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OLED – Wikipedia

Posted: January 10, 2017 at 2:45 am

An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes; typically, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as mobile phones, handheld game consoles and PDAs. A major area of research is the development of white OLED devices for use in solid-state lighting applications.[1][2][3]

There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) which has a slightly different mode of operation. OLED displays can use either passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) addressing schemes. Passive matrix OLEDs (PMOLED) uses a simple control scheme in which you control each row (or line) in the display sequentially[4] whereas active-matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes.

An OLED display works without a backlight; thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display (LCD). In low ambient light conditions (such as a dark room), an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD, regardless of whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or an LED backlight.

Andr Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Universit in France made the first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s. They applied high alternating voltages in air to materials such as acridine orange, either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons.[5][6][7][8]

In 1960 Martin Pope and some of his co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals.[9][10][11] They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. Pope’s group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a single pure crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963[12] using a small area silver electrode at 400 volts. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence.

Pope’s group reported in 1965[13] that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole, and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965, W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes,[14] the forerunner of modern double-injection devices. In the same year, Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high-voltage (5001500 V) AC-driven (1003000Hz) electrically insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder, tetracene, and graphite powder.[15] Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules.

Roger Partridge made the first observation of electroluminescence from polymer films at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The device consisted of a film of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) up to 2.2 micrometers thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The results of the project were patented in 1975[16] and published in 1983.[17][18][19][20]

Hong Kong-born American physical chemist Ching W. Tang and his co-worker Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak built the first practical OLED device in 1987.[21] This was a revolution for the technology. This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer; this resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency.

Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).[22]

Universal Display Corporation holds the majority of patents concerning the commercialization of OLEDs.[citation needed]

A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated between two electrodes, the anode and cathode, all deposited on a substrate. The organic molecules are electrically conductive as a result of delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over part or all of the molecule. These materials have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, and are therefore considered organic semiconductors. The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of organic semiconductors are analogous to the valence and conduction bands of inorganic semiconductors.[23]

Originally, the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. One example was the first light-emitting device synthesised by J. H. Burroughes et al., which involved a single layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene). However multilayer OLEDs can be fabricated with two or more layers in order to improve device efficiency. As well as conductive properties, different materials may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile,[24] or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.[25] Many modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure, consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer. More recent developments in OLED architecture improves quantum efficiency (up to 19%) by using a graded heterojunction.[26] In the graded heterojunction architecture, the composition of hole and electron-transport materials varies continuously within the emissive layer with a dopant emitter. The graded heterojunction architecture combines the benefits of both conventional architectures by improving charge injection while simultaneously balancing charge transport within the emissive region.[27]

During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Anodes are picked based upon the quality of their optical transparency, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability.[28] A current of electrons flows through the device from cathode to anode, as electrons are injected into the LUMO of the organic layer at the cathode and withdrawn from the HOMO at the anode. This latter process may also be described as the injection of electron holes into the HOMO. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton, a bound state of the electron and hole. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material, in this case the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO.

As electrons and holes are fermions with half integer spin, an exciton may either be in a singlet state or a triplet state depending on how the spins of the electron and hole have been combined. Statistically three triplet excitons will be formed for each singlet exciton. Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence) is spin forbidden, increasing the timescale of the transition and limiting the internal efficiency of fluorescent devices. Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spinorbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency.

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the HOMO level of the organic layer. A typical conductive layer may consist of PEDOT:PSS[29] as the HOMO level of this material generally lies between the workfunction of ITO and the HOMO of other commonly used polymers, reducing the energy barriers for hole injection. Metals such as barium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the LUMO of the organic layer.[30] Such metals are reactive, so they require a capping layer of aluminium to avoid degradation.

Experimental research has proven that the properties of the anode, specifically the anode/hole transport layer (HTL) interface topography plays a major role in the efficiency, performance, and lifetime of organic light emitting diodes. Imperfections in the surface of the anode decrease anode-organic film interface adhesion, increase electrical resistance, and allow for more frequent formation of non-emissive dark spots in the OLED material adversely affecting lifetime. Mechanisms to decrease anode roughness for ITO/glass substrates include the use of thin films and self-assembled monolayers. Also, alternative substrates and anode materials are being considered to increase OLED performance and lifetime. Possible examples include single crystal sapphire substrates treated with gold (Au) film anodes yielding lower work functions, operating voltages, electrical resistance values, and increasing lifetime of OLEDs.[31]

Single carrier devices are typically used to study the kinetics and charge transport mechanisms of an organic material and can be useful when trying to study energy transfer processes. As current through the device is composed of only one type of charge carrier, either electrons or holes, recombination does not occur and no light is emitted. For example, electron only devices can be obtained by replacing ITO with a lower work function metal which increases the energy barrier of hole injection. Similarly, hole only devices can be made by using a cathode made solely of aluminium, resulting in an energy barrier too large for efficient electron injection.[32][33][34]

Efficient OLEDs using small molecules were first developed by Dr. Ching W. Tang et al.[21] at Eastman Kodak. The term OLED traditionally refers specifically to this type of device, though the term SM-OLED is also in use.[23]

Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates (for example Alq3, used in the organic light-emitting device reported by Tang et al.), fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated dendrimers. A number of materials are used for their charge transport properties, for example triphenylamine and derivatives are commonly used as materials for hole transport layers.[35] Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths, and compounds such as perylene, rubrene and quinacridone derivatives are often used.[36] Alq3 has been used as a green emitter, electron transport material and as a host for yellow and red emitting dyes.

The production of small molecule devices and displays usually involves thermal evaporation in a vacuum. This makes the production process more expensive and of limited use for large-area devices, than other processing techniques. However, contrary to polymer-based devices, the vacuum deposition process enables the formation of well controlled, homogeneous films, and the construction of very complex multi-layer structures. This high flexibility in layer design, enabling distinct charge transport and charge blocking layers to be formed, is the main reason for the high efficiencies of the small molecule OLEDs.

Coherent emission from a laser dye-doped tandem SM-OLED device, excited in the pulsed regime, has been demonstrated.[37] The emission is nearly diffraction limited with a spectral width similar to that of broadband dye lasers.[38]

Researchers report luminescence from a single polymer molecule, representing the smallest possible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) device.[39] Scientists will be able to optimize substances to produce more powerful light emissions. Finally, this work is a first step towards making molecule-sized components that combine electronic and optical properties. Similar components could form the basis of a molecular computer.[40]

Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage. They are used as a thin film for full-spectrum colour displays. Polymer OLEDs are quite efficient and require a relatively small amount of power for the amount of light produced.

Vacuum deposition is not a suitable method for forming thin films of polymers. However, polymers can be processed in solution, and spin coating is a common method of depositing thin polymer films. This method is more suited to forming large-area films than thermal evaporation. No vacuum is required, and the emissive materials can also be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjet printing.[41][42] However, as the application of subsequent layers tends to dissolve those already present, formation of multilayer structures is difficult with these methods. The metal cathode may still need to be deposited by thermal evaporation in vacuum. An alternative method to vacuum deposition is to deposit a Langmuir-Blodgett film.

Typical polymers used in pleaded displays include derivatives of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene. Substitution of side chains onto the polymer backbone may determine the colour of emitted light[43] or the stability and solubility of the polymer for performance and ease of processing.[44]

While unsubstituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) is typically insoluble, a number of PPVs and related poly(naphthalene vinylene)s (PNVs) that are soluble in organic solvents or water have been prepared via ring opening metathesis polymerization.[45][46][47] These water-soluble polymers or conjugated poly electrolytes (CPEs) also can be used as hole injection layers alone or in combination with nanoparticles like graphene.[48]

Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes use the principle of electrophosphorescence to convert electrical energy in an OLED into light in a highly efficient manner,[50][51] with the internal quantum efficiencies of such devices approaching 100%.[52]

Typically, a polymer such as poly(N-vinylcarbazole) is used as a host material to which an organometallic complex is added as a dopant. Iridium complexes[51] such as Ir(mppy)3[49] are currently the focus of research, although complexes based on other heavy metals such as platinum[50] have also been used.

The heavy metal atom at the centre of these complexes exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling, facilitating intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states. By using these phosphorescent materials, both singlet and triplet excitons will be able to decay radiatively, hence improving the internal quantum efficiency of the device compared to a standard pleaded where only the singlet states will contribute to emission of light.

Applications of OLEDs in solid state lighting require the achievement of high brightness with good CIE coordinates (for white emission). The use of macromolecular species like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) in conjunction with the use of phosphorescent species such as Ir for printed OLEDs have exhibited brightnesses as high as 10,000cd/m2.[53]

Patternable organic light-emitting devices use a light or heat activated electroactive layer. A latent material (PEDOT-TMA) is included in this layer that, upon activation, becomes highly efficient as a hole injection layer. Using this process, light-emitting devices with arbitrary patterns can be prepared.[57]

Colour patterning can be accomplished by means of laser, such as radiation-induced sublimation transfer (RIST).[58]

Organic vapour jet printing (OVJP) uses an inert carrier gas, such as argon or nitrogen, to transport evaporated organic molecules (as in organic vapour phase deposition). The gas is expelled through a micrometre-sized nozzle or nozzle array close to the substrate as it is being translated. This allows printing arbitrary multilayer patterns without the use of solvents.

Conventional OLED displays are formed by vapor thermal evaporation (VTE) and are patterned by shadow-mask. A mechanical mask has openings allowing the vapor to pass only on the desired location.

Like ink jet material depositioning, inkjet etching (IJE) deposits precise amounts of solvent onto a substrate designed to selectively dissolve the substrate material and induce a structure or pattern. Inkjet etching of polymer layers in OLED’s can be used to increase the overall out-coupling efficiency. In OLEDs, light produced from the emissive layers of the OLED is partially transmitted out of the device and partially trapped inside the device by total internal reflection (TIR). This trapped light is wave-guided along the interior of the device until it reaches an edge where it is dissipated by either absorption or emission. Inkjet etching can be used to selectively alter the polymeric layers of OLED structures to decrease overall TIR and increase out-coupling efficiency of the OLED. Compared to a non-etched polymer layer, the structured polymer layer in the OLED structure from the IJE process helps to decrease the TIR of the OLED device. IJE solvents are commonly organic instead of water based due to their non-acidic nature and ability to effectively dissolve materials at temperatures under the boiling point of water.[59]

For a high resolution display like a TV, a TFT backplane is necessary to drive the pixels correctly. Currently, low temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) is used for commercial AMOLED displays. LTPS-TFT has variation of the performance in a display, so various compensation circuits have been reported.[60] Due to the size limitation of the excimer laser used for LTPS, the AMOLED size was limited. To cope with the hurdle related to the panel size, amorphous-silicon/microcrystalline-silicon backplanes have been reported with large display prototype demonstrations.[61]

Transfer-printing is an emerging technology to assemble large numbers of parallel OLED and AMOLED devices efficiently. It takes advantage of standard metal deposition, photolithography, and etching to create alignment marks commonly on glass or other device substrates. Thin polymer adhesive layers are applied to enhance resistance to particles and surface defects. Microscale ICs are transfer-printed onto the adhesive surface and then baked to fully cure adhesive layers. An additional photosensitive polymer layer is applied to the substrate to account for the topography caused by the printed ICs, reintroducing a flat surface. Photolithography and etching removes some polymer layers to uncover conductive pads on the ICs. Afterwards, the anode layer is applied to the device backplane to form bottom electrode. OLED layers are applied to the anode layer with conventional vapor deposition, and covered with a conductive metal electrode layer. As of 2011[update] transfer-printing was capable to print onto target substrates up to 500mm X 400mm. This size limit needs to expand for transfer-printing to become a common process for the fabrication of large OLED/AMOLED displays.[62]

The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology.

OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used intermittently, so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs’ unique characteristics. Applications in flexible signs and lighting are also being developed.[86]Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand name “Lumiblade” available online[87] and Novaled AG based in Dresden, Germany, introduced a line of OLED desk lamps called “Victory” in September, 2011.[88]

OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung color cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and Sony Ericsson models.[89]Nokia has also introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the N86 8MP, both of which feature an AMOLED display. OLED technology can also be found in digital media players such as the Creative ZEN V, the iriver clix, the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series.

The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLED screen, as does HTC’s own Desire and Legend phones. However, due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain HTC models will use Sony’s SLCD displays in the future,[90] while the Google and Samsung Nexus S smartphone will use “Super Clear LCD” instead in some countries.[91]

OLED displays were used in watches made by Fossil (JR-9465) and Diesel (DZ-7086).

Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited (Hong Kong),[92]AU Optronics (Taiwan),[93]Chimei Innolux Corporation (Taiwan),[94]LG (Korea),[95] and others.[96]

In 2009, Shearwater Research introduced the Predator as the first color OLED diving computer available with a user replaceable battery.[97][98]

DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. DuPont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight-hour day.[99][100]

The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Universal Display Corporation, Eastman Kodak, DuPont, General Electric, Royal Philips Electronics, numerous universities and others.[101] There are by now thousands of patents associated with OLEDs, both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies.[23]

RIM, the maker of BlackBerry smartphones, uses OLED displays in their BlackBerry 10 devices.

A technical writer at the Sydney Herald thinks foldable OLED smartphones could be as much as a decade away because of the cost of producing them. There is a relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. As little as a speck of dust can ruin a screen during production. Creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle.[102] However, Samsung has accelerated its plans to release a foldable display by the end of 2015[103]

Textiles incorporating OLEDs are an innovation in the fashion world and pose for a way to integrate lighting to bring inert objects to a whole new level of fashion. The hope is to combine the comfort and low cost properties of textile with the OLEDs properties of illumination and low energy consumption. Although this scenario of illuminated clothing is highly plausible, challenges are still a road block. Some issues include: the lifetime of the OLED, rigidness of flexible foil substrates, and the lack of research in making more fabric like photonic textiles.[104]

By 2004 Samsung, South Korea’s largest conglomerate, was the world’s largest OLED manufacturer, producing 40% of the OLED displays made in the world,[105] and as of 2010 has a 98% share of the global AMOLED market.[106] The company is leading the world of OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006.[107] As of 2006, it held more than 600 American patents and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED technology patents.[107]

Samsung SDI announced in 2005 the world’s largest OLED TV at the time, at 21 inches (53cm).[108] This OLED featured the highest resolution at the time, of 6.22 million pixels. In addition, the company adopted active matrix based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. This was exceeded in January 2008, when Samsung showcased the world’s largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time, at 31inches (78cm) and 4.3mm.[109]

In May 2008, Samsung unveiled an ultra-thin 12.1inch (30cm) laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280768 resolution with infinite contrast ratio.[110] According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expected OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon as 2010.[111]

In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world’s thinnest OLED display, also the first to be “flappable” and bendable.[112] It measures just 0.05mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is “technically possible to make the panel thinner”.[112] To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs. Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 272. The contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200cd/m2. The colour reproduction range is 100% of the NTSC standard.

In the same month, Samsung unveiled what was then the world’s largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920 1080 pixels.[113] In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED Panel is the largest size currently possible. The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a colour gamut of 107% NTSC, and a luminance of 200cd/m2 (peak luminance of 600cd/m2).

At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010, Samsung demonstrated a laptop computer with a large, transparent OLED display featuring up to 40% transparency[114] and an animated OLED display in a photo ID card.[115]

Samsung’s latest AMOLED smartphones use their Super AMOLED trademark, with the Samsung Wave S8500 and Samsung i9000 Galaxy S being launched in June 2010. In January 2011 Samsung announced their Super AMOLED Plus displays, which offer several advances over the older Super AMOLED displays: real stripe matrix (50% more sub pixels), thinner form factor, brighter image and an 18% reduction in energy consumption.[116]

At CES 2012, Samsung introduced the first 55″ TV screen that uses Super OLED technology.[117]

On January 8, 2013, at CES Samsung unveiled a unique curved 4K Ultra S9 OLED television, which they state provides an “IMAX-like experience” for viewers.[118]

On August 13, 2013, Samsung announced availability of a 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KN55S9C) in the US at a price point of $8999.99.[119]

On September 6, 2013, Samsung launched its 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KE55S9C) in the United Kingdom with John Lewis.[120]

Samsung introduced the Galaxy Round smartphone in the Korean market in October 2013. The device features a 1080p screen, measuring 5.7 inches (14cm), that curves on the vertical axis in a rounded case. The corporation has promoted the following advantages: A new feature called “Round Interaction” that allows users to look at information by tilting the handset on a flat surface with the screen off, and the feel of one continuous transition when the user switches between home screens.[121]

The Sony CLI PEG-VZ90 was released in 2004, being the first PDA to feature an OLED screen.[123] Other Sony products to feature OLED screens include the MZ-RH1 portable minidisc recorder, released in 2006[124] and the Walkman X Series.[125]

At the 2007 Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Sony showcased 11-inch (28cm, resolution 960540) and 27-inch (68.5cm), full HD resolution at 1920 1080 OLED TV models.[126] Both claimed 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios and total thicknesses (including bezels) of 5mm. In April 2007, Sony announced it would manufacture 1000 11-inch (28cm) OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes.[127] On October 1, 2007, Sony announced that the 11-inch (28cm) model, now called the XEL-1, would be released commercially;[122] the XEL-1 was first released in Japan in December 2007.[128]

In May 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3 millimeters thick.[129] At the Display 2008 exhibition, Sony demonstrated a 0.2mm thick 3.5inch (9cm) display with a resolution of 320200 pixels and a 0.3mm thick 11inch (28cm) display with 960540 pixels resolution, one-tenth the thickness of the XEL-1.[130][131]

In July 2008, a Japanese government body said it would fund a joint project of leading firms, which is to develop a key technology to produce large, energy-saving organic displays. The project involves one laboratory and 10 companies including Sony Corp. NEDO said the project was aimed at developing a core technology to mass-produce 40inch or larger OLED displays in the late 2010s.[132]

In October 2008, Sony published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually, bendable, see-through displays could be stacked to produce 3D images with much greater contrast ratios and viewing angles than existing products.[133]

Sony exhibited a 24.5″ (62cm) prototype OLED 3D television during the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2010.[134]

In January 2011, Sony announced the PlayStation Vita handheld game console (the successor to the PSP) will feature a 5-inch OLED screen.[135]

On February 17, 2011, Sony announced its 25″ (63.5cm) OLED Professional Reference Monitor aimed at the Cinema and high end Drama Post Production market.[136]

On June 25, 2012, Sony and Panasonic announced a joint venture for creating low cost mass production OLED televisions by 2013.[137]

As of 2010, LG Electronics produced one model of OLED television, the 15inch 15EL9500[138] and had announced a 31″ (78cm) OLED 3D television for March 2011.[139] On December 26, 2011, LG officially announced the “world’s largest 55″ OLED panel” and featured it at CES 2012.[140] In late 2012, LG announces the launch of the 55EM9600 OLED television in Australia.[141]

In January 2015, LG Display signed a long term agreement with Universal Display Corporation for the supply of OLED materials and the right to use their patented OLED emitters.[142]

Lumiotec is the first company in the world developing and selling, since January 2011, mass-produced OLED lighting panels with such brightness and long lifetime. Lumiotec is a joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ROHM, Toppan Printing, and Mitsui & Co. On June 1, 2011, Mitsubishi installed a 6-meter OLED ‘sphere’ in Tokyo’s Science Museum.[143]

On January 6, 2011, Los Angeles based technology company Recom Group introduced the first small screen consumer application of the OLED at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. This was a 2.8″ (7cm) OLED display being used as a wearable video name tag.[144] At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012, Recom Group introduced the world’s first video mic flag incorporating three 2.8″ (7cm) OLED displays on a standard broadcaster’s mic flag. The video mic flag allowed video content and advertising to be shown on a broadcasters standard mic flag.[145]

BMW plans to use OLEDs in tail lights and interior lights in their future cars; however, OLEDs are currently too dim to be used for brake lights, headlights and indicators.[146]

Research by Andre De-Guerin suggests that some newer panels now use screen printed chips connected with a continuous backplane to get around the need for a single monolithic and fragile silicon TFT. This approach is known to be used by Samsung on some of their newer phones notably the S6, Note 4 and others. It is believed that the self-assembly method used avoids the need to destroy bad backplanes as they can be pre-sorted at the manufacturing stage and the bad ICs replaced by micro-manipulators or other methods; where this is not possible the bad area can be cut off and the backplane area thus salvaged recycled for smaller displays such as on smart watches.

In 2014, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (MCC), a subsidiary of the Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings developed an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panel with a life of 30,000 hours, twice that of conventional OLED panels.[147]

The search for efficient OLED materials has been extensively supported by simulation methods. By now it is possible to calculate important properties completely computationally, independent of experimental input.[148][149] This allows cost-efficient pre-screening of materials, prior to expensive synthesis and experimental characterisation.

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OLED – Wikipedia

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Artificial Intelligence Market Size and Forecast by 2024

Posted: January 4, 2017 at 6:06 pm

Artificial intelligence is a fast emerging technology, dealing with development and study of intelligent machines and software. This software is being used across various applications such as manufacturing (assembly line robots), medical research, and speech recognition systems. It also enables in-build software or machines to operate like human beings, thereby allowing devices to collect, analyze data, reason, talk, make decisions and act The global artificial intelligence market was valued at US$ 126.24 Bn in 2015 and is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 36.1% from 2016 to 2024 to reach a value of US$ 3,061.35 Bn in 2024.

The global artificial intelligence market is currently witnessing healthy growth as companies have started leveraging the benefits of such disruptive technologies for effective customer reach and positioning of their services/solutions. Market growth is also supported by an expanding application base of artificial intelligence solutions across various industries. However, factors such as low funding access or high upfront investment, and demand for skilled resources (workforce) are presently acting as major deterrents to market growth.

On the basis of types of artificial intelligence systems, the market is segmented into artificial neural network, digital assistance system, embedded system, expert system, and automated robotic system. Expert system was the most adopted or revenue generating segment in 2015. This was mainly due to the extensive use of artificial intelligence across various sectors including diagnosis, process control, design, monitoring, scheduling and planning.

Based on various applications of artificial intelligence systems, the market has been classified into deep learning, smart robots, image recognition, digital personal assistant, querying method, language processing, gesture control, video analysis, speech recognition, context aware processing, and cyber security. Image recognition is projected to be the fastest growing segment by application in the global artificial intelligence market. This is due to the growing demand for affective computing technology across various end-use sectors for better study of systems that can recognize, analyze, process, and simulate human effects.

North America was the leader in the global artificial intelligence market in 2015, holding approximately 38% of the global market revenue share, and is expected to remain dominant throughout the forecast period from 2016 to 2024. High government funding and a strong technological base have been some of the major factors responsible for the top position of the North America region in the artificial intelligence market over the past few years. Middle East and Africa is expected to grow at the highest CAGR of 38.2% throughout the forecast period. This is mainly attributed to enormous opportunities for artificial intelligence in the MEA region in terms of new airport developments and various technological innovations including robotic automation.

The key market players profiled in this report include QlikTech International AB, MicroStrategy Inc., IBM Corporation, Google, Inc., Brighterion Inc., Microsoft Corporation, IntelliResponse Systems Inc., Next IT Corporation, Nuance Communications, and eGain Corporation.

Chapter 1 Preface 1.1 Research Scope 1.2 Market Segmentation 1.3 Research Methodology

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2.1 Market Snapshot: Global Artificial Intelligence Market, 2015 & 2024 2.2 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Revenue, 2014 2024 (US$ Bn) and CAGR (%)

Chapter 3 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 3.1 Key Trends Analysis 3.2 Market Dynamics 3.2.1 Drivers 3.2.2 Restraints 3.2.3 Opportunities 3.3 Value Chain Analysis 3.4 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Types 3.4.1 Overview 3.4.2 Artificial Neural Network 3.4.3 Digital Assistance System 3.4.4 Embedded System 3.4.5 Expert System 3.4.6 Automated Robotic System 3.5 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 3.5.1 Overview 3.5.2 Deep Learning 3.5.3 Smart Robots 3.5.4 Image Recognition 3.5.5 Digital Personal Assistant 3.5.6 Querying Method 3.5.7 Language Processing 3.5.8 Gesture Control 3.5.9 Video Analysis 3.5.10 Speech Recognition 3.5.11 Context Aware Processing 3.5.12 Cyber Security 3.6 Competitive Landscape 3.6.1 Market Positioning of Key Players in Artificial Intelligence Market (2015) 3.6.2 Competitive Strategies Adopted by Leading Players

Chapter 4 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 4.1 Overview 4.3 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 4.3.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 4.4 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 4.4.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 4.5 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 4.5.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 5 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 5.1 Overview 5.3 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 5.3.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 5.4 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 5.4.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 5.5 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 5.5.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 6 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 6.1 Overview 6.3 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 6.3.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 6.4 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 6.4.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 6.5 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 6.5.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 7 Middle East and Africa (MEA) Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 7.1 Overview 7.3 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 7.3.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 7.4 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 7.4.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 7.5 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 7.5.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 8 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 8.1 Overview 8.3 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 8.3.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 8.4 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 8.4.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 8.5 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 8.5.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 9 Company Profiles 9.1 QlikTech International AB 9.2 MicroStrategy, Inc. 9.3 IBM Corporation 9.4 Google, Inc. 9.5 Brighterion, Inc. 9.6 Microsoft Corporation 9.7 IntelliResponse Systems Inc. 9.8 Next IT Corporation 9.9 Nuance Communications 9.10 eGain Corporation

The Artificial Intelligence Market report provides analysis of the global artificial intelligence market for the period 20142024, wherein the years from 2016 to 2024 is the forecast period and 2015 is considered as the base year. The report precisely covers all the major trends and technologies playing a major role in the artificial intelligence markets growth over the forecast period. It also highlights the drivers, restraints, and opportunities expected to influence the market growth during this period. The study provides a holistic perspective on the markets growth in terms of revenue (in US$ Bn), across different geographies, which includes Asia Pacific (APAC), Latin America (LATAM), North America, Europe, and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

The market overview section of the report showcases the markets dynamics and trends such as the drivers, restraints, and opportunities that influence the current nature and future status of this market. Moreover, the report provides the overview of various strategies and the winning imperatives of the key players in the artificial intelligence market and analyzes their behavior in the prevailing market dynamics.

The report segments the global artificial intelligence market on the types of artificial intelligence systems into artificial neural network, digital assistance system, embedded system, expert system, and automated robotic system. By application, the market has been classified into deep learning, smart robots, image recognition, digital personal assistant, querying method, language processing, gesture control, video analysis, speech recognition, context aware processing, and cyber security. Thus, the report provides in-depth cross-segment analysis for the artificial intelligence market and classifies it into various levels, thereby providing valuable insights on macro as well as micro level.

The report also provides the competitive landscape for the artificial intelligence market, thereby positioning all the major players according to their geographic presence, market attractiveness and recent key developments. The complete artificial intelligence market estimates are the result of our in-depth secondary research, primary interviews, and in-house expert panel reviews. These market estimates have been analyzed by taking into account the impact of different political, social, economic, technological, and legal factors along with the current market dynamics affecting the artificial intelligence markets growth.

QlikTech International AB, MicroStrategy Inc., IBM Corporation, Google, Inc., Brighterion Inc., Microsoft Corporation, IntelliResponse Systems Inc., Next IT Corporation, Nuance Communications, and eGain Corporation are some of the major players which have been profiled in this study. Details such as financials, business strategies, recent developments, and other such strategic information pertaining to these players has been provided as part of company profiling.

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Artificial Intelligence Market Size and Forecast by 2024

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Virtual reality, one year out: What went right, what didn …

Posted: December 27, 2016 at 5:59 pm

After years of teases, tantalizing promises, and Kickstarter campaigns, virtual reality finally became actual reality in 2016, with VRs mere existence thrusting the entire PC industry into glorious, wonderful turmoil. Despite being around for just a handful of months, virtual reality has already inspired totally new genres of computers, wormed its way deep into Windows, and sent the price of graphics cards plummeting.

Not too shabby for VRs first real year on the streets, though the implementations could still use some fine-tuning. Lets look back at howthis wild new frontier blossomed in 2016.

From the very start of 2016 it was clear that the dawn of proper PC-powered VR had arrived. You could see evidence of this fact all overCES 2016 in January, where EVGA introduced a specialized graphics card designed to fit VR headset ergonomics; Nvidia rolled out a VR certification program;and seemingly every booth boasted some sort of virtual-reality hook, from VR treadmills toVR pornandVR Everest climbs(the latter two being mind-blowing in their own ways).

The PC world was ready. But virtual reality itself wasnt, at least until the Oculus Rifts big consumer launch later that spring.

The Oculus Rift.

Well, big in theory. While PCWorld praisedthe Oculus Rift in its reviewvirtual reality was here, and it was magical!the launch was far from perfect. The rumbling began in the run-up to the headsets release, with Rifts $600 launch price far exceeding the $250 to $500 range that Oculus higher-ups had teased repeatedly. Once it actually launched, the headset was plagued by hardware shortages and significant shipment delays, which didnt go over well at all.

But the biggest problem for the Rift was that even at launch its days already felt numberednot a vibe you want from $600 hardware. The Rift was designed primarily as a seated VR experience, with a controller in your hands. By the time it launched on March 28, enthusiasts and industry press had already spent time playing with the SteamVR-powered HTC Vive, which used made-for-VR controllers and dedicated tracking stations to enable room-scale VR experiences that let you wander around and actually touch things. After trying Vive, going back to the Rifts sedentary experience felt far less satisfying.

The HTC Vive.

And the HTC/Valve duo didnt waste any time capitalizing on its advantage. The HTC Vive launched on April 5, roughly a week after the Oculus Rift, and immediately seized the crown as PCWorlds preferred VR solution.

Despite that, we recommendpassing on the Rift and the Vive, and for very good reason. While VR can be nothing short of awe-inspiring, these first-gen products also have some obvious flaws.

Man, virtual-reality headsets are expensive.

Oculus Rift with its Touch controllers.

Thats to be expected with bleeding-edge hardware, but $600 for the Oculus Rift or $800 for the HTC Vive puts them firmly in the one percent category. The recent release of Oculuss $200 Touch controllers drove the cost of a full Rift setup to the Vives level, or even more if you want kinda-sorta room-scale experiences and need an extra sensor. VR experiences tend to be high-priced and relatively short-lived compared to traditional PC games. This is not a cheap hobby.

That priciness was exacerbated by the need to connect these headsets to a pretty powerful PCthat cost of which was roughly $1,000 to $1,500 at the time of the headsets’ launch. Fortunately, while the Vive and Rift themselves have stayed at the same lofty prices, the cost of a computer to run them absolutely plunged as the year carried on.

The plunge began with the launch of AMDs Radeon RX 480, which revolutionized whats possible with a $200 graphics card. Before its release, VR-capable graphics cards cost nearly twice that amount. (Nvidia quickly followed suit with the $250 GeForce GTX 1060.) Jumping forward two full technological generations paid major dividends for graphics cards.

The AMD Radeon RX 480.

Software tricks helped democratize VR just as much. At the Oculus Connect conference in October, the company revealed a new feature dubbed Asynchronous Spacewarp that used technical tricks to drive the barrier to entry for Rift VR way, way downall the way to an AMD AM4 or Intel Core i3-6100 processor, and a GeForce GTX 960 graphics card. In March, a Rift-ready PC cost at least $1,000; after Oculus Connect, Rift-ready PCs started at $500, and as I write this theres a Best Buy promotion offering a full PC and the Rift itself for $999.

Hot damn, prices plunged fast. And another pesky PC VR problem is already in everybodys sights.

The HTC Vive and Oculus Rift both drive very high-fidelity gaming experiences, and headsets need to be physically tethered to your PC in order to work. That kind of sucks. Its all too easy to trip over the thick cables while youre wandering around the room ensconced in a virtual world, or to twist and turn so much that the cord eventually jerks your head back.

HPs Omen X VR PC.

That (sometimes literal) headache inspired the birth of a whole new class of gaming PCsones that you wear on your back. Youre still wired up, sure, but those wires travel with you instead of getting tangled between your feet. Zotac, MSI, Alienware, and HP have all revealed backpack PCs of various designs, though none have actually hit the street yet.

The standalone Oculus Santa Cruz prototype.

As nifty as they are, however, backpack PCs feel like a stopgap solutiona fix to a problem that will disappear when more robust wireless display technologies or more potent mobile graphics arrive. And you can already see that wireless future on the horizon, with Oculus testing a fully self-contained mobile Rift prototype pictured above and HTC backing a $220 add-on kit that makes the Vive wireless.

While powerful PC-based VR experiences may be tethered, the more modest world of phone-driven mobile VR has already left cords far behind.

Googles Daydream View.

Samsungs Gear VR headset (which only works with Samsung Galaxy phones) blazed the Android VR trail, while Googles low-cost Cardboard brought it to the masses. In late 2016 Google stomped into the Gear VRs turf with Daydream VR, an Android-centric initiative that brings premium mobile VR to the entire ecosystem rather than Samsungs phones alone.

Daydream centers on a trio of pillars: powerful phones, Daydream VR headsets, and Android Nougats new VR features. While Googles own Daydream View headset and Pixel phone kicked off the program, Daydream isnt its alone. HTC, LG, Xiaomi, Huawei, ZTE, Asus, Alcatel, Lenovo, and yes, even Samsung have pledged to create Daydream mobile devices.

A Microsoft rendering shows simulated HoloLens apps.

Microsofts HoloLens is kind of a mix of PC and mobile VR, while also a different beast entirely. Its a portable, fully self-contained system that doesnt need to connect to a PC, but HoloLens utilizes augmented reality, not virtual reality. Virtual reality plops you in fully realized virtual worlds; augmented reality, as the name implies, augments the real world with overlaid objects, such as a Minecraft world sprouting from your coffee table or a Skype video chat appearing on your wall.

Microsoft still hasnt revealed details about when (or if) HoloLens will be available to consumer users, or how much it would cost, but deep-pocketed developers and enterprise users can already pick up the headset for a cool $3,000.

Pricey HoloLens headset arent Microsofts only foray into VR. The massive Windows 10 Creators Update next spring will bake augmented reality features much, much more deeply into the flagship PC operating system, and itll be accompanied by an army of new Windows 10 VR headsets at launchheadsets that will start at just $300 and run on surprisingly modest PCs. Meanwhile, Intel and Microsofts Project Evo partnership aims to change how computers think, see, and hear, with a specific goal of driving mixed reality forward.

Players enjoy a VR experience at HTCs Viveland arcade in Taiwan.

If 2016 was birth of a virtual-reality revolution, look for 2017 to be a year of VR refinement. Witness the new, Oculus Touch-esque Vive controllers that Valve already began to tease, and bookmark the holiday 2017 launch of Microsofts powerful Xbox Scorpio consolewhich could very possibly leverage the Windows 10 Creators Update to run the Oculus Rift or Windows 10 VR headsets as a counter to Sonys surprisingly okay PlayStation VR.

Next year, VR games should only get better as developers gain more experience… if they can navigate the complicated world of consumer expectationsand discover what people really want from the medium, that is. The cost of VR-capable PCs will only keep going down. Expect augmented reality to continue making inroads in car tech. The Vive and Rift may even get price cuts! Heck, with enough advances, 2017 may be the year PCWorld officially recommends you buy a VR headset.

Or it could all come crashing down like previous virtual-reality attempts. (Remember Sega VR?) Living on the bleeding edge may be expensive and exciting, but its not always a sure betthough with so many of techs biggest names spending billions on virtual reality, its hard to imagine this latest push fizzling completely. Time will tell.

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7 Best Alternatives to Tor Browser for Anonymous Browsing

Posted: December 26, 2016 at 2:52 pm

Tor is free software that will help you go anonymous while surfing the web. It is not anything ordinary that can be ignored. Let me explain you little bit interesting about Tor, you people do search various things via search engines like; Google, Bing, etc. But these search engines displays only indexed results to you, means it will show you the result which is naked in web and anyone can see that. But Tor makes it way different while showing search results; in Tor search results it shows each and every hidden and protected articles, websites and information regarding your desired search without getting tracked.

Due to this, it is used in many bad businesses, an example is Silk Road. Yes! It was tracked by NSA lately; it used to be an online shopping website for illegal drugs. It is an open source network that helps you protect against traffic analysis. Even your internet service providers wont be able to track you while using Tor. It is a form of network assessment that pressurizes personal freedom and privacy, secret business activities and relationships, state security. This is not meant to design for all this illegal businesses, but it allows you to improve your privacy and security so much that it attracts many bad users to do illegal business over using Tor. There are many good things could be done using Tor, but due to surveillance by NSA threatens users to use Tor much.

Also Read: Top 7 Alternatives To HootSuite

There are many projects under Tor Project including; Tor Browser, Orbot, Tails, Arm, Atlas, Pluggable Transports, Stem, OONI and many more.

I2P is an unidentified peer-to-peer distributes communication layer which is built by means of the open source tools. It is a complete alternative to TOR. The software implementing this computer network layer like any other P2P software is called I2P layer. It is designed and optimized for secret services, faster than Tor with completely distributed and self-organizing potential.

Freenet is a peer-to-peer to oppose the censorship similar to I2P. It uses the same P2P tools of distributing data storage to distribute and keep the information but separates the set of rules of the user interface and network structure. Freenet comes with the two-tier safety measures: Darknet and Opennet.

Freepto is a different Linux-based OS that could be booted using a USB disk on any computer. The data you put aside on the USB disk will be mechanically encrypted. It offers the hacktivists an uncomplicated way to communicate effortlessly just like Tor. It is easy to use and fastest way to save encrypted data.

JonDo Live-DVD is a Debian GNU/Linux based OS; with pre-configured applications to be used for web surfing, has Thunderbird, Torbrowser, Pdigin and other programs.

Tox isnt a complete substitute for Tor, but it can help to provide messaging services. Tox gives private and encrypted IM, video conferencing and calls that is somewhat user-friendly.

Ipredia OS is a quick, commanding and stable operating system based on Linux that provides an unknown environment. All set-up traffic is automatically and evidently encrypted and anonymized. Many applications are obtainable in Ipredia OS, mention may be made of mail, peer-to-peer, bittorrent, IRC chat and others. You may get:

Lightweight Portable Security (LPS) creates a safe end node from dependable media on nearly any Intel-based computer (PC or Mac). It boots a CD from Linux operating system. USB flash stick with no mounting on a local hard drive. Administrator privileges are not required; not anything is installed. The LPS family was shaped to address specific use cases: A general-purpose solution for using web-based applications is referred to as LPS-Public.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are authentic when it comes to privacy improvement, censorship avoidance, anonymous file sharing, and more. It is important to know the benefits and drawbacks of using both Tor and a VPN for privacy, security, and anonymity online.

Even lately the internet privacy tool Tor was hardly heard of outside the tech community. NSA has been working to corrupt the user experience to discourage people from using the Tor browser, trying to crack its security. Tor was compromised by NSA, so there was a need for best alternatives to Tor Project.

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7 Best Alternatives to Tor Browser for Anonymous Browsing

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Evolution of the Web

Posted: December 10, 2016 at 1:57 pm

The web today is a growing universe of interlinked web pages and web apps, teeming with videos, photos, and interactive content. What the average user doesn’t see is the interplay of web technologies and browsers that makes all this possible.

Over time web technologies have evolved to give web developers the ability to create new generations of useful and immersive web experiences. Today’s web is a result of the ongoing efforts of an open web community that helps define these web technologies, like HTML5, CSS3 and WebGL and ensure that they’re supported in all web browsers.

The color bands in this visualization represent the interaction between web technologies and browsers, which brings to life the many powerful web apps that we use daily.

Made with some friends from the Google Chrome team

2011 & 2012 versions by Hyperakt and Vizzuality

2010 version by mgmt design and GOOD

Wikipedia, CanIUse.com, W3C, HTML5rocks.com and Mozilla Developer Network

Browser screenshots used in this infographic were sourced with best efforts from the web community.

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Evolution of the Web

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Tile Map Service – Wikipedia

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:31 pm

Tile Map Service or TMS, is a specification for tiled web maps, developed by the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. The definition generally requires a URI structure which attempts to fulfill REST principles. The TMS protocol fills a gap between the very simple standard used by OpenStreetMap and the complexity of the Web Map Service standard, providing simple urls to tiles while also supporting alternate spatial referencing system.

TMS is most widely supported by web mapping clients and servers; although there is some desktop support, the Web Map Service protocol is more widespread for enterprise mapping applications. The OpenLayers JavaScript library supports TMS natively, while the Google Maps API allows URL templating, which makes support possible for developers. TileCache is one of the most popular supporting servers, while other servers like mod_tile and TileLite focus on the de facto OpenStreetMap standard.

TMS served as the basis for the OpenGIS Web Map Tile Service OGC standard. [1]

Free software server implementation of the TMS specification:

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Tile Map Service – Wikipedia

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FBI and NSA Poised to Gain New Surveillance Powers Under …

Posted: at 12:24 pm

The FBI, National Security Agency and CIA are likely to gain expanded surveillance powers under President-elect Donald Trump and a Republican-controlled Congress, a prospect that has privacy advocates and some lawmakers trying to mobilize opposition.

Trumps first two choices to head law enforcement and intelligence agencies — Republican Senator Jeff Sessions for attorney general and Republican Representative Mike Pompeo for director of the Central Intelligence Agency — are leading advocates for domestic government spying at levels not seen since the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

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An already over-powerful surveillance state is about to be let loose on the American people, said Daniel Schuman, policy director for Demand Progress, an internet and privacy advocacy organization.

In a reversal of curbs imposed after Edward Snowdens revelations in 2013 about mass data-gathering by the NSA, Trump and Congress may move to reinstate the collection of bulk telephone records, renew powers to collect the content of e-mails and other internet activity, ease restrictions on hacking into computers and let the FBI keep preliminary investigations open longer.

Read more: Apple, the FBI and encryption — a QuickTake

A first challenge for privacy advocates comes this week: A new rule is set to go into effect on Dec. 1 letting the FBI get permission from a judge in a single jurisdiction to hack into multiple computers whose locations arent known.

Under the proposed rules, the government would now be able to obtain a single warrant to access and search thousands or millions of computers at once; and the vast majority of the affected computers would belong to the victims, not the perpetrators, of a cybercrime, Senator Ron Wyden, an Oregon Democrat who serves on the Intelligence Committee, said in a statement.

Wyden is one of seven senators, including libertarian Republican Rand Paul, who have introduced a bill, S. 3475, to delay the new policy until July to give Congress time to debate its merits and consider amendments.

Sessions, Pompeo and officials with national security and law enforcement agencies have argued that expanded surveillance powers are needed, especially because of the threat of small, deadly terrorist plots that are hard to detect, like the killing of 49 people at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, in June and 14 people in San Bernardino, California, last year.

The FBI had at one point opened a preliminary investigation into the Orlando killer, Omar Mateen, but didnt have the authority to keep it going for lack of evidence of wrongdoing.

Whats needed is a fundamental upgrade to Americas surveillance capabilities, Pompeo and a co-author wrote in a Wall Street Journal commentary in January. Legal and bureaucratic impediments to surveillance should be removed.

Pompeo and Sessions want to repeal a 2015 law that prohibits the FBI and NSA from collecting bulk phone records — metadata such as numbers called and dates and times — on Americans who arent suspected of wrongdoing.

“Congress should pass a law re-establishing collection of all metadata, and combining it with publicly available financial and lifestyle information into a comprehensive, searchable database,” Pompeo wrote.

Press aides for Sessions and Pompeo declined to comment.

Sessions has opposed restraints on NSA surveillance and said in June that he supported legislation to expand the types of internet data the FBI can intercept without warrants.

Congress is also expected to consider legislation early next year that would renew the governments ability to collect the content of e-mail and other internet activity from companies such as Google and Facebook Inc.

Under the Prism program, investigators pursuing suspected terrorists can intercept the content of electronic communications believed to come from outside the U.S. without specific warrants even if one end of the communications is inside the country or involves an American.

Prism came under criticism when it was exposed by Snowden, the former NSA contractor who stole hundreds of thousands of documents on agency surveillance programs. Section 702 of the USA Patriot Act, under which Prism and other spy programs are conducted, is set to expire at the end of 2017 if it isnt reauthorized by Congress.

James Comey, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, has said he also wants to renew a debate early next year about whether Apple and other companies can resist court warrants seeking to unlock encrypted communications. The agency went to court trying to force Apple to create new software to crack password protection on a phone used by the shooter in San Bernardino.

Boycott Apple until they give up the information, Trump said at a rally in South Carolina in February. He said Tim Cook, Apples chief executive officer, is looking to do a big number, probably to show how liberal he is. Apple should give up.

While the FBI dropped that case against Apple after buying a tool to hack into the phone, the increasing use of encryption on mobile devices and messaging services remains a challenge to national security and law enforcement agencies.

Republicans led by Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Richard Burr of North Carolina are expected to re-introduce legislation requiring companies to give investigators access to encrypted communications.

The FBI is also seeking legislation that would allow it to obtain non-content electronic communication transactional records, such as browsing histories and computer Internet Protocol addresses, without court oversight or a warrant.

Sessions and Burr supported the legislation earlier this year, while it was opposed by major technology groups as well as Google and Facebook.

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Transhumanism The History of a Dangerous Idea

Posted: November 27, 2016 at 9:47 am

Transhumanism is a recent movement that extols mans right to shape his own evolution, by maximizing the use of scientific technologies, to enhance human physical and intellectual potential. While the name is new, the idea has long been a popular theme of science fiction, featured in such films as 2001: A Space Odyssey, Blade Runner, the Terminator series, and more recently, The Matrix, Limitless, Her and Transcendence.

However, as its adherents hint at in their own publications, transhumanism is an occult project, rooted in Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, and derived from the Kabbalah, which asserts that humanity is evolving intellectually, towards a point in time when man will become God. Modeled on the medieval legend of the Golem and Frankenstein, they believe man will be able to create life itself, in the form of living machines, or artificial intelligence.

Spearheaded by the Cybernetics Group, the project resulted in both the development of the modern computer and MK-Ultra, the CIAs mind-control program. MK-Ultra promoted the mind-expanding potential of psychedelic drugs, to shape the counterculture of the 1960s, based on the notion that the shamans of ancient times used psychoactive substances, equated with the apple of the Tree of Knowledge.

And, as revealed in the movie Lucy, through the use of smart drugs, and what transhumanists call mind uploading, man will be able to merge with the Internet, which is envisioned as the end-point of Kabbalistic evolution, the formation of a collective consciousness, or Global Brain. That awaited moment is what Ray Kurzweil, a director of engineering at Google, refers to as The Singularly. By accumulating the total of human knowledge, and providing access to every aspect of human activity, the Internet will supposedly achieve omniscience, becoming the God of occultism, or the Masonic All-Seeing Eye of the reverse side of the American dollar bill.

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Transhumanism The History of a Dangerous Idea

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Immortality: When (soon) and How That’s Really Possible

Posted: November 23, 2016 at 9:55 pm

Last Updated:20 April 2016 Author: Glyn Taylor

Indefinite life extension will be possiblewithin 30 years! Quite awow, really? prediction! This page is updated regularlywith the latest outlook towards our potentially immortal future.Please comment with your thoughts and any new information you would like adding. Like us on Facebook to keep updated, coz that would be awesome!

Want to live forever? Vote in our poll.

Twenty Years ago the idea of postponing aging, let alone reversing it, was weird and off-the-wall. Today there are good reasons for thinking it is fundamentally possible. Michael R. Rose

Within 30 Years? We instinctively fail to see technological growth as being exponential. If you do not understand the concept of exponential growth, then chances are you do not think immortality will ever be possible, let alone understand that it could be achieved within 30 years. To find out more, read our explanation of exponential growth.

The ExpertsWho Agree Dont take our word for it bring in the experts! Expert #1: Google. Larry Page and Sergey Brin, theGoogle co-founderssupport the theories of expert #2: Ray Kurzweil, who is the most popularised living futurist,as well as one of the leaders in the artificial intelligence industry, and chief of engineering at Google. He asserts that immortality could be achieved in as little as 20 years.

Moving from the technological realm to the world of bioengineering, we have expert #3: Aubrey de Gray, who is chief science officer at one of the most famous anti-ageing research foundations, the SRF. Aubrey de Grey, who was born in1963, believes that there is a 50/50 chance he will be alive when humanity reaches immortality. He is one of the leading faces in the fight against ageing, and is often invited to present his anti-aging theories for universities, TED Talks, think tanks, and news outlets.

Another face in the fight against ageing is expert #4: Jason Silva, who is a performance philosopher. To understand the brilliance of how he thinks, you must see his performances at his current YouTube channel, Shots of Awe. He supportsthe theories of both Ray Kurzweil and Aubrey de Grey, and describes immortality as the goal of humanity.

The Researchers

Since 2010, progression in the life extension industry has relatively sky-rocketed, more so in Russia than anywhere else. We have seen the formation of many high profile research companies, departments, foundations, institutes, and initiatives, with the specific aim of radically extending life.

Ageing is a multi-causal complex genetically determined biological process, and so to research how to combat it, you need the merger of many related disciplines.View hereto see just how complicated it is to even just track the bio-marker of ageing. The following example are only of groups that have the specific aim of life extension. Those specialising in sub-disciplines (but contributing to anti-ageing) are not listed.

The SRF aims to help build the industry that will cure the diseases of ageing.With this aim, they supply funding for the universities that are contributing to anti-ageing research. In addition to this, they run their own research centre, which brings together the knowledge of all anti-ageing sub-disciplines to gain an overseeing perspective. It is headed by the infamous, Aubrey de Grey. Here is theSENS FoundationAnnual Report 2015.

In 2013 Google helped launch Calico, an independent research and development biotech company, with the aim of combating ageing.Its CEO, Arthur Levinson is the Chairman of AppleandGenetech. In 2015 it announced its working withAncestryDNA, whocan provide access to a unique combination of resources that will enable Calico to develop potentially ground breaking therapeutic solutions. It is also working with a biopharmaceutical company calledAbbVie,whowill provide scientific and clinical development support and its commercial expertise toallow therapies to enter experimental phases.

This one makes a lot of headlines. It is taking a different approach; they aim to create technologies that will enable the transfer of an individuals consciousness to a more advanced non-biological immortal carrier. Below is their forecast for how they plan to advance.

Even More Researchers

The Buck InstituteMethuselah FoundationLongevity AllianceGeroWake ForestHuman Longevity, Inc.

What is Immortality?

Some think of it as the complete immunity from deaththe ability to get shot 200 times and then spit the bullets out. Maybe that will be possible one day, but it wont be our first version of immorality. The immortality we mean here is the ability to remain a healthy age, indefinitely. Ideally this age will be 21, with our bodies being fully formed, before their decline.

MindUploading is NOT Immortality

The 2045 Initiative are aiming to achieve immortality by uploading our brain dataout of our mortal biological minds and into an artificial one. Even if they manage to create a storage unit capable of working exactly like our own mind, all theyare doing is copy and pasting The copied version might be youin the moment of creation, but not from the next moment onwards. After seeing this copy and talking to it, would you then allow yourself to be turned off and replaced by it;to be killed? Well nah, I wouldnt. That isnt immortality, its reproduction.

Immortality is the indefinite maintenance of our biological minds.

Why Live Forever?

When you read an immortality related article on a mainstreamnews website, half of the people in the comments section seem to hate the idea. Usually the negativity towards immortality is displayed by those who dont understand what possibilities are waiting for us in the future; theythink of an immortal life asboring. I wrote an article calledWhy you will want to be immortal, to argue against that point of view. Another big reason that people do not want to live forever is because they believe that they will miss their lost loved ones too much. In response to that, I wrote, How everyone who has ever died, could be revived in the future.

Mortality is primitive, it is just a problem for humanity to overcome. Immortality is a natural development inthe evolutionary process of life.

How we will Live Forever

Ray Kurzweil has every intention to reach immortality. To do so, he has devised a personal plan to get there which involves 3 bridges. His plan is of course dependent on science achieving our immortality in around 20-30 years. The current priority is surviving for at least 20 years.

Bridge 1 Be Healthy

The first bridge is all about doing everything possible to extend your life with our current knowledge of ageing.The scientifically uncontroversial methods include: following a low-calorie (below 1500 calories), low-carb (below 80 grams) diet, and getting plenty of exercise and lots of sleep. Other methods raise eyebrows, such as drinking 10 glasses of highly alkaline water a day to rid the body of toxins, and having weekly intravenous infusions of vitamins, chelating agents and various other pharmaceuticals. Many other methods exist to rid the body of toxins, which can be found through a Google search. Wehave a guide onhow to get enough antioxidants to extend life.

Bridge 2 Biotechnology

The next bridge takes advantage of the accelerating biotechnology revolution. This will begin to take us beyond simply staying healthy, and into the realm of enhancements. Eventually biotechnology will cure aging, and even allow us to turn back our body clocks, on the journey there though discoveries will be made which will enhance our health, and extend our lifespans. We will see the increasing use of gene therapy, stem cells, therapeutic cloning, and replacement cells, tissues and organs.

Bridge 3 Nanotechnology & Artificial Intelligence

These technologies will completely revolutionise everything we know, how we live, why we live, and yes how long we live. For more information about the future that these technologies will create, read our explanation of the technological singularity.

Nano-sized robotic devices, miniature even compared to the size of a single blood cell, will become commonplace during the 2020s. It is predicted that these devices will progress to be used within the body to maintain perfect health and youth. The devices are already being used for diagnosis purposes. They will provide constant monitoring and notify you if you begin to develop any health problems. For example, they will detect cancer at its very first sign of growth, notify you and latch on to the cancerous cells, tagging them for immediate removal. In the next few decades they will not only diagnose, but also treat illnesses. For more information, read our guide to the nanotechnology revolution.

And we havent even mentioned Artificial Intelligence yet. Eventually through developments in nanotechnology, neural science, artificial brain building, and artificial intelligence, enough understanding will exist to enable our minds to be integrated into other storage mediums; we will have the ability to upload our minds (with the aid of nanotechnology); this is also referred to as digital immortality. Alternatively, we could still operate from our original brains, but outsource its cognition. For example, we could control a robot instead of our own body, or we could plug in to a virtual environment. Our intelligence levels would be significantly increased, we would communicate telepathically, and we would access the internet with our thoughts. The changes that such technology will have on humanity is incomprehensible. For more information about this future, check out ourinformation page about transhumanism.

Video Break! Below you can watch Ray Kurzweil explain more about bridge 3.

What aboutExistential Risk andOverpopulation?

So yeah, immortality would be great. But whos to say we will even get there without destroying each other first? The upcoming security risks related to emerging technologies are immense. We have written an article about the 5 emerging technologies that could destroy the world.

And if we do survive to reach immortality, then what about overpopulation? We will have problems to face with regard to overpopulation and the need for resources. These problems though can be overcome with new technologies, and it will not interrupt humanities transfer to immortality. We have written a detailed article, explaining why immortality wont cause overpopulation.

Security can Prevail

Lets end on a positive. Along with advanced weaponry comes advanced defence. For example, withmolecular manufacturingand early forms of non-conscious AI, a system of surveillance could be established to defend against the creation of illegal weaponry. This system would not be encroaching of privacies because humans will only be notified of your actions, should those actions be flagged by the system as suspicious. The only time your privacy will be invaded in an optimistic (non-dictatorship) future is when you are acting illegally.

Along with the advances may come a rising willingness to globally cooperate in order to progress with mutually beneficial aims such as self-sufficiency, immortality and space exploration; the threat of mutual destruction could become so great that nations will have no option but to come together and collaborate to tackle security problems together. On the subject of religious fundamentalism, with innovations such as immortality and the creation of god-like artificial intelligence, perhaps religions will become more open minded about the potential for science to explain the truth of our creation, acting to dilute religion and increase multiculturalization, secularisation and cooperation.

Have more to add?

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Rise of the Posthuman Technocracy : Waking Times

Posted: November 21, 2016 at 11:11 am

Nathaniel Mauka, Staff Writer Waking Times

When Seth Lloyd, a professor of Quantum-Mechanical Engineering at MIT first suggested that the Universe was a giant, quantum computer, the notion garnered a few peoples attention. Lloyd believes that everything in the Universe is made up of chunks of information called bits, disputable as a seeming extension of the materialistic view of the world where stuff is all there is, with no ability for a sentient being to escape the Matrix. Those green, streaming numbers in the opening scene of the film, in fact, would account for everything if it were up to Lloyd, but he is not alone in assuming that we live in a Universe with such a limited description.

There are purportedly a number of billionaires in Silicon Valley and elsewhere who are using Lloyds popularized view as a jumping board to develop technologies which would free us from a bit-made actuality otherwise known as the computer simulation we collectively call the Matrix. Lloyd thinks that even atoms are made of bits. If this were the case, then a simple reprogramming of the 1s and 0s ought to give us an innumerable number of options, but even a quantum computer has limitations.

Mathematician, Peter Shor was able to show that a quantum computer can solve some of the most impossible problems in nanoseconds, but just like Artificial Intelligence, you cant fake real experience and sentient reality. More importantly, what are the implications of giving the machines power over our lives, even if some of them have made redundant activities less bothersome?

Ray Kurzweil once wrote that the exponential growth of AI will lead to a technological singularity, a point when machine intelligence will overpower human intelligence. Lloyd argues that a great quantum computer has already taken over. Stephen Hawking has also warned that Artificial Intelligence could take over humanity so if we were to juxtapose these scenarios over one another, even you and I are just bits, certain to experience an impending doom.

Other large corporations just took over the Internet, the last bastion of fairinformation sharing on the planet. Do Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, and others in this technocracy threaten not just the democratic governance of technology, but the absolute sovereignty of ourselves?

Transhumanists have already popularized the notion of cyborgs and super human powers augmented with hardware machinery and software computer parts. The game is half played.

Katherine Hayles wrote in her 1999 publication How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics,

In the posthuman, there are no essential differences, or absolute demarcations, between bodily existence and computer simulation, cybernetic mechanism and biological organism, robot technology and human goals. Humans can either go gently into that good night, joining the dinosaurs as a species that once ruled the earth but is now obsolete, or hang on for a while longer by becoming machines themselves. In either casethe age of the human is drawing to a close.

In a technocracy, power is given only to those who can make decisions based on technological knowledge. The system of governance which holds technology as God cannot fathom the subtleties of human emotion, nor express compassion, morality, or achieve spiritual ascension.

As William Henry has put it, Are you ready to cede your body to the global body and to Transhumanist technology under [the] Transnationalistss control? Really this is a world a Universe no different than the one imagined by the cabal for thousands of years. An elite few create a One World Government, only in this case it expands into solar systems and planets we have yet imagined visiting. The United Nationshas even called this Universal Plan a way to extend peace, but we should not be fooled.

If you dont agree with the technocratic agenda, fear not that youll be on the other end of a gun. Youll be micro-chipped instead. Or, youll pick out your implantable device, or your retina lenscreated by Google. In one of the most secretive start-ups ever, Magic Leap, has raised more than billion dollars to create an implantable contact lens that injects computer-generated images or floats virtual objects into your very real world view. DARPA has already developed numerous technologies to infiltrate your brain, and even to take control over your peripheral nervous system. You wont have personal relations with other human beings. Your avatar will do it for you.

Humanity is undergoing a metamorphosis, but there are two directions we could take. Lloyds version is only one. Another involves ascending spiritually, instead of relying on technology and artificial intelligence in order to outsmart mortality. WhileGoogle and Big Pharma, along with the Department of Defense promise an extra 500 years to some among us, those who have obtained true enlightenment, as suggested by Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche, can experience something much greater than a little bit of extended time in a skin suit.

Nathaniel Mauka is a researcher of the dark side of government and exopolitics, and a staff writer forWaking Times.

This article (Rise of the Posthuman Technocracy) was originally created and published by Waking Times and is published here under a Creative Commons license with attribution toNathaniel Maukaand WakingTimes.com. It may be re-posted freely with proper attribution and author bio.

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Rise of the Posthuman Technocracy : Waking Times

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