Tag Archives: health

Alternative Medicine Degree, BS – Everglades University

Posted: January 11, 2017 at 1:56 pm

All degree programs are offered online and on campus.

The Bachelor of Science Degree with a major in Alternative Medicine will prepare freshman students for entry-level careers in the alternative medicine environment such as chiropractic, acupuncture, physical therapy, rehabilitation, hospitals, wellness centers, and spas. Students entering this program with previous vocational or technical training, or with an Associates Degree, will gain the knowledge necessary for advancement in the alternative medicine environment.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE WITH A MAJOR IN ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE DESCRIPTION The curriculum is designed to allow the student to gain the knowledge necessary to work in the alternative medicine environment. The degree will enable students to incorporate a holistic approach into their careers and be successful in a variety of industries such as healthcare, sports, rehabilitation, management, spas, leisure and the beauty industries. This degree requires no Externship/Internship and no licensing or certifications will be awarded.

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Everglades Universitys Bachelor of Science Degree with a major in Alternative Medicine program provides alternative medicine major courses combined with general education courses. The program enables the graduate to analyze and communicate the integration of the mind, body, and spirit within the healthcare environment by encompassing several disciplines of study such as physical medicine, integrative wellness techniques, and nutrition.

PROGRAM OUTLINE To receive a Bachelor of Science Degree with a major in Alternative Medicine, students must complete 123 credits as described below. The length of this program is approximately 41 months (this will vary if a student transfers in credits).

*IDS courses allow credit for appropriate prior learning. Allied Health, Natural Science, Physical Science, and Health Services Administration are commonly accepted disciplines for transfer credit into this degree major. Additional courses may be evaluated and accepted at thediscretion of the Dean of Academic Affairs or Associate Dean.

Note: All programs are offered online and/or on campus.

See the rest here:

Alternative Medicine Degree, BS – Everglades University

Posted in Alternative Medicine | Comments Off on Alternative Medicine Degree, BS – Everglades University

Empowerment Theory – Springer

Posted: January 8, 2017 at 7:56 pm

Alinsky, S. (1971). Rules for radicals NY: Vintage

Barker, R. G. (1960). Ecology and motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation,8, 144

Berger, P. J., & Neuhaus, R. J. (1977). To empower people: The role of mediating structures in public policy. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research

Brown, L. D. (1983). Organizing participatory research: Interfaces for joint inquiry and organizational change. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 4, 919

Checkoway, B. (1982). The empire strikes back: More lessons for health care consumers. Journal of Health Politics, Policy,and Law, 7, 111124

Checkoway, B., & Doyle, M. (1980). Community organizing lessons for health care consumers. Journal of Health Politics, Policy,and Law, 5,213226

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13,471481

Cornell Empowerment Group. (1989). Empowerment and family support. Networking Bulletin, 1,123

Cottrell, L. S., Jr. (1983). The competent community. In R. Warren & L. Lyon (Eds.), New perspectives on the American community (pp. 398432). Homewood, IL: Dorsey

Craig, S. C., & Maggiotto, M. (1982). Measuring political efficacy. Political Methodology, 8, 85109

Cravens, R. B. (1981). Grassroots participation in community mental health. In W. Silverman (Ed.), Community mental health New York: Praeger

De Charms, R. (1968). Personal causation New York: Academic

Dougherty, D. (1988). Participation in community organizations: Effects on political efficacy, personal efficacy, and self-esteem Doctoral Dissertation, Boston University, Boston, MA

Fish, J. (1973). Black power/white control: The struggle of the Woodlawn Organization in Chicago Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Galaskiewicz, J. (1979). Exchange networks and community politics Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Gallant, R. V., Cohen, C., & Wolff, T. (1985). Change of older persons image, impact on public policy result from Highland Valley Empowerment Plan. Perspective on Aging, 14, 913

Gatchel, R. (1980). Perceived control: A review and evaluation of therapeutic application. In A. Baum & J. Singer (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (pp. 122). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Glass, D. C., & Singer, J. E. (1972). Urban stress: Experiments on noise and social stressors. New York: Academic

Heil, W. B. (1991, August). Re-reviewing participation in decision-making: Toward a multidimensional model Paper presented at the Ninety-Ninth Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA

Kieffer, C. H. (1984). Citizen empowerment: A developmental perspective. Prevention in Human Services, 3, 936. Labs, S. M., & Wurtele, S. K. (1986). Fetal health locus of control scale: Development and validation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,54, 814819

Langer, E. J. (1983). The Psychology of Control. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Lefcourt, H. (1976). Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Levine, A. G. (1982). Love Canal: Science, politics, and people Lexington, MA: Lexington Books

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1986). But is that rigorous?: Trustworthiness and authenticity in naturalistic evaluation. In D. D. Williams (Ed.), Naturalistic evaluation: New directions for program evaluation (pp. 7384). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Maynard, J. (1986, May 11). The people of New Hampshire against the nuclear dump. New York Times Magazine, pp. 2022, 2425, 40

Mechanic, D. (1991, February). Adolescents at risk: New directions Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Conference on Health Policy, Cornell University Medical College

Minkler, M. (1990). Improving health through community organization. In K. Glanz, F. M. Lewis, & B. K. Rimer (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory,research, and practice (pp. 257287). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Morrissey, J. P., Tausig, M., & Lindsey, M. L. (1986). Interorganizational networks in mental health systems: Assessing community support programs for the chronically mentally ill. In W. R. Scott & B. L. Black (Eds.), The organization of mental health services (pp. 197230). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage

Pivan, F. F., & Cloward, R. A. (1977). Poor peoples movements: Why they succeed, how they fail New York: Vintage Books

Rappaport, J. (1985). The power of empowerment language. Social Policy, 16, 1521

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized experiences for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs,80, 10141053

Stone, R. A., & Levine, A. G. (1985). Reactions to collective stress: Correlates of active citizen participation. Prevention in Human Services,4, 153177

Sue, S., & Zane, N. (1980). Learned helplessness theory and community psychology. In M. S. Gibbs, J. R. Lachenmeyer, & J. Sigal (Eds.), Community psychology: Theoretical and empirical approaches (pp. 121143). New York: Gardner

White, D. M. (1981). Mediacracy: Mass media and psychopathology. In J.M. Joffe & G. W. Albee (Eds.), Prevention through political action and social change. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England

Zimmerman, M. A. (1986). Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Zimmerman, M. A. Israel, B. I., Schulz, A., & Checkoway, B. (1992). Further explorations in empowerment theory: An empirical analysis of psychological empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20,707728

Read the rest here:

Empowerment Theory – Springer

Posted in Personal Empowerment | Comments Off on Empowerment Theory – Springer

Top 100 Womens Empowerment Blogs | Psychology of Eating

Posted: at 7:56 pm

Here are our picks forTop 100 Womens Empowerment Blogs.Please enjoy! Here atThe Institute for the Psychology of Eating,were on a mission to forever change the way the world understands food, body and health.

The Institute for the Psychology of Eatingisthe worlds only online school dedicated to a progressive, positive, holistic understanding of eating psychology and nutrition. Unique and revolutionary in its approach, the Institute teaches students and professionals how to effectively work with the most common and compelling eating challenges of our times weight, body image, overeating, binge eating, emotional eating, endless dieting, digestion, fatigue, immunity, mood and much more.

The Institute features an internationally acclaimed distance learningprofessional offering theEating Psychology Coach Certification Training along with well loved online programs for the public, includingTransform Your Relationship with Food.No matter what nutritional system you follow, we all have a relationship with food that profoundly impacts our behavior and metabolism.Ifyoure interested in learning more about the work we do, please check out our FREE Video Series calledThe Dynamic Eating PsychologyBreakthrough.You can sign up for itHERE.The list below forTop100 Womens EmpowermentBlogsis in no particular order. Theyre all ranked highly in our eyes!

Just copy and paste the code below!

1. The Wild Sisterhood Jen Saunders is a writer, painter, and empowerment artist who is passionate about inspiring women to love themselves, follow their hearts and change the world. Her writing has been featured on popular websites such as Tiny Buddha, Kind Over Matter, Roots Of She, and many more. Her first guest contribution to Tiny Buddha was so popular, her story was also featured in the bestselling Tiny Buddha book.

2. Eves Health and Fitness Blog Eves Health & Fitness blog gives valuable fitness tips and background information on food. Her blog is a nice addition to the network of all the health and fitness information out there.

3. Healthy Woman The doctors at Healthy Woman are dedicated to the emotional, physical, and psychological needs of women. Their blog offers health advice ranging from nutritional tips to common birth control concerns and valuable cancer information.

4. Hardy Girls Healthy WomenHardy Girls Healthy Women is a research-based non-profit that whole-heartedly works to empower girls and women. This is a great resource for parents and activists alike. Its also simply a good read if youre interested in womens empowerment.

5. MizFit Online Carla Birnberg founded MizFitOnline to share her health and fitness knowledge from years of working as a health writer, community builder, personal trainer and bodybuilding competitor. She helps women feel strong and powerful in their bodies.

6. Speaking of Womens Health Speaking of Womens Health is dedicated to: Educating women to make informed decisions about health, well-being and personal safety for themselves and their families. The site is run by the Cleveland Clinic Center for Specialized Womens Health.

7. StrongHealthyWoman.com Laura Miranda is a Physical Therapist, Personal Trainer and local fitness & nutrition expert. She created her blog for busy women hungry for cutting edge fitness and nutrition advice.

8. The Great Fitness Experiment Charlotte decided that she was tired of reading studies in magazines and wondering, well that works well on mice, but what about on people? So now she reads all the health and fitness research she can track down and she tries it herself. Then she writes it all down in her blog for you!

9. The Healthy Apron Erin takes the mystery out of fitness science. Whether you are struggling with food, weight or simply searching for a healthier lifestyle, you can learn great things from The Healthy Apron.

10. Workout Mommy Lisa is the Work Out Mommy, and her blog aims to help you find that time and keep you motivated and on task! If youre a mom, check out the empowering tips and advice this blog has to offer.

11. Fit Bottomed Girls Erin, Jen, Kristen and Trish together make up the Fit Bottomed Girls. Their goal is to motivate you to get healthy through a balance of good food and healthy activity. They have a great sense of humor and take the punishment idea out of working out.

12. FYI Behealthy.comFYI Be Healthy is dedicated to health and nutrition. Its authors take scientific studies from all areas relating to health and transform the information into very well-written and accessible articles for you.

13. Happy Mothering Before Chrystal had children, she was a marketing communications manager at a Fortune 20 healthcare company. Now she finds the empowerment to be both a mom and a working woman. Her blog helps mothers find their own empowerment.

14. Healthy Women. Informed. Empowered. HealthyWomen has been working for more than 20 years to, educate, inform and empower women to make smart health choices for themselves and their families.

15. Imperfect Women Imperfect Women is written and edited by about a dozen women (ages spanning four decades!). The goal of the editors and writers is to reach out to women of all walks of life. They believe that, each womans choices about her life and family should be respected. We share one common trait: we are all works in progress.

16. The Vegan Woman The Vegan Woman is written by 13 women and one man. They create a positive, safe space to talk about the vegan lifestyle and share information and advice. Whether your new to the lifestyle, a life-longer, or interested in being vegan, check out this empowering site full of knowledge.

17. Women Health and Family Tips Women Health and Family Tips combines nutrition, exercise and personal inner search for a healthier you. Theres a lot of great personal advice here that we can all benefit from!

18. Women SpeakDr. Nancy is a motivational speaker who draws on her life experience as a clinical psychologist, crisis responder and director of an employee assistance program to bring empowerment to other women.

19. Stirrup QueensMelissa provides information relating to adoption and infertility. As the mother of two twins conceived through fertility treatments she shares wisdom with other mothers and soon-to-be-mothers to help make their journey smoother.

20. Any BodyMultiple individuals contribute to this site. All of them have the same mission of giving women a voice to challenge the limited physical representation of females in contemporary society.

21.EverydayFeminine MagicBlog written by Indigo Bacal, the founder of Wilde (Women of Inspired Leadership Devoted to Evolution) Tribe. Indigo promotes feminine magic and finding your true voice.

22. Purpose to Prosperity Blog written by Sage Lavine, a business coach promoting women empowerment through financial freedom. She also promotes the idea that business development can be our spiritual teacher.

23. Voices at W4 VOICES is a forum for raising awareness and sharing insights about the living conditions and prospects of girls and women today. Through interviews, articles, commentaries and testimonies, VOICES highlights initiatives that are helping to improve the lives of girls and women around the world. Everyone concerned about girls and womens empowerment is invited to read and/or share his/her perspective on VOICES.

24. NicoleDaedone.com Nicole Daedone is a sought-after speaker, teacher, and author who has spent her groundbreaking career redefining orgasm from a womans point of view. Seeing a womans sex as her power, she treats sexuality with unparalleled humor, intelligence, and insight. Nicole is the author ofSlow Sex: The Art and Craft of the Female Orgasmand is the founder of OneTaste, a company that offers training in orgasm, communication, and man-woman relationships.

25. KellyNotaras.com Kellya sex and relationship consultantwho provides consulting services to women and men to become fully expressed, sexually empowered individuals. Having trained with Nicole Daedone, Kellys work is authentic and powerful and her writing is honest and down to earth. She brings a refreshing and compassionate approach to sexuality and relationship.

26. LeonieDawsom.comLeonie is a blogger, author, and visual artist who helps women build businesses based on their creative gifts. She also organizes an online womens circle made up of over 2,000 women from around the world.

27. She Takes on the WorldShe Takes on the World is written by Natalie MacNeil. Natalie is a woman business owner and globetrotter who decided to start blogging in 2007. She Takes on the World is one of the top blogs in the world for career-minded women and women entrepreneurs.

28. Jessica Valenti One of the Top 100 Inspiring Women in the world by The Guardian Jessica is the author of four books on feminism, politics and culture. Her third book, The Purity Myth: How Americas Obsession with Virginity is Hurting Young Women, won the 2010 Independent Publisher Book Award and was made into a documentary by the Media Education Foundation.

29. Soul and Art StudioCreator of Soul Art Studio, is a business that promotes connecting people with their spirit and creating a life and business that expresses it.

30. DanielleLaPorte.comDanielle LaPorte writes about authenticity, creativity and meaningful work. She loves sharing her insights at conferences, on stage, always in high heels.

31. Truth + Heart + HussleDanielle Dowling is part relationship expert, part womens life coach and part spiritual ass-kicker. She helps women dream big and get it.

32. Marie Forleo Marie Forleos goal is to add more value to your world than you ever dreamed possible by giving you tools that you can immediately use to improve your business and life. Shes the founder of a 100% virtual, woman-owned and run, socially-conscious company who envisions a world where every human being has the financial and emotional freedom to live life to the fullest.

33. The Boss of YouThe Boss of You provides business coaching for women. The authors are Lauren Bacon and Emira Mears who started the site as a living guide to business, their way. You can find their thoughts & ruminations on business, profiles of women-run businesses, resources for women entrepreneurs and more!

34. Gypsy GalsGypsyGals is a website written by Prime and Nina Sarmiento. They provide supportive advice for solo female travelers, as well as detailed, photo-rich city guides to the best cities for women.

35. A Feminine FeastSabrina Chaw is a coach and lecturer who works to support women to embody the truth and power of their Feminine core. She also organizes women circles and workshops just for women.

36. TheEntrepreneurialGuru for WomenAli provides business coaching and mentoring for women entrepreneurs. She started her first business from scratch 11 years ago in her NYC apartment and has since grown her enterprise into the millions.

37. Financial Freedom Coach for WomenKarie is a financial freedom coach for women. Her blog covers a wide range of financial topics as well as the occasional promotion for other women entrepreneurs.

38. Owning PinkLissa Rankin, an OB-GYN physician, author and artist, blogs on owningpink.com. The blog entries cover all things woman from relationships, to feminism, to sexual and reproductive health.

39. Wise LivingTara is a writer, public speaker, and developer of the Playing Big program, which supports women as they find and use their gifts. Her blog contains inspirational words, as well as useful tools for living an authentic life.

40. Truth + Transformation for Women SolopreneursJac works with women solopreneurs to grow and develop their businesses. She believes that developing your own business is an amazing platform for self-actualization.

41. Crazy Sexy Life Kris Carr covers topics such as happiness, health, and spiritual wealth. There is also a community built around the blog that encourages women to become CEOs of their health.

42. RebeccaDettman.comRebecca Dettman is a spiritual expert that started the blog Psyched in Stilettos, which covers the latest spiritual trends and cosmic news. Rebecca also started the Aurora Circle, an online group for likeminded spiritual women.

43. Nourishing Our RadianceSeveral writers contribute to this blog, which focuses on inspiring women to transform their relationship to nourishment through compassionate mind body awareness.

44. A Life of Perfect DaysConnie is a transformational life coach and passionate writer. Shes addicted to green juice and yoga, while her site is a place of inspiration and insight. She wants to help women follow their own bliss & listen to their heart.

45. Shastas Friendship BlogShasta writes a blog for women about developing and maintaining friendships with other women. The blog is attached to girlfriendcircles.com, which matches women with other women for offline friendships.

46. Tending Your Inner GardenTending Your Inner Garden is a website for women who want to grow. It encourages women to discover their deeper self and their relationship to all things sacred. They use the seasons as a model for change and help women become in tune with their own inner guidance.

47. Get Vitalized NaturallyWritten by a physician who focuses on womens health and issues that affect women. Postings often include information about physical wellbeing, but also touch on sexual and mental health.

48. Mama Genas School of Womanly ArtsRegena writes about women using their power of pleasure to have their way with the world. She runs the Womanly Arts Mastery Program, which is a 6 month course that helps women discover their pleasure and achieve their dreams.

49. The Psychologist, The Mom, & Me The Psychologist, The Mom, & Me covers a ride range of topics related to personal growth for women, as well as parenting. Dr. Hibbert is an expert on Parenting, Womens Emotions, Pregnancy & Postpartum, and Grief & Loss.

50. Money Wise Women Several writers contribute to this blog about financial health for women. While the appearance of the blog is drab, it does contain regularly updated content.

51. 27 Months Without Peanut-Butter Documents the personal encounters and experiences of Maggie Close, a peace corps volunteer who has been working with teenage girls in Jordan since 2011. Its a very simple blog, but the stories of these young women are not only awe-inspiring but also provides a healthy dose of perspective and gratitude.

52. Coaching Women to SucceedAnn is a coach that works with women making career changes. She helps women reclaim their confidence and power.

53. Center of the Psychology of WomenThe CPoW blog contains cultural commentary, interviews, essays and advice all while bringing chic to the feminine mystique. Much of the information on the site is geared towards readers in L.A.

54. Womens Success Coaching Live Your PotentialWomen Success Coaching has been recognized for many years in a row by Forbes magazine as one of the top sites for women. Topics covered in the blog often relate to career and business development.

56. Sylvia Browders Blog for WomenEntrepreneurs Sylvia Browder is geared towards women entrepreneurs. Several writers contribute to articles covering topics such as financial wellbeing, spirituality, health and wellness, and business development.

57. Awakening WomenAwakening Women is written for a global audience of women. It aims to bring the fiercely compassionate wisdom of the feminine back into our lives, thus restoring balance.

58. Harness Your Hormones. Unleash Your Power.Jessica is a health, hormone, and nutrition educator for women. Her blog covers these topics, as well as occasionally touching on business topics. Her wants to empower women to reach their highest, brightest and most exquisite potential.

59.Vanessa Carnevale Vanessa is a life coach, small business mentor, and a keynote speaker and writer. She loves to help people achieve rich and purposeful lives. Vanessa delivers business tips and life inspiration tomotivate you to live your dream.

60. WellnessWarriorJessica Ainscough is a writer and holistic coach who was diagnosed with cancer at the age of 22. The blog covers a variety of wellness topics from yoga to mental wellbeing to nutrition to inspirational quotes.

61. KarenFagan.comKaren Fagan is an empowerment coach for women, motivational speaker, and writer. Karens blog is written for women who want to live a brilliant life.

62. The Path to WellnessMelissa is a certified holistic health and life coach who helps women end their negative relationship with their bodies and fall back in love with themselves and their life.

63. Feministing The editors of Feministing.com established the site as a community for feminists all over to help give them the tools, connections and empowerment to effect positive change in their communities.

64. In Other WordsIn Other Words is a feminist bookstore in Portland, Oregon, and their blog provides a safe space for political and social discussions from a feminist perspective.

65. Wholistic Women RetreatsThe Wholistic Coaching Coalition is an amazing group of certified coaches trained in personal and professional development. They teach women the skills to find greater fulfillment in their lives.

66. Life Your WayTia uses her life experiences, business knowledge and life coaching skills to help readers dream bigger, demand better and make braver choices.

67. TinaRead.comDr. Trinas mission is to show couples how to have fun and meaningful sex at all stages of life. Check out her blog to answers to those questions you never really want to ask out loud.

68. Date Like a GrownupBobbi Palmer helps smart, accomplished grownup women Find Hope and then Find Him. You can start to get to know Bobbi through her well-written blog.

69. Live Bold and BloomBarrie Davenport wants to inspire her readers to do exactly what her blog is titled: Live Bold and Bloom! For inspiration, check out her blog.

70. Biz Chick Blog Biz Chick Blogs is an online magazine for working women. Its a place for women to share ideas and discuss topics relevant to everyday working life.

71. Flourish Over 50Susan founded Flourish Over 50 to provide an online community for women over 50. As she puts it, Your life after 50 is a time of rediscovery, a time to reinvent yourself to live life to the fullest. Share your stories with others here!

72. Aging AbundantlyFor women nearing middle age, Aging Abundantly provides support and advice for women entering a new chapter in their lives.

73. Becoming a Woman of PurposeDiscover how to ignite your inner peace through the tools and tips Carolyn offers in Becoming a Woman of Purpose!

74. Oops 50!If your a woman over 50, head to Oops 50! to share your experiences, your life and your knowledge and learn from others.

75. Third Age WomenThe Third Age Women blog is all about finding fulfillment and self-sufficiency in all areas of life. For advice on everything from budgeting to adult education, check this out.

76. Women on the FenceErica Diamond created her blog for all women who have ever been on the fence about anything life, business, love

77. The Jenny Pincher The Jenny Pincher is for single women. It offers advice on how to get out of debt and build wealth.

78. Single Minded WomenThe Single Minded Women blog is for single women. It provides entertaining, informative and vital information that every single woman can use to enhance her lifestyle.

79. Dating and Relating CompanyElizabeth is an online dating and relationship consultant. She promotes quality sites and people who she believes in. Check out Dating and Relating Company for real advice!

80. Love in 90 DaysDr. Diana is a love expert, media psychologist and bestselling author. She has helped thousands of women find their dreams.

81. Love and Relationship AdviceSusie & Otto write about ways they have learned to create more understanding and equal relationships. For great, clear advice that both you and your partner can benefit from, check out their blog.

82. Former Fat ChickShareen is a health coach that focuses on inspiring & motivating others who want to improve their health by losing weight. Shes a self-proclaimed Former Fat Chick who lives in Niles, CA.

83. BlogHer BlogHer is the largest community of women bloggers out there! For the best women-lead conversations on the Internet, head to this blog.

84. LipSticking Lip-sticking is a society and interactive website for women, by women and about women. Lead by Yvonne DiVita, their blog is written about issues in business and life.

85. The Soul Sisters Blog The Soul Sisters Blog is written by three sisters on a mission to empower and inspire women everywhere to pursue their passions and achieve their dreams. If you desire to get more out of life, check out their empowering blog.

86. The Maternal Health Task Force The Maternal Health Task Force empowers women through efforts to improve maternal health worldwide. This is a major contribution to womens empowerment, and their writing keeps readers up to date on all of their work and new developments in the maternal health field.

87. Wealthy Bag Lady -With more than 20 years of experience, Linda Hollander is the industry leader in teaching women entrepreneurs about small business success and attracting corporate sponsors. If youre a business owner, check out her blog to see what she can teach you.

88. Womens Life Empowerment Robin writes about how to take control and keep control in the workplace and in your life. For some great empowering advice, check out her blog.

89. What About Our Daughters A truly inspirational blog written for black women and girls. The blog encourages women to use their economic power to effect change in our society. Learn how you can make a difference through their inspirational articles.

90. On Writing, Teaching and Feminism Marina DelVecchio is a College Instructor who blogs about the importance of literacy and the necessary empowerment in young girls and women. She does a great job of including our daughters in the conversation of womens empowerment.

91. The FBomb The F in FBomb stands for feminist. And rightly named, this blog is for teenage girls who care about their rights as women and want to be heard.

92. Geek Feminism The Geek Feminism blog supports feminists in all geek communities. This including science and technology, gaming, SF fandom, and really anyone who identifies herself as a geek. So, if youre a geek and a feminists, heres the conversation for you.

93. PenelopeTrunk.comA women entrepreneur who writes career advice. Penelope blogs about career, romance and parenting.

94. 8 Women Dream 8 Women Dream is about eight empowered women who tell the world about how they are accomplishing their dreams. It will leave you nothing short of inspired to go out and chase your own dreams.

95. Kale & Chocolate Elise Museles is an Eating Psychology & Nutrition Expert based in Washington, DC. A self-proclaimed recovering perfectionist, Elise shows women how to loosen the reins, bend the rules, and experience true satisfaction. (Not to mention: hot bodies, full lives & happy hearts.) Meet Elise & discover a new kind of perfect.

96. Spiritual Sweat Amanda Christian helps women set themselves free, blaze their own trails, and step into their power. She writes that we should Expect Miracles and shes not afraid to debunk the myths of being spiritual or how to be a good dancer. She is often seen with a copy of A Course in Miracles nearby. Whatever shes doing seems to be working: this lady won a professional tree climbing championship in 2012.

Link:

Top 100 Womens Empowerment Blogs | Psychology of Eating

Posted in Personal Empowerment | Comments Off on Top 100 Womens Empowerment Blogs | Psychology of Eating

Genetics & Medicine – Site Guide – NCBI – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Posted: December 29, 2016 at 3:43 am

Bookshelf

A collection of biomedical books that can be searched directly or from linked data in other NCBI databases. The collection includes biomedical textbooks, other scientific titles, genetic resources such as GeneReviews, and NCBI help manuals.

A resource to provide a public, tracked record of reported relationships between human variation and observed health status with supporting evidence. Related information intheNIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR),MedGen,Gene,OMIM,PubMedand other sources is accessible through hyperlinks on the records.

A registry and results database of publicly- and privately-supported clinical studies of human participants conducted around the world.

An archive and distribution center for the description and results of studies which investigate the interaction of genotype and phenotype. These studies include genome-wide association (GWAS), medical resequencing, molecular diagnostic assays, as well as association between genotype and non-clinical traits.

An open, publicly accessible platform where the HLA community can submit, edit, view, and exchange data related to the human major histocompatibility complex. It consists of an interactive Alignment Viewer for HLA and related genes, an MHC microsatellite database, a sequence interpretation site for Sequencing Based Typing (SBT), and a Primer/Probe database.

A searchable database of genes, focusing on genomes that have been completely sequenced and that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific data. Information includes nomenclature, chromosomal localization, gene products and their attributes (e.g., protein interactions), associated markers, phenotypes, interactions, and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression reports, homologs, protein domain content, and external databases.

A collection of expert-authored, peer-reviewed disease descriptions on the NCBI Bookshelf that apply genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients and families with specific inherited conditions.

Summaries of information for selected genetic disorders with discussions of the underlying mutation(s) and clinical features, as well as links to related databases and organizations.

A voluntary registry of genetic tests and laboratories, with detailed information about the tests such as what is measured and analytic and clinical validity. GTR also is a nexus for information about genetic conditions and provides context-specific links to a variety of resources, including practice guidelines, published literature, and genetic data/information. The initial scope of GTR includes single gene tests for Mendelian disorders, as well as arrays, panels and pharmacogenetic tests.

A database of known interactions of HIV-1 proteins with proteins from human hosts. It provides annotated bibliographies of published reports of protein interactions, with links to the corresponding PubMed records and sequence data.

A compilation of data from the NIAID Influenza Genome Sequencing Project and GenBank. It provides tools for flu sequence analysis, annotation and submission to GenBank. This resource also has links to other flu sequence resources, and publications and general information about flu viruses.

A portal to information about medical genetics. MedGen includes term lists from multiple sources and organizes them into concept groupings and hierarchies. Links are also provided to information related to those concepts in the NIH Genetic Testing Registry (GTR), ClinVar,Gene, OMIM, PubMed, and other sources.

A project involving the collection and analysis of bacterial pathogen genomic sequences originating from food, environmental and patient isolates. Currently, an automated pipeline clusters and identifies sequences supplied primarily by public health laboratories to assist in the investigation of foodborne disease outbreaks and discover potential sources of food contamination.

A database of human genes and genetic disorders. NCBI maintains current content and continues to support its searching and integration with other NCBI databases. However, OMIM now has a new home at omim.org, and users are directed to this site for full record displays.

A database of citations and abstracts for biomedical literature from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. Links are provided when full text versions of the articles are available via PubMed Central (described below) or other websites.

A digital archive of full-text biomedical and life sciences journal literature, including clinical medicine and public health.

A collection of clinical effectiveness reviews and other resources to help consumers and clinicians use and understand clinical research results. These are drawn from the NCBI Bookshelf and PubMed, including published systematic reviews from organizations such as the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, The Cochrane Collaboration, and others (see complete listing). Links to full text articles are provided when available.

A collection of resources specifically designed to support the research of retroviruses, including a genotyping tool that uses the BLAST algorithm to identify the genotype of a query sequence; an alignment tool for global alignment of multiple sequences; an HIV-1 automatic sequence annotation tool; and annotated maps of numerous retroviruses viewable in GenBank, FASTA, and graphic formats, with links to associated sequence records.

A summary of data for the SARS coronavirus (CoV), including links to the most recent sequence data and publications, links to other SARS related resources, and a pre-computed alignment of genome sequences from various isolates.

An extension of the Influenza Virus Resource to other organisms, providing an interface to download sequence sets of selected viruses, analysis tools, including virus-specific BLAST pages, and genome annotation pipelines.

Go here to read the rest:
Genetics & Medicine – Site Guide – NCBI – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Posted in Gene Medicine | Comments Off on Genetics & Medicine – Site Guide – NCBI – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Dietary supplements: Do they help or hurt? – Harvard Health

Posted: December 26, 2016 at 3:03 pm

What you need to know before taking a vitamin or mineral supplement.

The average American diet leaves a lot to be desired. Research finds our plates lacking in a number of essential nutrients, including calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, and D. It’s no wonder that more than half of us open a supplement bottle to get the nutrition we need. Many of us take supplements not just to make up for what we’re missing, but also because we hope to give ourselves an extra health boosta preventive buffer to ward off disease.

Getting our nutrients straight from a pill sounds easy, but supplements don’t necessarily deliver on the promise of better health. Some can even be dangerous, especially when taken in larger-than-recommended amounts.

Here are the recommended levels of daily intake for several important nutrients.

Nutrient

How much you

Don’t exceed

Calcium

1,0001,200 mg

2,000 mg

Folate

400 mcg

1,000 mcg

Iron

8 mg

45 mg

Vitamin A

700 mcg RAE*

3,000 mcg RAE

Vitamin B 6

1.5 mg

100 mg

Vitamin B 12

2.4 mcg

No established

upper limit

Vitamin C

75 mg

2,000 mg

Vitamin D

600800 IU

4,000 IU

Vitamin E

15 mg

1,000 mg

*Retinol activity equivalents

We’ve heard a lot of encouraging news about supplements. A series of studies hailed vitamin D as a possible defense against a long list of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, depression, and even the common cold. Omega-3 fatty acids have been touted for warding off strokes and other cardiovascular events. And antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and beta carotene were seen as promising silver bullets against heart disease, cancer, and even Alzheimer’s disease.

Here’s the big caveat: many of those exciting supplement studies were observationalthey didn’t test a particular supplement against a placebo (inactive pill) in a controlled setting. The results of more stringent randomized controlled trials haven’t yielded the same good news.

“Often the enthusiasm for these vitamins and supplements outpaces the evidence. And when the rigorous evidence is available from randomized controlled trials, often the results are at odds with the findings of the observational studies,” explains Dr. JoAnn Manson, chief of preventive medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and principal investigator of a large randomized trial known as VITAL (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial).

Because observational studies may not fully control for dietary factors, exercise habits, and other variables, they can’t prove whether the treatment is responsible for the health benefits. “People who take supplements tend to be more health conscious, exercise more, eat healthier diets, and have a whole host of lifestyle factors that can be difficult to control for fully in the statistical models,” Dr. Manson says.

Some supplements that were found to have health benefits in observational studies turned out, with more rigorous testing, to be not only ineffective but also risky. Vitamin E, which was initially thought to protect the heart, was later discovered to increase the risk for bleeding strokes. Folic acid and other B vitamins were once believed to prevent heart disease and strokesuntil later studies not only didn’t confirm that benefit but actually raised concerns that high doses of these nutrients might increase cancer risk.

We need a variety of nutrients each day to stay healthy, including calcium and vitamin D to protect our bones, folic acid to produce and maintain new cells, and vitamin A to preserve a healthy immune system and vision.

Yet the source of these nutrients is important. “Usually it is best to try to get these vitamins and minerals and nutrients from food as opposed to supplements,” Dr. Manson says.

Fruits, vegetables, fish, and other healthy foods contain nutrients and other substances not found in a pill, which work together to keep us healthy. We can’t get the same synergistic effect from a supplement. Taking certain vitamins or minerals in higher-than-recommended doses may even interfere with nutrient absorption or cause side effects.

Nutrient

Food sources

Calcium

Milk, yogurt, sardines, tofu,

fortified orange juice

Folic acid

Fortified cereal, spinach,

lentils, beef liver

Iron

Oysters, chicken liver, turkey

Omega-3

fatty acids

Salmon, sardines, flaxseed,

walnuts, soybeans

Vitamin A

Sweet potato, spinach, carrots,

cantaloupe, tomatoes

Vitamin B6

Chickpeas, salmon,

chicken breast

Vitamin B12

Clams, beef liver, trout,

fortified breakfast cereals

Vitamin D

Salmon, tuna, yogurt,

fortified milk

Vitamin E

Wheat germ oil, almonds,

sunflower seeds, peanut butter

Before you take any supplements for disease prevention, it’s important to know whether the potential benefits outweigh the risks. To make that conclusion, you need to look at the results of well-designed studies. A recent randomized trial in men suggested multivitamins have possible benefits for cancer prevention. For many of the other popular supplements, including vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids, results from randomized controlled trials should be available within the next five years, according to Dr. Manson.

Until then, be judicious about your use of supplements. If you’re lacking in a particular nutrient, ask your doctor whether you need to look beyond your diet to make up for what you’re missingbut don’t take more than the recommended daily intake for that nutrient unless your health care provider advises it.

Originally published: January 2013

Read the rest here:

Dietary supplements: Do they help or hurt? – Harvard Health

Posted in Food Supplements | Comments Off on Dietary supplements: Do they help or hurt? – Harvard Health

Genetically modified food – Wikipedia

Posted: December 21, 2016 at 6:43 pm

Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits than previous methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.[1]

Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato.[2][3] Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton. Genetically modified crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and for better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have been developed, although as of November 2013 none were on the market.[4]

There is a scientific consensus[5][6][7][8] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[9][10][11][12][13] but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[14][15][16] Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe.[17][18][19][20] The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.[21][22][23][24]

However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds are subject to intellectual property rights owned by corporations.[25]

Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding.[26][27] In the US, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) favor the use of “genetic engineering” over “genetic modification” as the more precise term; the USDA defines genetic modification to include “genetic engineering or other more traditional methods.”[28][29]

According to the World Health Organization, “Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The technology is often called ‘modern biotechnology’ or ‘gene technology’, sometimes also ‘recombinant DNA technology’ or ‘genetic engineering’. … Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods.”[26]

Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection at about 10,500 to 10,100 BC.[30]:1 The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification (GM).[30]:1[31]:1 With the discovery of DNA in the early 1900s and various advancements in genetic techniques through the 1970s[32] it became possible to directly alter the DNA and genes within food.

The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[33] Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration.[34] In the early 1990s, recombinant chymosin was approved for use in several countries.[34][35] Cheese had typically been made using the enzyme complex rennet that had been extracted from cows’ stomach lining. Scientists modified bacteria to produce chymosin, which was also able to clot milk, resulting in cheese curds.[36]

The first genetically modified food approved for release was the Flavr Savr tomato in 1994.[2] Developed by Calgene, it was engineered to have a longer shelf life by inserting an antisense gene that delayed ripening.[37] China was the first country to commercialize a transgenic crop in 1993 with the introduction of virus-resistant tobacco.[38] In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the USA.[39] Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato.[2]

With the creation of golden rice in 2000, scientists had genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time.[40]

By 2010, 29 countries had planted commercialized biotech crops and a further 31 countries had granted regulatory approval for transgenic crops to be imported.[41] The US was the leading country in the production of GM foods in 2011, with twenty-five GM crops having received regulatory approval.[42] In 2015, 92% of corn, 94% of soybeans, and 94% of cotton produced in the US were genetically modified strains.[43]

The first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was AquAdvantage salmon in 2015.[44] The salmon were transformed with a growth hormone-regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon and a promoter from an ocean pout enabling it to grow year-round instead of only during spring and summer.[45]

In April 2016, a white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) modified using the CRISPR technique received de facto approval in the United States, after the USDA said it would not have to go through the agency’s regulatory process. The agency considers the mushroom exempt because the editing process did not involve the introduction of foreign DNA.[46]

The most widely planted GMOs are designed to tolerate herbicides. By 2006 some weed populations had evolved to tolerate some of the same herbicides. Palmer amaranth is a weed that competes with cotton. A native of the southwestern US, it traveled east and was first found resistant to glyphosate in 2006, less than 10 years after GM cotton was introduced.[47][48][49]

Genetically engineered organisms are generated and tested in the laboratory for desired qualities. The most common modification is to add one or more genes to an organism’s genome. Less commonly, genes are removed or their expression is increased or silenced or the number of copies of a gene is increased or decreased.

Once satisfactory strains are produced, the producer applies for regulatory approval to field-test them, called a “field release.” Field-testing involves cultivating the plants on farm fields or growing animals in a controlled environment. If these field tests are successful, the producer applies for regulatory approval to grow and market the crop. Once approved, specimens (seeds, cuttings, breeding pairs, etc.) are cultivated and sold to farmers. The farmers cultivate and market the new strain. In some cases, the approval covers marketing but not cultivation.

According to the USDA, the number of field releases for genetically engineered organisms has grown from four in 1985 to an average of about 800 per year. Cumulatively, more than 17,000 releases had been approved through September 2013.[50]

Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus. ‘SunUp’ is a transgenic red-fleshed Sunset papaya cultivar that is homozygous for the coat protein gene PRSV; ‘Rainbow’ is a yellow-fleshed F1 hybrid developed by crossing ‘SunUp’ and nontransgenic yellow-fleshed ‘Kapoho’.[51] The New York Times stated, “in the early 1990s, Hawaiis papaya industry was facing disaster because of the deadly papaya ringspot virus. Its single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus. Without it, the states papaya industry would have collapsed. Today, 80% of Hawaiian papaya is genetically engineered, and there is still no conventional or organic method to control ringspot virus.”[52] The GM cultivar was approved in 1998.[53] In China, a transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya was developed by South China Agricultural University and was first approved for commercial planting in 2006; as of 2012 95% of the papaya grown in Guangdong province and 40% of the papaya grown in Hainan province was genetically modified.[54]

The New Leaf potato, a GM food developed using naturally occurring bacteria found in the soil known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was made to provide in-plant protection from the yield-robbing Colorado potato beetle.[55] The New Leaf potato, brought to market by Monsanto in the late 1990s, was developed for the fast food market. It was withdrawn in 2001 after retailers rejected it and food processors ran into export problems.[56]

As of 2005, about 13% of the Zucchini (a form of squash) grown in the US was genetically modified to resist three viruses; that strain is also grown in Canada.[57][58]

In 2011, BASF requested the European Food Safety Authority’s approval for cultivation and marketing of its Fortuna potato as feed and food. The potato was made resistant to late blight by adding resistant genes blb1 and blb2 that originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.[59][60] In February 2013, BASF withdrew its application.[61]

In 2013, the USDA approved the import of a GM pineapple that is pink in color and that “overexpresses” a gene derived from tangerines and suppress other genes, increasing production of lycopene. The plant’s flowering cycle was changed to provide for more uniform growth and quality. The fruit “does not have the ability to propagate and persist in the environment once they have been harvested,” according to USDA APHIS. According to Del Monte’s submission, the pineapples are commercially grown in a “monoculture” that prevents seed production, as the plant’s flowers aren’t exposed to compatible pollen sources. Importation into Hawaii is banned for “plant sanitation” reasons.[62]

In 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company that contained ten genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried. The modifications eliminate specific proteins from the potatoes, via RNA interference, rather than introducing novel proteins.[63][64]

In February 2015 Arctic Apples were approved by the USDA,[65] becoming the first genetically modified apple approved for sale in the US.[66]Gene silencing is used to reduce the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus preventing the fruit from browning.[67]

Corn used for food and ethanol has been genetically modified to tolerate various herbicides and to express a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that kills certain insects.[68] About 90% of the corn grown in the U.S. was genetically modified in 2010.[69] In the US in 2015, 81% of corn acreage contained the Bt trait and 89% of corn acreage contained the glyphosate-tolerant trait.[43] Corn can be processed into grits, meal and flour as an ingredient in pancakes, muffins, doughnuts, breadings and batters, as well as baby foods, meat products, cereals and some fermented products. Corn-based masa flour and masa dough are used in the production of taco shells, corn chips and tortillas.[70]

Genetically modified soybean has been modified to tolerate herbicides and produce healthier oils.[71] In 2015, 94% of soybean acreage in the U.S. was genetically modified to be glyphosate-tolerant.[43]

Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide produced by all green plants as an energy store. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odourless powder. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.[72]

Starch can be further modified to create modified starch for specific purposes,[73] including creation of many of the sugars in processed foods. They include:

Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid. It can be found in egg yolks and oil-producing plants. it is an emulsifier and thus is used in many foods. Corn, soy and safflower oil are sources of lecithin, though the majority of lecithin commercially available is derived from soy.[74][75][76][pageneeded] Sufficiently processed lecithin is often undetectable with standard testing practices.[72][not in citation given] According to the FDA, no evidence shows or suggests hazard to the public when lecithin is used at common levels. Lecithin added to foods amounts to only 2 to 10 percent of the 1 to 5 g of phosphoglycerides consumed daily on average.[74][75] Nonetheless, consumer concerns about GM food extend to such products.[77][bettersourceneeded] This concern led to policy and regulatory changes in Europe in 2000,[citation needed] when Regulation (EC) 50/2000 was passed[78] which required labelling of food containing additives derived from GMOs, including lecithin.[citation needed] Because of the difficulty of detecting the origin of derivatives like lecithin with current testing practices, European regulations require those who wish to sell lecithin in Europe to employ a comprehensive system of Identity preservation (IP).[79][verification needed][80][pageneeded]

The US imports 10% of its sugar, while the remaining 90% is extracted from sugar beet and sugarcane. After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the United States. 95% of beet acres in the US were planted with glyphosate-resistant seed in 2011.[81] GM sugar beets are approved for cultivation in the US, Canada and Japan; the vast majority are grown in the US. GM beets are approved for import and consumption in Australia, Canada, Colombia, EU, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Russian Federation and Singapore.[82] Pulp from the refining process is used as animal feed. The sugar produced from GM sugarbeets contains no DNA or proteinit is just sucrose that is chemically indistinguishable from sugar produced from non-GM sugarbeets.[72][83] Independent analyses conducted by internationally recognized laboratories found that sugar from Roundup Ready sugar beets is identical to the sugar from comparably grown conventional (non-Roundup Ready) sugar beets. And, like all sugar, sugar from Roundup Ready sugar beets contains no genetic material or detectable protein (including the protein that provides glyphosate tolerance).[84]

Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola,[85]corn,[86][87]cotton[88] and soybeans.[89] Vegetable oil is sold directly to consumers as cooking oil, shortening and margarine[90] and is used in prepared foods. There is a vanishingly small amount of protein or DNA from the original crop in vegetable oil.[72][91] Vegetable oil is made of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds and then refined and may be further processed via hydrogenation to turn liquid oils into solids. The refining process[92] removes all, or nearly all non-triglyceride ingredients.[93] Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) offer an alternative to conventional fats and oils. The length of a fatty acid influences its fat absorption during the digestive process. Fatty acids in the middle position on the glycerol molecules appear to be absorbed more easily and influence metabolism more than fatty acids on the end positions. Unlike ordinary fats, MCTs are metabolized like carbohydrates. They have exceptional oxidative stability, and prevent foods from turning rancid readily.[94]

Livestock and poultry are raised on animal feed, much of which is composed of the leftovers from processing crops, including GM crops. For example, approximately 43% of a canola seed is oil. What remains after oil extraction is a meal that becomes an ingredient in animal feed and contains canola protein.[95] Likewise, the bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil and meal. The high-protein defatted and toasted soy meal becomes livestock feed and dog food. 98% of the US soybean crop goes for livestock feed.[96][97] In 2011, 49% of the US maize harvest was used for livestock feed (including the percentage of waste from distillers grains).[98] “Despite methods that are becoming more and more sensitive, tests have not yet been able to establish a difference in the meat, milk, or eggs of animals depending on the type of feed they are fed. It is impossible to tell if an animal was fed GM soy just by looking at the resulting meat, dairy, or egg products. The only way to verify the presence of GMOs in animal feed is to analyze the origin of the feed itself.”[99]

A 2012 literature review of studies evaluating the effect of GM feed on the health of animals did not find evidence that animals were adversely affected, although small biological differences were occasionally found. The studies included in the review ranged from 90 days to two years, with several of the longer studies considering reproductive and intergenerational effects.[100]

Rennet is a mixture of enzymes used to coagulate milk into cheese. Originally it was available only from the fourth stomach of calves, and was scarce and expensive, or was available from microbial sources, which often produced unpleasant tastes. Genetic engineering made it possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomachs and insert them into bacteria, fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin, the key enzyme.[101][102] The modified microorganism is killed after fermentation. Chymosin is isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the Fermentation-Produced Chymosin (FPC) used by cheese producers has an amino acid sequence that is identical to bovine rennet.[103] The majority of the applied chymosin is retained in the whey. Trace quantities of chymosin may remain in cheese.[103]

FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.[34][35] FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and as of 2015 had yet to be surpassed in commercial markets.[104] In 1999, about 60% of US hard cheese was made with FPC.[105] Its global market share approached 80%.[106] By 2008, approximately 80% to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the US and Britain were made using FPC.[103]

In some countries, recombinant (GM) bovine somatotropin (also called rBST, or bovine growth hormone or BGH) is approved for administration to increase milk production. rBST may be present in milk from rBST treated cows, but it is destroyed in the digestive system and even if directly injected into the human bloodstream, has no observable effect on humans.[107][108][109] The FDA, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, American Dietetic Association and the National Institutes of Health have independently stated that dairy products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for human consumption.[110] However, on 30 September 2010, the United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, analyzing submitted evidence, found a “compositional difference” between milk from rBGH-treated cows and milk from untreated cows.[111][112] The court stated that milk from rBGH-treated cows has: increased levels of the hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1); higher fat content and lower protein content when produced at certain points in the cow’s lactation cycle; and more somatic cell counts, which may “make the milk turn sour more quickly.”[112]

Genetically modified livestock are organisms from the group of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, horses and fish kept for human consumption, whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. In some cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the animals which does not occur naturally in the species, i.e. transgenesis.

A 2003 review published on behalf of Food Standards Australia New Zealand examined transgenic experimentation on terrestrial livestock species as well as aquatic species such as fish and shellfish. The review examined the molecular techniques used for experimentation as well as techniques for tracing the transgenes in animals and products as well as issues regarding transgene stability.[113]

Some mammals typically used for food production have been modified to produce non-food products, a practice sometimes called Pharming.

A GM salmon, awaiting regulatory approval[114][115][116] since 1997,[117] was approved for human consumption by the American FDA in November 2015, to be raised in specific land-based hatcheries in Canada and Panama.[118]

The use of genetically modified food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles can open new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Several such organisms are under clinical evaluation, and the current adoption of this technology by the industry indicates a potential to benefit global healthcare systems.[119]

There is a scientific consensus[120][121][122][123] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[124][125][126][127][128] but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[129][130][131] Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe.[132][133][134][135]

Opponents claim that long-term health risks have not been adequately assessed and propose various combinations of additional testing, labeling[136] or removal from the market.[137][138][139][140] The advocacy group European Network of Scientists for Social and Environmental Responsibility (ENSSER), disputes the claim that “science” supports the safety of current GM foods, proposing that each GM food must be judged on case-by-case basis.[141] The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment called for removing GM foods from the market pending long term health studies.[137] Multiple disputed studies have claimed health effects relating to GM foods or to the pesticides used with them.[142]

The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.[143][144][145][146] Countries such as the United States, Canada, Lebanon and Egypt use substantial equivalence to determine if further testing is required, while many countries such as those in the European Union, Brazil and China only authorize GMO cultivation on a case-by-case basis. In the U.S. the FDA determined that GMO’s are “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) and therefore do not require additional testing if the GMO product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified product.[147] If new substances are found, further testing may be required to satisfy concerns over potential toxicity, allergenicity, possible gene transfer to humans or genetic outcrossing to other organisms.[26]

Government regulation of GMO development and release varies widely between countries. Marked differences separate GMO regulation in the U.S. and GMO regulation in the European Union.[148] Regulation also varies depending on the intended product’s use. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety.[149]

In the U.S., three government organizations regulate GMOs. The FDA checks the chemical composition of organisms for potential allergens. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) supervises field testing and monitors the distribution of GM seeds. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for monitoring pesticide usage, including plants modified to contain proteins toxic to insects. Like USDA, EPA also oversees field testing and the distribution of crops that have had contact with pesticides to ensure environmental safety.[150][bettersourceneeded] In 2015 the Obama administration announced that it would update the way the government regulated GM crops.[151]

In 1992 FDA published “Statement of Policy: Foods derived from New Plant Varieties.” This statement is a clarification of FDA’s interpretation of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act with respect to foods produced from new plant varieties developed using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology. FDA encouraged developers to consult with the FDA regarding any bioengineered foods in development. The FDA says developers routinely do reach out for consultations. In 1996 FDA updated consultation procedures.[152][153]

As of 2015, 64 countries require labeling of GMO products in the marketplace.[154]

US and Canadian national policy is to require a label only given significant composition differences or documented health impacts, although some individual US states (Vermont, Connecticut and Maine) enacted laws requiring them.[155][156][157][158] In July 2016, Public Law 114-214 was enacted to regulate labeling of GMO food on a national basis.

In some jurisdictions, the labeling requirement depends on the relative quantity of GMO in the product. A study that investigated voluntary labeling in South Africa found that 31% of products labeled as GMO-free had a GM content above 1.0%.[159]

In Europe all food (including processed food) or feed that contains greater than 0.9% GMOs must be labelled.[160]

Testing on GMOs in food and feed is routinely done using molecular techniques such as PCR and bioinformatics.[161]

In a January 2010 paper, the extraction and detection of DNA along a complete industrial soybean oil processing chain was described to monitor the presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean: “The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was successfully achieved in all the steps of extraction and refining processes, until the fully refined soybean oil. The amplification of RR soybean by PCR assays using event-specific primers was also achieved for all the extraction and refining steps, except for the intermediate steps of refining (neutralisation, washing and bleaching) possibly due to sample instability. The real-time PCR assays using specific probes confirmed all the results and proved that it is possible to detect and quantify genetically modified organisms in the fully refined soybean oil. To our knowledge, this has never been reported before and represents an important accomplishment regarding the traceability of genetically modified organisms in refined oils.”[162]

According to Thomas Redick, detection and prevention of cross-pollination is possible through the suggestions offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Suggestions include educating farmers on the importance of coexistence, providing farmers with tools and incentives to promote coexistence, conduct research to understand and monitor gene flow, provide assurance of quality and diversity in crops, provide compensation for actual economic losses for farmers.[163]

The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified crops. The disputes involve consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, environmental and political activists and scientists. The major disagreements include whether GM foods can be safely consumed, harm the environment and/or are adequately tested and regulated.[138][164] The objectivity of scientific research and publications has been challenged.[137] Farming-related disputes include the use and impact of pesticides, seed production and use, side effects on non-GMO crops/farms,[165] and potential control of the GM food supply by seed companies.[137]

The conflicts have continued since GM foods were invented. They have occupied the media, the courts, local, regional and national governments and international organizations.

The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.

Domingo, Jos L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Gin (2011). “A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants” (PDF). Environment International. 37: 734742. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. PMID21296423. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies.

Krimsky, Sheldon (2015). “An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment” (PDF). Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40: 132. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. I began this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.

And contrast:

Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016). “Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology: 15. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. ISSN0738-8551. PMID26767435. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.

The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.

and

Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). “Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96: 18511855. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID26536836. It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011).

Overall, a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food… Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.

Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.

Pinholster, Ginger (October 25, 2012). “AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could “Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers””. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved February 8, 2016.

“REPORT 2 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12): Labeling of Bioengineered Foods” (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2016. Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature.

GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.

“Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement” (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Retrieved March 21, 2016. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.

When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment. As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.

Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.

The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit.

The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.

Domingo, Jos L.; Bordonaba, Jordi Gin (2011). “A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants” (PDF). Environment International. 37: 734742. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. PMID21296423. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies.

Krimsky, Sheldon (2015). “An Illusory Consensus behind GMO Health Assessment” (PDF). Science, Technology, & Human Values. 40: 132. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. I began this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.

And contrast:

Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I. (January 14, 2016). “Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology: 15. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. ISSN0738-8551. PMID26767435. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.

The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.

and

Yang, Y.T.; Chen, B. (2016). “Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96: 18511855. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID26536836. It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011).

Overall, a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food… Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.

Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.

Pinholster, Ginger (October 25, 2012). “AAAS Board of Directors: Legally Mandating GM Food Labels Could “Mislead and Falsely Alarm Consumers””. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved February 8, 2016.

“REPORT 2 OF THE COUNCIL ON SCIENCE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (A-12): Labeling of Bioengineered Foods” (PDF). American Medical Association. 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2016. Bioengineered foods have been consumed for close to 20 years, and during that time, no overt consequences on human health have been reported and/or substantiated in the peer-reviewed literature.

GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.

“Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement” (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Retrieved March 21, 2016. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.

When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment. As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.

Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.

The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit.

Follow this link:
Genetically modified food – Wikipedia

Posted in Genetic Engineering | Comments Off on Genetically modified food – Wikipedia

U.S. Transhumanist Party PUTTING SCIENCE, HEALTH …

Posted: at 6:41 pm

Gennady Stolyarov II

The Transhumanist Party is pleased to announce the revitalization of an ongoing official activism project one that all members, irrespective of geographical location, can easily join. This is a project that utilizes our favored approach of direct, individually attainable action toward the creation of a brighter future.

You can personally help advance the fight against a multitude of diseases such as Alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease, and many cancers.

The Longevity Meme Folding@home team a group of volunteers who donate their computing power to perform protein-folding simulations that could one day result in cures for major diseases and the lengthening of human lifespans has been operating for years, contributing otherwise idle computer resources to actual meaningful biological research.

To take part in this effort, just download the client for the Folding@home project at http://folding.stanford.edu/. Then join The Longevity Meme team here, and your computer will do the rest over time. I have personally been engaged in this effort for over six years.

If you would like a digital reward for contributing to this project, I am able to give five levels of digital Open Badges via Credly. Here is a page describing the various tiers of badges.Once you have reached the requisite number of Folding@home points to claim each badge, just contact me via e-mailhere with a message that includes your user name and an e-mail address.

The Transhumanist Party supports Lifespan.io and CellAge in their work towards groundbreaking scientific life-extension research. Finding a way to repair age-related damage to senescent cells would be a fundamental breakthrough for transhumanism, and we offer our best wishes and support for those striving towards these new technologies.

From Lifespan.io and CellAge:

Our society has never aged more rapidly one of the most visible symptoms of the changing demographics is the exponential increase in the incidence of age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Not only does aging have a negative effect on the quality of life among the elderly but it also causes a significant financial strain on both private and public sectors. As the proportion of older people is increasing so is health care spending. According to a WHO analysis, the annual number of new cancer cases is projected to rise to 17 million by 2020, and reach 27 million by 2030. Similar trends are clearly visible in other age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Few effective treatments addressing these challenges are currently available and most of them focus on a single disease rather than adopting a more holistic approach to aging.

Recently a new approach which has the potential of significantly alleviating these problems has been validated by a number of in vivo and in vitro studies. It has been demonstrated that senescent cells (cells which have ceased to replicate due to stress or replicative capacity exhaustion) are linked to many age-related diseases. Furthermore, removing senescent cells from mice has been recently shown to drastically increase mouse healthspan (a period of life free of serious diseases).

Here at CellAge we are working hard to help translate these findings into humans!

CellAge, together with a leading synthetic biology partner, Synpromics, are poised to develop a technology allowing for the identification and removal of harmful senescent cells. Our breakthrough technology will benefit both the scientific community and the general public.

In short, CellAge is going to develop synthetic promoters which are specific to senescent cells, as promoters that are currently being used to track senescent cells are simply not good enough to be used in therapies. The most prominently used p16 gene promoter has a number of limitations, for example. First, it is involved in cell cycle regulation, which poses a danger in targeting cells which are not diving but not senescent either, such as quiescent stem cells. Second, organism-wide administration of gene therapy might at present be too dangerous. This means senescent cells only in specific organs might need to be targeted and p16 promoter does not provide this level of specificity. Third, the p16 promoter is not active in all senescent cells. Thus, after therapies utilizing this promoter, a proportion of senescent cells would still remain. Moreover, the p16 promoter is relatively large (2.1kb), making it difficult to incorporate in present gene therapy vehicles. Lastly, to achieve the intended therapeutic effect the strength of p16 promoter to drive therapeutic effect might not be high enough.

CellAge will be constructing a synthetic promoter which has a potential to overcome all of the mentioned limitations. A number of gene therapy companies, including uniQure, AGTC and Avalanche Biotech have successfully targeted other types of cells using this technology. With your help, we will be able to use same technology to develop tools and therapies for accurate senescent cell targeting.

Gennady Stolyarov II

The United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN) has taken notice of the Transhumanist Party on its website, where it republished an article originally written by Dylan Love of NBC News. This November 18, 2016, article is titled The Next Global Race Aims to Perfect Artificial Intelligence and highlights Zoltan Istvans discussion of possibilities for the future of artificial intelligence, as well as concerns about geopolitical competition over AI development.

An excerpt from the article shows how the Transhumanist Party has contributed to discussion of this issue in a manner that the UN has deemed noteworthy:

Zoltan Istvan is founder of the Transhumanist Party, a legally recognized and PR-minded political effort that calls attention to what tomorrows mainstreaming of todays rapidly developing technology could mean for human life.

Istvan campaigned for the U.S. presidency in 2016 on the platform of harnessing existing technologies to maximize both the quality and duration of ones life. Though his theoretical thinking may seem to border on the fantastic, Istvan has enough street cred at the intersection of politics and technology that he has consulted with the U.S. Navy on the geopolitical implications of artificial intelligence. He readily identifies it as nothing less than a national security concern.

The Transhumanist Party encourages a diversity of perspectives from its members regarding the future potential, promise, and risks of artificial intelligence. In accord with its stepwise shift to a more participatory and member-driven governance model, the Transhumanist Party will soon be hosting discussion panels on a wide array of emerging technologies and their political and societal implications. Artificial intelligence will be among the first areas of technology discussed.

Gennady Stolyarov II

The following is the draft sample ballot generated thus far as a compilation of the suggestions provided during the 30-day exposure period for the Transhumanist Bill of Rights. The exposure period will continue until 12:01 a.m. U.S. Pacific Time on December 25, 2016,and comments will continue to be solicited until that time, with any further reasonable suggestions incorporated into the draft sample ballot until the end of the exposure period.

The draft sample ballot is a work in progress and will be revised on this page as further input is received. The purpose of releasing the sample ballot at this time is to provide insight into the structure of the voting and the options that have already been generated, so as to enable any interested members of the Transhumanist Party to read and understand the available options and propose further refinements and alternatives.

After the exposure period, a 7-day electronic voting period will occur from 12:01 a.m. U.S. Pacific Time on December 25, 2016, to 12:01 a.m. U.S. Pacific Time on January 1, 2017. Instructions for electronic voting will be sent to members of the U.S. Transhumanist Party via e-mail. All individuals who are members of the U.S. Transhumanist Partyas of the end of the exposure periodand who have expressed agreement with its threeCore Idealswill be eligible to vote thereafter.

Electronic voting will be conducted by a ranked-preference method on individual articles where more options are possible than would be accommodated by a simple Yes or No vote. Members should keep in mind that the ranked-preference method eliminates the incentives for strategic voting so members are encouraged to vote for the options that reflect their individual preferences as closely as possible, without regard for how other members might vote.

NOTE: The titles of the questions and potential Articles are descriptive and informational only and will not appear in the final adopted Transhumanist Bill of Rights. They are intended as concise guides to the subject matter of the questions and potential Articles. Likewise, the numbers or letters assigned to Articles within this ballot will not reflect the numbering in the final adopted Transhumanist Bill of Rights, which will depend on which Articles are selected by the membership. For purposes of convenient distinction, the original Articles developed by Zoltan Istvan are assigned Arabic numerals (1 through 6), while the new Articles proposed by the membership are assigned Latin letters (A through R, thus far).

NOTE II:The inclusion of any proposals on this ballot doesnot indicate any manner of endorsement for those proposals by the U.S. Transhumanist Party at this time except to place those proposals before the members to determine the will of the members with regard to whether or not the Transhumanist Bill of Rights should incorporate any given proposal.

Rank-order the Preamble Options that you support. Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. If you choose Abstain, then do not rank-order any options, as you will be considered to have skipped this question.

Preamble Option 1 [Original Text by Zoltan Istvan]. Whereas science and technology are now radically changing human beings and may also create future forms of advanced sapient and sentient life, transhumanists establish this TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS to help guide and enact sensible policies in the pursuit of life, liberty, security of person, and happiness.

Preamble Option 2. Transhumanist evolution is underway and establishes life principles that allow a sentient entity to alter, augment, and perform self-improvement efforts utilizing science and technology to achieve supreme intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. This TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS extends sentient rights to enhanced neo-humans, cybernetic, transgenic, anthropomorphic, and avatar beings. The TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS provides a sentient entity the right to procreate, clone, and form, the right to expand and extend life beyond biological fundamental boundaries, and to live life without illness, aging, and catastrophic loss of self in pursuit of immortality. This TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS provides principles for intellectual and inclusive policies for all sentient entities in pursuit of life, liberty, eternal existence, and freedom to be different.

The TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS is not static. As the collective of sentient entities continues to unravel the mysteries of the Universe and discover more facts, the TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS will change. We (sentient entities) must be malleable, inclusive, and understanding in thought and spirit at the same pace as society evolves. We must continue to aspire, gain knowledge, and improve life.

Preamble Option 3. Transhumanist evolution is underway and establishes life principles that allow a sentient entity to alter, augment, and perform self-improvement efforts utilizing science and technology to achieve supreme intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities; to provide a sentient entity the rights to procreate, clone, and adapt form; to expand and extend life beyond present-day boundaries; and to live life without illness and loss of self in pursuit of immortality. We organize to provide principles for intellectual and inclusive policies for all sentient entities in pursuit of life, liberty, and eternal existence. This TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS extends sentient rights to all humans, cyborgs, transgenic, anthropomorphic, avatar, and yet-to-be-identified beings as defined herein.

The TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS is not static. As the collective of sentient entities continues to unravel the mysteries of the Universe and discover more facts, the TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS will change. We (sentient entities) must be malleable, inclusive, and understanding in thought and spirit at the same pace as society evolves. We must continue to aspire, gain knowledge, and improve life.

Preamble Option 4 [Usable if Option II(e) or Option II(f) below is adopted as well]. Transhumanist evolution is underway and establishes life principles that allow a sentient entity to alter, augment, and perform self-improvement efforts utilizing science and technology to achieve greaterintellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. This TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS extends sentient rights to enhanced neo-humans, cybernetic, transgenic, anthropomorphic, and avatar beings as well as any other being that demonstrates meta-cognition and self-directed awareness, which is capable of simultaneously modeling itself and its relation to the external reality, and whose cognitive processes can be described as lucid (characterized by continuous integration of information at Level 5 or a higher level as defined herein). The TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS provides a sentient entity the right to procreate, clone, and form, the right to expand and extend life beyond unenhanced biological fundamental boundaries, and to live life without illness, aging, and catastrophic loss of self in pursuit of immortality. This TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS provides principles for intellectual and inclusive policies for all sentient entities in pursuit of life, liberty, eternal existence, and self-actualization.

The TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS is not static. As the collective of sentient entities continues to unravel the mysteries of the Universe and discover more facts, the TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS will change. We (sentient entities) must be malleable, inclusive, and understanding in thought and spirit at the same pace as society evolves as we push mankind forward. We must continue to aspire, gain knowledge, and improve life.

Abstain.

Version 1 of the Transhumanist Bill of Rights uses the enumeration of human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms in each Article to refer to the entities encompassed by that Article. It has been suggested, instead, that a more concise term might be used in the Preamble to encompass all of the above-enumerated entities and perhaps others.

Such phrasing would be of the following form:

As used in this TRANSHUMANIST BILL OF RIGHTS, the term [CHOSEN TERM] includes human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms.

Shall the Preamble be amended to include the above-quoted statement and, in all Articles, replace the enumeration of human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms withthe term selected as [CHOSEN TERM]?

Rank-order your preference for whether to use such a more concise all-encompassing term and, if so, what that term might be. Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. If you choose Abstain, then do not rank-order any options, as you will be considered to have skipped this question.

Option II(a). Keep the enumeration of human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms in each article.

Option II(b). Use thought-capable individuals as the chosen term.

Option II(c). Use advanced sapient life forms as the chosen term and remove that term from the longer descriptive listing. If this option is chosen, advanced sapient life forms will be defined to mean human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other beings of comparable cognitive capability.

Option II(d). Use sentient entities as the chosen term.

Option II(e).Use sentient entities as the chosen term, with a hierarchical definition of sentience as described below:

Sentient entities are defined by information-processing capacity such that this term should not apply to non-self-aware lifeforms, like plants and slime molds. Biological processing substrates are referred to as using an analogue intelligence, whereas purely electronic processing substrates are referred to as digital intelligence (instead of sentient artificial intelligences), and processing substrates that utilize quantum effects would be considered quantum intelligence.

Sentience is ranked as Level 5 information integration according to the following criteria:

Option II(f).Use sentient entities as the chosen term, with a further clarification that sentient entities include all entities exhibiting Level 5 information integration, or lucidity meaning that any such entity is meta-aware aware of ones own awareness, aware of abstractions, aware of ones self, and therefore able to actively analyze each of these phenomena.

Abstain.

Shall the definition of beings to whom the Transhumanist Bill of Rights applies include a specific mention of Gods and Archangels? Select one of the following options?

Yes.

No.

Abstain.

Shall the definition of beings to whom the Transhumanist Bill of Rights applies include a specific mention of genetically modified humans? Select one of the following options.

Yes.

No.

Abstain.

Shall the definition of beings to whom the Transhumanist Bill of Rights applies include a specific mention of intellectually enhanced, previously non-sapient animals? Select one of the following options.

Yes.

No.

Abstain.

Shall the definition of beings to whom the Transhumanist Bill of Rights applies include a specific mention of any species of plant or animal which has been enhanced to possess the capacity for intelligent thought? Select one of the following options.

Yes.

No.

Abstain.

Rank-order the Article 1 Options that you support. Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. You may include the option for No Article of this sort in your rank-ordering, and it does not need to be your most favored option if you do so. (For instance, some voters might favor some options but think that no language is preferable to some of the other options.)

If you choose Abstain, then do not rank-order any options, as you will be considered to have skipped this question.

Option 1-1 [Original Text by Zoltan Istvan]. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms are entitled to universal rights of ending involuntary suffering, making personhood improvements, and achieving an indefinite lifespan via science and technology.

Option 1-2. Any sentient entity is entitled to enhance bodily and sensory capabilities, expand life, live free, and achieve eternal existence without suffering by utilizing science and technology.

Option 1-3.All human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms have the right to pursue transcendence of physical and mental limitations.

Option 1-4. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms are entitled to universal rights of ending involuntary suffering, making personhood improvements, and achieving an indefinite lifespan via science and technology, as well as any other behaviors constituting life enhancement.

Option 1-NO. No Article of this sort.

Abstain.

Rank-order the Article 2 Options that you support. Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. You may include the option for No Article of this sort in your rank-ordering, and it does not need to be your most favored option if you do so. (For instance, some voters might favor some options but think that no language is preferable to some of the other options.)

If you choose Abstain, then do not rank-order any options, as you will be considered to have skipped this question.

Option 2-1 [Original Text by Zoltan Istvan]. Under penalty of law, no cultural, ethnic, or religious perspectives influencing government policy can impede life-extension science, the health of the public, or the possible maximum amount of life hours citizens possess.

Option 2-2. Under penalty of law, no cultural, ethnic, or religious perspectives influencing government policy can impede life-extension science, the health of the public, body modification, morphological enhancement, or the possible maximum amount of life hours citizens possess.

Option 2-3. Legal safeguards should be established to protect individual free choice in pursuing peaceful, consensual life-extension science, health improvements, body modification, and morphological enhancement. While all individuals should be free to formulate their independent opinions regarding the aforementioned pursuits, no hostile cultural, ethnic, or religious perspectives should be entitled to apply the force of law to erode the safeguards protecting peaceful, voluntary measures intended to maximize the number of life hours citizens possess.

Option 2-4. Legal safeguards should be established to protect individual free choice in pursuing peaceful, consensual life-extension science, health improvements, body modification, and morphological enhancement. While all individuals should be free to formulate their independent opinions regarding the aforementioned pursuits, no intolerant cultural, ethnic, or religious perspectives should be entitled to apply the force of law to erode the safeguards protecting peaceful, voluntary measures intended to maximize the number of life hours citizens possess.

Option 2-5. No government or irrational group should be permitted to systematically deny any person or persons access to a life-enhancing technology or the freedom to pursue scientific and technological avenues for their betterment.

Option 2-6. No government or irrational group should be permitted to systematically deny any sapient beingaccess to a life-enhancing technology or the freedom to pursue scientific and technological avenues for their betterment or self-actualization.

Option 2-7. No government or private entity should be permitted to systematically deny any person or persons access to a life-enhancing technology or the freedom to pursue scientific and technological avenues for their betterment.

Option 2-8. Under penalty of law, no cultural, ethnic, or religious perspectives influencing government policy can impede efforts at transcending physical and mental limitations, improving the health of the public, or the possible maximum amount of life hours citizens possess.

Option 2-NO. No Article of this sort.

Abstain.

Rank-order the Article 3 Options that you support. Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. You may include the option for No Article of this sort in your rank-ordering, and it does not need to be your most favored option if you do so. (For instance, some voters might favor some options but think that no language is preferable to some of the other options.)

If you choose Abstain, then do not rank-order any options, as you will be considered to have skipped this question.

Option 3-1 [Original Text by Zoltan Istvan].Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms agree to uphold morphological freedomthe right to do with ones physical attributes or intelligence (dead, alive, conscious, or unconscious) whatever one wants so long as it doesnt hurt anyone else.

Option 3-2. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms agree to uphold morphological freedomthe right to do with ones physical attributes or intelligence (dead, alive, conscious, or unconscious) whatever one wants so long as it does not harm others.

Option 3-3. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms agree to uphold morphological freedomthe right to do with ones physical attributes or intelligence whatever one wants so long as it does not harm others.

Option 3-4. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms agree to uphold morphological freedomthe right to do with ones physical attributes or intelligence whatever one wants so long as it does not harm others. This right includes the prerogative for a sentient intelligence to set forth in advance provisions for how to handle its physical manifestation, should that intelligence enter into a vegetative, unconscious, or similarly inactive state, notwithstanding any legal definition of death.

Option 3-5. Human beings, sentient artificial intelligences, cyborgs, and other advanced sapient life forms agree to uphold morphological freedomthe right to do with ones physical attributes or intelligence whatever one wants so long as it does not harm others. This right includes the prerogative for a sentient intelligence to set forth in advance provisions for how to handle its physical manifestation, should that intelligence enter into a vegetative, unconscious, or similarly inactive state, notwithstanding any legal definition of death. For instance, a cryonics patient has the right to determine in advance that the patients body shall be cryopreserved and kept under specified conditions, in spite of any legal definition of death that might apply to that patient under cryopreservation.

Option 3-NO. No Article of this sort.

Abstain.

If Article 3 on morphological freedom is adopted, shall one of the followingsentences be appended after the base text of the article?

Choose 1 for your most highly favored option, 2 for your second-most highly favored option, etc. You may include the option Do not add anysentence of this sort in your rank-ordering, and it does not need to be your most favored option if you do so. (For instance, some voters might favor some options but think that no language is preferable to some of the other options.)

View post:
U.S. Transhumanist Party PUTTING SCIENCE, HEALTH …

Posted in Transhumanist | Comments Off on U.S. Transhumanist Party PUTTING SCIENCE, HEALTH …

How Ayn Rands theories destroyed Never Trump conservatism

Posted: December 15, 2016 at 12:13 am

Who is Donald Trump?Photo: Drew Angerer/Getty Images

During the Republican presidential primary, the conservative columnist and talk-show host Ross Kaminsky, like many members of the right-wing intelligentsia, looked at Donald Trump with horror and dismay. Not only was the front-runner a near-certain loser with dubious loyalty to the party agenda, but he was something far more disturbing, an authoritarian bully, even arguably a fascist. One need not violate Godwins Law to recognize that theres something deeply troubling about a leading presidential candidate having no objection to his supporters roughing up a vocal dissenter, he wrote, bemoaning the noxious blend of bile and tripe that emerges, as so much political vomitus, from his big and always-moving mouth. Kaminsky identified Trumps campaign as being about bullying and xenophobia, and the man himself as not quite ready to be president of Delta Tau Chi, and warned Republicans thinking of voting for him anyway that they could never explain such a choice to their children.

As the authoritarian bully prepares to assume control of the powers of the presidency, Kamnisky has not exactly disavowed these previous sentiments as he has moved on to an even more serious threat to the health of the Republic: namely, the tax and regulatory policies of the Obama administration. Kaminskys latest column carries the headline, Trump Election Saves Us From the Evil Party. Evil a word that appears 13 more times in his column applies to such policies as Dodd-Frank, environmental regulations, and the partial expiration of the Bush tax cuts. This, not Trumps pee-wee strongman act, represented the more serious threat to liberty, justifying an alliance with a figure as noxious as Trump.

An honorable handful of conservative opponents of Trump have maintained their opposition since his election. The vast majority have returned to the party fold. The path taken by many of them has focused on the alleged hypocrisy or excess of Trumps liberal critics. Now that the man considered by many conservative intellectuals as a peril to democracy itself has assumed the most powerful position on the planet, once staunchly anti-Trump conservatives like Charles C.W. Cooke, Oren Cass, or David French (who so fervently opposed Trump that he considered running against him for president) find themselves preoccupied with what they see as liberal hysteria against him. As Trump himself gleefully noted, Never Trump conservatives are on a respirator now. Theyre almost gone.

The Never Trump movement, like the vast majority of the political elite, yours truly included, pegged Trump from the outset as a surefire loser. When they refused to support his candidacy after he locked up the nomination in the spring, they anticipated a period of exile from mainstream Republican politics lasting most of the year, followed by a return to the fold, where they would wage a contest for the soul of the party, bolstered by the I-told-you-so evidence of Trumps crushing defeat. Few of them bargained for a period of exile that would last four years, or eight, or perhaps even longer. Professional and personal incentives dictate a retreat back to the safety of the herd via mockery of the pro- and anti-Trump rights shared enemy.

But to dismiss the Never Trumpers mass surrender as nothing but mere cowardice or expediency is to miss the dead-serious ideas undergirding their behavior. To liberals, it may sound baffling and incomprehensible that ordinary political arguments about taxes and regulation could outweigh his authoritarianism. Liberals generally see economic policy as a normal disagreement, apart from and subordinate to larger questions about democracy and structure of government.

Most conservatives, however, do not see these issues this way. The conservative movement treats small government as a first-order question of liberty, alongside or even above political liberty. Liberals treat economic policy on pragmatic grounds the point of Medicaid is to help poor people get health care, and the point of the Clean Air Act is to create more breathable air. Expanding government is the means toward those discrete ends. Conservatives have discrete goals, like economic growth, but also larger ideological ones. As Milton Friedman once put it, freedom in economic arrangements is itself a component of freedom broadly understood, so economic freedom is an end in itself to a believer in freedom. While it may seem strange to liberals, for economic conservatives, the fight to slash down the size of government is itself tantamount to a fight against authoritarianism.

Wall Street Journal op-ed columnist William McGurn sneers at liberals who have raised alarms over Trumps authoritarian tendencies. Whats striking here is that the same folks who see in Mr. Trump a Mussolini in waiting are blind to the soft despotism that has already taken root in our government, he writes. This is the unelected and increasingly assertive class that populates our federal bureaucracies and substitutes rule by regulation for the rule of law. McGurn goes on to cite such injustices as the Environmental Protection Agencys wetlands laws or the departments deliberate attempt to destroy the market for coal and the Labor Departments overtime rule.

A liberal would consider McGurns suggestion, that theyre hypocritical to support wetlands preservation while opposing a strongman-president, insane. From McGurns standpoint, it makes perfect sense. McGurn isnt coming out and defending Trumps habitual praise for dictators who crush their opposition, or his calls to imprison his political opponents. He simply sees the struggle for liberty as being of a piece, and the governments eagerness to eliminate business regulations and taxes on the rich suggests to him that freedom on the whole is moving forward.

The most uncompromising theorist of this philosophy is, of course, Ayn Rand. And while Rand had many beliefs, the core of her vision is that politics consists of a class struggle between makers and takers. This is inverted Marxism politics pitting a virtuous class of producers against a parasite class that exploits the wealth they create, the difference being that Rand saw the makers as the capitalists and the takers as the workers. (The man at the top of the intellectual pyramid contributes the most to all those below him, but gets nothing except his material payment, receiving no intellectual bonus from others to add to the value of his time, explained her character, John Galt. The man at the bottom who, left to himself, would starve in his hopeless ineptitude, contributes nothing to those above him, but receives the bonus of all of their brains.) Also like the Marxists, her vision of a free society depended not on the strength of liberal institutions like fair elections and a free press but the triumph of the hero class.

Marxists have no important role in politics at the national level, but Randians do. Rex Tillerson, Trumps nominee for secretary of State, has listed her tome Atlas Shrugged as his favorite book. Andy Puzder, Trumps secretary of Labor nominee, has said the same. Trump has called himself a fan of Rands work, though it is fair to question whether he has actually made it through books of such length. Of course, Paul Ryan is a longtime devotee who once called Rand the reason he got into public service.

None of these figures is an Objectivist (the name for followers of Rands cultlike philosophy). They have, however, absorbed its central message of politics as a class war to liberate the makers from the takers. Shortly after the election, the president of the Atlas Society, a pro-Rand group, wrote a Wall Street Journal op-ed making the case for Randians like Paul Ryan to embrace her vision even if they didnt share all its idiosyncratic details, ending with this rousing conclusion: As John Galt says in the closing lines of Atlas Shrugged: The road is cleared. It is up to us, believers and nonbelievers, to take up her message and spread the news.

Trumps Team Reportedly Offered Ambassadorships To Talent Bookers In Exchange For Inauguration Singers

Michael Moores Next Prediction Is a Lot More Dire: Donald Trump Is Gonna Get Us Killed

Challenging the Electoral College Vote Isnt Futile, Though Trump Will Still Win

She will still keep her new job at The Atlantic.

Pro-government forces are reportedly blocking people from leaving.

The Russian presidents favorability rating has shot up among the GOP.

The Fed and its chairman bumped rates by a quarter point but didnt change growth forecasts.

A meteorologist on this weeks polar vortex, and why this December feels a bit chillier than you remember.

Highlights include Giulianis ego, Romneys non-apology, and Tillersons backers.

The youngest Americans love the outgoing president more than ever.

Its hard to build a great model. Its even harder to know when to ignore it.

Stigma and shaming can be effective ways to get people to do what you want, but theyre pretty complicated tools to wield.

But the GSA says it has not yet settled on a position in the matter.

The agency is no longer comfortable asserting that hydraulic fracturing activities have not led to widespread, systemic impacts on drinking water.

Forget about this crazy scheme to flip the Electoral College.

The president of the Philippines doesnt just encourage vigilantism, hes done it himself.

Because we get under Trumps skin. Because Chumleys is back. Because weirdos, artists, and immigrants will never stop calling this city home.

The effort to deny Trump 270 votes can highlight election abnormalities and provide a boost to the opposition.

Well still sell them helicopters, provide intelligence, and help train their pilots.

The 30-year-old is a populist firebrand, and an outspoken conspiracy-theory booster.

The New York National Guard is claiming that the flight was part of a training exercise.

Other prospects were better known and more experienced, but this former Navy SEAL was more to Trumps liking.

View original post here:

How Ayn Rands theories destroyed Never Trump conservatism

Posted in Ayn Rand | Comments Off on How Ayn Rands theories destroyed Never Trump conservatism

Ageing – Wikipedia

Posted: December 7, 2016 at 7:57 am

Ageing, also spelled aging, is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal. In the broader sense, ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species (population ageing).

In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time,[1] encompassing physical, psychological, and social change. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases:[2] of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.

The causes of ageing are unknown; current theories are assigned to the damage concept, whereby the accumulation of damage (such as DNA breaks, oxidised DNA and/or mitochondrial malfunctions)[3] may cause biological systems to fail, or to the programmed ageing concept, whereby internal processes (such as DNA telomere shortening) may cause ageing. Programmed ageing should not be confused with programmed cell death (apoptosis).

The discovery, in 1934, that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats has motivated research into delaying and preventing ageing.

Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, necessarily experience ageing and mortality. Fungi, too, can age.[4] In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves, and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability with which they avoid dying of old age.

Early life forms on Earth, starting at least 3.7 billion years ago,[5] were single-celled organisms. Such single-celled organisms (prokaryotes, protozoans, algae) multiply by fissioning into daughter cells, thus do not age and are innately immortal.[6][7]

Ageing and mortality of the individual organism became possible with the evolution of sexual reproduction,[8] which occurred with the emergence of the fungal/animal kingdoms approximately a billion years ago, and with the evolution of flowering plants 160 million years ago. The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and itself could become disposable with regards to the survival of its species.[8] This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of “age classes” among bacteria.[9]

Even within humans and other mortal species, there are cells with the potential for immortality: cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in cell culture such as the HeLa cell line,[10] and specific stem cells such as germ cells (producing ova and spermatozoa).[11] In artificial cloning, adult cells can be rejuvenated back to embryonic status and then used to grow a new tissue or animal without ageing.[12] Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961).[10]

A number of characteristic ageing symptoms are experienced by a majority or by a significant proportion of humans during their lifetimes.

Dementia becomes more common with age.[35] About 3% of people between the ages of 6574 have dementia, 19% between 75 and 84 and nearly half of those over 85 years of age.[36] The spectrum includes mild cognitive impairment and the neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease and Lou Gehrig’s disease. Furthermore, many types of memory may decline with ageing, but not semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady until late adulthood[37] (see Ageing brain). Intelligence may decline with age, though the rate may vary depending on the type and may in fact remain steady throughout most of the lifespan, dropping suddenly only as people near the end of their lives. Individual variations in rate of cognitive decline may therefore be explained in terms of people having different lengths of life.[38] There might be changes to the brain: after 20 years of age there may be a 10% reduction each decade in the total length of the brain’s myelinated axons.[39][40]

Age can result in visual impairment, whereby non-verbal communication is reduced,[41] which can lead to isolation and possible depression. Macular degeneration causes vision loss and increases with age, affecting nearly 12% of those above the age of 80.[42] This degeneration is caused by systemic changes in the circulation of waste products and by growth of abnormal vessels around the retina.[43]

A distinction can be made between “proximal ageing” (age-based effects that come about because of factors in the recent past) and “distal ageing” (age-based differences that can be traced back to a cause early in person’s life, such as childhood poliomyelitis).[38]

Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most human diseases.[2] Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds100,000 per daydie from age-related causes. In industrialised nations, the proportion is higher, reaching 90%.[44][45][46]

At present, researchers are only just beginning to understand the biological basis of ageing even in relatively simple and short-lived organisms such as yeast.[47] Less still is known about mammalian ageing, in part due to the much longer lives in even small mammals such as the mouse (around 3 years). A primary model organism for studying ageing is the nematode C. elegans, thanks to its short lifespan of 23 weeks, the ability to easily perform genetic manipulations or suppress gene activity with RNA interference, and other factors.[48] Most known mutations and RNA interference targets that extend lifespan were first discovered in C. elegans.[49]

Factors that are proposed to influence biological ageing[50] fall into two main categories, programmed and damage-related. Programmed factors follow a biological timetable, perhaps a continuation of the one that regulates childhood growth and development. This regulation would depend on changes in gene expression that affect the systems responsible for maintenance, repair and defence responses. Damage-related factors include internal and environmental assaults to living organisms that induce cumulative damage at various levels.[51]

There are three main metabolic pathways which can influence the rate of ageing:

It is likely that most of these pathways affect ageing separately, because targeting them simultaneously leads to additive increases in lifespan.[53]

The rate of ageing varies substantially across different species, and this, to a large extent, is genetically based. For example, numerous perennial plants ranging from strawberries and potatoes to willow trees typically produce clones of themselves by vegetative reproduction and are thus potentially immortal, while annual plants such as wheat and watermelons die each year and reproduce by sexual reproduction. In 2008 it was discovered that inactivation of only two genes in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana leads to its conversion into a potentially immortal perennial plant.[54]

Clonal immortality apart, there are certain species whose individual lifespans stand out among Earth’s life-forms, including the bristlecone pine at 5062 years[55] (however Hayflick states that the bristlecone pine has no cells older than 30 years), invertebrates like the hard clam (known as quahog in New England) at 508 years,[56] the Greenland shark at 400 years,[57] fish like the sturgeon and the rockfish, and the sea anemone[58] and lobster.[59][60] Such organisms are sometimes said to exhibit negligible senescence.[61] The genetic aspect has also been demonstrated in studies of human centenarians.

In laboratory settings, researchers have demonstrated that selected alterations in specific genes can extend lifespan quite substantially in yeast and roundworms, less so in fruit flies and less again in mice. Some of the targeted genes have homologues across species and in some cases have been associated with human longevity.[62]

Caloric restriction substantially affects lifespan in many animals, including the ability to delay or prevent many age-related diseases.[103] Typically, this involves caloric intake of 6070% of what an ad libitum animal would consume, while still maintaining proper nutrient intake.[103] In rodents, this has been shown to increase lifespan by up to 50%;[104] similar effects occur for yeast and Drosophila.[103] No lifespan data exist for humans on a calorie-restricted diet,[76] but several reports support protection from age-related diseases.[105][106] Two major ongoing studies on rhesus monkeys initially revealed disparate results; while one study, by the University of Wisconsin, showed that caloric restriction does extend lifespan,[107] the second study, by the National Institute on Ageing (NIA), found no effects of caloric restriction on longevity.[108] Both studies nevertheless showed improvement in a number of health parameters. Notwithstanding the similarly low calorie intake, the diet composition differed between the two studies (notably a high sucrose content in the Wisconsin study), and the monkeys have different origins (India, China), initially suggesting that genetics and dietary composition, not merely a decrease in calories, are factors in longevity.[76] However, in a comparative analysis in 2014, the Wisconsin researchers found that the allegedly non-starved NIA control monkeys in fact are moderately underweight when compared with other monkey populations, and argued this was due to the NIA’s apportioned feeding protocol in contrast to Wisconsin’s truly unrestricted ad libitum feeding protocol.[109] They conclude that moderate calorie restriction rather than extreme calorie restriction is sufficient to produce the observed health and longevity benefits in the studied rhesus monkeys.[110]

In his book How and Why We Age, Hayflick says that caloric restriction may not be effective in humans, citing data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging which shows that being thin does not favour longevity.[need quotation to verify][111] Similarly, it is sometimes claimed that moderate obesity in later life may improve survival, but newer research has identified confounding factors such as weight loss due to terminal disease. Once these factors are accounted for, the optimal body weight above age 65 corresponds to a leaner body mass index of 23 to 27.[112]

Alternatively, the benefits of dietary restriction can also be found by changing the macro nutrient profile to reduce protein intake without any changes to calorie level, resulting in similar increases in longevity.[113][114] Dietary protein restriction not only inhibits mTOR activity but also IGF-1, two mechanisms implicated in ageing.[74] Specifically, reducing leucine intake is sufficient to inhibit mTOR activity, achievable through reducing animal food consumption.[115][116]

The Mediterranean diet is credited with lowering the risk of heart disease and early death.[117][118] The major contributors to mortality risk reduction appear to be a higher consumption of vegetables, fish, fruits, nuts and monounsaturated fatty acids, i.e., olive oil.[119]

The amount of sleep has an impact on mortality. People who live the longest report sleeping for six to seven hours each night.[120][121] Lack of sleep (9 hours) is associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not primarily from cardiovascular disease.[122] Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status, which would correlate statistically.[123] Sleep monitoring of hunter-gatherer tribes from Africa and from South America has shown similar sleep patterns across continents: their average sleeping duration is 6.4 hours (with a summer/winter difference of 1 hour), afternoon naps (siestas) are uncommon, and insomnia is very rare (tenfold less than in industrial societies).[124]

Physical exercise may increase life expectancy.[125] People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who are not physically active.[126] Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging and improving quality of life by reducing inflammatory potential.[127] The majority of the benefits from exercise are achieved with around 3500 metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week.[128] For example, climbing stairs 10 minutes, vacuuming 15 minutes, gardening 20 minutes, running 20 minutes, and walking or bicycling for 25 minutes on a daily basis would together achieve about 3000 MET minutes a week.[128]

Avoidance of chronic stress (as opposed to acute stress) is associated with a slower loss of telomeres in most but not all studies,[129][130] and with decreased cortisol levels. A chronically high cortisol level compromises the immune system, causes cardiac damage/arterosclerosis and is associated with facial ageing, and the latter in turn is a marker for increased morbidity and mortality.[131][132] Stress can be countered by social connection, spirituality, and (for men more clearly than for women) married life, all of which are associated with longevity.[133][134][135]

The following drugs and interventions have been shown to retard or reverse the biological effects of ageing in animal models, but none has yet been proven to do so in humans.

Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic.[136]

As of 2015 metformin was under study for its potential effect on slowing ageing in the worm C.elegans and the cricket.[137] Its effect on otherwise healthy humans is unknown.[137]

Rapamycin was first shown to extend lifespan in eukaryotes in 2006 by Powers et al. who showed a dose-responsive effect of rapamycin on lifespan extension in yeast cells.[138] In a 2009 study, the lifespans of mice fed rapamycin were increased between 28 and 38% from the beginning of treatment, or 9 to 14% in total increased maximum lifespan. Of particular note, the treatment began in mice aged 20 months, the equivalent of 60 human years.[139] Rapamycin has subsequently been shown to extend mouse lifespan in several separate experiments,[140][141] and is now being tested for this purpose in nonhuman primates (the marmoset monkey).[142]

Cancer geneticist Ronald A. DePinho and his colleagues published research in mice where telomerase activity was first genetically removed. Then, after the mice had prematurely aged, they restored telomerase activity by reactivating the telomerase gene. As a result, the mice were rejuvenated: Shrivelled testes grew back to normal and the animals regained their fertility. Other organs, such as the spleen, liver, intestines and brain, recuperated from their degenerated state. “[The finding] offers the possibility that normal human ageing could be slowed by reawakening the enzyme in cells where it has stopped working” says Ronald DePinho. However, activating telomerase in humans could potentially encourage the growth of tumours.[143]

Most known genetic interventions in C. elegans increase lifespan by 1.5 to 2.5-fold. As of 2009[update], the record for lifespan extension in C. elegans is a single-gene mutation which increases adult survival by tenfold.[49] The strong conservation of some of the mechanisms of ageing discovered in model organisms imply that they may be useful in the enhancement of human survival. However, the benefits may not be proportional; longevity gains are typically greater in C. elegans than fruit flies, and greater in fruit flies than in mammals. One explanation for this is that mammals, being much longer-lived, already have many traits which promote lifespan.[49]

Some research effort is directed to slow ageing and extend healthy lifespan.[144][145][146]

The US National Institute on Aging currently funds an intervention testing programme, whereby investigators nominate compounds (based on specific molecular ageing theories) to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice.[147] Previous age-related testing in mammals has proved largely irreproducible, because of small numbers of animals and lax mouse husbandry conditions.[citation needed] The intervention testing programme aims to address this by conducting parallel experiments at three internationally recognised mouse ageing-centres, the Barshop Institute at UTHSCSA, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the Jackson Laboratory.

Several companies and organisations, such as Google Calico, Human Longevity, Craig Venter, Gero,[148]SENS Research Foundation, and Science for Life Extension in Russia,[149] declared stopping or delaying ageing as their goal.

Prizes for extending lifespan and slowing ageing in mammals exist. The Methuselah Foundation offers the Mprize. Recently, the $1 Million Palo Alto Longevity Prize was launched. It is a research incentive prize to encourage teams from all over the world to compete in an all-out effort to “hack the code” that regulates our health and lifespan. It was founded by Joon Yun.[150][151][152][153][154]

Different cultures express age in different ways. The age of an adult human is commonly measured in whole years since the day of birth. Arbitrary divisions set to mark periods of life may include: juvenile (via infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence), early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. More casual terms may include “teenagers,” “tweens,” “twentysomething”, “thirtysomething”, etc. as well as “vicenarian”, “tricenarian”, “quadragenarian”, etc.

Most legal systems define a specific age for when an individual is allowed or obliged to do particular activities. These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, marriageable age, age of candidacy, and mandatory retirement age. Admission to a movie for instance, may depend on age according to a motion picture rating system. A bus fare might be discounted for the young or old. Each nation, government and non-governmental organisation has different ways of classifying age. In other words, chronological ageing may be distinguished from “social ageing” (cultural age-expectations of how people should act as they grow older) and “biological ageing” (an organism’s physical state as it ages).[155]

In a UNFPA report about ageing in the 21st century, it highlighted the need to “Develop a new rights-based culture of ageing and a change of mindset and societal attitudes towards ageing and older persons, from welfare recipients to active, contributing members of society.”[156] UNFPA said that this “requires, among others, working towards the development of international human rights instruments and their translation into national laws and regulations and affirmative measures that challenge age discrimination and recognise older people as autonomous subjects.”[156] Older persons make contributions to society including caregiving and volunteering. For example, “A study of Bolivian migrants who [had] moved to Spain found that 69% left their children at home, usually with grandparents. In rural China, grandparents care for 38% of children aged under five whose parents have gone to work in cities.”[156]

Population ageing is the increase in the number and proportion of older people in society. Population ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy (decreased death rate) and decreased birth rate. Ageing has a significant impact on society. Young people tend to have fewer legal privileges (if they are below the age of majority), they are more likely to push for political and social change, to develop and adopt new technologies, and to need education. Older people have different requirements from society and government, and frequently have differing values as well, such as for property and pension rights.[157]

In the 21st century, one of the most significant population trends is ageing.[158] Currently, over 11% of the world’s current population are people aged 60 and older and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that by 2050 that number will rise to approximately 22%.[156] Ageing has occurred due to development which has enabled better nutrition, sanitation, health care, education and economic well-being. Consequently, fertility rates have continued to decline and life expectancy have risen. Life expectancy at birth is over 80 now in 33 countries. Ageing is a “global phenomenon,” that is occurring fastest in developing countries, including those with large youth populations, and poses social and economic challenges to the work which can be overcome with “the right set of policies to equip individuals, families and societies to address these challenges and to reap its benefits.”[159]

As life expectancy rises and birth rates decline in developed countries, the median age rises accordingly. According to the United Nations, this process is taking place in nearly every country in the world.[160] A rising median age can have significant social and economic implications, as the workforce gets progressively older and the number of old workers and retirees grows relative to the number of young workers. Older people generally incur more health-related costs than do younger people in the workplace and can also cost more in worker’s compensation and pension liabilities.[161] In most developed countries an older workforce is somewhat inevitable. In the United States for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that one in four American workers will be 55 or older by 2020.[161]

Among the most urgent concerns of older persons worldwide is income security. This poses challenges for governments with ageing populations to ensure investments in pension systems continues in order to provide economic independence and reduce poverty in old age. These challenges vary for developing and developed countries. UNFPA stated that, “Sustainability of these systems is of particular concern, particularly in developed countries, while social protection and old-age pension coverage remain a challenge for developing countries, where a large proportion of the labour force is found in the informal sector.”[156]

The global economic crisis has increased financial pressure to ensure economic security and access to health care in old age. In order to elevate this pressure “social protection floors must be implemented in order to guarantee income security and access to essential health and social services for all older persons and provide a safety net that contributes to the postponement of disability and prevention of impoverishment in old age.”[156]

It has been argued that population ageing has undermined economic development.[162] Evidence suggests that pensions, while making a difference to the well-being of older persons, also benefit entire families especially in times of crisis when there may be a shortage or loss of employment within households. A study by the Australian Government in 2003 estimated that “women between the ages of 65 and 74 years contribute A$16 billion per year in unpaid caregiving and voluntary work. Similarly, men in the same age group contributed A$10 billion per year.”[156]

Due to increasing share of the elderly in the population, health care expenditures will continue to grow relative to the economy in coming decades. This has been considered as a negative phenomenon and effective strategies like labour productivity enhancement should be considered to deal with negative consequences of ageing.[163]

In the field of sociology and mental health, ageing is seen in five different views: ageing as maturity, ageing as decline, ageing as a life-cycle event, ageing as generation, and ageing as survival.[164] Positive correlates with ageing often include economics, employment, marriage, children, education, and sense of control, as well as many others. The social science of ageing includes disengagement theory, activity theory, selectivity theory, and continuity theory. Retirement, a common transition faced by the elderly, may have both positive and negative consequences.[165] As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of ageing and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of ageing has been suggested.[166]

With age inevitable biological changes occur that increase the risk of illness and disability. UNFPA states that,[159]

“A life-cycle approach to health care one that starts early, continues through the reproductive years and lasts into old age is essential for the physical and emotional well-being of older persons, and, indeed, all people. Public policies and programmes should additionally address the needs of older impoverished people who cannot afford health care.”

Many societies in Western Europe and Japan have ageing populations. While the effects on society are complex, there is a concern about the impact on health care demand. The large number of suggestions in the literature for specific interventions to cope with the expected increase in demand for long-term care in ageing societies can be organised under four headings: improve system performance; redesign service delivery; support informal caregivers; and shift demographic parameters.[167]

However, the annual growth in national health spending is not mainly due to increasing demand from ageing populations, but rather has been driven by rising incomes, costly new medical technology, a shortage of health care workers and informational asymmetries between providers and patients.[168] A number of health problems become more prevalent as people get older. These include mental health problems as well as physical health problems, especially dementia.

It has been estimated that population ageing only explains 0.2 percentage points of the annual growth rate in medical spending of 4.3% since 1970. In addition, certain reforms to the Medicare system in the United States decreased elderly spending on home health care by 12.5% per year between 1996 and 2000.[169]

Positive self-perception of health has been correlated with higher well-being and reduced mortality in the elderly.[170][171] Various reasons have been proposed for this association; people who are objectively healthy may naturally rate their health better than that of their ill counterparts, though this link has been observed even in studies which have controlled for socioeconomic status, psychological functioning and health status.[172] This finding is generally stronger for men than women,[171] though this relationship is not universal across all studies and may only be true in some circumstances.[172]

As people age, subjective health remains relatively stable, even though objective health worsens.[173] In fact, perceived health improves with age when objective health is controlled in the equation.[174] This phenomenon is known as the “paradox of ageing.” This may be a result of social comparison;[175] for instance, the older people get, the more they may consider themselves in better health than their same-aged peers.[176] Elderly people often associate their functional and physical decline with the normal ageing process.[177][178]

The concept of successful ageing can be traced back to the 1950s and was popularised in the 1980s. Traditional definitions of successful ageing have emphasised absence of physical and cognitive disabilities.[179] In their 1987 article, Rowe and Kahn characterised successful ageing as involving three components: a) freedom from disease and disability, b) high cognitive and physical functioning, and c) social and productive engagement.[180]

The ancient Greek dramatist Euripides (5th century BC) describes the multiply-headed mythological monster Hydra as having a regenerative capacity which makes it immortal, which is the historical background to the name of the biological genus Hydra. The Book of Job (c. 6th century BC) describes human lifespan as inherently limited and makes a comparison with the innate immortality that a felled tree may have when undergoing vegetative regeneration.[181]

View original post here:
Ageing – Wikipedia

Posted in Human Longevity | Comments Off on Ageing – Wikipedia

Neurotechnology and Society (20102060) – Lifeboat

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:31 pm

by Lifeboat Foundation Scientific Advisory Board member Zack Lynch. Overview Society shapes and is shaped by advancing technology. To illuminate the important societal implications of the NBIC (nano-bio-info-cogno) convergence it is critical to place it within a broad historical context. History sharpens unique issues that require attention versus ones that have more obvious trajectories. By viewing history as a series of techno-economic waves with accompanying socio-political responses, it is possible to begin to understand how NBIC technologies will have an impact on society. Waves of Techno-economic Change Since the time of the Industrial Revolution there has been a relatively consistent pattern of 50-year waves of techno-economic change. We are currently nearing the end of the fifth wave of information technology diffusion, while a sixth wave is emerging with converging advancements across the NBIC (nano-bio-info-cogno) space, making possible neurotechnology, the set of tools that can influence the human central nervous system, especially the brain. Each wave consists of a new group of technologies that make it possible to solve problems once thought intractable. The first wave, the water mechanization wave (17701830) in England, transformed productivity by replacing handcrafted production with water-powered machine-o-facture. The second wave (18201880), powered by a massive iron railroad build-out, accelerated the distribution of goods and services to distant markets. The electrification wave (18701920) made possible new metal alloys that created the foundation of the modern city. The development of skyscrapers, electric elevators, light bulbs, telephones, and subways were all a result of the new electricity infrastructure. At the same time, new techniques for producing inexpensive steel emerged, revamping the railroad systems, and making large-scale construction projects possible. The fourth wave (19101970), ushered in by inexpensive oil, motorized the industrial economy, making the inexpensive transportation of goods and services available to the masses. The most recent wave, the information technology wave (19602020), has made it possible to collect, analyze, and disseminate data, transforming our ability to track and respond to an ever-changing world. Driven by the microprocessors capacity to compute and communicate data at increasingly exponential rates, the current wave is the primary generator of economic and social change today. The nascent neurotechnology wave (20102060) is being accelerated by the development of nanobiochips and brain-imaging technologies that will make biological and neurological analysis accurate and inexpensive. Nanobiochips that can perform the basic bio-analysis functions (genomic, proteomic, biosimulation, and microfluidics) at a low cost will transform neurological analysis in a very similar fashion as the microprocessor did for data. Nano-imaging techniques will also play a vital role in making the analysis of neuro-molecular level events possible. When data from advanced biochips and brain imaging are combined they will accelerate the development of neurotechnology, the set of tools that can influence the human central nervous system, especially the brain. Neurotechnology will be used for therapeutic ends and to enable people to consciously improve emotional stability, enhance cognitive clarity, and extend sensory experiences. Techno-economic waves have pervasive effects throughout the economy and society. New low-cost inputs create new product sectors. They shift competitive behavior across the economy, as older sectors reinterpret how they create value. New low-cost inputs become driving sectors in their own right (e.g., canals, coal, electricity, oil, microchips, biochips). When combined with complementary technologies, each new low-cost input stimulates the development of new sectors (e.g., cotton textiles, railroads, electric products, automobiles, computers, neurofinance). Technological waves, because they embody a major jump up in productivity, open up an unusually wide range of investment and profit opportunities, leading to sustained rates of economic growth. Table 1. Six long waves of techno-economical development Long Wave Years New Inputs Driving Sector New Sectors Mechanization 17701830 Canals, water power Agriculture, cotton spinning Iron tools, canal transportation Railroadization 18201880 Coal, iron, steam power Railroads, locomotives, machine tools Steam shipping, telegraphy Electrification 18701920 Electricity, steel, copper Steel products, electricity Construction, precision machine tools Motorization 19101970 Oil Automobile, oil refining Aircraft, construction, services Information 19602020 Microprocessor Microchips, computers Networking, global finance, e-commerce Neurotechnology 20102060 Biochip, brain imaging, ??? Biotechnology, nanotechnology Neuroceuticals, bio-education Neurotechnology Like any new technology, neurotechnology represents both promises and problems. On the upside, neurotechnology represents new cures for mental illness, new opportunities for economic growth and a potential flowering of artistic expression. These benefits are countered by the potential use of neurotechnology for coercive purposes or its use as neuroweapons that can selectively erase memories. The diffusion of the neurotechnology will have an impact on businesses, politics and human culture in the following ways: New Industries: As brain imaging advances, neuromarketing will become a significant growth sector as the trillion-per-year advertising and marketing industries leverage brain scanning technology to better understand how and why people react to different market campaigns. Neurotechnology will also have an impact on education. As more people live longer and global competition intensifies, people will need to learn new skills throughout their lives. Regulated neuroceuticals represent the tools workers will use to succeed at continuous education. Adult neuroeducation will emerge as a significant industry, teaching individuals how to leverage neuroceuticals to acquire knowledge faster. Using cogniceuticals to increase memory retention, emoticeuticals to decrease stress, and sensoceuticals to add a meaningful pleasure gradient, neuroeducation will allow people to acquire and retain information faster. Imagine learning Arabic in one year rather than ten, or calculus in eight weeks. New Products: For example, neuroceuticals that can temporarily improve different aspects of mental health will become possible. Unlike todays psychopharmaceuticals, neuroceuticals are neuromodulators that have high efficacy and negligible side effects. By being able to target multiple subreceptors in specific neural circuits, neuroceuticals will create the possibility for dynamic intracellular regulation of an individuals neurochemistry. Neuroceuticals will be used for therapy and improvement. Neuroceuticals can be categorized into three broad groups cogniceuticals that focus on decision-making, learning, attention, and memory processes; emoticeuticals that influence feelings, moods, motivation, and awareness; and sensoceuticals that can restore and extend the capacity of our senses, allowing people to see, smell, taste, and hear in different ways. Competitive Advantage: Mental health is the ultimate competitive weapon. Mental health underpins communication, creativity and employee productivity. Individuals who use neurotechnology to understand how their emotions affect their financial decisions will become more productive and will attain neurocompetitive advantage. Neurotechnology-enabled traders will be equipped with emotional forecasting systems that provide them with real-time neurofeedback on their expected emotional bias for a given trade. To further reduce forecasting error, hormone-triggered emoticeuticals will keep traders from entering hot states, where they are known to make less accurate decisions. While some countries may choose to ban them, performance-enabling neuroceuticals will emerge as significant productivity tools. Public Policy: Neuroethicists are already confronting issues of brain privacy and cognitive liberty. As the competitive edge provided by neurotechnology becomes apparent, the ethical debate will evolve into a discussion of the right to enable individuals to use these new tools to improve themselves vs. uneven access to what others will describe as unfair performance improvement. In the legislative arena the competitive necessity of using these new tools will cause great concern over whether or not they will be required in order to just compete in tomorrows global economy. Mental Health: Today, five of the ten leading causes of disability worldwide major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, substance abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorders are mental issues. These problems are as relevant in developing countries as they are in rich ones. And all predictions point toward a dramatic increase in mental illnesses as people live longer. New treatments for mental disorders are driving neurotechnologys early development. By 2020, biochips will have radically altered the drug development process, reducing the time to develop new therapies from 15 to 2 years while slashing the cost of drug development from $800 million to $10 million. In addition, entirely novel ways to treat disease at the molecular level will extend life expectancy and improve mental health. New Behaviors: Because our mental perspective slants our thinking, self-reflection and recollection of events, even a slight shift in human perception, will alter how people learn, feel, and react to personal problems, economic crises, and cultural rhetoric. When humans can better control their emotions, how will this affect personal relationships, political opinion and cultural beliefs? When we can enhance memory recall and accelerate learning, how will this influence competitive advantage in the workplace? As we can safely extend our sense of sight, hearing and taste, what might this mean for artistic exploration and human happiness? Patterns in the Location of Production: India and China will likely develop regional clusters of neurotechnology firms as political and cultural views on human testing create the necessary conditions for technological experimentation and development. Conclusion By viewing recent history as a series of techno-economic waves ushered in by a new low-cost input, it is possible to see that neurotechnology will lead to substantial economic, political, and social change. Building on advances in brain science and biotechnology, neurotechnology, the set of tools that influence the human brain, will allow people to experience life in ways that are currently unattainable. Neurotechnology will enable people to consciously improve emotional stability, enhance cognitive clarity, and extend sensory experiences. As people begin to experience life less constrained by ones evolutionarily influenced brain chemistry, neurotechnology will give rise to a new type of human society, a post-industrial, post-informational, neurosociety.

More:

Neurotechnology and Society (20102060) – Lifeboat

Posted in Neurotechnology | Comments Off on Neurotechnology and Society (20102060) – Lifeboat