letters of intent to use the state-run $113 million New Bedford Marine Commerce Terminal, which had been built in anticipation of the ill-fated Cape Wind offshore wind farm being constructed.

This December, Eversourceacquired 50 percent ownership of the offshore wind farm proposed by Dong Energy.

All three offshore wind companies could be submitting bids this summer, Andre said. Price is the primary consideration, and he anticipates the winning bid will be in the mid-teens per kilowatt hour as compared with Cape Winds prices, which were over 20 cents. Each subsequent bid phase is required to start at a lower price than the previous ones as improved technology and economies of scale reduce costs. Europe, where they have been producing such power for decades, has seen offshore wind drop to 10 cents, Andre said.

The area south of the Vineyard has been rated the best or second best on the East Coast for the strength and consistency of its wind, Andre toldthe audience.

Vineyard Wind ships were out on Nantucket Sound this summer and fall doing seismic and sonar testing on the sea bed to determine what type of foundation would be required for the turbines.

Environmental studies of impacts on birds and marine life, and permitting, will continue for another two years. Construction could start as early as 2020 and take two years. It will take about 2,000 construction workers for the first phase, and Andre said the plan is to employ a lot of local workers.

The company with the winning bid would also have to get state permits to run cables, which will be buried 6 feet deep in the sea bed, to the mainland.

Follow Doug Fraser on Twitter:@dougfrasercct

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DNA test: Who’s your daddy’s daddy? – Green Bay Press Gazette

Posted: at 3:50 am

Paul Srubas(Photo: USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin)Buy Photo

Now, according to the TV commercial, you can have your DNA tested.

This isnt about getting away with murder. In this case at least, your DNA wont prove you didnt really kill Col.Mustard with the candlestick in the drawing room. This is only about checking out your ancestry.

Were the Great Melting Pot here in the USA, but that doesnt mean we all dont want to trace ourselves back to something really cool, whatever that is. Royalty, I suppose, or the guy who invented socks.

This test doesnt get that specific. Itjust determines where your people came from. Having a name that begins with Vander-“or ends in ski doesnt cut it anymore.

Ive got a friend who tried it. He always thought he was Irish, but the test came back saying he was Danish and Romanian. As we all know, there are two kinds of people in this world, the Irish and those who wish they were, and my friend just crossed the Great Divide going the wrong way. Now hes stuck being Danish and Romanian. They wont send him a refund.

Heres what baffles me. These guys doing the testing how do they know where to stop? I mean, people have always moved around a lot, but humanity supposedly originated in Ethiopia. If this testing company told everybody they evolved from Ethiopians, it wouldnt stay in business long.

Youre a direct descendant of Adam and Eve! Thatll be $200, please!

On the other hand, if I sent in a sample and it came back identifying my ancestry as having come from the Neenah-Menasha area, I think Id go to the police.

So this company cleverly chooses to target somewhere in between these two extremes, at some limited number of digits in the DNA sequence that takes results beyond your mom and dads home town but stops somewhere short of the Cradle of Civilization.

Um, Denmark and Romania! Thats it. Your people were from Denmark and Romania!

All they have to do is go back far enough that theres no way to check.

Someone with excess money could test their honesty, I guess. Send them two samples at two different times and see whetherthe results match. Maybe you can surprise yourself to learn youre Belgian and your twin sister is Polish.

Give it a try and let me know what you find out. Dont send them blood, though. You just have to lick the envelope. And remember to enclose a check or money order.

psrubas@pressgazettemedia.com and follow him on Twitter@PGpaulsrubas

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DNA test: Who’s your daddy’s daddy? – Green Bay Press Gazette

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Stepping up the hunt for genetic diseases – Medical Xpress

Posted: February 17, 2017 at 12:48 am

February 16, 2017 Credit: UNIGE

When a child is conceived, he or she receives DNA from both parents. The child’s own genome thus consists of a maternal and a paternal genome. However, some genesabout 100 out of the 20,000 encoded genes are exclusively expressed either from the maternal or from the paternal genome, with the other copy of the gene remaining silent. We know that these imprinted genes are more likely to lead to serious genetic diseases, such as PraderWilli or Angelman syndrome. Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have devised a new technique, based on a combination of biology and bioinformatics, to quickly and accurately detect the imprinted genes expressed in each of the cell types that constitute the human organs. This major breakthrough will improve our understanding and diagnosis of genetic diseases. The study can be read in full in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

The research team, led by Professor Stylianos Antonarakis from the Department of Genetic Medicine and Development in the Faculty of Medicine at UNIGE, focused on genomic imprinting. This is a set of genes exclusively expressed from the genetic code inherited either from the father (the paternal allele) or from the mother (maternal allele). Why is there so much interest in the identification of the imprinted genes? Because if a deleterious mutation affects the functional allele, it cannot be compensated by the expression of the second silent allele, likely causing a serious genetic disease. The goal, therefore, is to determine the imprinted genes in all cell types of human body tissues that are liable to cause these kind of diseases.

Until recently, millions of cells were analysed together without distinction. “We have now developed a new technique with a better resolution, known as Human Single-Cell Allele-Specific Gene Expression,” explains Christelle Borel, UNIGE researcher. “The process can be used to simultaneously examine the expression of the two alleles, paternal and maternal, of all known genes in each individual cell. The method is fast and can be carried out on thousands of single cells with the utmost precision using next-generation sequencing technology.” The heterogeneity of each tissue of the body is thus analysed in detail while searching for imprinted genes in disease-relevant tissue. The individual’s genome is sequenced, as is the genome of both parents, in order to identify the parental origin of the alleles transcribed in the person’s single cell.

Each cell is unique

Federico Santoni, first author of the study and researcher at UNIGE and HUG (Geneva University Hospitals) further explains, “We establish the profile of the allelic expression for thousands of genes in each single cell. We then process this data with a novel computational and statistical framework to identify the specific signature of each imprinted gene, enabling us to accurately record them.” This new technique redefines the landscape of imprinted genes by examining all cell types, and can be applied to all tissues affected by diseases, such as cardiac and brain tissue. Moreover, the scientists have discovered novel imprinted genes and demonstrated that some were restricted to certain tissues or cell types.

This technique focuses on the specific characteristics of each individual by treating each cell as a single entity. This concept, called Single-cell Genomics, is part of an emerging field that is assuming an all-important role at UNIGE, which sees it as the future of medicine that will be personalised rather than generalised. Thanks to the technique pioneered by UNIGE researchers, it will be possible to identify new disease causing genes and to adapt a specific and targeted treatment for individual patients.

Explore further: Expanding the brain: Research identifies more than 40 new imprinted genes

More information: Federico A. Santoni et al. Detection of Imprinted Genes by Single-Cell Allele-Specific Gene Expression, The American Journal of Human Genetics (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.01.028

It’s among the cornerstones of biology: All mammals inherit two copies one from their mother, the other from their fatherof every gene, in part to act as a backstop against genetic problems. If a gene is damaged or …

A poor diet during pregnancy can cause biological changes that last throughout life, according to research from Imperial College London.

Every cell in the body has two genomes, one from the mother and one from the father. Until now, researchers have lacked the tools to examinein a single cell the exact readout from each genome to make RNA. Using a new …

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research have characterized how and to what degree our cells utilize the gene copies inherited from our mother and father differently. At a basic level …

The development of the cerebral cortex played a major role in the evolution of mankind. Scientists are now studying the emergence of its cellular microstructure with high resolution methods. Neuroscientists at the University …

Personalized medicine, which involves tailoring health care to each person’s unique genetic makeup, has the potential to transform how we diagnose, prevent and treat disease. After all, no two people are alike. Mapping a …

Work on gene therapy is showing significant progress for restoring muscle strength and prolonging lives in dogs with a previously incurable, inherited neuromuscular disease. UW Medicine Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative …

A genomic study of baldness identified more than 200 genetic regions involved in this common but potentially embarrassing condition. These genetic variants could be used to predict a man’s chance of severe hair loss. The …

Purdue University and Indiana University School of Medicine scientists were able to force an epigenetic reaction that turns on and off a gene known to determine the fate of the neural stem cells, a finding that could lead …

Just before Rare Disease Day 2017, a study from the Monell Center and collaborating institutions provides new insight into the causes of trimethylaminura (TMAU), a genetically-transmitted metabolic disorder that leads to …

Monash University and Danish researchers have discovered a gene in worms that could help break the cycle of overeating and under-exercising that can lead to obesity.

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Stepping up the hunt for genetic diseases – Medical Xpress

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Human genome editing report strikes the right balance between risks and benefits – Medical Xpress

Posted: at 12:48 am

February 16, 2017 by Merlin Crossley, The Conversation Gene therapy is growing in its capabilities, but there should be limits to its use. Credit: Shutterstock

If you recognise the words “CRISPR-mediated gene editing”, then you’ll know that our ability to alter DNA has recently become much more efficient, faster and cheaper.

This has inevitably led to serious discussions about gene therapy, which is the direct modification of someone’s DNA to rectify a genetic disorder, such as sickle cell anaemia or haemophilia. And you may also have heard of deliberate genetic enhancement, to realise a healthy person’s dreams of improving their genome.

Both of these issues have now been tackled in a comprehensive report on gene editing released today by the US National Academy of Science and National Academy of Medicine.

The message is fairly simple: relax, we’ve seen this all before, little if any harm has eventuated, and society is well placed to move forward together on this.

A definite maybe

Of all human technologies, recombinant DNA has arguably been one of the safest. There have been multiple benefits in both medicine and agriculture. And the legitimate concerns that arose when viruses were first mixed with bacterial genes, when cloning was first introduced, and when stem cells were developed, have not come to pass.

I cannot list all the benefits here, but if you have received the Hepatitis B vaccine or Australian Ian Fraser’s Gardasil vaccine, which protects against cervical cancer viruses, you have been protected from disease thanks to recombinant DNA technology.

However, you probably haven’t received somatic gene therapy, which is gene alteration directed at fixing one cell type, such as defective blood or liver cells. This is because this therapy only touches a tiny number of people, probably fewer than 1,000 worldwide, and again the benefits have outweighed the risks.

But there is one new message in the report that will grab the headlines.

That is the view on human germline gene therapy, which entails modifications that would be passed on to children and then to their children. This kind of gene therapy has been considered highly controversial. But this time, instead of a simple no thanks there’s a definite maybe, provided the therapy is targeted at a severe disease as a last resort.

There will be alarm in some circles at the very mention of germline gene therapy, although perhaps not from the very few people who might be contemplating such treatment for the sake of their future children.

The authors of the report, who are among the mostly highly respected experts in the world, are well aware that many people will not be comfortable with the thought of germline gene therapy. They stress the need for extensive consultation, the meeting of strict criteria, and close regulation.

But in weighing up safety and efficacy, social and individual benefit, they clearly don’t want to see a reflex ban put in place that may limit options if this technology can be used to make the life of some individuals better.

On one hand, they are right. This technology is not a threat to the fabric of society. Nor, I’d say, is this a genie that could not be put back in the bottle; gene editing could be reversed.

Nor, like the Sorcerer’s Apprentice’s broomsticks, will it multiply and spread when we try to restrain it. This is not like letting slip a virus, cane toads, oozing radioactive waste or carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Seeking germline gene therapy in order to have a disease-free child would be a choice made at a personal level and those not wishing to participate should never feel compelled to do so.

Except, of course, the children who would not have a say in it. But also for them the risks might well outweigh the benefits. And, one way or another, parents already make life-determining choices for their children and sometimes for their children’s children.

Even those seeking germline therapy for the sake of their children would mostly have alternatives, such as preimplantation diagnosis, which itself also has ethical considerations. There are no easy answers here.

So I can understand the report’s conclusion, although I also believe there are risks, which I’ll mention below.

Hard to abuse

There are other aspects of the report worth mentioning. It confirms that we already do properly regulate laboratory-based gene modifications, and we have learned so much from previous somatic gene therapy efforts that we are well placed to push on safely with both research and somatic treatments. I agree with this.

It also says that actual genetic enhancements should be avoided. There is evidence that society is uncomfortable with the idea of individuals, who are not suffering from disease, improving either themselves through somatic therapy or their bloodlines through germline genetic enhancement.

Some people might want more copies of the p53 tumour suppressing gene or to lose their CCR5 gene, which helps HIV invade cells, in order to give their children possible protection from cancer or HIV respectively, but I’d have to say it isn’t worth the risk.

I would add that, ethical reservations aside, the sheer complexity of our genomes, and the rather involved and lengthy process of human reproduction, means that I have no concerns that even the craziest world leader could ever generate an army of super-mutants. Such an ambition would be defeated by not knowing which genes to alter, not to mention the requirement to assemble tens of thousands of surrogate mothers, then wait 20 years for the army to mature.

Yes, it is possible that someone somewhere will attempt germline gene enhancement as a stunt. That would be wrong and dangerous, and a risk for the child. But it would not threaten society any more deeply than many other obscene and regrettable individual crimes that sadly occur every day.

Germline gene therapy is illegal in many countries, and although there is a risk that unfortunate “medical tourism” may occur at some stage, I don’t expect this to be a greater problem than the already widespread snake-oil selling that is a feature of many economies.

No emergency

So am I comfortable with this report and confident that it covers the ethical issues? I think it is superbly written. It is accurate, up to date, balanced, thoughtful, and covers experiments, somatic therapy, germline therapy, genetic enhancement, societal responses, and the need for public consultation and careful regulation. There is no emergency here.

My main concern is that raising the prospect of germline gene therapy will trigger discussions that will divert us from more pressing issues.

I do worry that introducing this apex concept as a possibility may increase the number of people who fixate on what gene therapy could deliver and thus may be lured into medical tourism, both desperate patients and also foolish investors, and all the while charlatans will profit from peddling promise.

I worry that raising hopes too high too quickly will ultimately cause a backlash against more moderate science.

I also worry that even conventional funding bodies will succumb to understandable pressures to fund translational research prematurely and this will actually waste large amounts of valuable public money.

And I worry about a hysterical reaction that could divide society along political lines with people lining up for or against germline gene therapy based on their political positions or personal beliefs rather than a sober examination of the facts, risks and contexts.

Finally, I worry that the focus on human modification will distract us from other issues, such as the use of CRISPR-mediated gene drives that could be used to eradicate rapidly reproducing organisms such as mosquitoes, and could thus be used for both great good or great harm.

But I don’t feel the burden of worry too much because I know that, as a scientist, I can and should share the weight of my concerns with society.

Explore further: With stringent oversight, heritable human genome editing could be allowed: report

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Clinical trials for genome editing of the human germline – adding, removing, or replacing DNA base pairs in gametes or early embryos – could be permitted in the future, but only for serious conditions under stringent oversight, …

Recent evidence demonstrating the feasibility of using novel CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to make targeted changes in the DNA of human embryos is forcing researchers, clinicians, and ethicists to revisit the highly …

The National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine issued a 258-page report Tuesday (Feb. 14) focused on human genome editing. It lays out principles and recommendations for the U.S. government and governments …

At the conclusion of the recent International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC, its organizing committee released a much-anticipated statement recommending how human genetic engineering should be regulated. …

Don’t expect designer babies any time soonbut a major new ethics report leaves open the possibility of one day altering human heredity to fight genetic diseases, with stringent oversight, using new tools that precisely …

Personalized medicine, which involves tailoring health care to each person’s unique genetic makeup, has the potential to transform how we diagnose, prevent and treat disease. After all, no two people are alike. Mapping a …

Work on gene therapy is showing significant progress for restoring muscle strength and prolonging lives in dogs with a previously incurable, inherited neuromuscular disease. UW Medicine Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative …

A genomic study of baldness identified more than 200 genetic regions involved in this common but potentially embarrassing condition. These genetic variants could be used to predict a man’s chance of severe hair loss. The …

Purdue University and Indiana University School of Medicine scientists were able to force an epigenetic reaction that turns on and off a gene known to determine the fate of the neural stem cells, a finding that could lead …

Just before Rare Disease Day 2017, a study from the Monell Center and collaborating institutions provides new insight into the causes of trimethylaminura (TMAU), a genetically-transmitted metabolic disorder that leads to …

Monash University and Danish researchers have discovered a gene in worms that could help break the cycle of overeating and under-exercising that can lead to obesity.

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Eerie space footage from ISS captures ‘blue jets’ bursting from alien … – Express.co.uk

Posted: February 13, 2017 at 8:54 am

A Danish astronaut recorded the creepy moment “elusive blue jets” burst from a distant cloud in footage which has raised more questions than answers.

The unexplained phenomenon, filmed two years ago from onboard the International Space Station (ISS), appears to be a terrifying thunderstorm unfolding in space.

Despite using the station’s most sensitive camera, the strange “activity” recorded over the Bay of Bengal remains a mystery.

It was perplexed scientists so much that the European Space Agency (ESA) are set to launch several experiments this year to “monitor the pulsating blue jets” shooting up out of clouds.

For years, the existence of the gigantic blue discharges has been debated, with the scientific community largely dismissing them – despite contrary reports from astronauts in space.


ESA astronaut Andreas Mogensen, who captured the footage, said: “It is not every day that you get to capture a new weather phenomenon on film, so I am very pleased with the result but even more so that researchers will be able to investigate these intriguing thunderstorms in more detail soon.”

But for now, Mr Mogensen reiterated that “it’s something that we know very little about”.

The ESA added: “The blue discharges and jets are examples of a little-understood part of our atmosphere.

“Electrical storms reach into the stratosphere and have implications for how our atmosphere protects us from radiation.”



It’s something that we know very little about

Andreas Mogensen

The Danish-led investigation, named the Thor Experiment, into the “astonishing blue jets” confirmed that the beams grew to 25 miles out of the cloud before fading away.

The beams can move at speeds of up to 360,000kph (220,000mph) and without a high speed camera can be easily missed by the human eye.

Further studies into the strange phenomenon are planned for later this year, as part of a project to monitor the “transient luminious events”.


Olivier Chanrion of the Danish National Space Institute in Lyngby: “We wanted to see what happens above a thunderstorm.

“What we see is that at the top of the cloud in what we call the ‘turrets’, there is incredible activity.

“They were dancing over the top of the cloud, and we called them glimpses.

“But it’s only a first step and we need to find out more.”

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The map that shows how many Nato troops are deployed along Russia’s border – The Independent

Posted: February 6, 2017 at 2:58 pm

Thousands of Nato troops have amassed close to the border with Russia as part of the largest build-up of Western troops neighbouring Moscows sphere of influence since the Cold War.

The Baltic states, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria are hosting soldiers from across Natos 28 member states, with more than 7,000 troops deployed in countries bordering Russia.

The UK is the lead nation in Estonia, where 800 soldiers are based at the Tapa base, about 50 miles from Tallinn, helped by French and Danish forces.

British soldiers are also deployed in Poland as part of a US-led Nato mission numbering some 4,000 troops, which is supported by the Romanian army.

Poland’s leaders hold ceremony to welcome US troops as part of Nato build-up

In Latvia and Lithuania, around 1,200 troops from Canada and Germany (respectively) are deployed alongside forces from across Europe.

Tanks and heavy armoured vehicles, plus Bradley fighting vehicles and Paladin howitzers, are also in situ and British Typhoon jets from RAF Conningsby will be deployed to Romania this summer to contribute to Natos Southern Air Policing mission.

This map, produced for The Independent by Statista, illustrates the scale of Nato’s military build-up in Eastern Europe.

In the far north of the continent, more than 300 US marines are also on rotation in Norway, which shares a border with Russia inside the Arctic Circle.

Kremlin officials claim the build-up is the largest since the Second World War.

The extensive troop deployment comes as defence budgets in the Baltic States continue to rise.

Combined, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania spent little more than 900 million Us dollars on defence in 2005.

Fast forward to 2019 and that figure will have more than doubled to a little over two billion dollars.

Chart showing defence budgets rising in the Baltic States (Statista)

According to research by the US-based think tank Heritage Foundation, between 1950 and 2000 on average 22 per cent of all US troops were stationed on foreign soil.

The low point for US soldier deployments abroad came in 1995 as East-West tensions began to subside, with just 13 per cent of Americas armed forces serving abroad.

Now, Russia believes the US and its Nato partners are expanding.

The US is also increasing its presence in the Black Sea and in Western Europe at bases in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany.

Tensions between Russia and the West have been heightened since the annexation of Crimea and the war in Syria, which put Washington and Moscow on opposing sides.

Russia blames the West for worsening relations and says the build-up of Nato troops in the Baltics is a provocation.

Moscow has criticised recent deployments as truly aggressive.

The map that shows how many Nato troops are deployed along Russia’s border – The Independent

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Sealand national football team – Wikipedia

Posted: December 7, 2016 at 8:08 am

The SEALS national football team is the team that represents the Principality of Sealand. It is not a member of FIFA or UEFA, but is an associate member of the N.F.-Board, an organisation for teams who are not members of FIFA. They were admitted to the N.F.-Board as a provisional member in 2005 and as an associate member in 2006.

The Sealand National Football Association (SNFA) was founded in 2003. In 2004, they played their first game against land drawing 22.[1] All the players on the Sealand team were members of Vestbjerg Vintage Idrtsforening, a veterans side from Aalborg. However, the Danish-based SNFA ended their activities in 2006 and Sealand football took a break.

On 23 December 2009, Scottish author Neil Forsyth was appointed head of the revived SNFA.[2] He stated a goal of participation in the 2010 VIVA World Cup, a dream ultimately ended by a lack of finance. On 5 May 2012, Sealand took to the field against fellow N.F.-Board members the Chagos Islands at Weycourt in Godalming, Surrey. The Chagossians won 31, with Ryan Moore scoring for Sealand. The team was captained by former Bolton Wanderers defender Simon Charlton and also included actor Ralf Little.[2][3][4]

Sealand played an away game against Alderney on August 25, 2012.[5] After drawing the match by a scoreline of 11, Sealand won 54 on penalties. On March 9, 2013 Sealand won their first ever international when they beat Alderney 21 in Godalming.

Sealand competed in the Tynwald Hill Tournament on the Isle of Man in July 2013. The tournament was held at Mullen-e-Cloie, St John’s. Following a late 53 defeat to Tamil Eelam and an 80 demolition at the hands of eventual winners Occitania, Sealand finished bottom of their group and went on to the 5th place playoff where they beat Alderney 21.

In February 2014 Sealand recorded their record win as they beat the Chagos Islands 42 in Godalming.[6]

In May 2014 Sealand drew 11 with the Chagos Islands at Crawley Town a fortnight before another draw, 22 with Somaliland (who were making their non-FIFA debut) in London.

Sealand underwent a European tour for the first time in August 2014 which proved to be hugely successful. In Chur a record 61 win over Raetia saw Dan Hughes become the record-scorer with 4 goals, before a 32 win over Seborga in Ospedaletti, Italy. Hughes added to his tally in that game and the Seals extended their unbeaten international run to 6 games.[7]

Sealand’s kit has the same colors as the flag of Sealand. Their original kit consisted of a red shirt with white trim, black shorts and white socks, and was provided by JJB with sponsorship from UK investment firm Property Secrets.[8]

For the Tynwald Tournament, Sealand introduced a new Nike home kit, in red, with a white stripe down the right-hand side. In the 80 defeat to Occitania, Sealand debuted their Stanno away kit of a white shirt with pale red shorts.

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Digital currency – Wikipedia

Posted: November 8, 2016 at 3:36 pm

Digital currency or digital money is an Internet-based medium of exchange distinct from physical (such as banknotes and coins) that exhibits properties similar to physical currencies, but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership. Both virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies are types of digital currencies, but the converse is incorrect. Like traditional money these currencies may be used to buy physical goods and services but could also be restricted to certain communities such as for example for use inside an on-line game or social network.[1]

Digital currency can be defined as an Internet-based form of currency or medium of exchange distinct from physical (such as banknotes and coins) that exhibits properties similar to physical currencies, but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership. Both virtual currencies and cryptocurrencies are types of digital currencies.[2]

Origins of digital currencies date back to the 1990s Dot-com bubble. One of the first was E-gold, founded in 1996 and backed by gold. Another known digital currency service was Liberty Reserve, founded in 2006; it let users convert dollars or euros to Liberty Reserve Dollars or Euros, and exchange them freely with one another at a 1% fee. Both services were centralized, reputed to be used for money laundering, and inevitably shut down by the US government.[3] Q coins or QQ coins, were used as a type of commodity-based digital currency on Tencent QQ’s messaging platform and emerged in early 2005. Q coins were so effective in China that they were said to have had a destabilizing effect on the Chinese Yuan or RMB currency due to speculation.[4] Recent interest in cryptocurrencies has prompted renewed interest in digital currencies, with bitcoin, introduced in 2009, becoming the most widely used and accepted digital currency.

According to the European Central Bank’s “Virtual currency schemes a further analysis” report of February 2015, virtual currency is a digital representation of value, not issued by a central bank, credit institution or e-money institution, which, in some circumstances, can be used as an alternative to money. In the previous report of October 2012, the virtual currency was defined as a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.

According to the Bank For International Settlements’ “Digital currencies” report of November 2015, digital currency is an asset represented in digital form and having some monetary characteristics. Digital currency can be denominated to a sovereign currency and issued by the issuer responsible to redeem digital money for cash. In that case, digital currency represents electronic money (e-money). Digital currency denominated in its own units of value or with decentralized or automatic issuance will be considered as a virtual currency.

As such, bitcoin is a digital currency but also a type of virtual currency. Bitcoin and its alternatives are based on cryptographic algorithms, so these kinds of virtual currencies are also called cryptocurrencies.

Most of the traditional money supply is bank money held on computers. This is also considered digital currency. One could argue that our increasingly cashless society means that all currencies are becoming digital (sometimes referred to as electronic money), but they are not presented to us as such.[5]

A virtual currency has been defined in 2012 by the European Central Bank as “a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community”. The US Department of Treasury in 2013 defined it more tersely as “a medium of exchange that operates like a currency in some environments, but does not have all the attributes of real currency”. The key attribute a virtual currency does not have according to these definitions, is the status as legal tender.

A cryptocurrency is a type of digital token that relies on cryptography for chaining together digital signatures of token transfers, peer-to-peer networking and decentralization. In some cases a proof-of-work scheme is used to create and manage the currency.[6][7][8][9] See also list of cryptocurrencies.

Virtual currencies pose challenges for central banks, financial regulators, departments or ministries of finance, as well as fiscal authorities and statistical authorities.

On 20 March 2013, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network issued a guidance to clarify how the US Bank Secrecy Act applied to persons creating, exchanging and transmitting virtual currencies.[10]

In May 2014 the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) “warned about the hazards of bitcoin and other virtual currencies”.[11]

In July 2014, the New York State Department of Financial Services proposed the most comprehensive regulation of virtual currencies to date, commonly called BitLicense.[12] Unlike the US federal regulators it has gathered input from bitcoin supporters and the financial industry through public hearings and a comment period until 21 October 2014 to customize the rules. The proposal per NY DFS press release … sought to strike an appropriate balance that helps protect consumers and root out illegal activity”.[13] It has been criticized by smaller companies to favor established institutions, and Chinese bitcoin exchanges have complained that the rules are “overly broad in its application outside the United States”.[14]

As of 2016, over 24 countries are investing in distributed ledger technologies (DLT) with $1.4bn in investments. In addition, over 90 central banks are engaged in DLT discussions, including implications of a central bank issued digital currency.[15]

The Bank of Canada have explored the possibility of creating a version of its currency on the blockchain.[16]

The Bank of Canada teamed up with the nations five largest banks and the blockchain consulting firm R3 for what was known as Project Jasper. In a simulation run in 2016, the central bank issued CAD-Coins onto a blockchain similar Ethereum.[17] The banks used the CAD-Coins to exchange money the way they do at the end of each day to settle their master accounts.[17]

A deputy governor at the central bank of China, Fan Yifei, wrote that the conditions are ripe for digital currencies, which can reduce operating costs, increase efficiency and enable a wide range of new applications..[17] According to Fan Yifei, the best way to take advantage of the situation is for central banks to take the lead, both in supervising private digital currencies and in developing digital legal tender of their own.[18]

The Danish government proposed getting rid of the obligation for selected retailers to accept payment in cash, moving the country closer to a “cashless” economy.[19] The Danish Chamber of Commerce is backing the move.[20] Nearly a third of the Danish population uses MobilePay, a smartphone application for transferring money.[19]

The Dutch central bank is experimenting with a bitcoin-based virtual currency called DNBCoin.[17][21]

Government-controlled Sberbank of Russia owns Yandex.Money – electronic payment service and digital currency of the same name.[22]

South Korea plans national digital currency using a Blockchain.[23] The chairman of South Koreas Financial Services Commission (FSC), Yim Jong-yong, announced that his department will Lay the systemic groundwork for the spread of digital currency.[23]

In 2016, a city government first accepted digital currency in payment of city fees. Zug, Switzerland added bitcoin as a means of paying small amounts, up to SFr200, in a test and an attempt to advance Zug as a region that is advancing future technologies. In order to reduce risk, Zug immediately converts any bitcoin received into the Swiss currency.[24]

Swiss Federal Railways, government-owned railway company of Switzerland, sells bitcoins at its ticket machines.[25][25]

The Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK government advised his Prime Minister and Parliament to consider using a blockchain-based digital currency.[26]

The chief economist of Bank of England, the central bank of the United Kingdom, proposed abolition of paper currency. The Bank has also taken an interest in bitcoin.[17][27] In 2016 it has embarked on a multi-year research programme to explore the implications of a central bank issued digital currency.[15] The Bank of England has produced several research papers on the topic. One suggests that the economic benefits of issuing a digital currency on a distributed ledger could add as much as 3 percent to a countrys economic output.[17] The Bank said that it wanted the next version of the banks basic software infrastructure to be compatible with distributed ledgers.[17]

The National Bank of Ukraine is considering a creation of its own issuance/turnover/servicing system for a blockchain-based national cryptocurrency.[28] The regulator also announced that blockchain could be a part of a the national project called “Cashless Economy”.[28]

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Digital currency – Wikipedia

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The Singularity – aleph.se

Posted: July 16, 2016 at 11:14 pm

Transhuman Page

Global Sphere

The Singularity is a common matter of discussion in transhumanist circles. There is no clear definition, but usually the Singularity is meant as a future time when societal, scientific and economic change is so fast we cannot even imagine what will happen from our present perspective, and when humanity will become posthumanity. Another definition is used in the Extropians FAQ, where it denotes the singular time when technological development will be at its fastest. Of course, there are some who think the whole idea is just technocalyptic dreaming.

Other Sites Books See Also

What is the Singularity? by Dani Eder. Technological Singularity by Vernor Vinge. Teknologisk Singularitet (Article from Gateavisa 1994, in Danish). Singularity Article by Vernor Vinge. Notes on a Presentation by Dr. Vernor Vinge by John Graves. The Limitations of the Singularity Staring Into The Singularity by Eliezer S. Yudkowsky. A dramatic, original and somewhat irritating essay about what the Singularity means. Singularity Analysis: A Series of Educated Guesses by Eliezer S. Yudkowsky. Singularity discussion from sci.nanotech. When will the Singularity Occur? (From the Extropians FAQ) Paths to the Singularity by Daniel G. Clemmensen. About the Singularity and the events leading up to it, with a discussion of the >Web idea. The Socio-technological Singularity in Principia Cybernetica. Surviving the Singularity by Steve Alan Edwards (21C Scanning the future). About the singularity and the transhumanist views about it. Singularity by Scott R. Turner. A computer-moderated PBEM game based on the Singularity idea. Is a singularity just around the corner? By Robin Hanson, Journal of Transhumanism 2, June 1998. The economics of Singularity growth. A Critical Discussion of Vinge’s Singularity Concept. Edited by Robin Hanson. Arterati on Ideas: Vinge’s View of the Singularity. Extropy Online, Natascha Vita More. Simple Equations for Vinge’s Technological Singularity Hans Moravec. Some simple growth equations, showing the appearance of a singularity given fairly broad assumptions about accelerating technological growth.

Singularity. An organisation dedicated to those technologies which are most likely to take mankind to Singularity. Singularity Club. A mutual aid society for Transtopian Singularitarians. The Low Beyond. Papers by Eliezer Yudkowsky.

Damien Broderick, The Spike. Reed Natural History ISBN: 0730104974

Vernor Vinge, True Names (1980, short story reprinted in True Names and Other Dangers, Baen Books 1987), Marooned in Realtime (1986), A Fire Upon the Deep (1992).

Philosophy Page Intelligence Increase Page Information Management Posthumanity Page

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The Singularity – aleph.se

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Reflections On The Direct Influence Of Psychedelics On Art …

Posted: June 30, 2016 at 3:38 am

by Henrik Dahl

on January 2, 2015

The following piece first appeared in Psychedelic Press UK:

Psychedelics often trigger a rich flood of visual content. One may for instance experience highly intricate patterns, otherworldly landscapes and mysterious beings some angelic; others demonic. Colours are frequently perceived as being extremely intense and objects may transform into bizarre and unthinkable shapes. Surely visions like these must be of great interest to visual artists. Still, most psychedelic culture researchers will find it hard to come up with a satisfying list of visual artists who acknowledge the importance of psychedelics in their work. Why is this the case? When it comes to writers and musicians, examples are plenty. Shouldnt there be as many, if not more, visual artists associated with psychedelics?

Admittedly, there is a lot of psychedelic art out there. Usually though the term is used to describe a particular aesthetic rather than art directly influenced by psychedelic drugs. Surprisingly little has been written about art that is psychedelic in the true sense of the word. The typical take on the subject is exemplified by art critic Ken Johnson, who is the author ofAre You Experienced?: How Psychedelic Consciousness Transformed Modern Art:

While I think it would be a worthy project for a sociologist or historian to find out who did what, when, and where, to provide some empirical grounding for speculations about the influence of drugs on art, I am neither equipped for nor inclined to do that job. What interested me was not necessarily the influence of drugs on particular individuals but the influence of psychedelic culture in general on artists (Johnson 2011, 8).

Image:Psychedelic: Optical and Visionary Art Since the 1960s book cover.

A similar approach is found in David S. RubinsPsychedelic: Optical and Visionary Art Since the 1960s, which explores the visual impact that psychedelic culture has had on artists working over the past five decades.

Although Johnson and Rubin have done a great and much welcome job with their respective books, they raise an important question: How many of the artists described as psychedelic actually feel comfortable with being categorised in such a way? In todays highly professionalised art world its likely that at leastsomeartists find the association problematic. Reasons for this may vary of course, but the connection to drug culture is probably one of them. Perhaps this is why Johnson points out that readers of his book are advised not to assume that any artist discussed has even used drugs at all or would agree that drug-induced experience has affected their art (Johnson 2011, 8).

Obviously, to be certain that a psychedelic has influenced an artwork one needs some sort of testimony from the artist that confirms the association. This fact dramatically narrows the number of artworks that are clearly induced by a psychedelic. That said, many artists have openly ascribed psychedelic experiences as a major influence on one or several of their artworks.

Discussions about psychedelic art are often reduced to speculations, where critics sometimes see trippy influences in artworks that in reality have little to do with the psychedelic experience, mistaking it for themes such as dreams states, New Age spirituality or the occult. This essay is a modest attempt at approaching the subject differently; rather than looking at art influenced by psychedelic culture as a whole, I will present some of the art that has been directly influenced by psychedelics.

A key figure when it comes to western art directly influenced by psychedelics is the Belgian-born French visual artist and writer Henri Michaux. Already in the 1960s he was looked upon as a pioneer in psychedelic art (Masters & Houston 1968, 118). His perhaps most notable work isMiserable Miracle, containing both his writings and drawings, published for the first time in French in 1956. The book was the result of the authors experiments with mescaline. In his dissertationA History of Irritated Material: Psychedelic Concepts in Neo-Avant-Garde Art, Danish art historian Lars Bang Larsen calls Michauxs drawings seismographic, describing them as pulsating,brutlandscapes (Larsen 2011, 115).

Michaux wasnt the only westerner experimenting with psychedelics at the time. Two years beforeMiserable Miraclecame out, Aldous Huxley described his experiences on mescaline in his essayThe Doors of Perception. Still,Miserable Miracleis an important work. Not least because of the inclusion of Michauxs psychedelic artworks. Incidentally, the same year asMiserable Miraclewas first published, psychiatrist Humphry Osmond coined the word psychedelic in a correspondence with Huxley. However, since Michaux was making his drug experiments long before psychedelic became a catch phrase in the sixties counterculture, Larsen aptly describes Michaux as a proto-psychedelic artist (Larsen 2011, 33).

Image: Miserable Miracle book cover.

Henri Michaux continued his explorations with mescaline, resulting in additional books on the subject. In 1963, he also made an educational film calledImages du monde visionnairefor Swiss pharmaceutical company Sandoz (recognized by psychedelicists as the company where Albert Hofmann worked when he synthesized LSD in 1938). Michauxs film was made in collaboration with French filmmaker Eric Duvivier for the purpose of demonstrating the hallucinogenic effects of mescaline and hashish. Given the limitations of the technology at the time, the films psychedelic effects look a bit bleak and feel rather unconvincing today and, according to an article on book publisher Strange Attractors webpage, Michaux himself was said to have been quite disappointed by the result. One may wonder if this is a common reaction among artists trying to depict psychedelic experiences. If that is the case, its possible that many artists avoid such attempts.

Although Michauxs drawings were induced by a psychedelic drug, it wasnt until the mid-to-late sixties that psychedelic art became recognised as a distinct artistic expression of its own. An early proponent of the style during this era was American painter Isaac Abrams. In 1965, he had his first LSD session with psychologist Stanley Krippner. According to the blog Transpersonalspirit, the experience gave him a vision of what he felt psychedelic art would look like. Abrams artworks display oceanic, cosmic and microscopic motifs, exemplified by his 1968 painting Cosmoerotica. Still actively pursuing his art, he has stayed true to the artistic style he envisioned on his first acid trip.

As a result of the popularization of LSD in the sixties, many visual artists experimented with the drug. Its easy to assume that those artists were automatically incorporating their experiences in their art. However, that was not always the case. German-born painter Mati Klarwein, known for painting the cover of Miles Davis classic jazz albumBitches Brew, said his experiences with psychedelics never inspired his art in any major way. Instead, according to his biography on Matiklarwein.com, his inspiration came from extensive travelling and the artists interest in non-western deities and symbolism.

One who ascribed great importance to psychedelics though, was Swedish poster artist Sture Johannesson. In his piece Psychedelic Manifestopublished in the Swedish magazine Ord & Bild, phrased in his typically humorous and anarchistic style, the artist immodestly promotes psychedelics saying, The
cultural workers most important task in the future is to spread information about these matters. Psychedelic drugs mean freedom, equality and brotherhood (Larsen 2002, 8).

Image: Andre Will Take A Trip! (1969) by Sture Johannesson.

Between 1967 and 1969, Johannesson made a series of posters calledThe Danish Collection. They have stood the test of time surprisingly well and, apart from becoming collectors items, they are regularly exhibited at museums around the world. Included in the series isAndre Will Take A Trip!(1969). The poster, arguably one of his most complex and captivating works, shows a series of small photographs taken during Swedish engineer S.A. Andres balloon expedition to the North Pole in 1897, a misadventure that ended in the death of Andre and his group. The photos are arranged against a pink background and at the top of these is a quote associated with William S. Burroughs saying, Anything which can be done chemically can be done by other means! Lastly, much like a hallucination, three huge but delicately designed yellow letters placed in the centre of the image spells out the word LSD.

An artistic genre that is often associated with the use of psychedelics is visionary art. Artists working in this style often depict visions experienced while in altered states. Although far from being the only source of inspiration, many visionary artists acknowledge the importance of psychedelics in their artistic process. The genres association with mind-expanding drugs is evident inFirst Draft of Manifesto of Visionary Art written by visionary artist Laurence Caruana, where he discusses psychedelics at length. Interestingly, this type of art may have a particular function for those who view it. It is no secret that many visionary works of art are designed to be viewed with the aid of mind-altering substances, says Caruana in the manifesto (First Draft of Manifesto of Visionary Art,2001).

One of the foremost artists working in the visionary style is Alex Grey. A prolific painter, his artworks have appeared on several album covers and his 1990 art bookSacred Mirrors: The Visionary Art of Alex Greyhas been translated into several languages and is still in print. In the mid seventies, while on LSD with his future wife, the artist Allyson Grey, Alex experienced what would prove to be a pivotal moment in his career as an artist. In a 2008 interview with SFGate.com, Alex said the trip made him interested in the study of consciousness, and that he started making drawings of what he had seen. For Allyson the experience turned out to be equally profound, saying it was to become the subject of our art for a lifetime (Allysongrey.com). AlexsUniversal Mind Lattice(1981) and AllysonsJewel Net of Indra(1988) are both depictions of their LSD trip.

Another visionary artist associated with psychedelics is the Peruvian painter Pablo Amaringo. Amaringo, avegetalistawho depicted visions on ayahuasca, was brought to the attention by ethnopharmacologist Dennis McKenna and anthropologist Luis Eduardo Luna. At Lunas suggestion, Amaringo started painting his ayahuasca visions, which resulted in the coauthored bookAyahuasca Visions: The Religious Iconography of a Peruvian Shamanpublished in 1999. Apart from being a painter, Amaringo was the art teacher at his Usko-Ayar School of Painting and was supervising ayahuasca retreats.

Most visionary artists are highly skilled at their craft. According to Laurence Caruana, as precise a rendering as possible is absolutely necessary for vision-inducing works. Fine lines, gradual transitions, infinite details there is no limit to the pains endured nor the patience required to successfully render a vision into image form (First Draft of Manifesto of Visionary Art,2001). One may wonder at what length the complex nature of altered states of consciousness including those triggered by psychedelics has affected the technical abilities of artists working in the visionary style. Its possible that the sometimes incredibly detailed visions seen on mind-expanding drugs have forced these artists to perfect their work considerably more than had they worked in another artistic field.

When discussing artists who use psychedelics one should keep in mind that very few of them are likely making art while actually under the influence. For example, in an interview published on Historygraphicdesign.com in 2002 San Francisco poster artist Victor Moscoso strongly opposes to the idea:

People ask me, Did you draw on acid? Draw on acid? Thats like drawing while youre tumbling down a flight of stairs. Are you kidding? With you dying and being re-born, having an understanding of the molecular structure of your body and of the cosmos at the same time. Drawing is absurd. You cant do it! Whatever you draw will not come close to what you can see, or perceive.

Most artists using psychedelics would probably agree with Moscoso. Yet there are several examples of artists who have made art while they were on mind-expanding drugs. In 1990, Charles Ray shot a self-portrait when he was under the influence of LSD, resulting in his artworkYes. Another contemporary artist making art while on LSD is Rodney Graham, whos film The Phonokinetoscopeis a 2001 reenactment of Albert Hofmanns legendary LSD bicycle trip in 1943. Also in 2001, Bryan Lewis Saunders made a series of self-portraits while on a variety of drugs, including psilocybin mushrooms and DMT.

The three artworks mentioned pose the question of how these artists actually managed to make art while tripping. In all likelihood, they either made their artworks while they were coming down from their trips, or their doses were low from the beginning. In the case of Graham, he is quoted on Ubuweb.com saying he ingested a blotter. Considering the fairly low doses usually distributed on blotter acid, Grahams trip was likely rather mild compared with Hofmanns, making the formers reenactment a less dramatic event.

Why are relatively few artists associated with psychedelics? I can think of several possible explanations. For instance, its probable that many artists trying to depict visions seen on psychedelics actually fail in their attempts. Translating such complex experiences as discussed by visionary artist Caruana in his manifesto requires great technical skills and an endurance that few possess.

Furthermore, artists working in the contemporary art scene may feel inclined to keep their psychedelic experiences to themselves. In todays highly professionalised, academically shaped and in many ways commercialised contemporary art world, its probable that many dont want to risk being associated with psychedelics for fear of being reduced to a drug artist. This is something I have encountered myself during interviews with artists working in this field.

From a historical perspective, its likely that quite a few artists have been using mind-expanding drugs in their artistic process. However, without testimonies there is no way to know for certain. One such example is New York avant-garde filmmaker Storm de Hirsch. Although generally left out of history, her 1965 filmPeyote Queenhas become a minor underground classic. The films kaleidoscopic imagery, combined with its title, strongly indicates she had taken peyote. There are many artists, like de Hirsch, who have probably been using psychedelics in the past. Yet because of their relative obscurity, their experiences with these substances will remain unknown.

Artists in the future will most likely keep experimenting with psychedelics as part of their artistic process. One can also assume that the vario
us types of mind-expanding drugs used for this purpose will be greater than those mentioned in this essay. How these artworks will look like, one can only try to imagine.

Perhaps we will soon see more art historians, curators and psychedelic researchers focusing on psychedelic art. Lately there have been many signs of a growing activity in this field. One recent example is the 2013 exhibitionUnder Influences Visual Arts and Psychotropicsat La Maison Rouge in Paris, where many artists directly influenced by psychedelics were exhibited. In addition, several books on psychedelic art have been published in recent years, clearly showing an increasing interest in the topic.


Caruana, Laurence.First Draft of Manifesto of Visionary Art(retrieved fromhttp://visionaryrevue.com/webtext/manifesto.contents.html), 2001

Johnson, Ken.Are You Experienced?: How Psychedelic Consciousness Transformed Modern Art. Munich: Prestel, 2011

Larsen, Lars Bang.A History of Irritated Material: Psychedelic Concepts in Neo-Avant-Garde Art(PhD dissertation). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2011

Larsen, Lars Bang.Sture Johannesson. New York: Lukas & Sternberg, 2002

Masters, Robert E.L. & Houston, Jean (Eds.).Psychedelic Art. New York: Grove Press, 1968

Rubin, David S. (Ed.).Psychedelic: Optical and Visionary Art Since the 1960s(exhibition catalogue). San Antonio: San Antonio Museum of Art, 2010

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