Tag Archives: generated

Modern Survival Manual Surviving the Economic Collapse

Posted: December 4, 2016 at 11:31 pm

This book is based on the authors first hand experience of the 2001 Economic Collapse in Argentina. He offers a broad range of very practical advice for how to prepare yourself and your family for a large-scale emergency or survival situation in an urban environment.

(From Amazon) Fernando FerFAL Aguirre is a father, husband and survivalist that has lived through the Argentine socio-economic collapse of 2001, and the consequences such collapse had in the years that followed. Hes the author of numerous articles found on line and is recognized among the survival and preparedness community for his personal experience and no-nonsense approach to survivalism. Hes also the publisher and owner of Surviving in Argentina, a blog he keeps up with updated articles, posts as well as reports of the situation in Argentina.

The Author covers most aspects of survival in an urban environment starting with basic things such as physical fitness, and moving on to subjects such as vehicle preparation, food and water storage, self defense, weapons, survival kits, currency/gold/silver, and proper survival mindset and awareness. Aguirre has a very practical way of writing and his advice is simple and pragmatic. His experience living through an economic collapse in a first-world country gives him a unique insight into what sorts of problems that the average urban dweller might have to face in an emergency situation.

Aguirres discussion on guns is excellent. He summarizes some of the arguments and counter arguments in the survival world regarding guns, and his conclusions make a lot of practical sense. He believes that the pistol is the primary firearm in a survival situation and that other weapons such as assault rifles, shotguns, sniper rifles, are of secondary importance.

Aguirre also has a great philosophy regarding knives. He carries a large serrated knife clipped to his front pocket, and he views this the most important piece of his first line survival gear. He carries another smaller knife in another pocket for every day tasks, and he prefers to leave the serrated knife unused so as to maintain the razor sharp edge. I thought that this was very smart and practical advice.

I also really enjoyed Aguirres first hand experiences in Buenos Aires during the crisis. He describes many issues that he dealt with on a daily basis such as finding working ATMs, relationships with neighbors, dealing with family and relatives, gold vs. cash, dogs and household pets, and other day to day issues. At the end of the book, his wife writes a list of her top survival recommendations from a womans perspective, which is very enlightening and refreshing.

Not too many. The author is very confident in his opinions which might rub some people the wrong way (For example: Stop debating pros and cons of the various pistols/rounds and just get yourself a Glock 9mm.) However, his real world experience and his well-structured arguments seem to back up his ideas and opinions.

This book is a great read, and I would highly recommend it for anyone who lives in an urban area, especially people with families. The end of 2010 saw record breaking rain and snow on the west coast, and huge snowstorms on the east coast that brought many major cities to a standstill. I walked away from this book with several new ideas of ways that I could better prepare myself and my family, and I have already implemented some of these ideas into my life. The guidance and the advice contained in this book will help you and your loved ones to prepare for these sorts of unforeseen emergencies.

If you wish to buy this book on Amazon (Click Here)

Also read 8 Common Mistakes of Wilderness Survival

Visit Our New Survival Gear Store Forge Survival Supply

Photo credits: economiccollapsesurvival.com James Dunnigan / Bud Wood

Read the original post:

Modern Survival Manual Surviving the Economic Collapse

Posted in Socio-economic Collapse | Comments Off on Modern Survival Manual Surviving the Economic Collapse

Who Wants to Live Forever? – TV Tropes

Posted: at 11:25 pm

Angel: Buffy, be careful with this gift. A lot of things that seem strong, good and powerful, they can be painful. Buffy: Like say… immortality? Angel: Exactly. I’m dying to get rid of that. Buffy the Vampire Slayer Put your hand down. This is not a vote. The worst fate possible might well be immortality. Sure, you might like the idea that you get to live forever and see what the world’s like hundreds of years from now, but what’s eternal life compared to the pain of life in general? From eventual boredom to eternal entrapment and torture to the emotional anguish of seeing your loved ones die, one by one, as you stay fixed in time. When done Anviliciously, this can seem like Sour Grapes on the part of the very much mortal writers. May be used as a Fantastic Aesop. This attitude toward immortality is Older Than Feudalism, going back at least as far as the Greek myths about Tithonos’s Age Without Youth and Prometheus’s punishment and of course the appeal behind He why is your hand still up!? Compare Blessed with Suck for those that angst as well as And I Must Scream for the mindset this can create. Contrast Living Forever Is Awesome for those who like it, and Immortality Seeker for those who seek it, and Eternal Love where immortals fall in love. See Living Forever Is No Big Deal for the middle ground. See also Immortality Hurts, which is a subtrope. Immunity Disability is a supertrope (here, the “immunity” is to death). See Analysis for more horrifying details.

open/close all folders

Asian Animation

Films Animated

Folklore

Manhwa

Music

A thousand years have come and gone, but time has passed me by Stars stopped in the sky Frozen in an everlasting view Waiting for the world to end, weary of the night Praying for the light Prison of the lost Xanadu

And there’s never gonna be enough money And there’s never gonna be drugs And we’re never gonna get old And there’s never gonna be enough bullets And there’s never gonna be sex And we’re never gonna get old

If I’ve lived a thousand times before And if I’m gonna live anymore Always brings me down Everyone wants to live forever Thinkin’ that it’d be a lot better… Everyone wants to live forever But no one ever gets it together

Radiation got me as well made me immortal in this hell An old dream coming true but why now when there is nothing to do? Since then I’ve been searching around going from town to town Could it only have happened to me? Am I doomed to be I’m the last man on earth

Newspaper Comics

Tabletop Games

Radio

Theatre

“Eternity is permanent boredom A cheerless cycle with neither beginning, nor end For all the time the same is repeated from the start No exultation, no horror Only the boring Idiotic Eternity”

Visual Novels

Web Comics

Web Animation

Web Original

Nothing ever really happens to me. I am completely safe from harm, and this is a great burden… I think that one day, this world will simply talk itself to death, and I will be left to flit about in the void. I will be the Faceless Old Woman Who Secretly Lives Nowhere.

Western Animation

Freeze: You want to live like this? Abandoned and alone, A prisoner in a world you can see but never touch. Old and infirm as you are, I’d trade a thousand of my frozen years for your worst day.

Real Life

Originally posted here:

Who Wants to Live Forever? – TV Tropes

Posted in Immortality | Comments Off on Who Wants to Live Forever? – TV Tropes

Bob black the abolition of work and other essays on global …

Posted: at 11:24 pm

window._wpemojiSettings = {“baseUrl”:”https://s.w.org/images/core/emoji/2/72×72/”,”ext”:”.png”,”svgUrl”:”https://s.w.org/images/core/emoji/2/svg/”,”svgExt”:”.svg”,”source”:{“concatemoji”:”http://www.ncsfa.com/wp-includes/js/wp-emoji-release.min.js?ver=4.6.1″}}; !function(a,b,c){function d(a){var c,d,e,f,g,h=b.createElement(“canvas”),i=h.getContext&&h.getContext(“2d”),j=String.fromCharCode;if(!i||!i.fillText)return!1;switch(i.textBaseline=”top”,i.font=”600 32px Arial”,a){case”flag”:return i.fillText(j(55356,56806,55356,56826),0,0),!(h.toDataURL().length

See the article here:

Bob black the abolition of work and other essays on global …

Posted in Abolition Of Work | Comments Off on Bob black the abolition of work and other essays on global …

Therapeutic nihilism – Wikipedia

Posted: at 11:23 pm

Therapeutic nihilism is a contention that curing people, or societies, of their ills by treatment is impossible.

In medicine, it was connected to the idea that many “cures” do more harm than good, and that one should instead encourage the body to heal itself. Michel de Montaigne espoused this view in his Essais in 1580. This position was later popular, among other places, in France in the 1820s and 1830s, but has mostly faded away in the modern era due to the development of provably effective medicines such as antibiotics, starting with the release of sulfonamide in 1936.

In relation to society, therapeutic nihilism was an idea, with origins in early 20th-century Germany, that nothing can be done to cure society of the problems facing it. Its main proponent was the novelist Joseph Conrad, whose writings reflect its tenets.

In politics, therapeutic nihilism is a defining principle of modern conservatism. The so-called “Father of Conservatism” Edmund Burke’s imputation of “unintended consequences” the implicitly inevitable and undesirable results of political engineering, and Peter Viereck’s assertion in “But I’m A Conservative!”,[1] his also-definitive essay in the April 1940 issue of the Atlantic magazine, that socialists are nave to believe that society can be improved, are two prime examples of conservative arguments for therapeutic nihilism.

The phrase therapeutic nihilism is also included in a modern version of the Hippocratic Oath, traditionally taken by physicians upon graduation. The statement is “I will apply for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.”

Originally posted here:

Therapeutic nihilism – Wikipedia

Posted in Nihilism | Comments Off on Therapeutic nihilism – Wikipedia

Ayn Rand – The New York Times

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:36 pm

Ayn Rand’s two most famous novels “The Fountainhead” (1943) and “Atlas Shrugged” (1957) are among the greatest word-of-mouth hits in American publishing. Both were scorned by the critics when they came out, went on to become enormous best-sellers, and to this day sell tens of thousands of copies annually. “Atlas Shrugged,” Rand’s magnum opus, is sometimes said to be the second-most influential book in American thought, next only to the Bible.

The reason for the books’ success probably has less to do with their novelistic merits, or lack of them, than with the way they package in fictional form a philosophy Rand called Objectivism, which in effect turned the Judeo-Christian system on its head. In Rand’s view, selfishness was good and altruism was evil, and the welfare of society was always subordinate to the self-interest of individuals, especially superior ones. In some ways, Objectivism is an extreme form of laissez-faire capitalism, a view that Rand came to naturally.

She was born in Russia in 1905, lived through the Russian Revolution, and by the time she emigrated to America, in 1926, determined to reinvent herself, she wanted no part of anything that resembled a state-run system. She sometimes wore a gold brooch shaped like a dollar sign, and the dollar sign is also the final image in “Atlas Shrugged,” a novel in which liberals and humanitarians are ruinously taking over the world while the intellectual elite, led by the genius industrialist John Galt, hunker down in Colorado.

For a while in the ’60s, Objectivism had almost cult status on some American campuses. Much of the fervor dwindled after Rands death in 1982, but the books continue to be rediscovered and passed from one initiate to another. Among the many people influenced by Rand are Camille Paglia, Hugh Hefner, Alan Greenspan and Angelina Jolie. — Charles McGrath, Sept. 13, 2007.

Go to Home Page

View original post here:

Ayn Rand – The New York Times

Posted in Ayn Rand | Comments Off on Ayn Rand – The New York Times

Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016

Posted: at 12:36 pm

Its not uncommon to hear that free will is an illusion that belief in free will is incompatible with science.

Yet, the existence of free will lies at the heart of every important issue in your life. Understanding precisely what is and is not within the power of your free choice is crucial to your pursuit of knowledge, values, personal relationships and happiness.

Join us November 4 to 6 in Atlanta, GA, at the Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016 (#AynRandCon) for an in-depth exploration of the concept of free will from the perspective of Ayn Rands philosophy of Objectivism. Rand the novelist, philosopher and cultural icon famous for her bestselling novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged developed a new account of free will, one that underpins the distinctive view of good and evil and of heroism that runs through her novels.

Rejecting the false alternative of nature vs. nurture, Rand advanced a radical view of man, which holds that you are a being of self-made soul, capable of exercising fundamental control over your own thinking, actions and character. Far from viewing belief in free will as a superstition incompatible with science, Rand argued that the facts support the existence of free will and that its unscientific as well as disastrous personally and culturally to dismiss free will as illusory.

At #AynRandCon youll hear leading experts on Rands philosophy discuss the nature of free will and its implications for your life and for a range of current controversies, from inequality to free speech to U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Youll hear from practitioners inspired by Rands message to take control of their fates and build the kind of career and life they wanted. Youll meet other students who love Rands novels and are learning how to apply her ideas to their own lives. And youll have the chance to network with speakers, professionals and students.

The conference is brought to you by the Ayn Rand Institute in collaboration with STRIVE (STudents for Reason, Individualism, Value pursuit, and Enterprise) and is made possible by the generous support of the Michael and Andrea Leven Family Foundation, as well as by the support of the Charles Koch Foundation, Ellen and Harris Kenner, Chris J. Rufer, and Loren and Kathy Corle, RELCO LLC.

Thanks to these donors, students are able to attend this conference at little or no cost. All students will receive a scholarship covering their travel, lodging and registration expenses.

Apply to attend by October 10, 2016!

Excerpt from:

Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016

Posted in Ayn Rand | Comments Off on Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016

Let’s Turn Nauru Into Transtopia – blogspot.com

Posted: at 12:33 pm

Here’s an off-the-wall idea that has some appeal to me … as a long-time Transtopian fantasist and world traveler….

The desert island nation of Nauru needs money badly, and has a population of less than 15,000

There are problems with water supply, but they could surely be solved with some technical ingenuity.

The land area is about 8 square miles. But it could be expanded! Surely it’s easier to extend an island with concrete platforms or anchored floating platforms of some other kind, than to seastead in the open ocean.

The country is a democracy. Currently it may not be possible to immigrate there except as a temporary tourist or business visitor. But I’d bet this could be made negotiable.

Suppose 15,000 adult transhumanists (along with some kids, one would assume) decided to emigrate to Nauru en masse over a 5-year period, on condition they could obtain full citizenship. Perhaps this could be negotiated with the Nauruan government.

Then after 5 years we would have a democracy in which transhumanists were the majority.

Isn’t this the easiest way to create a transhumanist nation? With all the amazing future possibilities that that implies?

This would genuinely be of benefit to the residents of Nauru, which now has 90% unemployment. Unemployment would be reduced close to zero, and the economy would be tremendously enlarged. A win-win situation. Transhumanists would get freedom, and Nauruans would get a first-world economy.

Considerable infrastructure would need to be built. A deal would need to be struck with the government, in which, roughly,

To ensure employment of the relocated transhumanists, we would need to get a number of companies to agree to open Nauru offices. But this would likely be tractable, given the preference of firms to have offices in major tech centers. Living expenses in Nauru would be much lower than in, say, Silicon Valley, so expenses would be lower.

Tourism could become a major income stream, given the high density of interesting people which would make Nauru into a cultural mecca. Currently there is only one small beach on Nauru (which is said to be somewhat dirty), but creation of a beautiful artificial beach on the real ocean is not a huge technological feat.

It would also be a great place to experiment with aquaculture and vertical farming.

What say you? Let’s do it!

P.S.

Other candidates for the tropical island Transtopia besides Nauru would be Tuvalu and Kiribati; but Kiribati’s population is much larger, and Tuvalu is spread among many islands, and is also about to become underwater due to global warming. So Nauru would seem the number one option. Though, Tuvalu could be an interesting possibility also, especially if we offered to keep the island above water by building concrete platforms or some such (a big undertaking, but much easier than seasteading). This would obviously be a major selling point to the government.

Continued here:

Let’s Turn Nauru Into Transtopia – blogspot.com

Posted in Transtopian | Comments Off on Let’s Turn Nauru Into Transtopia – blogspot.com

Ascension of Jesus – Wikipedia

Posted: at 12:32 pm

The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God. The well-known narrative in Acts 1 it takes place 40 days after the Resurrection: Jesus, in the company of the disciples, is taken up in their sight after warning them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit; as he ascends a cloud hides him from their view, and two men in white appear to tell them that he will return “in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”

Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying divine approval or the deification of an exceptional man. In the Christian tradition, reflected in the major Christian creeds and confessional statements, the ascension is connected with the exultation of Jesus, meaning that through his ascension Jesus took his seat at the right hand of God: “He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.” The Feast of the Ascension is celebrated on the 40th day of Easter, always a Thursday; the Orthodox tradition has a different calendar up to a month later than in the Western tradition, and while the Anglican communion continues to observe the feast, most Protestant churches have abandoned it. The Ascension of Jesus is an important theme in Christian art, the ascending Jesus often shown blessing an earthly group below him to signify his blessing the entire Church.

The world of the Ascension is a three-part universe with the heavens above, a flat earth centered on Jerusalem in the middle, and the underworld below. Heaven was separated from the earth by the firmament, the visible sky, a solid inverted bowl where God’s throne sat “on the vaulted roof of earth.”(Isaiah 40:22). Humans looking up from earth saw the floor of heaven, made of clear blue lapis-lazuli (Exodus 24:9-10), as was God’s throne (Ezekiel 1:26).

Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying the means whereby a prophet could attain access to divine secrets, or divine approval granted to an exceptionally righteous individual, or the deification of an exceptional man. Figures familiar to Jews would have included Enoch (from the Book of Genesis and a popular non-Biblical work called 1 Enoch), the 5th century sage Ezra, Baruch the companion of the prophet Jeremiah (from a work called 2 Baruch, in which Baruch is promised he will ascend to heaven after 40 days)), Levi the ancestor of priests, the Teacher of Righteousness from the Qumran community, as well as Elijah and Moses, who was deified on entering heaven, and the children of Job, who according to the Testament of Job ascended heaven following their resurrection from the dead. Non-Jewish readers would have been familiar with the case of the emperor Augustus, whose ascent was witnessed by Senators, Romulus the founder of Rome, who, like Jesus, was taken to heaven in a cloud, the Greek hero Heracles (Hercules), and many others.

There is a broad consensus among scholars that the brief Ascension account in the Gospel of Mark is a later addition to the original version of that gospel.Luke-Acts, a single work from the same anonymous author, provides the only detailed account of the Ascension.Luke 24 tells how Jesus leads the eleven disciples to Bethany, a village on the Mount of Olives not far from Jerusalem, where he instructs them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit and blesses them. “And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven. And they worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.”

Acts 1 describes a meal on the Mount of Olives, where Jesus commands the disciples to await the coming of the Holy Spirit, a cloud takes him upward from sight, and two men in white appear to tell them (the disciples) that he will return “in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.” Luke and Acts appear to describe the same event, but present quite different chronologies, Luke placing it on the same day as the Resurrection and Acts forty days afterwards;[20] various proposals have been put forward to resolve the contradiction, but the question remains open.

The Gospel of John has three references to ascension in Jesus’ own words: “No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven, the son of man” (John 3:13); “What if you (the disciples) were to to see the son of man ascending where he was before?” (John 6:62); and to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection, “Do not hold me, for I not yet ascended to my father…” (John20:17). In the first and second Jesus is claiming to be the apocalyptic “one like a son of man” of Daniel 7; the last has mystified commentators what should Mary be prohibited from touching the risen but not yet ascended Christ, while Thomas is later invited to do so?

Various epistles (Romans 8:34, Ephesians 1:19-20, Colossians 3:1, Philippians 2:9-11, 1 Timothy 3:16, and 1 Peter 3:21-22) also refer to an Ascension, seeming, like Luke-Acts and John, to equate it with the post-resurrection “exultation” of Jesus to the right hand of God.

The common thread linking all the New Testament Ascension references, reflected in the major Christian creeds and confessional statements, is the exultation of Jesus, meaning that through his ascension Jesus took his seat at the right hand of God in Heaven: “He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.” It is interpreted more broadly as the culmination of the Mystery of the Incarnation, marking the completion of Jesus’ physical presence among his apostles and consummating the union of God and man, as expressed in the Second Helvetic Confession:

Despite this, the Ascension itself has become an embarrassment. As expressed in a famous statement by theologian Rudolf Bultmann in his essay The New Testament and Mythology: “We no longer believe in the three-storied universe which the creeds take for granted… No one who is old enough to think for himself supposes that God lives in a local heaven … And if this is so, the story of Christ’s … ascension into heaven is done with.” Modern theologians have therefore de-mythologised their theology, abandoning a God who sits enthroned above Jerusalem for a heaven which is “the endless, self-sustaining life of God” and the Ascension “an emblem in space and time of God’s eternal life.”

The Feast of the Ascension is one of the ecumenical (i.e., universally celebrated) feasts of the Christian liturgical year, along with the Passion, Easter, and Pentecost. Ascension Day is traditionally celebrated on the sixth Thursday after Easter Sunday, the fortieth day from Easter day, although some Roman Catholic provinces have moved the observance to the following Sunday to facilitate the obligation to take Mass. Saint Jerome held that it was of Apostolic origin, but in fact the Ascension was originally part of Pentecost (the coming of the Holy Spirit, and developed as a separate celebration only slowly from the late 4th century onward. In the Catholic tradition it begins with a three-day “rogation” to ask for God’s mercy, and the feast itself includes a procession of torches and banners symbolising Christ’s journey to the Mount of Olives and entry into heaven, the extinguishing of the Paschal candle, and an all-night vigil; white is the liturgical colour. The orthodox tradition has a slightly different calendar up to a month later than in the Western tradition; the Anglican communion continues to observe the feast, but most Protestant churches have abandoned the traditional Christian calendar of feasts.

The Ascension has been a frequent subject in Christian art. By the 6th century the iconography of the Ascension had been established and by the 9th century Ascension scenes were being depicted on domes of churches. The Rabbula Gospels (c. 586) include some of the earliest images of the Ascension. Many ascension scenes have two parts, an upper (Heavenly) part and a lower (earthly) part. The ascending Christ may be carrying a resurrection banner or make a sign of benediction with his right hand. The blessing gesture by Christ with his right hand is directed towards the earthly group below him and signifies that he is blessing the entire Church. In the left hand, he may be holding a Gospel or a scroll, signifying teaching and preaching.

The Eastern Orthodox portrayal of the Ascension is a major metaphor for the mystical nature of the Church. In many Eastern icons the Virgin Mary is placed at the center of the scene in the earthly part of the depiction, with her hands raised towards Heaven, often accompanied by various Apostles. The upwards-looking depiction of the earthly group matches the Eastern liturgy on the Feast of the Ascension: “Come, let us rise and turn our eyes and thoughts high…”

The traditional site of the Ascension is Mount Olivet (the “Mount of Olives”, on which the village of Bethany sits. Before the conversion of Constantine in 312 AD, early Christians honored the Ascension of Christ in a cave on the Mount, and by 384 the Ascension was venerated on the present site, uphill from the cave.[33]

Around the year 390 a wealthy Roman woman named Poimenia financed construction of the original church called “Eleona Basilica” (elaion in Greek means “olive garden”, from elaia “olive tree,” and has an oft-mentioned similarity to eleos meaning “mercy”). This church was destroyed by Sassanid Persians in 614. It was subsequently rebuilt, destroyed, and rebuilt again by the Crusaders. This final church was later destroyed by Muslims, leaving only a 12×12 meter octagonal structure (called a martyrium”memorial”or “Edicule”) that remains to this day.[34] The site was ultimately acquired by two emissaries of Saladin in the year 1198 and has remained in the possession of the Islamic Waqf of Jerusalem ever since.

The Chapel of the Ascension today is a Christian and Muslim holy site now believed to mark the place where Jesus ascended into heaven; in the small round church/mosque is a stone imprinted with the footprints of Jesus.[33] The Russian Orthodox Church also maintains a Convent of the Ascension on the top of the Mount of Olives.

See the original post:

Ascension of Jesus – Wikipedia

Posted in Ascension | Comments Off on Ascension of Jesus – Wikipedia

The Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Ice – TMS

Posted: at 12:31 pm

Since icebergs were first proposed as potential aircraft carriers in World War II, research has led to a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of ice. While work remains, especially in relating fracture on the small scale to that on the larger scale and to the appropriate structural features, the groundwork in materials science has been laid. This paper presents an overview of the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice.

Since then ice research has flourished. Nucleation and growth from both vapor and liquid states has been studied and placed within the context of classical thermodynamics and kinetics. The structure of ice and natural ice formations has been examined and then related to the thermal-mechanical history of the material. Electrical properties have been measured and explained in terms of the number density and mobility of protonic charge carriers. Optical and thermal behaviors have been explored. Mechanical behavior has been thoroughly studied, from the flow and fracture of single crystals to the creep of glaciers and the fracturing of Arctic sea-ice covers. Indeed, over the past ten years alone more than 10,000 papers on ice have appeared in the scientific and engineering literature.

Why the interest? Ice, it turns out, is a factor in activities as diverse as skiing and skating, rainmaking, polar marine transportation, and cold ocean oil exploration. It is an element in the degradation of cold concrete and other porous materials. It forms as “icing” on airplanes and electrical transmission lines. Ice is also a factor in global climate, evident perhaps from the facts that the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets cover about 10% of the earth’s land area and sea ice covers about 10% of the ocean surface either seasonally or perennially. In addition, the ice sheets and the air bubbles entrapped therein are the storehouses of the pa-leoclimate record. Ice is also a major constituent of the moons of Jupiter and of other extraterrestrial bodies.

This article reviews the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice. Fuller accounts are given in the literature cited and in the following references: ice physics by Hobbs2 and by Petrenko and Whitworth;3 ice-structure interactions by Sanderson;4 sea ice by Weeks;5 ice mechanics by Michel;6 and plastic flow and fracture in the Johannes Weertman Symposium.7 Curtin8 offers a historical perspective through the eyes of the U.S. Navy, and Levi9 describes the role of ice in the global heat budget. Durham et al.10 discuss the creep of planetary ice.

The relationship to Ic lies in a common tetrahedral arrangement of H2O molecules. Ic, however, has the diamond cubic crystal structure, in which the stacking sequence relative to the {111} plane is . . . AABBCCAABBCC . . . ; its lattice parameter (at -130C) is 0.635 nm.

The hydrogen atoms are arranged randomly11 according to the Bernal-Fowler rules.12 First, two protons must be located near each oxygen. Second, only one proton must lie on each O-O bond. The random arrangement persists at low temperatures, owing to the extraordinarily slow reorientation of the H2O molecule (greater than 100 years at liquid nitrogen temperature), and this leads to a large amount (3.41 J/mol.) of zero-point entropy. Ice does not violate the third law of thermodynamics.

Point Defects

Violations of the Bernal-Fowler rules create ionic and Bjerrum defects.15 If the proton moves along the O-O bond, then the first rule is violated: one proton near an oxygen atom creates an OH- ion; three create an H3O+ ion. If the proton moves around the oxygen atom, then the second rule is violatedno hydrogen atom on an O-O bond creates L-type Bjerrum defects (L stands for leer, which means empty in German); two protons create a D-type Bjerrum defect (D means doublet). Both kinds of defects contribute to electrical conductivity (the migration of ions allows protons to move from one end of a bond to the other), and the movement of Bjerrum defects allows protons to move from one side of an oxygen atom to another. Without the migration of both defects, long-range protonic conduction could not occur.

Despite the fact that water is a universal solvent, the solubility of substances in ice Ih is very low. The solubility of HCl, for instance, is 3 X 10-6 at -10C. Exceptions are HF and NH3. These molecules are assumed to dissolve substitutionally, creating L-defects in HF and D-defects in NH3, as well as additional ionic defects. The impurities increase electrical conductivity.

Dislocations

Figure 2 shows a composite x-ray topograph illustrating slip bands in two adjacent grains in a polycrystal. In both crystals slip occurred by dislocation glide on basal or {0001} planes.16 The Burgers’ vectors were parallel to the direction and of a magnitude defined by the shortest distance between oxygen atoms in the same basal plane (i.e., by the distance not between nearest neighbors, but between next-nearest neighbors, as in Figure 1). Basal slip,17 in principle, can take place on both a more widely spaced set of planes, termed shuffle planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 8 and 11 in Figure 1), and a less widely spaced set, termed glide planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 1 and 8 in Figure 1). It is not clear which set is dominant. The distinction is significant, however, because adjacent planes of oxygen atoms of the glide set relate to each other in a manner similar to that in face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, leading to the possibility of dislocation dissociation into partials. To date, however, partial dislocations have not been observed.

A unique feature is worth noting. Because the protons in ice Ih are arranged randomly, the translation of part of the crystal relative to the rest by the Burgers’ vector will not exactly reproduce the atomic arrangement.18 Instead, the translation introduces Bjerrum defects. The stress needed to create them (of formation energy 0.68 eV) is orders of magnitude greater than can be accounted for by the actual flow stress.18 This implies that some kind of protonic rearrangement must occur. However, the precise way in which dislocations overcome the obstacle presented by proton disorder is not yet known.

Planar Defects

Stacking faults have been observed in as-grown crystals using x-ray topography.19 They can be eliminated by annealing and so are considered to be unstable defects. Twins have not been observed, in material either well annealed or plastically deformed. Barring free surfaces, grain boundaries are the most prominent planar defect. They exhibit ledges, some as large as 1 mm (Figure 2), and close to the melting point they contain liquid water in submillimeter-sized veins that lie along lines of intersection.20 Within warm sea ice they also contain millimeter-sized brine pockets. Grain boundaries are sites of sliding and crack nucleation and are thus important microstructural features.

Arctic sea ice5 forms directly upon the unidirectional solidification of salt water. Floating covers form and consist primarily of columnar-shaped grains elongated in the growth direction, reminiscent of metallic ingots. Once thickened to a few centimeters, the covers develop a strong growth texture in which the crystallographic c-axes are confined more or less to the horizontal plane, but are either randomly oriented within this plane or aligned22 with the ocean current. Sea ice is characterized also by an intragranular porous substructure that consists of submillimeter diameter air bubbles and brine pockets, totaling 4-5 vol.%, arrayed in a plate-like manner parallel to basal planes. Also, cold sea ice may contain precipitates of sea salts (mainly NaCl). Both deformation and growth textures lead to macroscopically anisotropic inelastic behavior.

Inelastic behavior is markedly anisotropic. The critical resolved shear stress for non-basal slip is 60 times or more greater than that for basal slip,24 and this presents a problem for polycrystals. Basal slip allows only two independent deformation modes. When coupled with the facts that twinning does not occur and four independent deformation modes are required25 (from self-consistent calculations) for extensive, crack-free flow, the plastic anisotropy leads to the build-up of internal stresses on the scale of the grain size. The stresses arise because grains favorably oriented for slip shed load to those less well oriented. The implication is that unless time is allowed for the internal stresses to relax, plastic flow will initiate cracks.26,27 If the cracks are tolerated, the ice will exhibit macroscopically ductile behavior. If not, then the material will exhibit macroscopically brittle behavior.

That ice can be brittle at temperatures right up to its melting point is perhaps surprising. The reason is related to the fact that its melting point diffusivity is around 10-15-10-14 m2/s, compared to higher values of 10-11-10-12 m2/s for elemental metals. Diffusion-assisted stress relaxation thus occurs relatively slowly.

Plastic flow and quasisteady-state creep of coarsely grained ice has been explained24,29 and then modeled quantitatively in terms of dislocation or power-law creep (i.e., by glide and climb of basal dislocations). Supporting this view is the fact that the activation energies for self-diffusion (0.65 eV = 62 kJ/mol.) and creep are essentially the same. Also, the creep rate is independent of grain size, and the dependence of the creep rate on stress (the inverse of the strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress) is of the correct magnitude. The flow of very finely grained ice of micrometer dimensions can be rationalized in terms of grain-boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation creep. The effect of brine inclusions has been explained by a reduction in internal back stress.

Brittle failure under compression (regime CIII, Figures 3 and 4) is marked by sudden material collapse after shortening less than about 0.5%. The failure mode is generally shear faulting on planes inclined by about 30 to the direction of maximum principal stress, although axial splitting can also occur under unconfined loading. The material now exhibits strain-rate softening, but is still thermally softened. The brittle compressive strength rises sharply under a small amount of confinement in a Coulombic manner.42-47 This implies that the deviatoric stress at failure increases with increasing hydrostatic stress and means that frictional crack sliding is an important element in the failure process. Again, the strength decreases with increasing grain size in a Hall-Petch manner.48 Brine inclusions, however, have no effect at all.47

where v is the velocity of the ice relative to the structure, and L is the width of the structure. Typical values are v = 0.1- 1 m/s and L = 10-100 m, giving strain rates that lead to brittle behavior.

Consider the most recent observations.51 Figure 5a shows a typical terminal shear fault; Figure 5b shows a thin section of the same fault, and Figure 5c shows the corresponding stress-strain curve. The fault was created by loading coarsely grained (10 mm) columnar fresh-water ice biaxially across the columns under a moderate degree of confinement (minor stress/major stress = 22/11 = 0.1) at -10C at 5 X 10-3 s-1. In Figure 5, the long axis of the grains is perpendicular to the page.

Experiments and analyses have shown that the parent cracks nucleate through grain-boundary sliding.56-59 The wing cracks initiate as a result of frictional sliding of the parent cracks.50 The splay cracks, it is thought, initiate from Hertzian contact stresses across the parent-crack faces and then propagate within a tensile field created most likely by nonuniform displacements across the sliding crack.

Schulson et al.51 propose that splay cracks are critical features in initiating the fault. Upon forming, they create sets of closely spaced microcolumns fixed on one end and free on the other. The free end contacts the sliding crack, which induces a moment that causes the columns to bend and break, rather like the breaking of teeth in a comb under a sliding thumb (Figure 6). It is the failure of these microcolumns under frictional shear loading, they suggest, that initiates the fault. Near-surface microcolumns probably break first, owing to less constraint there. It is imagined that growth then follows along a band of reduced shear strength that is composed of splay cracks formed prior to fault initiation plus fresh splay cracks created within a kind of process zone just ahead of the advancing fault front (Figure 7). The front moves rapidly across the section, creating “gouge” in its wake.

An estimate of the stress to initiate the fault may be obtained as follows. Assume that the fault is initiated when a microcolumn breaks. Assume also the scenario sketched in Figure 6, where M and P, respectively, are the induced moment and axial load per unit depth of the microcolumn; and n are the shear stress and normal stresses, respectively, acting on the microcolumn; and is the inclination of the parent crack. Then, by invoking the analysis of Thouless et al.60 for the propagation of an edge crack in a brittle plate, one can show that for = 45 the initiation stress, f, under uniaxial loading is approximated by the relationship51

It is not a new idea that failure of deformation-induced microcolumns is the micromechanical event accounting for the initiation of a shear fault. Others have advanced a similar view.63-65 Previously, however, failure was imagined to occur by elastic buckling of columns fixed on both ends, created, for instance, by echelon arrays of wing cracks. Given the dimensions of the splay-induced microcolumns created in ice, the Euler buckling stress is estimated to be 630 MPa to 3,000 MPa, and this is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the strength of the material. Hence, it is our opinion that elastic buckling is not the event that triggers the fault.

The transition can be understood in terms of the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up at crack tips. At intermediate rates of deformation crack-tip stresses relax through creep deformation, and so the mode-I stress intensity factor KI, at either the tips of wing cracks or splay cracks, never reaches the critical level. At high rates, on the other hand, stress build-up dominates, and KI quickly reaches the critical level Kic. The transition occurs when the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up is in balance.

Schulson34,48 modeled the process by invoking Ashby-Hallam63 frictional sliding-crack mechanics and Riedel-Rice66 crack-tip creep. By assuming that cracks propagate when the crack-tip creep zone size falls below a small fraction f of the crack length, he obtained the transition strain rate in terms of the independently measurable parameters of fracture resistance (KIc,), creep constant B, (B1/m) friction (), and crack length (D); f must be calculated from the Riedel-Rice model. The transition strain rate may then be expressed by the relationship

where R is the ratio of the confining stress to the most compressive stress. A comparison with experiment34,35,67 shows that the model correctly captures the effects of crack size (set by grain size68 in virgin material), confinement, and brine pores and that it predicts for the conditions of Figure 4 a transition strain rate of 10-3 s-1, which is close to that observed. The model also holds that through the effects of temperature on friction and creep, the transition strain rate is only slightly dependent upon temperature, at least over the range -40C to -3C, again in accord with experiment. Moreover, by including the crack size, the model accounts for the fact that sheets of first-year sea ice, which are laced with meter-sized (and larger) cracks and wind loaded under compression, exhibit macroscopic brittle behavior69 even though they are deformed at rates as low as 10-7 s-1.

Moreover, there is new evidence72 that fracturing and fragmentation of ice exhibit fractal organization in the lab and in the field. Within faulted rock, both splay cracks (as noted above) and zigs and zags denoting wing cracks73,74 have been seen on small and large scales. While the physics may not change with size, the terminal compressive failure stresses will probably be lower in larger features, possibly scaling as (crack size)-0.5. Consistent with this notion, at least for ice, is Sanderson’s4 observation that large fractures fail at lower stresses than small ones. Also consistent are recent measurements of stresses within floating covers,71,75 which are usually within the kPa range as compared with the MPa range of lab measurements. The ductile flow of glaciers, on the other hand, reflects the power-law creep relationship of small test specimens, implying that dislocation-based processes are scale-independent.

Failure under tension is size-dependent, owing in part to the larger flaws within the larger features. Dempsey76,77 has discussed this aspect of the subject, from the perspective of applied mech-anics.

References 1. M.F. Perutz, J. Glaciol., 1 (1948), p. 95. 2. P.V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (London: Oxford University Press, 1974). 3. V.F. Petrenko and R.W. Whitworth, Physics of Ice (London: Oxford University Press, in press). 4. T.J.O. Sanderson, Ice Mechanics Risks to Offshore Structures (London: Graham & Trotman, 1988). 5. W.F. Weeks, Physics of Ice-Covered Seas, ed. M. Leppranta (Helsinki: Helsinki University Printing House, 1998), pp. 1-24 and 25-104. 6. B. Michel, Ice Mechanics (Quebec, Canada: Les Presses de l’Universit Laval, 1978). 7. R.J. Arsenault et al., eds., Johannes Weertman Symposium (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996). 8. T.B. Curtin, Naval Research Reviews L, Arctic Studies (1998), p. 6. 9. B.G. Levi, Physics Today (November 1998), p. 17. 10. W.B. Durham, S. Kirby, and L.A. Stern, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 16293. 11. L. Pauling, J. American Chemical Society, 57 (1935), p. 2680. 12. J.D. Bernal and R.H. Fowler, J. Chem. Physics, 1 (1933), p. 515. 13. J.W. Glen, Cold Regions Science and Technology, Monograph II-C2a (Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Corps. of Engineers, 1974). 14. T. Hondoh et al., J. Chem. Physics, 87 (1983), p. 4044. 15. N. Bjerrum, Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Matematisk-fysiske Meddeleiser, 27 (1951), p. 56. 16. F. Liu, I. Baker, and M. Dudley, Phil. Mag. A, 71 (1995), p. 15. 17. R.W. Whitworth, Phil. Mag. A, 41 (1980), p. 521. 18. J.W. Glen, Phys. Kondens. Mater., 7 (1968), p. 43. 19. M. Oguro and A. Higashi, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. E. Whalley, S.J. Jones, and L.W. Gold (Ottawa, Canada: Royal Society of Canada, 1973), p. 33. 20. J.F. Nye, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. N. Maeno and T. Hondoh (Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press, 1992), pp. 200-205. 21. S. de la Chapelle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 5091. 22. W.F. Weeks and A.J. Gow, J. Geophys. Res., 84 (1978), p. 5105. 23. N.H. Fletcher, The Chemical Physics of Ice (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 271. 24. P. Duval, M.F. Ashby, and I. Anderman, J. Phys. Chem., 87 (1983), p. 4066. 25. J.W. Hutchinson, Metall. Trans. A, 8 (1977), p. 1465. 26. L.W. Gold, Canadian J. of Physics, 44 (1966), p. 2757. 27. L.W. Gold, Phil. Mag., 26 (1972), p. 311. 28. N.K. Sinha, J. Materials Sci., 23 (1988), p. 4415. 29. J. Weertman, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 11 (1983), p. 215. 30. S.J. Jones, J. Glaciol., 28 (1982), p. 171. 31. J.-P. Nadreau and B. Michel, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 13 (1986), p. 75. 32. R. Frederking, J. Glaciol., 18 (1977), p. 505. 33. J.A. Richter-Menge, J. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 113 (1991), p. 344. 34. E.M. Schulson and S.E. Buck, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3661. 35. E.M. Schulson and O.Y. Nickolayev, J. Geophys. Res., 100 (1995), p. 22383. 36. J.S. Melton and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 21759. 37. D.L. Goldsby and D.L. Kohlstedt, Scripta Materialia, 37 (1997), p. 1399. 38. E.M. Schulson et al., J. Materials Sci. Ltrs. 8 (1989), p. 1193. 39. E.M. Schulson, P.N. Lim, and R.W. Lee, Phil. Mag. A, 49 (1984), p. 353. 40. J.A. Richter-Menge and K.F. Jones, J. Glaciol., 39 (1993), p. 609. 41. E.M. Schulson, S.G. Hoxie, and W.A. Nixon, Phil. Mag. A, 59 (1989), p. 303. 42. T.R. Smith and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 153. 43. R.E. Gagnon and P.H. Gammon, J. Glaciol., 41 (1995), p. 528. 44. M.A. Rist and S.A.F. Murrell, J. Glaciol., 40 (1994), p. 305. 45. J. Weiss and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 2303. 46. E.T. Gratz and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 5091. 47. E.M. Schulson and E.T. Gratz, Acta Metall. (in press). 48. E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 38 (1990), p. 1963. 49. S.K. Singh and I.J. Jordaan, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 153. 50. B. Zou, J. Xiao, and I.J. Jordann, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 213. 51. E.M. Schulson, D. Iliescu, and C.E. Renshaw, J. Geophys. Res. (in press). 52. T.-F. Wong, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 19 (1982), p. 49. 53. R.R. Gottschalk et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95 (1990), p. 21613. 54. S.J. Martel and D.D. Pollard, J. Geophys. Res., 94 (1989), p. 9417. 55. K.M. Cruikshank et al., J. Struct. Geol., 13 (1991), p. 865. 56. H.J. Frost, Proc. in Joint Applied Mechanics and Materials Summer Conference, ed. J.P. Dempsey and Y.D.S. Rajapakse (Los Angeles, CA: University of California, 1995), pp. 1-8. 57. R.C. Picu, V. Gupta, and H.J. Frost, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (1994), p. 11775. 58. R.C. Picu and V.J. Gupta, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3791. 59. J. Weiss, E.M. Schulson, and H.J. Frost, Phil. Mag. A, 73 (1996), p. 1385. 60. M.D. Thouless et al., Acta Metall., 35 (1987), p. 1333. 61. J.P. Dempsey, Ice Structure Interactions, ed. S.J. Jones (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991), p. 109. 62. D.E. Jones, F.E. Kennedy, and E.M. Schulson, Ann. Glaciol., 15 (1991), p. 242. 63. M.F. Ashby and S.D. Hallam, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 497. 64. C.G. Sammis and M.F. Ashby, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 511. 65. Z.P. Bazant and Y. Xiang, J. Eng. Mech., 2 (1997), p. 162. 66. H. Riedel and J.R. Rice, ASTM-STP-7700, (1980), p. 112. 67. R.A. Batto and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 2219. 68. D.M. Cole, Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. on Offshore Mech. Arctic Engng. (New York: ASME, 1985), p. 220. 69. J.R. Marko and R.E. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res., 82 (1977), p. 979. 70. E.M. Schulson and W.D. Hibler, III, J. Glaciol., 37 (1991), p. 319. 71. J.A. Richter-Menge et al., Proc. of the ASYS Conference on the Dynamics of the Arctic Climate System, ed. P. Lemke (Gotteborg, Sweden: World Meterological Org., 1996), pp. 327-331. 72. J. Weiss and M. Gay, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 24005. 73. D.E. Moore and D.A. Lockner, J. Struct. Geol., 17 (1995), p. 95. 74. R. Bilham and P. Williams, Geophys. Res. Lett., 12 (1985), p. 557. 75. W.B. Tucker, III and D.K. Perovich, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 20 (1992), p. 119. 76. J.P. Dempsey, contribution to Research Trends in Solid Mechanics, a report from U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (in press). 77. J.P. Dempsey, Johannes Weertman Symposium, ed. R.J. Arsenault et al. (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996), p. 351. 78. R.W. Lee (M.S. thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 1985). 79. E.M. Schulson and N.P. Cannon, Proc. IAHR Ice Symp. (Hamburg, Germany: Hamburgische, Schiffbau-Versuchanstahlt GmbH, 1984), p. 24. 80. I. Hawkes and M. Mellor, J. Glaciol., 11 (1972), p. 103.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

E.M. Schulson is currently a professor of engineering at Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College.

For more information, contact E.M. Schulson, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755; (603) 646-2888; fax (603) 646-3856; e-mail erland.schulson@dartmouth.edu.

Direct questions about this or any other JOM page to jom@tms.org.

More:

The Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Ice – TMS

Posted in Tms | Comments Off on The Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Ice – TMS

Social Origins of Eugenics

Posted: at 12:30 pm

Scientific Origins of Eugenics

Elof Carlson, State University of New York at Stony Brook

The eugenics movement arose in the 20th century as two wings of a common philosophy of human worth. Francis Galton, who coined the term eugenics in 1883, perceived it as a moral philosophy to improve humanity by encouraging the ablest and healthiest people to have more children. The Galtonian ideal of eugenics is usually termed positive eugenics. Negative eugenics, on the other hand, advocated culling the least able from the breeding population to preserve humanity’s fitness. The eugenics movements in the United States, Germany, and Scandinavia favored the negative approach.

The notion of segregating people considered unfit to reproduce dates back to antiquity. For example, the Old Testament describes the Amalekites a supposedly depraved group that God condemned to death. Concerns about environmental influences that might damage heredity leading to ill health, early death, insanity, and defective offspring were formalized in the early 1700s as degeneracy theory. Degeneracy theory maintained a strong scientific following until late in the 19th century. Masturbation, then called onanism, was presented in medical schools as the first biological theory of the cause of degeneracy. Fear of degeneracy through masturbation led Harry Clay Sharp, a prison physician in Jeffersonville, Indiana, to carry out vasectomies on prisoners beginning in 1899. The advocacy of Sharp and his medical colleagues, culminated in an Indiana law mandating compulsory sterilization of “degenerates.” Enacted in 1907, this was the first eugenic sterilization law in the United States.

By the mid-19th century most scientists believed bad environments caused degenerate heredity. Benedict Morel’s work extended the causes of degeneracy to some legitimate agents including poisoning by mercury, ergot, and other toxic substances in the environment. The sociologist Richard Dugdale believed that good environments could transform degenerates into worthy citizens within three generations. This position was a backdrop to his very influential study on The Jukes (1877), a degenerate family of paupers and petty criminals in Ulster County, New York. The inheritance of acquired (environmental) characters was challenged in the 1880s by August Weismann, whose theory of the germ plasm convinced most scientists that changes in body tissue (the soma) had little or no effect on reproductive tissue (the germ plasm). At the beginning of the 20th century, Weismann’s views were absorbed by degeneracy theorists who embraced negative eugenics as their favored model.

Adherents of the new field of genetics were ambivalent about eugenics. Most basic scientists including William Bateson in Great Britain, and Thomas Hunt Morgan in the United States shunned eugenics as vulgar and an unproductive field for research. However, Bateson’s and Morgan’s contributions to basic genetics were quickly absorbed by eugenicists, who took interest in Mendelian analysis of pedigrees of humans, plants, and animals. Many eugenicists had some type of agricultural background. Charles Davenport and Harry Laughlin, who together ran the Eugenics Record Office, were introduced through their shared interest in chicken breeding. Both also were active in Eugenics Section of the American Breeder’s Association (ABA). Davenport’s book, Eugenics: The Science of Human Improvement through Better Breeding, had a distinct agricultural flavor, and his affiliation with the ABA was included under his name on the title page. Agricultural genetics also provided the favored model for negative eugenics: human populations, like agricultural breeds and varieties, had to be culled of their least productive members, with only the healthiest specimens used for breeding.

Evolutionary models of natural selection and dysgenic (bad) hereditary practices in society also contributed to eugenic theory. For example, there was fear that highly intelligent people would have smaller families (about 2 children), while the allegedly degenerate elements of society were having larger families of four to eight children. Public welfare might also play a role in allowing less fit people to survive and reproduce, further upsetting the natural selection of fitter people.

Medicine also put its stamp on eugenics. Physicians like Anton Ochsner and Harry Sharp were convinced that social failure was a medical problem. Italian criminologist and physician Cesare Lombroso popularized the image of an innate criminal type that was thought to be a reversion or atavism of a bestial ancestor of humanity. When medical means failed to help the psychotic, the retarded, the pauper, and the vagrant, eugenicists shifted to preventive medicine. The German physician-legislator Rudolph Virchow, advocated programs to deal with disease prevention on a large scale. Virchow’s public health movement was fused with eugenics to form the racial hygiene movement in Germany and came to America through physicians he trained.

Eugenicists argued that “defectives” should be prevented from breeding, through custody in asylums or compulsory sterilization. Most doctors probably felt that sterilization was a more humane way of dealing with people who could not help themselves. Vasectomy and tubal ligation were favored methods, because they did not alter the physiological and psychological contribution of the reproductive organs. Sterilization allowed the convicted criminal or mental patient to participate in society, rather than being institutionalized at public expense. Sterilization was not viewed as a punishment because these doctors believed (erroneously) that the social failure of “unfit” people was due to an irreversibly degenerate germ plasm.

See the article here:

Social Origins of Eugenics

Posted in Eugenics | Comments Off on Social Origins of Eugenics