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Parallel universes, the Matrix, and superintelligence …

Posted: June 28, 2016 at 2:49 am

Physicists are converging on a theory of everything, probing the 11th dimension, developing computers for the next generation of robots, and speculating about civilizations millions of years ahead of ours, says Dr. Michio Kaku, author of the best-sellers Hyperspace and Visions and co-founder of String Field Theory, in this interview by KurzweilAI.net Editor Amara D. Angelica.

Published on KurzweilAI.net June 26, 2003.

What are the burning issues for you currently?

Well, several things. Professionally, I work on something called Superstring theory, or now called M-theory, and the goal is to find an equation, perhaps no more than one inch long, which will allow us to “read the mind of God,” as Einstein used to say.

In other words, we want a single theory that gives us an elegant, beautiful representation of the forces that govern the Universe. Now, after two thousand years of investigation into the nature of matter, we physicists believe that there are four fundamental forces that govern the Universe.

Some physicists have speculated about the existence of a fifth force, which may be some kind of paranormal or psychic force, but so far we find no reproducible evidence of a fifth force.

Now, each time a force has been mastered, human history has undergone a significant change. In the 1600s, when Isaac Newton first unraveled the secret of gravity, he also created a mechanics. And from Newtons Laws and his mechanics, the foundation was laid for the steam engine, and eventually the Industrial Revolution.

So, in other words, in some sense, a byproduct of the mastery of the first force, gravity, helped to spur the creation of the Industrial Revolution, which in turn is perhaps one of the greatest revolutions in human history.

The second great force is the electromagnetic force; that is, the force of light, electricity, magnetism, the Internet, computers, transistors, lasers, microwaves, x-rays, etc.

And then in the 1860s, it was James Clerk Maxwell, the Scottish physicist at Cambridge University, who finally wrote down Maxwells equations, which allow us to summarize the dynamics of light.

That helped to unleash the Electric Age, and the Information Age, which have changed all of human history. Now its hard to believe, but Newtons equations and Einsteins equations are no more than about half an inch long.

Maxwells equations are also about half an inch long. For example, Maxwells equations say that the four-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric, second-rank tensor equals zero. Thats Maxwells equations, the equations for light. And in fact, at Berkeley, you can buy a T-shirt which says, “In the beginning, God said the four-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric, second rank tensor equals zero, and there was Light, and it was good.”

So, the mastery of the first two forces helped to unleash, respectively, the Industrial Revolution and the Information Revolution.

The last two forces are the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force, and they in turn have helped us to unlock the secret of the stars, via Einsteins equations E=mc2, and many people think that far in the future, the human race may ultimately derive its energy not only from solar power, which is the power of fusion, but also fusion power on the Earth, in terms of fusion reactors, which operate on seawater, and create no copious quantities of radioactive waste.

So, in summary, the mastery of each force helped to unleash a new revolution in human history.

Today, we physicists are embarking upon the greatest quest of all, which is to unify all four of these forces into a single comprehensive theory. The first force, gravity, is now represented by Einsteins General Theory of Relativity, which gives us the Big Bang, black holes, and expanding universe. Its a theory of the very large; its a theory of smooth, space-time manifolds like bedsheets and trampoline nets.

The second theory, the quantum theory, is the exact opposite. The quantum theory allows us to unify the electromagnetic, weak and strong force. However, it is based on discrete, tiny packets of energy called quanta, rather than smooth bedsheets, and it is based on probabilities, rather than the certainty of Einsteins equations. So these two theories summarize the sum total of all physical knowledge of the physical universe.

Any equation describing the physical universe ultimately is derived from one of these two theories. The problem is these two theories are diametrically opposed. They are based on different assumptions, different principles, and different mathematics. Our job as physicists is to unify the two into a single, comprehensive theory. Now, over the last decades, the giants of the twentieth century have tried to do this and have failed.

For example, Niels Bohr, the founder of atomic physics and the quantum theory, was very skeptical about many attempts over the decades to create a Unified Field Theory. One day, Wolfgang Pauli, Nobel laureate, was giving a talk about his version of the Unified Field Theory, and in a very famous story, Bohr stood up in the back of the room and said, “Mr. Pauli, we in the back are convinced that your theory is crazy. What divides us is whether your theory is crazy enough.”

So today, we realize that a true Unified Field Theory must be bizarre, must be fantastic, incredible, mind-boggling, crazy, because all the sane alternatives have been studied and discarded.

Today we have string theory, which is based on the idea that the subatomic particles we see in nature are nothing but notes we see on a tiny, vibrating string. If you kick the string, then an electron will turn into a neutrino. If you kick it again, the vibrating string will turn from a neutrino into a photon or a graviton. And if you kick it enough times, the vibrating string will then mutate into all the subatomic particles.

Therefore we no longer in some sense have to deal with thousands of subatomic particles coming from our atom smashers, we just have to realize that what makes them, what drives them, is a vibrating string. Now when these strings collide, they form atoms and nuclei, and so in some sense, the melodies that you can write on the string correspond to the laws of chemistry. Physics is then reduced to the laws of harmony that we can write on a string. The Universe is a symphony of strings. And what is the mind of God that Einstein used to write about? According to this picture, the mind of God is music resonating through ten- or eleven-dimensional hyperspace, which of course begs the question, “If the universe is a symphony, then is there a composer to the symphony?” But thats another question.

What do you think of Sir Martin Rees concerns about the risk of creating black holes on Earth in his book, Our Final Hour?

I havent read his book, but perhaps Sir Martin Rees is referring to many press reports that claim that the Earth may be swallowed up by a black hole created by our machines. This started with a letter to the editor in Scientific American asking whether the RHIC accelerator in Brookhaven, Long Island, will create a black hole which will swallow up the earth. This was then picked up by the Sunday London Times who then splashed it on the international wire services, and all of a sudden, we physicists were deluged with hundreds of emails and telegrams asking whether or not we are going to destroy the world when we create a black hole in Long Island.

However, you can calculate that in outer space, cosmic rays have more energy than the par
ticles produced in our most powerful atom smashers, and black holes do not form in outer space. Not to mention the fact that to create a black hole, you would have to have the mass of a giant star. In fact, an object ten to fifty times the mass of our star may in fact form a black hole. So the probability of a black hole forming in Long Island is zero.

However, Sir Martin Rees also has written a book, talking about the Multiverse. And that is also the subject of my next book, coming out late next year, called Parallel Worlds. We physicists no longer believe in a Universe. We physicists believe in a Multiverse that resembles the boiling of water. Water boils when tiny particles, or bubbles, form, which then begin to rapidly expand. If our Universe is a bubble in boiling water, then perhaps Big Bangs happen all the time.

Now, the Multiverse idea is consistent with Superstring theory, in the sense that Superstring theory has millions of solutions, each of which seems to correspond to a self-consistent Universe. So in some sense, Superstring theory is drowning in its own riches. Instead of predicting a unique Universe, it seems to allow the possibility of a Multiverse of Universes.

This may also help to answer the question raised by the Anthropic Principle. Our Universe seems to have known that we were coming. The conditions for life are extremely stringent. Life and consciousness can only exist in a very narrow band of physical parameters. For example, if the proton is not stable, then the Universe will collapse into a useless heap of electrons and neutrinos. If the proton were a little bit different in mass, it would decay, and all our DNA molecules would decay along with it.

In fact, there are hundreds, perhaps thousands, of coincidences, happy coincidences, that make life possible. Life, and especially consciousness, is quite fragile. It depends on stable matter, like protons, that exists for billions of years in a stable environment, sufficient to create autocatalytic molecules that can reproduce themselves, and thereby create Life. In physics, it is extremely hard to create this kind of Universe. You have to play with the parameters, you have to juggle the numbers, cook the books, in order to create a Universe which is consistent with Life.

However, the Multiverse idea explains this problem, because it simply means we coexist with dead Universes. In other Universes, the proton is not stable. In other Universes, the Big Bang took place, and then it collapsed rapidly into a Big Crunch, or these Universes had a Big Bang, and immediately went into a Big Freeze, where temperatures were so low, that Life could never get started.

So, in the Multiverse of Universes, many of these Universes are in fact dead, and our Universe in this sense is special, in that Life is possible in this Universe. Now, in religion, we have the Judeo-Christian idea of an instant of time, a genesis, when God said, “Let there be light.” But in Buddhism, we have a contradictory philosophy, which says that the Universe is timeless. It had no beginning, and it had no end, it just is. Its eternal, and it has no beginning or end.

The Multiverse idea allows us to combine these two pictures into a coherent, pleasing picture. It says that in the beginning, there was nothing, nothing but hyperspace, perhaps ten- or eleven-dimensional hyperspace. But hyperspace was unstable, because of the quantum principle. And because of the quantum principle, there were fluctuations, fluctuations in nothing. This means that bubbles began to form in nothing, and these bubbles began to expand rapidly, giving us the Universe. So, in other words, the Judeo-Christian genesis takes place within the Buddhist nirvana, all the time, and our Multiverse percolates universes.

Now this also raises the possibility of Universes that look just like ours, except theres one quantum difference. Lets say for example, that a cosmic ray went through Churchills mother, and Churchill was never born, as a consequence. In that Universe, which is only one quantum event away from our Universe, England never had a dynamic leader to lead its forces against Hitler, and Hitler was able to overcome England, and in fact conquer the world.

So, we are one quantum event away from Universes that look quite different from ours, and its still not clear how we physicists resolve this question. This paradox revolves around the Schrdingers Cat problem, which is still largely unsolved. In any quantum theory, we have the possibility that atoms can exist in two places at the same time, in two states at the same time. And then Erwin Schrdinger, the founder of quantum mechanics, asked the question: lets say we put a cat in a box, and the cat is connected to a jar of poison gas, which is connected to a hammer, which is connected to a Geiger counter, which is connected to uranium. Everyone believes that uranium has to be described by the quantum theory. Thats why we have atomic bombs, in fact. No one disputes this.

But if the uranium decays, triggering the Geiger counter, setting off the hammer, destroying the jar of poison gas, then I might kill the cat. And so, is the cat dead or alive? Believe it or not, we physicists have to superimpose, or add together, the wave function of a dead cat with the wave function of a live cat. So the cat is neither dead nor alive.

This is perhaps one of the deepest questions in all the quantum theory, with Nobel laureates arguing with other Nobel laureates about the meaning of reality itself.

Now, in philosophy, solipsists like Bishop Berkeley used to believe that if a tree fell in the forest and there was no one there to listen to the tree fall, then perhaps the tree did not fall at all. However, Newtonians believe that if a tree falls in the forest, that you dont have to have a human there to witness the event.

The quantum theory puts a whole new spin on this. The quantum theory says that before you look at the tree, the tree could be in any possible state. It could be burnt, a sapling, it could be firewood, it could be burnt to the ground. It could be in any of an infinite number of possible states. Now, when you look at it, it suddenly springs into existence and becomes a tree.

Einstein never liked this. When people used to come to his house, he used to ask them, “Look at the moon. Does the moon exist because a mouse looks at the moon?” Well, in some sense, yes. According to the Copenhagen school of Neils Bohr, observation determines existence.

Now, there are at least two ways to resolve this. The first is the Wigner school. Eugene Wigner was one of the creators of the atomic bomb and a Nobel laureate. And he believed that observation creates the Universe. An infinite sequence of observations is necessary to create the Universe, and in fact, maybe theres a cosmic observer, a God of some sort, that makes the Universe spring into existence.

Theres another theory, however, called decoherence, or many worlds, which believes that the Universe simply splits each time, so that we live in a world where the cat is alive, but theres an equal world where the cat is dead. In that world, they have people, they react normally, they think that their world is the only world, but in that world, the cat is dead. And, in fact, we exist simultaneously with that world.

This means that theres probably a Universe where you were never born, but everything else is the same. Or perhaps your mother had extra brothers and sisters for you, in which case your family is much larger. Now, this can be compared to sitting in a room, listening to radio. When you listen to radio, you hear many fr
equencies. They exist simultaneously all around you in the room. However, your radio is only tuned to one frequency. In the same way, in your living room, there is the wave function of dinosaurs. There is the wave function of aliens from outer space. There is the wave function of the Roman Empire, because it never fell, 1500 years ago.

All of this coexists inside your living room. However, just like you can only tune into one radio channel, you can only tune into one reality channel, and that is the channel that you exist in. So, in some sense it is true that we coexist with all possible universes. The catch is, we cannot communicate with them, we cannot enter these universes.

However, I personally believe that at some point in the future, that may be our only salvation. The latest cosmological data indicates that the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down, which means the Universe will eventually hit a Big Freeze, trillions of years from now, when temperatures are so low that it will be impossible to have any intelligent being survive.

When the Universe dies, theres one and only one way to survive in a freezing Universe, and that is to leave the Universe. In evolution, there is a law of biology that says if the environment becomes hostile, either you adapt, you leave, or you die.

When the Universe freezes and temperatures reach near absolute zero, you cannot adapt. The laws of thermodynamics are quite rigid on this question. Either you will die, or you will leave. This means, of course, that we have to create machines that will allow us to enter eleven-dimensional hyperspace. This is still quite speculative, but String theory, in some sense, may be our only salvation. For advanced civilizations in outer space, either we leave or we die.

That brings up a question. Matrix Reloaded seems to be based on parallel universes. What do you think of the film in terms of its metaphors?

Well, the technology found in the Matrix would correspond to that of an advanced Type I or Type II civilization. We physicists, when we scan outer space, do not look for little green men in flying saucers. We look for the total energy outputs of a civilization in outer space, with a characteristic frequency. Even if intelligent beings tried to hide their existence, by the second law of thermodynamics, they create entropy, which should be visible with our detectors.

So we classify civilizations on the basis of energy outputs. A Type I civilization is planetary. They control all planetary forms of energy. They would control, for example, the weather, volcanoes, earthquakes; they would mine the oceans, any planetary form of energy they would control. Type II would be stellar. They play with solar flares. They can move stars, ignite stars, play with white dwarfs. Type III is galactic, in the sense that they have now conquered whole star systems, and are able to use black holes and star clusters for their energy supplies.

Each civilization is separated by the previous civilization by a factor of ten billion. Therefore, you can calculate numerically at what point civilizations may begin to harness certain kinds of technologies. In order to access wormholes and parallel universes, you have to be probably a Type III civilization, because by definition, a Type III civilization has enough energy to play with the Planck energy.

The Planck energy, or 1019 billion electron volts, is the energy at which space-time becomes unstable. If you were to heat up, in your microwave oven, a piece of space-time to that energy, then bubbles would form inside your microwave oven, and each bubble in turn would correspond to a baby Universe.

Now, in the Matrix, several metaphors are raised. One metaphor is whether computing machines can create artificial realities. That would require a civilization centuries or millennia ahead of ours, which would place it squarely as a Type I or Type II civilization.

However, we also have to ask a practical question: is it possible to create implants that could access our memory banks to create this artificial reality, and are machines dangerous? My answer is the following. First of all, cyborgs with neural implants: the technology does not exist, and probably wont exist for at least a century, for us to access the central nervous system. At present, we can only do primitive experiments on the brain.

For example, at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, its possible to put a glass implant into the brain of a stroke victim, and the paralyzed stroke victim is able to, by looking at the cursor of a laptop, eventually control the motion of the cursor. Its very slow and tedious; its like learning to ride a bicycle for the first time. But the brain grows into the glass bead, which is placed into the brain. The glass bead is connected to a laptop computer, and over many hours, the person is able to, by pure thought, manipulate the cursor on the screen.

So, the central nervous system is basically a black box. Except for some primitive hookups to the visual system of the brain, we scientists have not been able to access most bodily functions, because we simply dont know the code for the spinal cord and for the brain. So, neural implant technology, I believe is one hundred, maybe centuries away from ours.

On the other hand, we have to ask yet another metaphor raised by the Matrix, and that is, are machines dangerous? And the answer is, potentially, yes. However, at present, our robots have the intelligence of a cockroach, in the sense that pattern recognition and common sense are the two most difficult, unsolved problems in artificial intelligence theory. Pattern recognition means the ability to see, hear, and to understand what you are seeing and understand what you are hearing. Common sense means your ability to make sense out of the world, which even children can perform.

Those two problems are at the present time largely unsolved. Now, I think, however, that within a few decades, we should be able to create robots as smart as mice, maybe dogs and cats. However, when machines start to become as dangerous as monkeys, I think we should put a chip in their brain, to shut them off when they start to have murderous thoughts.

By the time you have monkey intelligence, you begin to have self-awareness, and with self-awareness, you begin to have an agenda created by a monkey for its own purposes. And at that point, a mechanical monkey may decide that its agenda is different from our agenda, and at that point they may become dangerous to humans. I think we have several decades before that happens, and Moores Law will probably collapse in 20 years anyway, so I think theres plenty of time before we come to the point where we have to deal with murderous robots, like in the movie 2001.

So you differ with Ray Kurzweils concept of using nanobots to reverse-engineer and upload the brain, possibly within the coming decades?

Not necessarily. Im just laying out a linear course, the trajectory where artificial intelligence theory is going today. And that is, trying to build machines which can navigate and roam in our world, and two, robots which can make sense out of the world. However, theres another divergent path one might take, and thats to harness the power of nanotechnology. However, nanotechnology is still very primitive. At the present time, we can barely build arrays of atoms. We cannot yet build the first atomic gear, for example. No one has created an atomic wheel with ball bearings. So simple machines, which even children can play with in their toy sets, dont yet exist at the atomic level. However, on a scale of deca
des, we may be able to create atomic devices that begin to mimic our own devices.

Molecular transistors can already be made. Nanotubes allow us to create strands of material that are super-strong. However, nanotechnology is still in its infancy and therefore, its still premature to say where nanotechnology will go. However, one place where technology may go is inside our body. Already, its possible to create a pill the size of an aspirin pill that has a television camera that can photograph our insides as it goes down our gullet, which means that one day surgery may become relatively obsolete.

In the future, its conceivable we may have atomic machines that enter the blood. And these atomic machines will be the size of blood cells and perhaps they would be able to perform useful functions like regulating and sensing our health, and perhaps zapping cancer cells and viruses in the process. However, this is still science fiction, because at the present time, we cant even build simple atomic machines yet.

Is there any possibility, similar to the premise of The Matrix, that we are living in a simulation?

Well, philosophically speaking, its always possible that the universe is a dream, and its always possible that our conversation with our friends is a by-product of the pickle that we had last night that upset our stomach. However, science is based upon reproducible evidence. When we go to sleep and we wake up the next day, we usually wind up in the same universe. It is reproducible. No matter how we try to avoid certain unpleasant situations, they come back to us. That is reproducible. So reality, as we commonly believe it to exist, is a reproducible experiment, its a reproducible sensation. Therefore in principle, you could never rule out the fact that the world could be a dream, but the fact of the matter is, the universe as it exists is a reproducible universe.

Now, in the Matrix, a computer simulation was run so that virtual reality became reproducible. Every time you woke up, you woke up in that same virtual reality. That technology, of course, does not violate the laws of physics. Theres nothing in relativity or the quantum theory that says that the Matrix is not possible. However, the amount of computer power necessary to drive the universe and the technology necessary for a neural implant is centuries to millennia beyond anything that we can conceive of, and therefore this is something for an advanced Type I or II civilization.

Why is a Type I required to run this kind of simulation? Is number crunching the problem?

Yes, its simply a matter of number crunching. At the present time, we scientists simply do not know how to interface with the brain. You see, one of the problems is, the brain, strictly speaking, is not a digital computer at all. The brain is not a Turing machine. A Turing machine is a black box with an input tape and an output tape and a central processing unit. That is the essential element of a Turing machine: information processing is localized in one point. However, our brain is actually a learning machine; its a neural network.

Many people find this hard to believe, but theres no software, there is no operating system, there is no Windows programming for the brain. The brain is a vast collection, perhaps a hundred billion neurons, each neuron with 10,000 connections, which slowly and painfully interacts with the environment. Some neural pathways are genetically programmed to give us instinct. However, for the most part, our cerebral cortex has to be reprogrammed every time we bump into reality.

As a consequence, we cannot simply put a chip in our brain that augments our memory and enhances our intelligence. Memory and thinking, we now realize, is distributed throughout the entire brain. For example, its possible to have people with only half a brain. There was a documented case recently where a young girl had half her brain removed and shes still fully functional.

So, the brain can operate with half of its mass removed. However, you remove one transistor in your Pentium computer and the whole computer dies. So, theres a fundamental difference between digital computerswhich are easily programmed, which are modular, and you can insert different kinds of subroutines in themand neural networks, where learning is distributed throughout the entire device, making it extremely difficult to reprogram. That is the reason why, even if we could create an advanced PlayStation that would run simulations on a PC screen, that software cannot simply be injected into the human brain, because the brain has no operating system.

Ray Kurzweils next book, The Singularity is Near, predicts that possibly within the coming decades, there will be super-intelligence emerging on the planet that will surpass that of humans. What do you think of that idea?

Yes, that sounds interesting. But Moores Law will have collapsed by then, so well have a little breather. In 20 years time, the quantum theory takes over, so Moores Law collapses and well probably stagnate for a few decades after that. Moores Law, which states that computer power doubles every 18 months, will not last forever. The quantum theory giveth, the quantum theory taketh away. The quantum theory makes possible transistors, which can be etched by ultraviolet rays onto smaller and smaller chips of silicon. This process will end in about 15 to 20 years. The senior engineers at Intel now admit for the first time that, yes, they are facing the end.

The thinnest layer on a Pentium chip consists of about 20 atoms. When we start to hit five atoms in the thinnest layer of a Pentium chip, the quantum theory takes over, electrons can now tunnel outside the layer, and the Pentium chip short-circuits. Therefore, within a 15 to 20 year time frame, Moores Law could collapse, and Silicon Valley could become a Rust Belt.

This means that we physicists are desperately trying to create the architecture for the post-silicon era. This means using quantum computers, quantum dot computers, optical computers, DNA computers, atomic computers, molecular computers, in order to bridge the gap when Moores Law collapses in 15 to 20 years. The wealth of nations depends upon the technology that will replace the power of silicon.

This also means that you cannot project artificial intelligence exponentially into the future. Some people think that Moores Law will extend forever; in which case humans will be reduced to zoo animals and our robot creations will throw peanuts at us and make us dance behind bars. Now, that may eventually happen. It is certainly consistent within the laws of physics.

However, the laws of the quantum theory say that were going to face a massive problem 15 to 20 years from now. Now, some remedial methods have been proposed; for example, building cubical chips, chips that are stacked on chips to create a 3-dimensional array. However, the problem there is heat production. Tremendous quantities of heat are produced by cubical chips, such that you can fry an egg on top of a cubical chip. Therefore, I firmly believe that we may be able to squeeze a few more years out of Moores Law, perhaps designing clever cubical chips that are super-cooled, perhaps using x-rays to etch our chips instead of ultraviolet rays. However, that only delays the inevitable. Sooner or later, the quantum theory kills you. Sooner or later, when we hit five atoms, we dont know where the electron is anymore, and we have to go to the next generation, which relies on the quantum theory and atoms and molecules.

Therefore, I say that all bets are off in terms of projecting machine intellig
ence beyond a 20-year time frame. Theres nothing in the laws of physics that says that computers cannot exceed human intelligence. All I raise is that we physicists are desperately trying to patch up Moores Law, and at the present time we have to admit that we have no successor to silicon, which means that Moores Law will collapse in 15 to 20 years.

So are you saying that quantum computing and nanocomputing are not likely to be available by then?

No, no, Im just saying its very difficult. At the present time we physicists have been able to compute on seven atoms. That is the worlds record for a quantum computer. And that quantum computer was able to calculate 3 x 5 = 15. Now, being able to calculate 3 x 5 = 15 does not equal the convenience of a laptop computer that can crunch potentially millions of calculations per second. The problem with quantum computers is that any contamination, any atomic disturbance, disturbs the alignment of the atoms and the atoms then collapse into randomness. This is extremely difficult, because any cosmic ray, any air molecule, any disturbance can conceivably destroy the coherence of our atomic computer to make them useless.

Unless you have redundant parallel computing?

Even if you have parallel computing you still have to have each parallel computer component free of any disturbance. So, no matter how you cut it, the practical problems of building quantum computers, although within the laws of physics, are extremely difficult, because it requires that we remove all in contact with the environment at the atomic level. In practice, weve only been able to do this with a handful of atoms, meaning that quantum computers are still a gleam in the eye of most physicists.

Now, if a quantum computer can be successfully built, it would, of course, scare the CIA and all the governments of the world, because it would be able to crack any code created by a Turing machine. A quantum computer would be able to perform calculations that are inconceivable by a Turing machine. Calculations that require an infinite amount of time on a Turing machine can be calculated in a few seconds by a quantum computer. For example, if you shine laser beams on a collection of coherent atoms, the laser beam scatters, and in some sense performs a quantum calculation, which exceeds the memory capability of any Turing machine.

However, as I mentioned, the problem is that these atoms have to be in perfect coherence, and the problems of doing this are staggering in the sense that even a random collision with a subatomic particle could in fact destroy the coherence and make the quantum computer impractical.

So, Im not saying that its impossible to build a quantum computer; Im just saying that its awfully difficult.

When do you think we might expect SETI [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence] to be successful?

I personally think that SETI is looking in the wrong direction. If, for example, were walking down a country road and we see an anthill, do we go down to the ant and say, “I bring you trinkets, I bring you beads, I bring you knowledge, I bring you medicine, I bring you nuclear technology, take me to your leader”? Or, do we simply step on them? Any civilization capable of reaching the planet Earth would be perhaps a Type III civilization. And the difference between you and the ant is comparable to the distance between you and a Type III civilization. Therefore, for the most part, a Type III civilization would operate with a completely different agenda and message than our civilization.

Lets say that a ten-lane superhighway is being built next to the anthill. The question is: would the ants even know what a ten-lane superhighway is, or what its used for, or how to communicate with the workers who are just feet away? And the answer is no. One question that we sometimes ask is if there is a Type III civilization in our backyard, in the Milky Way galaxy, would we even know its presence? And if you think about it, you realize that theres a good chance that we, like ants in an anthill, would not understand or be able to make sense of a ten-lane superhighway next door.

So this means there that could very well be a Type III civilization in our galaxy, it just means that were not smart enough to find one. Now, a Type III civilization is not going to make contact by sending Captain Kirk on the Enterprise to meet our leader. A Type III civilization would send self-replicating Von Neumann probes to colonize the galaxy with robots. For example, consider a virus. A virus only consists of thousands of atoms. Its a molecule in some sense. But in about one week, it can colonize an entire human being made of trillions of cells. How is that possible?

Well, a Von Neumann probe would be a self-replicating robot that lands on a moon; a moon, because they are stable, with no erosion, and theyre stable for billions of years. The probe would then make carbon copies of itself by the millions. It would create a factory to build copies of itself. And then these probes would then rocket to other nearby star systems, land on moons, to create a million more copies by building a factory on that moon. Eventually, there would be sphere surrounding the mother planet, expanding at near-light velocity, containing trillions of these Von Neumann probes, and that is perhaps the most efficient way to colonize the galaxy. This means that perhaps, on our moon there is a Von Neumann probe, left over from a visitation that took place million of years ago, and the probe is simply waiting for us to make the transition from Type 0 to Type I.

The Sentinel.

Yes. This, of course, is the basis of the movie 2001, because at the beginning of the movie, Kubrick interviewed many prominent scientists, and asked them the question, “What is the most likely way that an advanced civilization would probe the universe?” And that is, of course, through self-replicating Von Neumann probes, which create moon bases. That is the basis of the movie 2001, where the probe simply waits for us to become interesting. If were Type 0, were not very interesting. We have all the savagery and all the suicidal tendencies of fundamentalism, nationalism, sectarianism, that are sufficient to rip apart our world.

By the time weve become Type I, weve become interesting, weve become planetary, we begin to resolve our differences. We have centuries in which to exist on a single planet to create a paradise on Earth, a paradise of knowledge and prosperity.

2003 KurzweilAI.net

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Parallel universes, the Matrix, and superintelligence …

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Posted: June 19, 2016 at 3:46 am

Coordinates: 2415N 7600W / 24.250N 76.000W / 24.250; -76.000

The Bahamas i, officially the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state of the Lucayan Archipelago consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets in the Atlantic Ocean; north of Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic); northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands; southeast of the US state of Florida and east of the Florida Keys. Its capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence. The designation of “Bahamas” can refer to either the country or the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas territory encompasses 470,000km2 (180,000sqmi) of ocean space.

The Bahamas were the site of Columbus’ first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taino people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.

The Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas; they brought their slaves with them and established plantations on land grants. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period. The Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves: the Royal Navy resettled Africans here liberated from illegal slave ships; American slaves and Seminoles escaped here from Florida; and the government freed American slaves carried on United States domestic ships that had reached the Bahamas due to weather. Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834. Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population; issues related to the slavery years are part of society.

The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas (following the United States and Canada). Its economy is based on tourism and finance.[9]

The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma (“big upper middle land”), which was a term for the region used by the indigenous Amerindians,[10] while other theories suggest it derives from the Spanish baja mar (“shallow water or sea” or “low tide”) reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning.[11] In English, the Bahamas is one of only two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word “the”, along with the Gambia.[12]

Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in 1492.

Columbus’s first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador (known to the Lucayan as Guanahani). Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island (formerly known as Watling’s Island), situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus’s log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them.

The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; half of the Taino died from smallpox alone.[14] The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished.[15]

In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleutherathe name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They later settled New Providence, naming it Sayle’s Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks.

In 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America. They rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, tax, appointing governors, and administering the country.[16] In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided the capital, Charles Town (later renamed Nassau). In 1703 a joint Franco-Spanish expedition briefly occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession.

During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including the infamous Blackbeard (c.16801718). To put an end to the ‘Pirates’ republic’ and restore orderly government, Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy.[17] In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack.

During the American War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for American naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for a fortnight.

In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau. The city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Britain the following year, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Before the news was received, however, the islands were recaptured by a small British force led by Andrew Deveaux.

After American independence, the British resettled some 7,300 Loyalists with their slaves in the Bahamas, and granted land to the planters to help compensate for losses on the continent. These Loyalists, who included Deveaux, established plantations on several islands and became a political force in the capital. European Americans were outnumbered by the African-American slaves they brought with them, and ethnic Europeans remained a minority in the territory.

In 1807, the British abolished the slave trade, followed by the United States the next year. During the following decades, the Royal Navy intercepted the trade; they resettled in the Bahamas thousands of Africans liberated from slave ships.

In the 1820s during the period of the Seminole Wars in Florida, hundreds of American slaves and African Seminoles escaped from Cape Florida to the Bahamas. They settled mostly on northwest Andros Island, where they developed the village of Red Bays. From eyewitness accounts, 300 escaped in a mass flight in 1823, aided by Bahamians in 27 sloops, with others using canoes for the journey. This was commemorated in 2004 by a large sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park.[18][19] Some of their descendants in Red Bays continue African Seminole traditions in basket making and grave marking.[20]

The United States’ National Park Service, which administers the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom, is working with the African Bahamian Museum and Research Center (ABAC) in Nassau on development to identify Red Bays as a site related to American slaves’ search for freedom. The museum has researched and documented the African Seminoles’ escape from southern Florida. It plans to develop interpretive programs at historical sites in Red Bay associated with the period of their settlement in the Bahamas.[21]

In 1818,[22] the Home Office in London had ruled that “any slave brought to the Bahamas from outside the British West Indies would be manumitted.” This led to a total of nearly 300 slaves owned by US nationals being freed from 1830 to 1835.[23] The American slave ships Comet and Encomium used in the United States domestic coastwise slave trade, were wrecked off Abaco Island in December 1830 and February 1834, respectively. When wreckers took the masters, passengers and slaves into Nassau, customs officers seized the slaves and British colonial officials freed them, over the protests of the Americans. There were 165 slaves on the Comet and 48 on the Encomium. Britain finally paid an indemnity to the United States in those two cases in 1855, under the Treaty of Claims of 1853, which settled several compensation cases between the two nations.[24][25]

Slavery was abolished in the British Empire on 1 August 1834. After that British colonial officials freed 78 American slaves from the Enterprise, which went into Bermuda in 1835; and 38 from the Hermosa, which wrecked off Abaco Island in 1840.[26] The most notable case was that of the Creole in 1841: as a result of a slave revolt on board, the leaders ordered the American brig to Nassau. It was carrying 135 slaves from Virginia destined for sale in New Orleans. The Bahamian officials freed the 128 slaves who chose to stay in the islands. The Creole case has been described as the “most successful slave revolt in U.S. history”.[27]

These incidents, in which a total of 447 slaves belonging to US nationals were freed from 1830 to 1842, increased tension between the United States and Great Britain. They had been co-operating in patrols to suppress the international slave trade. But, worried about the stability of its large domestic slave trade and its value, the United States argued that Britain should not treat its domestic ships that came to its colonial ports under duress, as part of the international trade. The United States worried that the success of the Creole slaves in gaining freedom would encourage more slave revolts on merchant ships.

In August 1940, after his abdication of the British throne, the Duke of Windsor was installed as Governor of the Bahamas, arriving with his wife, the Duchess. Although disheartened at the condition of Government House, they “tried to make the best of a bad situation”.[28] He did not enjoy the position, and referred to the islands as “a third-class British colony”.[29]

He opened the small local parliament on 29 October 1940. The couple visited the “Out Islands” that November, on Axel Wenner-Gren’s yacht, which caused controversy;[30] the British Foreign Office strenuously objected because they had been advised (mistakenly) by United States intelligence that Wenner-Gren was a close friend of the Luftwaffe commander Hermann Gring of Nazi Germany.[30][31]

The Duke was praised at the time for his efforts to combat poverty on the islands. A 1991 biography by Philip Ziegler, however, described him as contemptuous of the Bahamians and other non-white peoples of the Empire. He was praised for his resolution of civil unrest over low wages in Nassau in June 1942, when there was a “full-scale riot.”[32] Ziegler said that the Duke blamed the trouble on “mischief makers communists” and “men of Central European Jewish descent, who had secured jobs as a pretext for obtaining a deferment of draft”.[33]

The Duke resigned the post on 16 March 1945.[34][35]

Modern political development began after the Second World War. The first political parties were formed in the 1950s. The British Parliament authorised the islands as internally self-governing in 1964, with Sir Roland Symonette, of the United Bahamian Party, as the first Premier.

A new constitution granting the Bahamas internal autonomy went into effect on 7 January 1964.[36] In 1967, Lynden Pindling of the Progressive Liberal Party, became the first black Premier of the majority-black colony; in 1968 the title of the position was changed to Prime Minister. In 1968, Pindling announced that the Bahamas would seek full independence.[37] A new constitution giving the Bahamas increased control over its own affairs was adopted in 1968.[38]

The British House of Lords voted to give the Bahamas its independence on 22 June 1973.[39]Prince Charles delivered the official documents to Prime Minister Lynden Pindling, officially declaring the Bahamas a fully independent nation on 10 July 1973.[40] It joined the Commonwealth of Nations on the same day.[41]Sir Milo Butler was appointed the first Governor-General of the Bahamas (the official representative of Queen Elizabeth II) shortly after independence. The Bahamas joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on 22 August 1973,[42] and it joined the United Nations on 18 September 1973.[43]

Based on the twin pillars of tourism and offshore finance, the Bahamian economy has prospered since the 1950s. Significant challenges in areas such as education, health care, housing, international narcotics trafficking and illegal immigration from Haiti continue to be issues.

The College of the Bahamas is the national higher education/tertiary system. Offering baccalaureate, masters and associate degrees, COB has three campuses, and teaching and research centres throughout the Bahamas. COB is on track to become the national “University of The Bahamas” (UOB) in 2015.

The country lies between latitudes 20 and 28N, and longitudes 72 and 80W.

In 1864, the Governor of the Bahamas reported that there were 29 islands, 661 cays, and 2,387 rocks in the colony.[44]

The closest island to the United States is Bimini, which is also known as the gateway to the Bahamas. The island of Abaco is to the east of Grand Bahama. The southeasternmost island is Inagua. The largest island is Andros Island. Other inhabited islands include Eleuthera, Cat Island, Long Island, San Salvador Island, Acklins, Crooked Island, Exuma and Mayaguana. Nassau, capital city of the Bahamas, lies on the island of New Providence.

All the islands are low and flat, with ridges that usually rise no more than 15 to 20m (49 to 66ft). The highest point in the country is Mount Alvernia (formerly Como Hill) on Cat Island. It has an elevation of 63 metres (207ft).

To the southeast, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and three more extensive submarine features called Mouchoir Bank, Silver Bank and Navidad Bank, are geographically a continuation of the Bahamas.

The climate of the Bahamas is tropical savannah climate or Aw according to Kppen climate classification. As such, there has never been a frost or freeze reported in the Bahamas, although every few decades low temperatures can fall into the 35C (3741F) range for a few hours when a severe cold outbreak comes off the North American landmass. Otherwise, the low latitude, warm tropical Gulf Stream, and low elevation give the Bahamas a warm and winterless climate. There is only an 8C difference between the warmest month and coolest month in most of the Bahama islands. As with most tropical climates, seasonal rainfall follows the sun, and summer is the wettest season. The Bahamas are often sunny and dry for long periods of time, and average more than 3,000 hours or 340 days[45] of sunlight annually.

Tropical storms and hurricanes affect the Bahamas. In 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed over the northern portions of the islands, and Hurricane Floyd passed near the eastern portions of the islands in 1999.

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The Bahamas is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy headed by Queen Elizabeth II in her role as Queen of the Bahamas. Political and legal traditions closely follow those of the United Kingdom and the Westminster system. The Bahamas is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations as a Commonwealth realm, retaining the Queen as head of state (represented by a Governor-General).

Legislative power is vested in a bicameral parliament, which consists of a 38-member House of Assembly (the lower house), with members elected from single-member districts, and a 16-member Senate, with members appointed by the Governor-General, including nine on the advice of the Prime Minister, four on the advice of the Leader of Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition, and three on the advice of the Prime Minister after consultation with the Leader of the Opposition. The House of Assembly carries out all major legislative functions. As under the Westminster system, the Prime Minister may dissolve Parliament and call a general election at any time within a five-year term.[48]

The Prime Minister is the head of government and is the leader of the party with the most seats in the House of Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the Cabinet, selected by the Prime Minister and drawn from his supporters in the House of Assembly. The current Governor-General is Dame Marguerite Pindling, and the current Prime Minister is The Rt. Hon. Perry Christie, P.C., M.P..

Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, press, worship, movement and association. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Jurisprudence is based on English law.

The Bahamas has a two-party system dominated by the centre-left Progressive Liberal Party and the centre-right Free National Movement. A handful of splinter parties have been unable to win election to parliament. These parties have included the Bahamas Democratic Movement, the Coalition for Democratic Reform, Bahamian Nationalist Party and the Democratic National Alliance.

The Bahamas has strong bilateral relationships with the United States and the United Kingdom, represented by an ambassador in Washington and High Commissioner in London. The Bahamas also associates closely with other nations of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

Its military is the Royal Bahamas Defence Force (the RBDF), the navy of the Bahamas which includes a land unit called Commando Squadron (Regiment) and an Air Wing (Air Force). Under the Defence Act, the RBDF has been mandated, in the name of the Queen, to defend the Bahamas, protect its territorial integrity, patrol its waters, provide assistance and relief in times of disaster, maintain order in conjunction with the law enforcement agencies of the Bahamas, and carry out any such duties as determined by the National Security Council. The Defence Force is also a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)’s Regional Security Task Force.

The RBDF came into existence on 31 March 1980. Their duties include defending the Bahamas, stopping drug smuggling, illegal immigration and poaching, and providing assistance to mariners. The Defence Force has a fleet of 26 coastal and inshore patrol craft along with 3 aircraft and over 1,100 personnel including 65 officers and 74 women.

The districts of the Bahamas provide a system of local government everywhere except New Providence (which holds 70% of the national population), whose affairs are handled directly by the central government. In 1996, the Bahamian Parliament passed the “Local Government Act” to facilitate the establishment of Family Island Administrators, Local Government Districts, Local District Councillors and Local Town Committees for the various island communities. The overall goal of this act is to allow the various elected leaders to govern and oversee the affairs of their respective districts without the interference of Central Government. In total, there are 32 districts, with elections being held every five years. There are 110 Councillors and 281 Town Committee members are elected to represent the various districts.[49]

Each Councillor or Town Committee member is responsible for the proper use of public funds for the maintenance and development of their constituency.

The Bahamas uses drive-on-the-Left traffic rules throughout the Commonwealth.

The districts other than New Providence are:

The colours embodied in the design of the Bahamian flag symbolise the image and aspirations of the people of the Bahamas; the design reflects aspects of the natural environment (sun, sand and sea) and the economic and social development. The flag is a black equilateral triangle against the mast, superimposed on a horizontal background made up of two colours on three equal stripes of aquamarine, gold and aquamarine.

The symbolism of the flag is as follows: Black, a strong colour, represents the vigour and force of a united people, the triangle pointing towards the body of the flag represents the enterprise and determination of the Bahamian people to develop and possess the rich resources of sun and sea symbolised by gold and aquamarine respectively. In reference to the representation of the people with the colour black, some white Bahamians have joked that they are represented in the thread which “holds it all together.”[50]

There are rules on how to use the flag for certain events. For a funeral the national flag should be draped over the coffin covering the top completely but not covering the bearers. The black triangle on the flag should be placed over the head of the deceased in the coffin. The flag will remain on the coffin throughout the whole service and removed right before lowered into the grave. Upon removal of the flag it should be folded with dignity and put away. The black triangle should never be displayed pointing upwards or from the viewer’s right. This would be a sign of distress.[51]

The coat of arms is like a theme statement that describes the Bahamian people. The coat of arms of the Bahamas contains a shield with the national symbols as its focal point. The shield is supported by a marlin and a flamingo, which are the national animals of the Bahamas. The flamingo is located on the land, and the marlin on the sea, indicating the geography of the islands.

On top of the shield is a conch shell, which represents the varied marine life of the island chain. The conch shell rests on a helmet. Below this is the actual shield, the main symbol of which is a ship representing the Santa Mara of Christopher Columbus, shown sailing beneath the sun. Along the bottom, below the shield appears a banner upon which is scripted the national motto:[52]

“Forward, Upward, Onward Together.”

The yellow elder was chosen as the national flower of the Bahamas because it is native to the Bahama islands, and it blooms throughout the year.

Selection of the yellow elder over many other flowers was made through the combined popular vote of members of all four of New Providence’s garden clubs of the 1970sthe Nassau Garden Club, the Carver Garden Club, the International Garden Club and the Y.W.C.A. Garden Club.

They reasoned that other flowers grown theresuch as the bougainvillea, hibiscus and poincianahad already been chosen as the national flowers of other countries. The yellow elder, on the other hand, was unclaimed by other countries (although it is now also the national flower of the United States Virgin Islands) and also the yellow elder is native to the family islands.[53]

By the terms of GDP per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas.[54]

The Bahamas relies on tourism to generate most of its economic activity. Tourism as an industry not only accounts for over 60% of the Bahamian GDP, but provides jobs for more than half the country’s workforce.[55] The Bahamas attracted 5.8 million visitors in 2012, more than 70% of which were cruise visitors.

After tourism, the next most important economic sector is banking and international financial services, accounting for some 15% of GDP.

The government has adopted incentives to encourage foreign financial business, and further banking and finance reforms are in progress. The government plans to merge the regulatory functions of key financial institutions, including the Central Bank of the Bahamas (CBB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission.[citation needed] The Central Bank administers restrictions and controls on capital and money market instruments. The Bahamas International Securities Exchange consists of 19 listed public companies. Reflecting the relative soundness of the banking system (mostly populated by Canadian banks), the impact of the global financial crisis on the financial sector has been limited.[citation needed]

The economy has a very competitive tax regime. The government derives its revenue from import tariffs, VAT, licence fees, property and stamp taxes, but there is no income tax, corporate tax, capital gains tax, or wealth tax. Payroll taxes fund social insurance benefits and amount to 3.9% paid by the employee and 5.9% paid by the employer.[56] In 2010, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 17.2%.[5]

Agriculture is the third largest sector of the Bahamian economy, representing 57% of total GDP. An estimated 80% of the Bahamian food supply is imported. Major crops include onions, okra, and tomatoes, oranges, grapefruit, cucumbers, sugar cane, lemons, limes and sweet potatoes.

The Bahamas has an estimated population of 382,825, of which 25.9% are under 14, 67.2% 15 to 64 and 6.9% over 65. It has a population growth rate of 0.925% (2010), with a birth rate of 17.81/1,000 population, death rate of 9.35/1,000, and net migration rate of 2.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population.[57] The infant mortality rate is 23.21 deaths/1,000 live births. Residents have a life expectancy at birth of 69.87 years: 73.49 years for females, 66.32 years for males. The total fertility rate is 2.0 children born/woman (2010).[5]

The most populous islands are New Providence, where Nassau, the capital and largest city, is located;[58] and Grand Bahama, home to the second largest city of Freeport.[59]

According to the 99% response rate obtained from the race question on the 2010 Census questionnaire, 91% of the population identified themselves as being Africans or afro-Bahamian, five percent (5% Europeans or Euro-Bahamian and two percent (2%) of a mixed race (African and European). Three centuries prior, in 1722 when the first official census of The Bahamas was taken, 74% of the population was African and 26% European.[60]

Afro-Bahamians are Bahamian nationals whose primary ancestry was based in West Africa. The first Africans to arrive to the Bahamas were freed slaves from Bermuda; they arrived with the Eleutheran Adventurers looking for new lives.

Since the colonial era of plantations, Africans or Afro-Bahamians have been the largest ethnic group in the Bahamas; in the 21st century, they account for some 91% of the country’s population.[60] The Haitian community is also largely of African descent and numbers about 80,000. Because of an extremely high immigration of Haitians to the Bahamas, the Bahamian government started deporting illegal Haitian immigrants to their homeland in late 2014.[61]

There were 16,598 (5%) of the total population are descendants of Europeans or European Bahamians at the 2010 census.[1]European Bahamians, or Bahamians of European and mixed European descent and form the largest minority, are mainly the descendants of the English Puritans and American Loyalists who arrived in 1649 and 1783, respectively.[62] Many Southern Loyalists went to Abaco, which is about 50% European.[63] A small portion of the Euro Bahamian population is descended from Greek labourers who came to help develop the sponging industry in the 1900s. They make up less than 1% of the nation’s population, and have preserved their distinct Greek Bahamian culture.

The official language of the Bahamas is English. Many residents speak the Bahamian dialect.[64] According to 1995 estimates 98.2% of the adult population is literate.

The islands’ population is predominantly Christian, with Baptists representing 35.4% of the population, Anglican 15.1%, Roman Catholic 13.5%, Pentecostal 8.1%, Church of God 4.8%, Methodist 4.2%, other Christian 15.2%,[5] other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2%[65] The “other” category includes Jews, Muslims, Baha’is, Hindus, Rastafarians and practitioners of Obeah.[66]

In the less developed outer islands (or Family Islands), handicrafts include basketry made from palm fronds. This material, commonly called “straw”, is plaited into hats and bags that are popular tourist items. Another use is for so-called “Voodoo dolls”, even though such dolls are the result of the American imagination and not based on historic fact.[67]

A form of folk magic (obeah) is practiced by some Bahamians, mainly in the Family Islands (out-islands) of the Bahamas.[68] The practice of obeah is illegal in the Bahamas and punishable by law.[69]

Junkanoo is a traditional Afro-Bahamian street parade of ‘rushing’, music, dance and art held in Nassau (and a few other settlements) every Boxing Day and New Year’s Day. Junkanoo is also used to celebrate other holidays and events such as Emancipation Day.

Regattas are important social events in many family island settlements. They usually feature one or more days of sailing by old-fashioned work boats, as well as an onshore festival.

Many dishes are associated with Bahamian cuisine, which reflects Caribbean, African and European influences. Some settlements have festivals associated with the traditional crop or food of that area, such as the “Pineapple Fest” in Gregory Town, Eleuthera or the “Crab Fest” on Andros. Other significant traditions include story telling.

Bahamians have created a rich literature of poetry, short stories, plays and short fictional works. Common themes in these works are (1) an awareness of change, (2) a striving for sophistication, (3) a search for identity, (4) nostalgia for the old ways and (5) an appreciation of beauty. Some contributing writers are Susan Wallace, Percival Miller, Robert Johnson, Raymond Brown, O.M. Smith, William Johnson, Eddie Minnis and Winston Saunders.[70][71]

Bahamas culture is rich with beliefs, traditions, folklore and legend. The most well-known folklore and legends in the Bahamas includes Lusca in Andros Bahamas, Pretty Molly on Exuma Bahamas, the Chickcharnies of Andro Bahamas, and the Lost City of Atlantis on Bimini Bahamas.

Sport is a significant part of Bahamian culture. The national sport is Cricket. Cricket has been played in the Bahamas from 1846.[72] It is the oldest sport being played in the country today. The Bahamas Cricket Association was formed in 1936 as an organised body. From the 1940s to the 1970s, cricket was played amongst many Bahamians. Bahamas is not a part of the West Indies Board, so players are not eligible to play for the West Indies cricket team. The late 1970s saw the game begin to decline in the country as teachers, who had previously come from the United Kingdom with a passion for cricket were replaced by teachers who had been trained in the United States. The Bahamian Physical education teachers had no knowledge of the game and instead taught track & field, basketball, baseball, softball,[73]volleyball[74] and football[75] where primary and high schools compete against each other. Today cricket is still enjoyed by a few locals and immigrants in the country usually from Jamaica, Guyana, Haiti and Barbados. Cricket is played on Saturdays and Sundays at Windsor Park and Haynes Oval.

The only other sporting event that began before cricket was horse racing, which started in 1796. The most popular spectator sports are those imported from United States such as basketball,[76]American football[77] and baseball[78] rather than Great Britain due to the country’s close proximity to the United States. Unlike their other Caribbean counterparts, cricket has proven to be more popular.

Dexter Cambridge, Rick Fox and Ian Lockhart are a few Bahamians who joined Bahamian Mychal Thompson of the Los Angeles Lakers in the NBA ranks,[79] and Buddy Hield is expected to join this group in 2016.[80] Over the years American football has become much more popular than association football, though not implemented in the high school system yet. Leagues for teens and adults have been developed by the Bahamas American Football Federation.[81] However association football, commonly known as ‘soccer’ in the country, is still a very popular sport amongst high school pupils. Leagues are governed by the Bahamas Football Association. Recently the Bahamian government has been working closely with Tottenham Hotspur of London to promote the sport in the country as well as promoting the Bahamas in the European market. In 2013 ‘Spurs’ became the first Premier League club to play an exhibition match in the Bahamas to face the Jamaica national football team. Joe Lewis the owner of the Tottenham Hotspur club is based in the Bahamas.[82]

Other popular sports are swimming,[83]tennis[84] and boxing[85] where Bahamians have enjoyed some level of success at the international level. Other sports such as golf,[86]rugby league,[87]rugby union[88] and beach soccer[89] are considered growing sports. Athletics commonly known as track and field in the country is the most successful sport by far amongst Bahamians. Bahamians have a strong tradition in the sprints and jumps. Track and field is probably the most popular spectator sport in the country next to basketball due to their success over the years. Triathlons are gaining popularity in Nassau and the Family Islands.

Bahamians have gone on to win numerous track and field medals at the Olympic Games, IAAF World Championships in Athletics, Commonwealth Games and Pan American Games. Frank Rutherford is the first athletics olympic medalist for the country. He won a bronze medal for triple jump during the 1992 Summer Olympics.[90]Pauline Davis-Thompson, Debbie Ferguson, Chandra Sturrup, Savatheda Fynes and Eldece Clarke-Lewis teamed up for the first athletics Olympic Gold medal for the country when they won the 4 100 m relay at the 2000 Summer Olympics. They are affectionately known as the “Golden Girls”.[91]Tonique Williams-Darling became the first athletics individual Olympic gold medalist when she won the 400m sprint in 2004 Summer Olympics.[92] In 2007, with the disqualification of Marion Jones, Pauline Davis-Thompson was advanced to the gold medal position in the 200 metres at the 2000 Olympics, predating William-Darling.

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Information technology – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: March 27, 2016 at 12:44 am

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data,[1] often in the context of a business or other enterprise.[2] IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level “contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications.”.[3] Business/IT was one level of the ICT hierarchy.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce and computer services.[4][a]

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000BC,[6] but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that “the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT).” Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[7]

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000BC 1450AD), mechanical (14501840), electromechanical (18401940) electronic (1940present),[6] and moreover, IT as a service. This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.

Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick.[8] The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.

Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world’s first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), which ran its first program on 21 June 1948.[13]

The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.[14]

Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube,[17] but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932[18] and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world’s first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.[19]

IBM introduced the first hard disk drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs. Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally:[22] 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007,[23] doubling roughly every 3 years.[24]

Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM’s Information Management System (IMS), which is still widely deployed more than 40 years later.[26] IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables, rows and columns. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in 1980.

All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema.

The extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their “robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort”. As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML’s text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.

The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language (SQL), based on relational algebra.

The terms “data” and “information” are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Most of the world’s digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats[b] even within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).

Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.[23]

XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s, particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP, describing “data-in-transit rather than… data-at-rest”. One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures.

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore’s law): machines’ application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007; the per capita capacity of the world’s general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world’s storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every 12.3 years.[23]

Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: “data archives that are seldom visited”. To address that issue, the field of data mining “the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data” emerged in the late 1980s.

In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as “undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations…. IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organizations computer users.”[40]

In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems”. The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization’s technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded and replaced.

The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes, provision of information for decision making, connecting businesses with their customers, and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.

Employment distribution of computer systems design and related services, 2011[43]

Employment in the computer systems and design related services industry, in thousands, 1990-2011[43]

Occupational growth and wages in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020[43]

Projected percent change in employment in selected occupations in computer systems design and related services, 2010-2020[43]

Projected average annual percent change in output and employment in selected industries, 2010-2020[43]

The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the 1940s. Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:

Notes

Citations

Bibliography

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Automation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: March 25, 2016 at 12:45 pm

Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.

The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors established an automation department.[1] It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.[2]

Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques.

One of the simplest types of control is on-off control. An example is the thermostats used on household appliances. Electromechanical thermostats used in HVAC may only have provision for on/off control of heating or cooling systems. Electronic controllers may add multiple stages of heating and variable fan speed control.

Sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of discrete operations is performed, often based on system logic that involves system states. An elevator control system is an example of sequence control.

The advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft, communications and other industries, is feedback control, which is usually continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured variable within a set range. Moreover, it can be understood as the relation of two variables, one for the “x” axis and a second for the “y” axis. If the value of “y” increases, then the value on the “x” axis will also increase, and vice versa.[3]

All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single variable are called a control loop. Control that uses a measured signal, feeds the signal back and compares it to a set point, calculates and sends a return signal to make a correction, is called closed loop control. If the controller does not incorporate feedback to make a correction then it is open loop.

Loop control is normally accomplished with a controller. The theoretical basis of open and closed loop automation is control theory.

Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler.

States refer to the various conditions that can occur in a use or sequence scenario of the system. An example is an elevator, which uses logic based on the system state to perform certain actions in response to its state and operator input. For example, if the operator presses the floor n button, the system will respond depending on whether the elevator is stopped or moving, going up or down, or if the door is open or closed, and other conditions.[4]

An early development of sequential control was relay logic, by which electrical relays engage electrical contacts which either start or interrupt power to a device. Relays were first used in telegraph networks before being developed for controlling other devices, such as when starting and stopping industrial-sized electric motors or opening and closing solenoid valves. Using relays for control purposes allowed event-driven control, where actions could be triggered out of sequence, in response to external events. These were more flexible in their response than the rigid single-sequence cam timers. More complicated examples involved maintaining safe sequences for devices such as swing bridge controls, where a lock bolt needed to be disengaged before the bridge could be moved, and the lock bolt could not be released until the safety gates had already been closed.

The total number of relays, cam timers and drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in some factories. Early programming techniques and languages were needed to make such systems manageable, one of the first being ladder logic, where diagrams of the interconnected relays resembled the rungs of a ladder. Special computers called programmable logic controllers were later designed to replace these collections of hardware with a single, more easily re-programmed unit.

In a typical hard wired motor start and stop circuit (called a control circuit) a motor is started by pushing a “Start” or “Run” button that activates a pair of electrical relays. The “lock-in” relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the push button is released. (The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.) Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch (three sets of contacts for three phase industrial power) in the main power circuit. Large motors use high voltage and experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches. The “lock in” contacts in the start circuit and the main power contacts for the motor are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a “stop” or “off” button is pressed, which de-energizes the lock in relay.[5]

Commonly interlocks are added to a control circuit. Suppose that the motor in the example is powering machinery that has a critical need for lubrication. In this case an interlock could be added to insure that the oil pump is running before the motor starts. Timers, limit switches and electric eyes are other common elements in control circuits.

Solenoid valves are widely used on compressed air or hydraulic fluid for powering actuators on mechanical components. While motors are used to supply continuous rotary motion, actuators are typically a better choice for intermittently creating a limited range of movement for a mechanical component, such as moving various mechanical arms, opening or closing valves, raising heavy press rolls, applying pressure to presses.

Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are a type of special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in relay logic type systems. General purpose process control computers have increasingly replaced stand alone controllers, with a single computer able to perform the operations of hundreds of controllers. Process control computers can process data from a network of PLCs, instruments and controllers in order to implement typical (such as PID) control of many individual variables or, in some cases, to implement complex control algorithms using multiple inputs and mathematical manipulations. They can also analyze data and create real time graphical displays for operators and run reports for operators, engineers and management.

Control of an automated teller machine (ATM) is an example of an interactive process in which a computer will perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. The ATM process has similarities with other online transaction processes. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Such processes are typically designed with the aid of use cases and flowcharts, which guide the writing of the software code.

The earliest feedback control mechanism was used to tent the sails of windmills. It was patented by Edmund Lee in 1745.[6]

The centrifugal governor, which dates to the last quarter of the 18th century, was used to adjust the gap between millstones.[7] The centrifugal governor was also used in the automatic flour mill developed by Oliver Evans in 1785, making it the first completely automated industrial process. The governor was adopted by James Watt for use on a steam engine in 1788 after Watts partner Boulton saw one at a flour mill Boulton & Watt were building.[6]

The governor could not actually hold a set speed; the engine would assume a new constant speed in response to load changes. The governor was able to handle smaller variations such as those caused by fluctuating heat load to the boiler. Also, there was a tendency for oscillation whenever there was a speed change. As a consequence, engines equipped with this governor were not suitable for operations requiring constant speed, such as cotton spinning.[6]

Several improvements to the governor, plus improvements to valve cut-off timing on the steam engine, made the engine suitable for most industrial uses before the end of the 19th century. Advances in the steam engine stayed well ahead of science, both thermodynamics and control theory.[6]

The governor received relatively little scientific attention until James Clerk Maxwell published a paper that established the beginning of a theoretical basis for understanding control theory. Development of the electronic amplifier during the 1920s, which was important for long distance telephony, required a higher signal to noise ratio, which was solved by negative feedback noise cancellation. This and other telephony applications contributed to control theory. Military applications during the Second World War that contributed to and benefited from control theory were fire-control systems and aircraft controls. The word “automation” itself was coined in the 1940s by General Electric.[8] The so-called classical theoretical treatment of control theory dates to the 1940s and 1950s.[3]

Relay logic was introduced with factory electrification, which underwent rapid adaption from 1900 though the 1920s. Central electric power stations were also undergoing rapid growth and operation of new high pressure boilers, steam turbines and electrical substations created a large demand for instruments and controls.

Central control rooms became common in the 1920s, but as late as the early 1930s, most process control was on-off. Operators typically monitored charts drawn by recorders that plotted data from instruments. To make corrections, operators manually opened or closed valves or turned switches on or off. Control rooms also used color coded lights to send signals to workers in the plant to manually make certain changes.[9]

Controllers, which were able to make calculated changes in response to deviations from a set point rather than on-off control, began being introduced the 1930s. Controllers allowed manufacturing to continue showing productivity gains to offset the declining influence of factory electrification.[10]

Factory productivity was greatly increased by electrification in the 1920s. Manufacturing productivity growth fell from 5.2%/yr 1919-29 to 2.76%/yr 1929-41. Field notes that spending on non-medical instruments increased significantly from 192933 and remained strong thereafter.

In 1959 Texacos Port Arthur refinery became the first chemical plant to use digital control.[11] Conversion of factories to digital control began to spread rapidly in the 1970s as the price of computer hardware fell.

The automatic telephone switchboard was introduced in 1892 along with dial telephones.[12] By 1929, 31.9% of the Bell system was automatic. Automatic telephone switching originally used vacuum tube amplifiers and electro-mechanical switches, which consumed a large amount of electricity. Call volume eventually grew so fast that it was feared the telephone system would consume all electricity production, prompting Bell Labs to begin research on the transistor.[13]

The logic performed by telephone switching relays was the inspiration for the digital computer.

The first commercially successful glass bottle blowing machine was an automatic model introduced in 1905.[14] The machine, operated by a two-man crew working 12-hour shifts, could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made by a crew of six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was 10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and helpers.

Sectional electric drives were developed using control theory. Sectional electric drives are used on different sections of a machine where a precise differential must be maintained between the sections. In steel rolling, the metal elongates as it passes through pairs of rollers, which must run at successively faster speeds. In paper making the paper sheet shrinks as it passes around steam heated drying arranged in groups, which must run at successively slower speeds. The first application of a sectional electric drive was on a paper machine in 1919.[15] One of the most important developments in the steel industry during the 20th century was continuous wide strip rolling, developed by Armco in 1928.[16]

Before automation many chemicals were made in batches. In 1930, with the widespread use of instruments and the emerging use of controllers, the founder of Dow Chemical Co. was advocating continuous production.[17]

Self-acting machine tools that displaced hand dexterity so they could be operated by boys and unskilled laborers were developed by James Nasmyth in the 1840s.[18]Machine tools were automated with Numerical control (NC) using punched paper tape in the 1950s. This soon evolved into computerized numerical control (CNC).

Today extensive automation is practiced in practically every type of manufacturing and assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper mills, automobile and truck assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and manufacture of various kinds of parts. Robots are especially useful in hazardous applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and automatic welders are used in applications like pipelines.

The main advantages of automation are:

The following methods are often employed to improve productivity, quality, or robustness.

The main disadvantages of automation are:

In manufacturing, the purpose of automation has shifted to issues broader than productivity, cost, and time.

Lights out manufacturing is when a production system is 100% or near to 100% automated (not hiring any workers). In order to eliminate the need for labor costs all together.

Another major shift in automation is the increased demand for flexibility and convertibility in manufacturing processes. Manufacturers are increasingly demanding the ability to easily switch from manufacturing Product A to manufacturing Product B without having to completely rebuild the production lines. Flexibility and distributed processes have led to the introduction of Automated Guided Vehicles with Natural Features Navigation.

Digital electronics helped too. Former analogue-based instrumentation was replaced by digital equivalents which can be more accurate and flexible, and offer greater scope for more sophisticated configuration, parametrization and operation. This was accompanied by the fieldbus revolution which provided a networked (i.e. a single cable) means of communicating between control systems and field level instrumentation, eliminating hard-wiring.

Discrete manufacturing plants adopted these technologies fast. The more conservative process industries with their longer plant life cycles have been slower to adopt and analogue-based measurement and control still dominates. The growing use of Industrial Ethernet on the factory floor is pushing these trends still further, enabling manufacturing plants to be integrated more tightly within the enterprise, via the internet if necessary. Global competition has also increased demand for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems.

Engineers can now have numerical control over automated devices. The result has been a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. Computer-aided technologies (or CAx) now serve as the basis for mathematical and organizational tools used to create complex systems. Notable examples of CAx include Computer-aided design (CAD software) and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM software). The improved design, analysis, and manufacture of products enabled by CAx has been beneficial for industry.[20]

Information technology, together with industrial machinery and processes, can assist in the design, implementation, and monitoring of control systems. One example of an industrial control system is a programmable logic controller (PLC). PLCs are specialized hardened computers which are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events.[21]

Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI), formerly known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other computers. Service personnel who monitor and control through HMIs can be called by different names. In industrial process and manufacturing environments, they are called operators or something similar. In boiler houses and central utilities departments they are called stationary engineers.[22]

Different types of automation tools exist:

When it comes to Factory Automation, Host Simulation Software (HSS) is a commonly used testing tool that is used to test the equipment software. HSS is used to test equipment performance with respect to Factory Automation standards (timeouts, response time, processing time).[23]

Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language comprehension, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems (but see Watson (computer)). Tasks requiring subjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible. Overcoming these obstacles is a theorized path to post-scarcity economics.

The Paradox of Automation says that the more efficient the automated system, the more crucial the human contribution of the operators. Humans are less involved, but their involvement becomes more critical.

If an automated system has an error, it will multiply that error until its fixed or shut down. This is where human operators come in.[24]

A fatal example of this was Air France Flight 447, where a failure of automation put the pilots into a manual situation they were not prepared for.[25]

Food and drink

The food retail industry has started to apply automation to the ordering process; McDonald’s has introduced touch screen ordering and payment systems in many of its restaurants, reducing the need for as many cashier employees.[26]The University of Texas at Austin has introduced fully automated cafe retail locations.[27] Some Cafes and restaurants have utilized mobile and tablet “apps” to make the ordering process more efficient by customers ordering and paying on their device.[28][spamlink?][29] Some restaurants have automated food delivery to customers tables using a Conveyor belt system. The use of robots is sometimes employed to replace waiting staff.[30]

Stores

Many Supermarkets and even smaller stores are rapidly introducing Self checkout systems reducing the need for employing checkout workers.

Online shopping could be considered a form of automated retail as the payment and checkout are through an automated Online transaction processing system. Other forms of automation can also be an integral part of online shopping, for example the deployment of automated warehouse robotics such as that applied by Amazon using Kiva Systems.

Involves the removal of human labor from the mining process.[31] The mining industry is currently in the transition towards Automation. Currently it can still require a large amount of human capital, particularly in the third world where labor costs are low so there is less incentive for increasing efficiency through automation.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the research and development of automated visual surveillance and monitoring (VSAM) program, between 1997 and 1999, and airborne video surveillance (AVS) programs, from 1998 to 2002. Currently, there is a major effort underway in the vision community to develop a fully automated tracking surveillance system. Automated video surveillance monitors people and vehicles in real time within a busy environment. Existing automated surveillance systems are based on the environment they are primarily designed to observe, i.e., indoor, outdoor or airborne, the amount of sensors that the automated system can handle and the mobility of sensor, i.e., stationary camera vs. mobile camera. The purpose of a surveillance system is to record properties and trajectories of objects in a given area, generate warnings or notify designated authority in case of occurrence of particular events.[32]

As demands for safety and mobility have grown and technological possibilities have multiplied, interest in automation has grown. Seeking to accelerate the development and introduction of fully automated vehicles and highways, the United States Congress authorized more than $650 million over six years for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and demonstration projects in the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). Congress legislated in ISTEA that “the Secretary of Transportation shall develop an automated highway and vehicle prototype from which future fully automated intelligent vehicle-highway systems can be developed. Such development shall include research in human factors to ensure the success of the man-machine relationship. The goal of this program is to have the first fully automated highway roadway or an automated test track in operation by 1997. This system shall accommodate installation of equipment in new and existing motor vehicles.” [ISTEA 1991, part B, Section 6054(b)].

Full automation commonly defined as requiring no control or very limited control by the driver; such automation would be accomplished through a combination of sensor, computer, and communications systems in vehicles and along the roadway. Fully automated driving would, in theory, allow closer vehicle spacing and higher speeds, which could enhance traffic capacity in places where additional road building is physically impossible, politically unacceptable, or prohibitively expensive. Automated controls also might enhance road safety by reducing the opportunity for driver error, which causes a large share of motor vehicle crashes. Other potential benefits include improved air quality (as a result of more-efficient traffic flows), increased fuel economy, and spin-off technologies generated during research and development related to automated highway systems.[33]

Automated waste collection trucks prevent the need for as many workers as well as easing the level of labor required to provide the service.[34]

Home automation (also called domotics) designates an emerging practice of increased automation of household appliances and features in residential dwellings, particularly through electronic means that allow for things impracticable, overly expensive or simply not possible in recent past decades.

Industrial automation deals primarily with the automation of manufacturing, quality control and material handling processes. General purpose controllers for industrial processes include Programmable logic controllers, stand-alone I/O modules, and computers. Industrial automation is to replace the decision making of humans and manual command-response activities with the use of mechanized equipment and logical programming commands. One trend is increased use of Machine vision to provide automatic inspection and robot guidance functions, another is a continuing increase in the use of robots. Industrial automation is simply done at the industrial level.

Energy efficiency in industrial processes has become a higher priority. Semiconductor companies like Infineon Technologies are offering 8-bit micro-controller applications for example found in motor controls, general purpose pumps, fans, and ebikes to reduce energy consumption and thus increase efficiency.

Industrial robotics is a sub-branch in the industrial automation that aids in various manufacturing processes. Such manufacturing processes include; machining, welding, painting, assembling and material handling to name a few.[37] Industrial robots utilizes various mechanical, electrical as well as software systems to allow for high precision, accuracy and speed that far exceeds any human performance. The birth of industrial robot came shortly after World War II as United States saw the need for a quicker way to produce industrial and consumer goods.[38] Servos, digital logic and solid state electronics allowed engineers to build better and faster systems and overtime these systems were improved and revised to the point where a single robot is capable of running 24 hours a day with little or no maintenance.

Industrial automation incorporates programmable logic controllers in the manufacturing process. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) use a processing system which allows for variation of controls of inputs and outputs using simple programming. PLCs make use of programmable memory, storing instructions and functions like logic, sequencing, timing, counting, etc. Using a logic based language, a PLC can receive a variety of inputs and return a variety of logical outputs, the input devices being sensors and output devices being motors, valves, etc. PLCs are similar to computers, however, while computers are optimized for calculations, PLCs are optimized for control task and use in industrial environments. They are built so that only basic logic-based programming knowledge is needed and to handle vibrations, high temperatures, humidity and noise. The greatest advantage PLCs offer is their flexibility. With the same basic controllers, a PLC can operate a range of different control systems. PLCs make it unnecessary to rewire a system to change the control system. This flexibility leads to a cost-effective system for complex and varied control systems.[39]

Agent-assisted automation refers to automation used by call center agents to handle customer inquiries. There are two basic types: desktop automation and automated voice solutions. Desktop automation refers to software programming that makes it easier for the call center agent to work across multiple desktop tools. The automation would take the information entered into one tool and populate it across the others so it did not have to be entered more than once, for example. Automated voice solutions allow the agents to remain on the line while disclosures and other important information is provided to customers in the form of pre-recorded audio files. Specialized applications of these automated voice solutions enable the agents to process credit cards without ever seeing or hearing the credit card numbers or CVV codes[40]

The key benefit of agent-assisted automation is compliance and error-proofing. Agents are sometimes not fully trained or they forget or ignore key steps in the process. The use of automation ensures that what is supposed to happen on the call actually does, every time.

Research by the Oxford Martin School showed that employees engaged in “tasks following well-defined procedures that can easily be performed by sophisticated algorithms” are at risk of displacement. The study, published in 2013, shows that automation can affect both skilled and unskilled work and both high and low-paying occupations; however, low-paid physical occupations are most at risk.[41] However, according to a study published in McKinsey Quarterly[42] in 2015 the impact of computerization in most cases is not replacement of employees but automation of portions of the tasks they perform.[43]

Based on a formula by Gilles Saint-Paul, an economist at Toulouse 1 University, the demand for unskilled human capital declines at a slower rate than the demand for skilled human capital increases.[44] In the long run and for society as a whole it has led to cheaper products, lower average work hours, and new industries forming (I.e, robotics industries, computer industries, design industries). These new industries provide many high salary skill based jobs to the economy.

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The Vindicator: The oldest continuously printing news source …

Posted: February 7, 2016 at 1:41 am

Senator Robert Nichols Senate District 3 http://www.senate.state.tx.us 512-463-0103 First elected to the Texas Senate in 2006, Robert Nichols represents 19 counties including the greater part of East Texas and Montgomery County. In the Texas Senate, Nichols serves as Chairman for the Transportation Committee. He also serves on the Senate Finance, Natural Resources and Economic Development, and Intergovernmental Relations Committees. He is a member of the Legislative Audit Committee and a former Vice Chairman of the Sunset Advisory Committee. During his five sessions as a state senator, Nichols authored and passed legislation to protect landowners rights, increase educational opportunities in East Texas and reform transportation policies. He has worked to reduce Medicaid fraud, and promote free-market principles. During his time with the Sunset Advisory Committee, he was able to help eliminate six state agencies which saved the tax payers $161.9 million. He has been named a Champion for Children by the Equity Center, a Courageous Conservative by the Texas Conservative Coalition, a Friend of County Government by the Texas Association of Counties and a Champion of Free Enterprise by the Texas Association of Business. Before running for Senate, Nichols served as transportation commissioner for eight years where he established a reputation for increasing efficiency without compromising quality. Nichols is a businessman from Jacksonville, Texas. In his hometown he served on city council, was elected mayor, built four successful manufacturing facilities, earned 32 U.S. patents, 128 foreign patents and created more than 900 jobs for East Texas families. Working his way through college by selling fireworks and ironing clothes for other students, Nichols earned a bachelors degree from Lamar University in 1968. He married his high school sweetheart, Donna, and they are the proud parents of three children: Brittney, Joshua and Collynnrae. Nichols is a member of First United Methodist Church in Jacksonville. Senator Robert Nichols was introduced by Rotary Club of Liberty Sergeant at Arms Charles Grabein Tues., Nov. 3, 2015 at Liberty Center.

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The Vindicator: The oldest continuously printing news source …

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Eugenics and pandemics | AGAINST THE GLOBALIST POPULATION …

Posted: December 20, 2015 at 10:44 pm

I have been working on my submission to the state prosecutor here in Larisa for the past few days. And driving my Greek translator crazy by my frequent changes. But the effort is paying off, I think. The key evidencethat Greeces Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and Billionaire George Soros both have direct knowledge of my blog, and evencopy from my blog (spelling mistakes and all!), now appears in aclearer order and is laid out in a better visual way. Its the best I can do, anyway,given my lack of skills with the Paint programme. What do you think?

TSIPRAS SOROS EVID

The evidence that Tsipras and Soros read my blog and copy from my blog reinforces the notion that they believemy blogis credible, factual and accurate. By extension, it is reasonable to say they believe my accusations against them are credible, factual and accurate. And that they believeothers also findthese credible. At any rate, with such illustrious readers as Soros and Tsipras, I can no longer be dismissed as a conspiracy theorist.

As for the progress of my case, the police in Ajia questioned two key witnesses at the beginning of November. The file is now back in Larisa. Due to the Christmas breakI will not be able to view it until the New Year, indeed from 10th January onwards. Painful experience in Austria has taught me this is the stage where key evidence disappears from the file or the file disappears altogether. This time, I am going to watch overthe filelike a hawk. Its time for somejustice!

It seems, the state prosecutor should take about amonth to determine whether the case goes to trial. If, given the overwhelming evidence of a crime, he or she does not decide to let it go to trial, I will take legal action because it will be a clear case of corruption.

The whole process may, however,be delayed if Tsipras calls yet another election in the New Year as he and banksters like Soros bring Greece evercloser to total financial and social collapse. After all, strong evidence thatTsipras is one of my readers implicates him directlyin the attempt to silence me in April 2015, and gives him a motive to suppress the case by various means.

Anyway, this is the latest, and hopefully, the final draft of my submission on the involvement of Tsipras and Soros. Information concerning individuals who have been stalked and harassed by Theodekti Vallianatou is omitted for the sake of privacy. It is staggering that the Bishop of Volos and Archbishop of Athens have held their protective hand over Theodekti Vallianatou. But then again, the Archbishop of Athens has had numerous meeting with Tsipras and seems to have good relations with him. Tsiprasabandoned plans for more church taxes.

Most of the rest of the information in this reportis already in the public domain.

SUMMARY

You dont write on your blog what everyone else does. Ive called the police. They are coming to confine you.

These were the words of Theodekti Vallianatou after I escaped from an attempt to lock me in an office. It happened just as I was about to leave a monastery in Anatoli, Greece, in April 2015. I thought my end had come.

Meanwhile, new facts in my case, which emerged in September and in October, establish that both Greeces Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and Billionaire George Soros have direct and personal knowledge of my blog, birdflu666. That underlines that even if I do not write what anyone else does as Theodekti Vallianatou, my blog is, nevertheless, factual, accurate and credible. Powerful people like Soros and Tsipras do not waste time on reading the blogs of minor conspiracy theorists.

In this report, I will demonstrate Soros and Tsipras had

* knowledge of my blog as proved (Section A.I ) by the reproduction by Alexis Tsipras in his Greek language tweets of a rare spelling mistake I make in my blog post reporting on Tsipras meeting with Austrian Chancellor Werner Fay(n)mann and as proved (Section A.II) by a linguistic analysis of a text written by George Soros.

* a motive for silencing me for disclosing information about their wrongful activities in relation to finance, epidemics and vaccines which pose a significant danger to the public health (Section B).

Proof that Soros and Tsipras not only read my blog, but copy my blog, even a spelling mistake, underlines that they consider the information on my blog to be credible. By extension, they also consider my accusations against them both as credible. Threatened by the exposure of their wrongdoing on my blog, I allege they looked for ways to silence me.

* a means to do it in the form of networks in Greece, which could improperly influence Theodekti Vallianatou, particularly her brother Grigories Vallianatos, by offering financial or other benefits (Section C).

Vallianatos is a graduate of the London School of Economics as is George Soros and Soros close associate former Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou. Vallianatos is also a long timer former advisor of Papandreou.

* an opportunity in the form of the isolated location of the monastery under the control of Theodekti Vallianatou, the sister of Grigoris Valliantos, as the Abbess of St John the Forerunner monastery, Anatoli, in Greece (Section D).

Ordering native English speaker and Oxford graduate Theoktisti to leave the office (Theoktisti would have testified that my blog met the criteria of investigative journalism), Theodekti tried to use a special law that allows a person to be forcibly confined for one month on the basis of the testimony of only two people. Her plan was to lock me into the office and have me escorted by police and pyschiatric nurses straight from there to a waiting ambulance. I would have been taken to a pyschiatric unit within a collapsing country, whose medical institutions are rife with corruption, an easy picking for any international medical mafia flush with cash to offer bribes, kickbacks and other inducements to staff entrusted with treatign me.

Only after one month of forced medication does Greek law requires that the victim is presented to a judge to assess their state. My lawyer is of the view I would never have come out alive. Indeed, it is likely that forced medication would have made me so incoherent that any judge would have ordered me to continued to be detained. Even if I had been discharged, something which likely would have happened only after forced medication, I would have been left on the streets of Greece with no money, no ID, no phone and no language. Either way my fate would have been sealed.

Theodekti Vallianatou could reasonably have expected that her actions would have set in motion a chain of events that would have resulted in my death. That is why her actions can be called a murder attempt. Her use of physical violence as she attempted to lock me into her office and on other occasions that day and the next underlines the malevolence of her motivation.

I was a victim of the trend of using pyschiatry to silence whistleblowers. Four tax inspectors in Hessen, Germany, have been awarded compensation after they were classified as paranoid and suspended from their jobs and an investigation into a CDU party donation scandal.

http://www.welt.de/debatte/kolumnen/deutsch-sued-west/article149957266/Hessen-schickt-seine-Steuerfahnder-zum-Psychiater.html

A government official who warned about the deficiences in the G36 gun had to take legal action to avoid being sent to a pyschiatrist and declared mad by his employer, the German army.

http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/artic
le141784634/Bundeswehr-soll-Waffenexperten-drangsaliert-haben.html

And in April, 2015, just as the snow was beginning to thaw on top of the mountain where the monastery, it was my turn. Yet again.

I was an investigative journalist performing a public watchdog function and about to disappear under the pretext of being mentally ill. There would have been no immediate dead body to have to explain away. Yes, there is even a possibility that the readers of this blog would not have noticed I was no longer writing it. My blog has been hacked before. It could have been continued by an unseen hand, albeit without the punch or even coherence of my usual posts to discredit me in a new, more subtle way. That is a possibility.

You dont speak Greek. No one will believe you. Everyone will believe me. The sisters will say whatever I want them to, Theodekti had said, confident that her plan would work.

Your blog posts show you are mentally ill, she continued, mocking me.

Fast forward eight months later and I can present two new separate pieces of evidence proving that both Tsipras and Soros read my blog. These separate proofs emerged within ten days of each other, implying that Tsipras and Soros have a close working relationship when it comes to me.

According to the Wirtschafts Woche, Soros sponsored Alexis Tsipras as early as 2012. I have reported on the links between Soros and Tsipras on my blog as early as January and February 2015.I have accused Tsipras of being a puppet of the banks injuring the Greek people.

The new proof that both Tsipras and Soros have knowledge of my blog also corroborates claims I made in my police report in July that they were the ones who had the motive, networks and opportunity to silence me. I allege, it makes them, in fact, the prime suspects as the ultimate orchestrators in a premedidated, carefully planned attempt to murder me in April, 2015 by Theodekti Vallianatou.

I allege Soros and Tsipras are at the top of the chain of command and Theodekti Vallianatou at the bottom. The brother of Theodekti, Grigoris Vallianatos is a journalist, and a mayoral candidate for Athens, Grigoris Vallianatos is interested in obtaining high political office and is dependent on donations.

http://www.taz.de/!5048278/

In addition, Grigories Vallianatos, Soros and Papandreou as well as Maurice Saatchi are all graduates of the London School of Economics, creating a particularly close network.

On my blog, I have presented evidence that Soros is at the centre of a shadowy network of Billionaires with mulitple links to key scientists and organizations and media at the centre of the engineered Ebola outbreak. The Billionaires call themselves the Good Club and met in New York in 2009. They discussed ways of curbing overpopulation according to the Sunday Times, including infectious diseases.

Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are other members. I note that David Rockefeller has close links to David Petraeus, the head of KKR, a company which benefits from the policies of Tsipras. A sub company of KKR is Singular Logic, which is in control of every aspect of Greeces elections, and apparently with independent few controls.

Presenting their activities as philanthropy, my blog has presented evidence that they were, in fact, violating laws, funding shady scientists and a complex network of media, NGOs and organizations hiding vital information from the publc. Indeed, their enterprise are dangerous to the public and their success depends entirely on their ability to keep their activities out of the public eye.

As a journalist and a blogger, who had credibility because of my accurate reporting of the swine flu scandal of 2009, I allege I represented an obstacle to their plans for mass epidemic vaccination campaigns with risky vaccines.

I have also explained how the creation of money in the hands of private banks and the resultant interest is crushing countries like Greece. As a science journalist who has some knowledge of economics (my father had a doctorate in economics) I was able to connect the global plans for mass vaccination with the financial crisis. Martial law to control a financial collapse due to debt can be declared under the pretext of having to stop an epidemic.

Knowing the legal avenue of defamation was closed to them because my reports were factual, I allege they chose an illegal avenue.

Threatened by my exposure of their wrong doing on a truly vast scale, I suggest they have considering ways and means to silence me for a long while.

I allege that their desire to silence me took on a new urgency after an Open Letter I wrote to the Chair of the health committee of the UK Parliament in February 2015 warning about Lord Maurice Saatchis Medical Innovation Bill seemed to produce a result. I also called for an investigation into the activities of Soros and Bill Gates in relation to the Ebola epidemic.

At the end of my Open Letter in February, I wrote that I lived in fear of my life because of my investigative journalism activities, which exposed the crimes of a powerful elite. Within two months carefully premeditated attempt was to deprive me of my civil liberties without due process and silence me was made.

The evidence I present in this report suggests a plausible chain of events is that Lord Maurice Saatchi contacted fellow LSE graduate George Soros about my role in blocking his legislation. Soros, in turn contacted his friend in Greece, Papandreou, also an LSE graduate. Papandreou, in turn, contacted his friend and long time advisor Grigoris Vallianatos, also an LSE graduate. He rang Theodekti Vallianatou in the monastery, and told her to come to Athens immediately to flesh out the details of a plan they already had to remove me.

At ay rate, the fact is Theodekti Vallianatou made what she called a spontaneous visit to Athens immediately Lord Saatchis Medical Innovation Bill was unexpectedly blocked by the Liberal Democrats in February. There she stayed for six weeks giving her plenty of time to plan my removal in secrecy together with her brother, a lawyer. Although she is an Abbess and although Easter is a special time, and although the second in command, Theoktisti was away much of the time giving a pre scheduled talk in the USA, Theodekti did not return to the monastery until just before Easter Sunday. Shortly afterwards, Theodekti seized her first and also, as she thought, her last opportunity. She put into effect a coldly, premeditated plan to deprive me of my civil liberties without due process and silence me.

She was thwarted when the local police realized the law was being abused and refused to come, something Theodekti Vallianatou had not reckoned with.

Since then, Theodekti Vallianatou has made every effort to cover up her crime. She actively seeks out information about where I am in Larissa and seizes opportunities to harrass, intimidate and threaten people around me. I note that the Bishop of Volos has held his protective hand over her and empowered her to engage in stalking and harassment against me and another person in Germany involved in a civil defamation case with Theodekti.

A. I) PROOF OF KNOWLEDGE OF MY BLOG ALEXIS TSIPRAS

i. Evidence

Documents

1) A screenshot of tweet by Alexis Tsipras with the incorrect spelling Faynmann from October 6th 2015.

2) A screenshot of tweet Alexis Tsipras sent with the correct spelling of Faymann on 9th February 2015.

3) A screenshot of Google search page of the date of my report with the incorrect spelling Faynmann from
9th February 2015.

4) A screenshot of my report on the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Vienna on 9th February, 2015.

5) A screenshot of my cartoon on the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Lesbos in October 2015.

6) A screenshot of Google search page of Werner Faynmann showing only 620 results for the incorrect spelling Faynmann in in an English and or German language language Google.

7) A screenshot of Google search page of Werner Faymann showing 482,000 results for the correct spelling Faymann in an English and or German language Google.

8) A screenshot of Greek language Google search page of Werner Faynmann showing 11,800 results for the incorrect spelling Faynmann in Greek letters.

9) A screenshot of Greek language Google search page of Werner Faymann showing 89,000 results for the correct spelling Faymann in Greek letters.

10) A screenshot of Alexis Tsipras Greek language twitter account.

11) A screenshot of the Google search date of publication 10th February 2015 of my report on the funding of Tsipras by Soros.

12) A screenshot of the beginning of my report on the funding of Tsipras by Soros.

13) A screenshot of my report on the choice of the bank Lazard by Tsipras and of the Google search date of publication 29th January 2015.

14) A screenshot of the beginning of above report.

15) A report on the links between Tsipras, Yannis Vaourfakis and Soros I published on 30th January 2015.

ii. Discussion

The proof that Alexis Tsipras has knowledge of my blog comes in the form of tweets that Tsipras sent on 6th October, 2015, reproducing in the Greek language exactly the same spelling mistake of the surname of Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann that I also made on my blog posts in the English language reporting on 9th February 2015 on their meeting in Vienna. [1]

Tsipras writes Faynmann in Greek letters. That is, he adds an extra n in Greek language tweets he sent during his visit with Faymann to the island of Lesbos. [1]

In a cartoon, I drew attention to the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann on Lesbos. The cartoon illustrates Tsipras and Faymann discussing an orchestrated cholera or Ebola outbreak in Greece. [5]

The Tsipras character jokes that any such plans will be published all over my blog, and notes that even Soros reads it as a textual analysis in the next part of the report will demonstrate.

Tsipras started to add the extra n in his tweets in Greek after his personal meeting with Faymann in Vienna on 9th February 2015.

http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/4658551/Tsipras-bei-Faymann_Konnte-einen-neuen-Freund-gewinnen

In his first tweet in the Greek language on arriving in Vienna, and apparently before his personal meeting of Faymann, Tsipras spelled Faymanns name correctly, that is, he did not add an n in his tweet. [2]

The fact that Tsipras spelled Faymann in Greek letters correctly in his first tweet raises the question of how he came to introduce a spelling mistake and exactly the same one I make.

S

ince Tsipras first spelled Faymann correctly, it means that any Google searches he may have made would have used the correct spelling Faymann in Roman or Greek letters. Where exactly did Tsipras get the idea that the correct spelling was, in fact, Faynmann? I believe the most plausible explanation is that Tsipras read my post about the meeting between him and Faymann in February, saw my incorrect spelling in Roman letters and reproduced it exactly using Greek letters.

I misspelled Faymann by adding an extra n, in my report about the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Vienna on 9th February, 2015. [3] [4]

http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/4658551/Tsipras-bei-Faymann_Konnte-einen-neuen-Freund-gewinnen

I corrected the spelling mistake on my blog. For the purposes of this case I put back the original spelling mistake, which can also be seen on the Google search page showing the date of my report.

My misspelling is very rate. There are only 620 cases of Faymann mispelled as Faynmann on non Greek language Google search engines as of 15th December 2015. [6]

This compares to 482,000 correct spellings of Faymann. [7]

In Greek letters, the incorrect spelling Faynmann appears in 11, 800 Google searches. [8]

Werner Faymann is spelled correctly in 89,000 Google searches in Greek letters. [9]

Tsipras has 325 000 followers on Twitter as of today, about two months after his visit to Lesbos. [10]

The most likely explanation for the unusually large number of cases of the misspelling of Faynmann in the Greek speaking world is, therefore, that Greek speakers reproduced Tsipras spelling mistake after reading it on his twitter account.

Searching in the Greek language Google with Werner Faynmann in quotation marks in Roman letters produces results similar to 620 in the German and English language. But a search in Greek language Google with Werner Faynmann without quotation marks and in Roman letters produced about 480,000 results. It is not clear why so many cases of Faynmann appear in the Greek language Google when there are so few cases in the non Greek language Google. It is not clear what factor has skewered the result. However, the fact is established tha Tsipras spelled Faymann correctly in his first ever tweet in February 2015 in Greek letters. It can, therefore, be ruled out that he picked up the spelling by doing a Google search with Faynmann in Roman letters.

The date when Tsipras picked up the spelling mistake establishes the basis for believing that Tsipras may have became familiar with my blog in February 2015 through Faymann, althougth it is also possible he became familiar with it through George Soros himself given the evidence that Soros reads my blog.

More plausible I believe, is that Tsipras read my blog post on his meeting between him and Faymann on 9th February 2015, saw my wrong spelling of Faynmann and reproduced it. The date of the first correct spelling forms the basis of believing that Faymann himself showed Tsipras my blog. In the light of subsequent events, I believe Faymann suggested to Tsipras the need to remove me as well as the use of the method.

I note the same method as Theodekti Vallianatou used was used by Austrian government officials, including Professor Lukas Kenner, a member of the government bioethics committee. Kenner twice twice attempted to deprive me of my civil liberty without due process when I was performing a public watchdog function on the internet as a journalist. He offered inducements to a pyschiatrist Dr Verena Strausz to confine me illegally. She twice refused, recognizing it was illegal.

I reported alleged links between Tsipras and Soros in my blog posts on 29th January 2014. [11]

I argued that Tsipras and Yannis Varoufakis were working for the banks and were injuring the interests of the Greek people. I said they performed a function of a puppet or controlled opposition in my blog posts in January and February 2015. [12] [13] [14] [15]

According to the Wirtschafts Woche, Soros sponsored Alexis Tsipras as early as 2012.

http://www.wiwo.de/politik/europa/portraet-rettungsplaene-fuer-den-euro/7751122-4.html

With respect to these searches, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that Google uses server location as one of the factors determining the location and targeting of the site. Google also uses Page Rank algorithms to rank sites based on each sit
es so called truth factor score. After I published evidence on my blog that Tsipras reads my blog, the search results I obtained for Werner Faynmann were significantly different depending on whether I used a wifi connection in a familiar location (hacked?) or an Wifi connection in an unfamiliar one. Using familiar and possibly hacked wifi connections, the results for the wrong spelling Faynmann were suddenly much higher at about 1,700 compared to 620 in may be be a bid to skew the evidence by filtering results.

A. II) PROOF OF KNOWLEDGE OF MY BLOG GEORGE SOROS

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Posted: at 10:44 pm

I have been working on my submission to the state prosecutor here in Larisa for the past few days. And driving my Greek translator crazy by my frequent changes. But the effort is paying off, I think. The key evidencethat Greeces Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and Billionaire George Soros both have direct knowledge of my blog, and evencopy from my blog (spelling mistakes and all!), now appears in aclearer order and is laid out in a better visual way. Its the best I can do, anyway,given my lack of skills with the Paint programme. What do you think?

TSIPRAS SOROS EVID

The evidence that Tsipras and Soros read my blog and copy from my blog reinforces the notion that they believemy blogis credible, factual and accurate. By extension, it is reasonable to say they believe my accusations against them are credible, factual and accurate. And that they believeothers also findthese credible. At any rate, with such illustrious readers as Soros and Tsipras, I can no longer be dismissed as a conspiracy theorist.

As for the progress of my case, the police in Ajia questioned two key witnesses at the beginning of November. The file is now back in Larisa. Due to the Christmas breakI will not be able to view it until the New Year, indeed from 10th January onwards. Painful experience in Austria has taught me this is the stage where key evidence disappears from the file or the file disappears altogether. This time, I am going to watch overthe filelike a hawk. Its time for somejustice!

It seems, the state prosecutor should take about amonth to determine whether the case goes to trial. If, given the overwhelming evidence of a crime, he or she does not decide to let it go to trial, I will take legal action because it will be a clear case of corruption.

The whole process may, however,be delayed if Tsipras calls yet another election in the New Year as he and banksters like Soros bring Greece evercloser to total financial and social collapse. After all, strong evidence thatTsipras is one of my readers implicates him directlyin the attempt to silence me in April 2015, and gives him a motive to suppress the case by various means.

Anyway, this is the latest, and hopefully, the final draft of my submission on the involvement of Tsipras and Soros. Information concerning individuals who have been stalked and harassed by Theodekti Vallianatou is omitted for the sake of privacy. It is staggering that the Bishop of Volos and Archbishop of Athens have held their protective hand over Theodekti Vallianatou. But then again, the Archbishop of Athens has had numerous meeting with Tsipras and seems to have good relations with him. Tsiprasabandoned plans for more church taxes.

Most of the rest of the information in this reportis already in the public domain.

SUMMARY

You dont write on your blog what everyone else does. Ive called the police. They are coming to confine you.

These were the words of Theodekti Vallianatou after I escaped from an attempt to lock me in an office. It happened just as I was about to leave a monastery in Anatoli, Greece, in April 2015. I thought my end had come.

Meanwhile, new facts in my case, which emerged in September and in October, establish that both Greeces Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and Billionaire George Soros have direct and personal knowledge of my blog, birdflu666. That underlines that even if I do not write what anyone else does as Theodekti Vallianatou, my blog is, nevertheless, factual, accurate and credible. Powerful people like Soros and Tsipras do not waste time on reading the blogs of minor conspiracy theorists.

In this report, I will demonstrate Soros and Tsipras had

* knowledge of my blog as proved (Section A.I ) by the reproduction by Alexis Tsipras in his Greek language tweets of a rare spelling mistake I make in my blog post reporting on Tsipras meeting with Austrian Chancellor Werner Fay(n)mann and as proved (Section A.II) by a linguistic analysis of a text written by George Soros.

* a motive for silencing me for disclosing information about their wrongful activities in relation to finance, epidemics and vaccines which pose a significant danger to the public health (Section B).

Proof that Soros and Tsipras not only read my blog, but copy my blog, even a spelling mistake, underlines that they consider the information on my blog to be credible. By extension, they also consider my accusations against them both as credible. Threatened by the exposure of their wrongdoing on my blog, I allege they looked for ways to silence me.

* a means to do it in the form of networks in Greece, which could improperly influence Theodekti Vallianatou, particularly her brother Grigories Vallianatos, by offering financial or other benefits (Section C).

Vallianatos is a graduate of the London School of Economics as is George Soros and Soros close associate former Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou. Vallianatos is also a long timer former advisor of Papandreou.

* an opportunity in the form of the isolated location of the monastery under the control of Theodekti Vallianatou, the sister of Grigoris Valliantos, as the Abbess of St John the Forerunner monastery, Anatoli, in Greece (Section D).

Ordering native English speaker and Oxford graduate Theoktisti to leave the office (Theoktisti would have testified that my blog met the criteria of investigative journalism), Theodekti tried to use a special law that allows a person to be forcibly confined for one month on the basis of the testimony of only two people. Her plan was to lock me into the office and have me escorted by police and pyschiatric nurses straight from there to a waiting ambulance. I would have been taken to a pyschiatric unit within a collapsing country, whose medical institutions are rife with corruption, an easy picking for any international medical mafia flush with cash to offer bribes, kickbacks and other inducements to staff entrusted with treatign me.

Only after one month of forced medication does Greek law requires that the victim is presented to a judge to assess their state. My lawyer is of the view I would never have come out alive. Indeed, it is likely that forced medication would have made me so incoherent that any judge would have ordered me to continued to be detained. Even if I had been discharged, something which likely would have happened only after forced medication, I would have been left on the streets of Greece with no money, no ID, no phone and no language. Either way my fate would have been sealed.

Theodekti Vallianatou could reasonably have expected that her actions would have set in motion a chain of events that would have resulted in my death. That is why her actions can be called a murder attempt. Her use of physical violence as she attempted to lock me into her office and on other occasions that day and the next underlines the malevolence of her motivation.

I was a victim of the trend of using pyschiatry to silence whistleblowers. Four tax inspectors in Hessen, Germany, have been awarded compensation after they were classified as paranoid and suspended from their jobs and an investigation into a CDU party donation scandal.

http://www.welt.de/debatte/kolumnen/deutsch-sued-west/article149957266/Hessen-schickt-seine-Steuerfahnder-zum-Psychiater.html

A government official who warned about the deficiences in the G36 gun had to take legal action to avoid being sent to a pyschiatrist and declared mad by his employer, the German army.

http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article141784634/Bundeswehr-soll-Waffenexperten-drangsaliert-haben.html

And in April, 2015, just as the snow was beginning to thaw on top of the mountain where the monastery, it was my turn. Yet again.

I was an investigative journalist performing a public watchdog function and about to disappear under the pretext of being mentally ill. There would have been no immediate dead body to have to explain away. Yes, there is even a possibility that the readers of this blog would not have noticed I was no longer writing it. My blog has been hacked before. It could have been continued by an unseen hand, albeit without the punch or even coherence of my usual posts to discredit me in a new, more subtle way. That is a possibility.

You dont speak Greek. No one will believe you. Everyone will believe me. The sisters will say whatever I want them to, Theodekti had said, confident that her plan would work.

Your blog posts show you are mentally ill, she continued, mocking me.

Fast forward eight months later and I can present two new separate pieces of evidence proving that both Tsipras and Soros read my blog. These separate proofs emerged within ten days of each other, implying that Tsipras and Soros have a close working relationship when it comes to me.

According to the Wirtschafts Woche, Soros sponsored Alexis Tsipras as early as 2012. I have reported on the links between Soros and Tsipras on my blog as early as January and February 2015.I have accused Tsipras of being a puppet of the banks injuring the Greek people.

The new proof that both Tsipras and Soros have knowledge of my blog also corroborates claims I made in my police report in July that they were the ones who had the motive, networks and opportunity to silence me. I allege, it makes them, in fact, the prime suspects as the ultimate orchestrators in a premedidated, carefully planned attempt to murder me in April, 2015 by Theodekti Vallianatou.

I allege Soros and Tsipras are at the top of the chain of command and Theodekti Vallianatou at the bottom. The brother of Theodekti, Grigoris Vallianatos is a journalist, and a mayoral candidate for Athens, Grigoris Vallianatos is interested in obtaining high political office and is dependent on donations.

http://www.taz.de/!5048278/

In addition, Grigories Vallianatos, Soros and Papandreou as well as Maurice Saatchi are all graduates of the London School of Economics, creating a particularly close network.

On my blog, I have presented evidence that Soros is at the centre of a shadowy network of Billionaires with mulitple links to key scientists and organizations and media at the centre of the engineered Ebola outbreak. The Billionaires call themselves the Good Club and met in New York in 2009. They discussed ways of curbing overpopulation according to the Sunday Times, including infectious diseases.

Bill Gates and David Rockefeller are other members. I note that David Rockefeller has close links to David Petraeus, the head of KKR, a company which benefits from the policies of Tsipras. A sub company of KKR is Singular Logic, which is in control of every aspect of Greeces elections, and apparently with independent few controls.

Presenting their activities as philanthropy, my blog has presented evidence that they were, in fact, violating laws, funding shady scientists and a complex network of media, NGOs and organizations hiding vital information from the publc. Indeed, their enterprise are dangerous to the public and their success depends entirely on their ability to keep their activities out of the public eye.

As a journalist and a blogger, who had credibility because of my accurate reporting of the swine flu scandal of 2009, I allege I represented an obstacle to their plans for mass epidemic vaccination campaigns with risky vaccines.

I have also explained how the creation of money in the hands of private banks and the resultant interest is crushing countries like Greece. As a science journalist who has some knowledge of economics (my father had a doctorate in economics) I was able to connect the global plans for mass vaccination with the financial crisis. Martial law to control a financial collapse due to debt can be declared under the pretext of having to stop an epidemic.

Knowing the legal avenue of defamation was closed to them because my reports were factual, I allege they chose an illegal avenue.

Threatened by my exposure of their wrong doing on a truly vast scale, I suggest they have considering ways and means to silence me for a long while.

I allege that their desire to silence me took on a new urgency after an Open Letter I wrote to the Chair of the health committee of the UK Parliament in February 2015 warning about Lord Maurice Saatchis Medical Innovation Bill seemed to produce a result. I also called for an investigation into the activities of Soros and Bill Gates in relation to the Ebola epidemic.

At the end of my Open Letter in February, I wrote that I lived in fear of my life because of my investigative journalism activities, which exposed the crimes of a powerful elite. Within two months carefully premeditated attempt was to deprive me of my civil liberties without due process and silence me was made.

The evidence I present in this report suggests a plausible chain of events is that Lord Maurice Saatchi contacted fellow LSE graduate George Soros about my role in blocking his legislation. Soros, in turn contacted his friend in Greece, Papandreou, also an LSE graduate. Papandreou, in turn, contacted his friend and long time advisor Grigoris Vallianatos, also an LSE graduate. He rang Theodekti Vallianatou in the monastery, and told her to come to Athens immediately to flesh out the details of a plan they already had to remove me.

At ay rate, the fact is Theodekti Vallianatou made what she called a spontaneous visit to Athens immediately Lord Saatchis Medical Innovation Bill was unexpectedly blocked by the Liberal Democrats in February. There she stayed for six weeks giving her plenty of time to plan my removal in secrecy together with her brother, a lawyer. Although she is an Abbess and although Easter is a special time, and although the second in command, Theoktisti was away much of the time giving a pre scheduled talk in the USA, Theodekti did not return to the monastery until just before Easter Sunday. Shortly afterwards, Theodekti seized her first and also, as she thought, her last opportunity. She put into effect a coldly, premeditated plan to deprive me of my civil liberties without due process and silence me.

She was thwarted when the local police realized the law was being abused and refused to come, something Theodekti Vallianatou had not reckoned with.

Since then, Theodekti Vallianatou has made every effort to cover up her crime. She actively seeks out information about where I am in Larissa and seizes opportunities to harrass, intimidate and threaten people around me. I note that the Bishop of Volos has held his protective hand over her and empowered her to engage in stalking and harassment against me and another person in Germany involved in a civil defamation case with Theodekti.

A. I) PROOF OF KNOWLEDGE OF MY BLOG ALEXIS TSIPRAS

i. Evidence

Documents

1) A screenshot of tweet by Alexis Tsipras with the incorrect spelling Faynmann from October 6th 2015.

2) A screenshot of tweet Alexis Tsipras sent with the correct spelling of Faymann on 9th February 2015.

3) A screenshot of Google search page of the date of my report with the incorrect spelling Faynmann from 9th February 2015.

4) A screenshot of my report on the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Vienna on 9th February, 2015.

5) A screenshot of my cartoon on the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Lesbos in October 2015.

6) A screenshot of Google search page of Werner Faynmann showing only 620 results for the incorrect spelling Faynmann in in an English and or German language language Google.

7) A screenshot of Google search page of Werner Faymann showing 482,000 results for the correct spelling Faymann in an English and or German language Google.

8) A screenshot of Greek language Google search page of Werner Faynmann showing 11,800 results for the incorrect spelling Faynmann in Greek letters.

9) A screenshot of Greek language Google search page of Werner Faymann showing 89,000 results for the correct spelling Faymann in Greek letters.

10) A screenshot of Alexis Tsipras Greek language twitter account.

11) A screenshot of the Google search date of publication 10th February 2015 of my report on the funding of Tsipras by Soros.

12) A screenshot of the beginning of my report on the funding of Tsipras by Soros.

13) A screenshot of my report on the choice of the bank Lazard by Tsipras and of the Google search date of publication 29th January 2015.

14) A screenshot of the beginning of above report.

15) A report on the links between Tsipras, Yannis Vaourfakis and Soros I published on 30th January 2015.

ii. Discussion

The proof that Alexis Tsipras has knowledge of my blog comes in the form of tweets that Tsipras sent on 6th October, 2015, reproducing in the Greek language exactly the same spelling mistake of the surname of Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann that I also made on my blog posts in the English language reporting on 9th February 2015 on their meeting in Vienna. [1]

Tsipras writes Faynmann in Greek letters. That is, he adds an extra n in Greek language tweets he sent during his visit with Faymann to the island of Lesbos. [1]

In a cartoon, I drew attention to the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann on Lesbos. The cartoon illustrates Tsipras and Faymann discussing an orchestrated cholera or Ebola outbreak in Greece. [5]

The Tsipras character jokes that any such plans will be published all over my blog, and notes that even Soros reads it as a textual analysis in the next part of the report will demonstrate.

Tsipras started to add the extra n in his tweets in Greek after his personal meeting with Faymann in Vienna on 9th February 2015.

http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/4658551/Tsipras-bei-Faymann_Konnte-einen-neuen-Freund-gewinnen

In his first tweet in the Greek language on arriving in Vienna, and apparently before his personal meeting of Faymann, Tsipras spelled Faymanns name correctly, that is, he did not add an n in his tweet. [2]

The fact that Tsipras spelled Faymann in Greek letters correctly in his first tweet raises the question of how he came to introduce a spelling mistake and exactly the same one I make.

S

ince Tsipras first spelled Faymann correctly, it means that any Google searches he may have made would have used the correct spelling Faymann in Roman or Greek letters. Where exactly did Tsipras get the idea that the correct spelling was, in fact, Faynmann? I believe the most plausible explanation is that Tsipras read my post about the meeting between him and Faymann in February, saw my incorrect spelling in Roman letters and reproduced it exactly using Greek letters.

I misspelled Faymann by adding an extra n, in my report about the meeting between Tsipras and Faymann in Vienna on 9th February, 2015. [3] [4]

http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/4658551/Tsipras-bei-Faymann_Konnte-einen-neuen-Freund-gewinnen

I corrected the spelling mistake on my blog. For the purposes of this case I put back the original spelling mistake, which can also be seen on the Google search page showing the date of my report.

My misspelling is very rate. There are only 620 cases of Faymann mispelled as Faynmann on non Greek language Google search engines as of 15th December 2015. [6]

This compares to 482,000 correct spellings of Faymann. [7]

In Greek letters, the incorrect spelling Faynmann appears in 11, 800 Google searches. [8]

Werner Faymann is spelled correctly in 89,000 Google searches in Greek letters. [9]

Tsipras has 325 000 followers on Twitter as of today, about two months after his visit to Lesbos. [10]

The most likely explanation for the unusually large number of cases of the misspelling of Faynmann in the Greek speaking world is, therefore, that Greek speakers reproduced Tsipras spelling mistake after reading it on his twitter account.

Searching in the Greek language Google with Werner Faynmann in quotation marks in Roman letters produces results similar to 620 in the German and English language. But a search in Greek language Google with Werner Faynmann without quotation marks and in Roman letters produced about 480,000 results. It is not clear why so many cases of Faynmann appear in the Greek language Google when there are so few cases in the non Greek language Google. It is not clear what factor has skewered the result. However, the fact is established tha Tsipras spelled Faymann correctly in his first ever tweet in February 2015 in Greek letters. It can, therefore, be ruled out that he picked up the spelling by doing a Google search with Faynmann in Roman letters.

The date when Tsipras picked up the spelling mistake establishes the basis for believing that Tsipras may have became familiar with my blog in February 2015 through Faymann, althougth it is also possible he became familiar with it through George Soros himself given the evidence that Soros reads my blog.

More plausible I believe, is that Tsipras read my blog post on his meeting between him and Faymann on 9th February 2015, saw my wrong spelling of Faynmann and reproduced it. The date of the first correct spelling forms the basis of believing that Faymann himself showed Tsipras my blog. In the light of subsequent events, I believe Faymann suggested to Tsipras the need to remove me as well as the use of the method.

I note the same method as Theodekti Vallianatou used was used by Austrian government officials, including Professor Lukas Kenner, a member of the government bioethics committee. Kenner twice twice attempted to deprive me of my civil liberty without due process when I was performing a public watchdog function on the internet as a journalist. He offered inducements to a pyschiatrist Dr Verena Strausz to confine me illegally. She twice refused, recognizing it was illegal.

I reported alleged links between Tsipras and Soros in my blog posts on 29th January 2014. [11]

I argued that Tsipras and Yannis Varoufakis were working for the banks and were injuring the interests of the Greek people. I said they performed a function of a puppet or controlled opposition in my blog posts in January and February 2015. [12] [13] [14] [15]

According to the Wirtschafts Woche, Soros sponsored Alexis Tsipras as early as 2012.

http://www.wiwo.de/politik/europa/portraet-rettungsplaene-fuer-den-euro/7751122-4.html

With respect to these searches, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that Google uses server location as one of the factors determining the location and targeting of the site. Google also uses Page Rank algorithms to rank sites based on each sites so called truth factor score. After I published evidence on my blog that Tsipras reads my blog, the search results I obtained for Werner Faynmann were significantly different depending on whether I used a wifi connection in a familiar location (hacked?) or an Wifi connection in an unfamiliar one. Using familiar and possibly hacked wifi connections, the results for the wrong spelling Faynmann were suddenly much higher at about 1,700 compared to 620 in may be be a bid to skew the evidence by filtering results.

A. II) PROOF OF KNOWLEDGE OF MY BLOG GEORGE SOROS

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Eugenics and pandemics | AGAINST THE GLOBALIST POPULATION …

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Bitcoin Magazine | Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency News

Posted: October 4, 2015 at 4:43 pm

Dutch National Police Set Sights on Blockchain-Based Cloud Services View more How the Hunt for Satoshi Turned Dorian Nakamotos Life Upside Down: the Inside Story View more Bitcoin Used to Pay Utility and Credit Card Bills in the Philippines and Australia View more Building a Risk Market for the Digital Age Using Bitcoin View more WEF Survey Predicts Bitcoin ‘Tipping Point’ Happening By 2027 View more Australian Startups Close Down as Banks End Support for Bitcoin View more Beyond Bitcoin: How the Blockchain Can Power a New Generation of Enterprise Software View more R3 Blockchain Development Initiative Grows to 22 Banks Worldwide View more The Decentralist Perspective, or Why Bitcoin Might Need Small Blocks View more Everything You Need to Know about the Proposed Changes to the Bitcoin Block Size Cap View more Gavin Andresen on the Block Size: Its Hard to Find a Signal above All the Noise View more Bitcoin XT Big Block Fork Spurs Debate and Controversy View more Transaction Remote Release, a Tor-Inspired Proposed Change to Bitcoin Protocol for Anonymous Transactions View more Vaultoro Seeks to Provide a Store of Value to the Underbanked World Using Gold and Bitcoin View more Bank of America Files Patent Application for Cryptocurrency-Mediated Wire Transfers View more Bitcoin Tracker One ETN Offers Liquidity to European Investors View more NeuCoin Launches a New Digital Currency for Online and Mobile Gaming View more Digital Currency Derivatives Exchanges Prepare for Regulation after CFTC Bitcoin Ruling View more Nine Top Global Banks Pool Resources to Fund R3 to Develop Digital Currency Standards View more UBS to Develop Yet Another Permissioned Blockchain for Banks View more Blythe Masters and Wall Street Opt for Permissioned Non-Bitcoin Blockchains View more Nick Szabo on Permissioned Blockchains and the Block Size View more Bitcoin Derivatives Company LedgerX Appoints Ex-CFTC Commissioner Wetjen to Board View more Bitcoin Hardware Wallet KeepKey Launches and Begins Shipping View more Three Bitcoin Finalists Vie for BBVA Open Talent Competition Honors in Barcelona View more Australian Regulators Investigating Banks for Closing Accounts of Bitcoin Companies View more Bank of England Chief Economist: Blockchain-based Digital Currency Issued by Central Banks Could Replace Cash View more Sig3 Launches an Automated Policy-Based Transaction Cosigner for Multisig Bitcoin Transactions View more BitGo Processes Over $1 Billion in Bitcoin Transactions in Third Quarter View more Storj Network Passes 1 Petabyte Storage Space View more Bitcoin and Gold Exchange Vaultoro Reaches $1 Million in Gold Trading Volume View more

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Genetic engineering – Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki

Posted: September 10, 2015 at 12:42 pm

A portrait of Khan Noonien Singh, a man who was a product of genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, or genetic manipulation was a process in which the DNA of an organism was selectively altered through artificial means. Genetic engineering was often used to produce “custom” organisms, such as for agricultural or medical purposes, as well as to produce biogenic weapons. The most common application of genetic engineering on intelligent beings in the Federation was corrective DNA resequencing for genetic disorders. A far more dubious application of genetic engineering was the genetic enhancement of individuals to produce improved senses, strength, intelligence, etc.

During Earth’s 20th century, efforts to produce “superhumans” resulted in the Eugenics Wars. Genetically engineered individuals such as Khan Noonien Singh attempted to seize power. (TOS: “Space Seed”)

This would lead to the banning of genetic engineering on Earth by the mid-22nd century, even research which could be used to cure critical illnesses. This ban was implemented because of the general fear of creating more tyrants such as Khan. It was also felt that parents would feel compelled to have their children genetically engineered, especially if “enhanced” individuals were allowed to compete in normal society.

Some, including geneticist Arik Soong, argued that it was simply convenient for humanity to denounce the attempts at genetic “improvement” of humanity, that it was inherently evil because of the Eugenics Wars. He argued that the source of the problem, in fact, wasn’t the technology, but humanity’s own inability to use it wisely. Imprisoned for, among other crimes, stealing the embryos of a number of Augment children, Soong wrote long treatises on the subject of genetic augmentations and improvements. His works were routinely taken and placed into storage (although his jailers often told him that his work was vaporized). Captain Jonathan Archer expressed his hope to Soong that research into genetic engineering that could cure life-threatening diseases would someday be resumed. (ENT: “Borderland”, “The Augments”)

Others, however, chose to establish isolated colonies, as became the case with the Genome colony on Moab IV, which was established in 2168. It became a notable and successful example of Human genetic engineering in which every individual was genetically tailored from birth to perform a specific role in society. However, after a five-day visit by the USS Enterprise-D when the ship came to the colony in an effort to save it from an approaching neutron star which, eventually, the craft was able to effectively redirect twenty-three colonists left the colony aboard the craft, possibly causing significant damage to the structure of their society. The reason for the societal split was that those who left the colony had realized their organized, pre-planned world had certain limitations, lacking opportunities to grow that were offered by the Enterprise. (TNG: “The Masterpiece Society”)

By the 24th century, the United Federation of Planets allowed limited use of genetic engineering to correct existing genetically related medical conditions. Persons known to be genetically enhanced, however, were not allowed to serve in Starfleet, and were especially banned from practicing medicine. (TNG: “Genesis”, DS9: “Doctor Bashir, I Presume”)

Nevertheless, some parents attempted to secretly have their children genetically modified. (DS9: “Doctor Bashir, I Presume”) Unfortunately, most of these operations were performed by unqualified physicians, resulting in severe psychological problems in the children due to their enhancements being only partially successful, such as a patient’s senses being enhanced while their ability to process the resulting data remained at a Human norm. (DS9: “Statistical Probabilities”)

In some cases, genetic engineering can be permitted to be performed in utero when dealing with a developing fetus to correct any potential genetic defects that could handicap the child as they grew up. Chakotay’s family history included a defective gene that made those who possessed it prone to hallucinations, the gene afflicting his grandfather in Chakotay’s youth, although the gene was suppressed in Chakotay himself. (VOY: “The Fight”) In 2377, The Doctor performed prenatal genetic modification on Miral Paris to correct a spinal deviation, a congenital defect that tends to run in Klingon families; Miral’s mother had undergone surgery to correct the defect in herself at a young age. (VOY: “Lineage”)

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Cryptocurrency-Stealing Malware Landscape – Dell SecureWorks

Posted: September 7, 2015 at 11:46 am

Introduction

Bitcoin, a digital currency and payment system introduced in 2009, has been subject to an increasing amount of attention from thieves. Although the system itself is protected by strong cryptography, thieves have stolen millions of dollars of bitcoin[i] from victims by exploiting weaknesses in Bitcoin private key storage systems.

Since Bitcoin’s introduction, an increasing number of alternative digital currencies (altcoins) have been created, based on the original Bitcoin client’s source code. Even though none of these altcoins have approached the per-coin value of Bitcoin, some have achieved total market caps measuring in the millions of dollars. As a result, these altcoins have also been targeted for theft.

Mass theft of cryptocurrency is usually accomplished through the hacking of exchanges or marketplaces. These thefts are typically well-publicized, and the total number of stolen coins is known. However, another category of Bitcoin theft targets individual users’ wallets or exchange accounts via malware such as general-purpose remote access trojans (RATs) or specialized cryptocurrency-stealing malware (CCSM). Due to the skyrocketing value of cryptocurrencies since the beginning of 2013 and the relative simplicity of coding malware and tools to steal cryptocurrency, the Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit(TM) (CTU) research team predicts that CCSM will become one of the fastest-growing categories of malware.

CCSM classification project

To understand the scope of this new threat, CTU researchers embarked on a project to obtain and classify as many CCSM samples as possible. Researchers scanned incoming malware streams with YARA rules, searching for samples that refer to known cryptocurrency software wallet filenames and locations. These samples were classified into families based on similarity. As of this publication, there are more than 100 unique families of malware on the Internet with functionality to steal wallet files or to steal cryptocurrency using other means.

Overall trends

Figure 1 shows the increase in the Windows-compatible CCSM over time. This chart tracks only Windows malware because the Windows portable executable format includes a timestamp in the file headers showing exactly when the malware was compiled. Most malware authors do not bother to alter this timestamp post-release, so it a reasonable and reliable indicator of when a particular sample was created. This chart shows the relationships between average monthly Bitcoin price, new family emergence, and overall total number of families. These variables show a correlation between malware emergence and the price (acceptance) of the currency.

Figure 1. The correlation between Bitcoin price, new malware emergence, and total threat of cryptocurrency-stealing malware. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

The trend shown in Figure 1 closely follows the overall price trend of Bitcoin. As Bitcoin has become more valuable, more malware authors are targeting it. The record-breaking highs in Bitcoin value from the end of 2013 into 2014 have been accompanied by record-breaking numbers of new CCSM families.

Popularity of coins in CCSM

All CCSM analyzed by CTU researchers targeted Bitcoin. Figure 2 shows the distribution of CCSM-targeted altcoins between January 2009 and the middle of February, 2014.

Figure 2. The distribution of altcoins targeted by CCSM between January 2009 and mid-February, 2014. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

Figure 3 shows the overall ratio of samples belonging to each malware family. A few malware families seem to be in widespread distribution, while others may have only one or two variants. The “Unclassified” group represents cryptocurrency malware that CTU researchers have not classified as of this publication. The “Miscellaneous” group includes the cryptocurrency malware families the CTU research team has discovered that would not fit into the chart.

Figure 3. The overall ratio of discovered samples belonging to each malware family. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

CCSM categories

Wallet stealer

The most common type of CCSM is the wallet stealer, a category that includes nearly every family of CTU-analyzed CCSM. This type of malware searches for “wallet.dat” or other well-known wallet software key storage locations, either by checking known file locations or by searching all hard drives for matching filenames. Typically, the file is uploaded to a remote FTP, HTTP, or SMTP server where the thief can extract the keys and steal the coins by signing a transaction, transferring the coins to the thief’s Bitcoin/altcoin address.

Most cryptocurrency security guides recommend protecting the wallet with a strong passphrase, preventing the thief from decrypting and using the private keys if the file is stolen. To counter this protection, many of the analyzed wallet-stealer malware families use a keylogger or clipboard monitor to obtain the wallet file’s passphrase and send it to the thief.

Credential stealer

Many wallet-stealer families also steal credentials for various web-based wallets, such as Bitcoin exchanges. Some individuals keep a significant amount of bitcoin or other currency in exchanges to trade on price movements. Malware authors are aware of this activity, and many victims have reported that their exchange wallets were emptied without their authorization. In most cases, it is impossible to know exactly what malware was used in the theft, because a full forensic analysis of the victim’s hard drive is rarely performed.

Many exchanges have implemented two-factor authentication (2FA) using one-time PINs (OTP) to combat unauthorized account logins. However, advanced malware can easily bypass OTP-based 2FA by intercepting the OTP as it is used and creating a second hidden browser window to log the thief into the account from the victim’s computer. Simultaneously, the malware displays a fake “authentication failed” message and blocks the victim’s access to the website while the thief empties the account. CTU researchers have not observed a verified example of this type of attack against cryptocurrency exchanges. However, this technique has been successfully used against online banking sites for several years, and it is only a matter of time before CCSM uses this approach.

Man in the middle

CTU researchers have observed at least one family of CCSM that does not exfiltrate wallet files or private keys. Instead, it acts as a “man in the middle,” altering the recipient address of a transaction before it is signed. The observed sample runs in the background, monitoring the contents of the clipboard. The malware checks new data in the clipboard for a valid Bitcoin address. If the data is a valid address, the malware replaces it with the thief’s Bitcoin address. Victims who do not notice the replacement send the bitcoins to the thief.

RPC automation

Bitcoin and altcoin “reference client” software includes remote procedure call (RPC) functionality, which allows another program to interact with the wallet software. In many cases, a thief with access to this functionality could connect to a running client on a local TCP port and steal the balance of an unencrypted wallet using only two commands (three if the wallet is encrypted and the malware has obtained the passphrase). CTU researchers have not witnessed any CCSM malware taking advantage of this technique as of this publication. It would be difficult to detect this type of theft from a network standpoint, as the transaction would look like any authorized transaction. Another advantage to this technique is that it requires no external command and control (C2) or exfiltration server that can be shut down or blocked.

Detection rates

Across the CCSM samples analyzed by CTU researchers, the average unweighted detection rate across all major antivirus (AV) vendors was 48.9%. Figure 4 lists the major CCSM families classified by the CTU research team and their respective detection rates averaged across all major AV vendors.

Figure 4. Top CCSM families and their detection rate across AV vendors as of February 20, 2014. (Source: Dell SecureWorks)

Wallet protection

Client software choices

When the private keys for a cryptocurrency are stored on a computer connected to the Internet, the potential for theft exists. For Bitcoin there are alternative wallets, such as Armory and Electrum, which can protect against theft-by-malware by using a split arrangement for key storage. One computer, disconnected from any network, runs a copy of the software and holds the private key that can sign transactions. A second computer connected to the Internet holds only a master public key of which addresses belong to the offline wallet. This computer can generate transactions, but it cannot sign them because it does not have the private key. A user wishing to transfer coins generates an unsigned transaction on the online computer, carries the transaction to the offline computer, signs the transaction, and then carries it to the online computer to broadcast the transaction to the Bitcoin network.

Using a split Armory or Electrum wallet can make processing transactions much safer, although the user must still verify the transaction details to ensure malware on the online computer has not altered the transaction before it is signed. Unfortunately, no such clients currently exist for altcoins, although the need for them is recognized and bounties have been offered for their development.

Hardware wallets

Using two computers in a split arrangement where transactions are carried via “sneakernet” is relatively secure, but the logistics are complicated. A much more convenient method would be to use a dedicated hardware device to store the private keys and verify transactions without the possibility of theft. These devices are already in development, with one (the “Trezor” wallet) due to be shipped within the first quarter of 2014.

Transaction integrity verification

Hardware wallets work well for local transactions but not for safely interacting with a remote website on a potentially infected computer. Securely verifying a transaction that has transited a potentially compromised waypoint requires an offline device that can display the details of the transaction before it is processed. Public-key cryptography signs the transaction data on the bank’s server before the data is sent to the user. The offline device can verify the signature of the transaction and determine if any changes occurred in transit. If the transaction shows no tampering, the offline device generates a one-time code that authenticates the transaction. This transaction integrity verification (TIV) should become standard for all financial entities, including institutions and sites that accept cryptocurrencies.

Conclusion

After observing CCSM, CTU researchers drew the following conclusions:

As discussed in Enterprise Best Practices for Cryptocurrency Adoption, wallet security is the most pivotal aspect to keeping funds secure. Implementing the practices outlined in that publication will mitigate most, if not all, of the current threats to cryptocurrency wallets.

Appendix

Table 1 lists the most commonly observed malicious filenames in the CTU research team’s sample set.

Table 1. Common filenames in malware samples.

Endnotes

[i] Bitcoin (capitalized) refers to the protocol, software, and community, while bitcoins (lowercase) are currency units.

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Cryptocurrency-Stealing Malware Landscape – Dell SecureWorks

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