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The Evolutionary Perspective
Tag Archives: health
Posted: July 27, 2016 at 11:30 am
How long did humans live in the past? We often hear statistics about the average lifespan of people living hundreds, even thousands, of years ago. Were our ancestors really dying at the age of 30 or 40 back then?Heres a little primer on longevity throughout history to help you understand how life expectancy and life spans have changed over time.
The term life expectancy means the average lifespan of an entire population, taking into account all mortality figures for that specific group of people.
Lifespan is a measure of the actual length of an individuals life. While both terms seem straightforward, a lack of historical artifacts and records have made it challenging for researchers to determine how lifespans have evolved throughout history.
Until fairly recently, little information existed about how long prehistoric people lived. Too few fossilized human remains made it difficult for historians to estimate the demographics of any population. Anthropology professors Rachel Caspari and Sang-Hee Lee, ofCentral Michigan University and the University of California at Riverside, respectively, chose instead to analyze the relative ages of skeletons found in archeological digs in eastern and southern Africa, Europe and elsewhere.
After comparing the proportion of those who died young with those who died at an older age, the team concluded that longevity only began to significantly increase – that is, past the age of 30 or so – about 30,000 years ago, which is quite late in the span of human evolution.
In an article published in 2011 in Scientific American, Caspari calls the shift the evolution of grandparents,” as it marks the first time in human history that three generations might have co-existed.
Life expectancy estimates that describe the population as a whole also suffer from a lack of reliable evidence gathered from these periods.
In a 2010 article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences gerontologist and evolutionary biologist, Caleb Finch describes the average life spans inancient Greek and Roman times as short: approximately of 20 to 35 years, though he laments these numbers are based on notoriously unrepresentative graveyard epitaphs and samples.
Moving forward along the historic timeline, Finch lists the challenges of deducing historic life spans and causes of death in this information vacuum. As a kind of research compromise, he and other evolution experts suggest a reasonable comparison can be made with demographic data that does exist from pre-industrial Sweden (mid-18th century) and certain contemporary, small, hunter-gatherer societies in countries like Venezuela and Brazil.
Finch writes that judging by this data the main causes of death during these early centuries would most certainly have been infections, whether from infectious diseases or infected wounds resulting from accidents or fighting.
Unhygienic living conditions and little access to effective medical care meant life expectancy was likely limited to about 35 years of age.
Thats life expectancy at birth, a figure dramatically influenced by infant mortality-pegged at the time as high as 30 percent. It does not mean that the average person living in 1200 A.D. died at the age of 35. Rather, for every child that died in infancy, another person might have lived to see their 70th birthday. Early years up to the age of about 15 continued to be perilous, thanks to risks posed by disease, injuries, and accidents. People who survived this hazardous period of life could well make it into old age.
Other infectious diseases like cholera, tuberculosis and smallpox would go on to limit longevity, but none on a scale quite as damaging of the bubonic plague in the 14th century. The Black Plague moved through Asia and Europe, and wiped out as much as a third of Europes population, temporarily shifting life expectancy downward.
From the 1500s onward, till around the year 1800, life expectancy throughout Europe hovered between 30 and 40 years of age. Since the early 1800s, Finch writes that life expectancy at birth has doubled in a period of only 10 or so generations. Improved health care, sanitation, immunizations, access to clean, running water and better nutrition are all credited with the massive increase.
Though its hard to imagine, researcher Elaine Larson describes in The American Journal of Public Health that doctors only began regularly washing their hands before surgery in the mid-1800s. A better understanding of hygiene and the transmission of microbes has since contributed substantially to public health. Disease was still common, however, and impacted life expectancy. Parasites, typhoid, and infections like rheumatic feverand scarlet feverwere all common during the 1800s.
Even as recently as 1921, countries like Canada still had an infant mortality rate of about 10 percent, meaning one out of every 10 babies did not survive. According to Statistics Canada, this meant a life expectancyoraverage survival rate in that country that was higher at age one than at birth – a condition that persisted right until the early 1980s.
Today most industrialized countries boast life expectancy figures of more than 75 years, according to comparisons compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency.
Some researchers have predicted that lifestyle factors like obesity will halt or even reverse the rise in life expectancy for the first time in modern history. In an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2005, epidemiologists warned that in the United States – where two-thirds of the population is overweight or obese – obesity and its complications, like diabetes,could very well reduce life expectancy at all ages in the first half of 21st century.
In the meantime, rising life expectancy in the West brings both good and bad news: its nice to be living longer, but we are now more vulnerable to the types of illnesses that hit as you get older. These age-related diseasesinclude coronary artery disease, certain cancers, diabetes, and dementia.
Still, while they can affect quantity and quality of life, many of these conditions can be prevented or at least delayed through healthy lifestyle choices like following an anti-aging diet, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularlyand keeping stress hormones like cortisol at bay.
Caleb E. Finch. Evolution of the human lifespan and diseases of aging: Roles of infection, inflammation, and nutrition. PNAS, January 26, 2010, vol. 107, Pages 1718-1724. http://evmedreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/PNAS-EvMedIssueComplete-pages-1691-1799-2010.pdf
Caspari, R. The Evolution of Grandparents. Scientific American. 2011 vol:305 iss:2 pg:44 -9.
Caspari, R and Lee SH. Is Human Longevity a Consequence of Cultural Change or Modern Biology? Am J Phys Anthropol(2006) 129:512-517 http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~shlee/Publications/06%20OY%20W%20As%20(AJPA).pdf
Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth. US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Public Information Sheet. Accessed September 17, 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2102rank.html
E Larson. Innovations in health care: antisepsis as a case study. Am J Public Health. 1989 January; 79(1): 9299. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1349481/,/p>
Griffin JP. Changing life expectancy throughout history. Int Pharm J 1995. 9:199202.
Gurven, M. and Kaplan H. Hunter-Gatherer Longevity: A Cross-Cultural Examination. Population and Development Review. 2007. Volume 33, Issue 2, 321-365.
Health at a Glance: Disparities in Life Expectancy at Birth. Statistics Canada Public Information Sheet. Accessed Sept.13, 2012. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2011001/article/11427-eng.htm
H. Beltran-Sanchez, E. M. Crimmins and C. E. Finch. Early cohort mortality predicts the rate of aging in the cohort: a historical analysis. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 05/2012, pp. 1 7.
S. Jay Olshansky, Douglas J. Passaro, Ronald C. Hershow, Jennifer Layden, Bruce A. Carnes, Jacob Brody, Leonard Hayflick, Robert N. Butler, David B. Allison, and David S. Ludwig. A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1138-1145 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr043743#t=artic
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History of Longevity – Life Expectancy in 1800 to Today
Posted: July 18, 2016 at 3:34 pm
The directory of Innovative Doctors and Health Practitioners is a worldwide listing of anti-aging doctors and other medical professionals who practice or have expressed interest in all aspects of preventive medicine (such as heart attack and stroke prevention), hormone replacement therapy, nutrition and dietary supplements, and other areas of alternative and complementary medicine. Invariably, they welcome individuals who choose to be involved in their own health care.
Provided to you by Extension, the directory of Innovative Doctors and Health Practitioners facilitates the location of anti-aging doctors and health practitioners who are open to alternatives to allopathic medicine. Conveniently organized geographically, the listing can be used to find a doctor by areaa handy feature for those who are traveling or are simply seeking out anti-aging doctors or health practitioners at home. The directory of Innovative Doctors and Health Practitioners is especially useful for those on a life extension program that includes the use of dietary supplements and hormones, as the listed physicians and health practitioners would likely be more suited to evaluate such a program than more conventional doctors.
While prevention, nutrition and longevity are important to the physicians and health practitioners listed, each of them has their own approach to health and wellness. So be sure to clarify the reason for your visit, as well as your goals in seeking out such treatment when scheduling your appointment.
ALABAMA ALASKA AMERICAN SAMOA ARIZONA ARKANSAS ARMED FORCES AMERICAS ARMED FORCES EUROPE ARMED FORCES PACIFIC CALIFORNIA COLORADO CONNECTICUT DELAWARE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA GUAM HAWAII IDAHO ILLINOIS INDIANA IOWA KANSAS KENTUCKY LOUISIANA MAINE MARSHALL ISLANDS MARYLAND MASSACHUSETTS MICHIGAN MICRONESIA FED STATES MINNESOTA MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI MONTANA NEBRASKA NEVADA NEW HAMPSHIRE NEW JERSEY NEW MEXICO NEW SOUTH WALES NEW YORK NORTH CAROLINA NORTH DAKOTA NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS OHIO OKLAHOMA OREGON PALAU PENNSYLVANIA PLEASE SELECT PUERTO RICO RHODE ISLAND SOUTH AUSTRALIA SOUTH CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA TASMANIA TENNESSEE TEXAS UTAH VERMONT VICTORIA VIRGIN ISLANDS VIRGINIA WASHINGTON WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN WYOMING
DISCLAIMER: Inclusion in the directory of Innovative Doctors and Health and Wellness Practitioners does not constitute endorsement by Life Extension, nor are these physicians or other health practitioners affiliated with Life Extension. All physicians and health practitioners who appear on this list do so on the sole basis of their own expression of interest in the fields of health and wellness, longevity, or preventive medicine. Life Extension has not verified the competence, professional credentials, business practices or validity of the expressed interests of these physicians and health practitioners. Life Extension makes no recommendation of any physician or health practitioner on this list and makes no suggestion that any such physician or health practitioner will cure or prevent any disease, reduce anyone’s rate of aging or extend anyone’s life. Those consulting a physician or other health practitioner on this list should approach the consultation exactly as they would with any other unknown physician or health practitioner. Listings are periodically updated. However, physicians and health practitioners are not obligated to notify Life Extension should they relocate or retire. Life Extension relies in great part on feedback, which determines the continued eligibility of the physicians and health practitioners listed. Please contact Life Extension if you have any comments concerning any of the physicians or other health practitioners on this list.
Posted: at 3:34 pm
The term life extension program (LEP) means a program to repair/replace components of nuclear weapons to ensure the ability to meet military requirements. By extending the “life,” or time that a weapon can safely and reliably remain in the stockpile without having to be replaced or removed, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is able to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent without producing new weapons or conducting new underground nuclear tests.
Underlying the LEP planning process, NNSA remains committed to supporting the Presidents nuclear agenda as articulated in the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review. LEP activities will support the goal to reduce both the number of warhead types and the stockpile size by formulating options for interoperable (i.e., common or adaptable) warheads that could be flexibly deployed across different delivery platforms.
Additionally, a well-planned and well-executed stockpile life extension strategy will result in improved safety and security while also enabling the Department of Defense to build a deployment and hedgestrategy consistent with the Administrations agenda to establish a smaller, yet still effective, deterrent.
Each facility in NNSA’s nuclear weapons complex contributes to the life extension process. The majority of the physical work on the warhead and bombs is carried out at the NNSA Production Office which contains the Pantex Plant and Y-12 National Security Complex. The Pantex Plant does assembly and disassembly of the warheads and bombs while the Y-12 National Security Complex manufactures, assembles, and disassembles certain key components. The Kansas City Plants main mission is to manufacture and procure key non-nuclear components. The design laboratories Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories – assess the health of the current stockpile, design the components and systems for the life extension program warheads and bombs, and certify the life extended models when they enter the stockpile. The Nevada National Security Site provides facilities and expertise for experiments used to assess the health of the current stockpile systems and to evaluate proposed component designs for life extension programs. The Savannah River Site provides tritium gas, an essential and limited life material used in modern warheads.
NNSA must develop individual life extension programs by using science-based research for each weapon type and develop specific solutions to extend the lifetime of each particular weapon because each is unique. Over time, the components of nuclear warheads deteriorate, even when kept in storage. LEPs will address known aging issues in weapon systems, and each LEP will study the options for increasing the safety, security and reliability of weapons on a case-by-case basis.
Life extension efforts are intended to extend the lifetime of a weapon for an additional 20 to 30 years. The current planning scenario envisions that the useful lifetimes of the W76, B61, W78 and the W88 will have been extended through major LEP efforts by 2031. The Phase 6.X process should be used when life extension activity is planned for a weapon already in the stockpile.
In summary, the current LEP and alteration plans endorsed by the Nuclear Weapons Council include the following:
Go here to read the rest:
Posted: July 16, 2016 at 11:10 pm
Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly is something many aspire to do, but the challenge for most people is getting the time and motivation to formulate a regular workout routine and stick to a healthy diet. Though the physical and mental benefits of following a healthy path are well known, many people are still struggling to start and maintain a healthy lifestyle that can lead to a longer life.
In most cases, the choice of eating unhealthy and not exercising is often the easy one evenwhen you are well aware the risk of lifestyle diseases. Illnesses like type 2 of diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, some types of cancer and osteoporosis are some of the risks brought about due to ones failure to follow a healthy diet and maintain proper physical fitness. These diseases are not only expensive to maintain, but they are also life threatening.
Sometimes, even those who are devoted to a regular workout routine may experience energy drains. These are those days when you feel exhausted and find that you cannot motivate yourself to get up and do even one simple workout activity that you love.
While all-out energy drains are easy to recognize, the same cannot be said for low-energy drains. They are not easily recognizable as you do not experience signs of exhaustion like feeling very tired or muscle aches. In such situations, you will start experiencing the loss of will to carry on with your workout activities that you used to enjoy, and when you start your workout routine, you lose focus and find it hard to concentrate on simple tasks. In the end, you become frustrated and finally abandon the task.
But all is not lost, while your own energy is not enough to keep up with the demands of society such as work, school and staying fit, there are many energy supplements available that can provide you with energy. In a world that is always busy and gets more hectic by the day, natural supplements are a good source of extra energy to boost to your own energy. They can help you make it through the day feeling energetic and psyched.
There are many superfoods and natural energy supplements in the market today. Some are better for the body than others, but most of these supplements can help you increase your level of energy and alertness. Here are some you can try to try when you feel like your energy is drained:
Bee pollen is a highly nutritious natural energy supplement collected from the stamen part of flowering plants by honeybees and stored in honeycomb hives. People who consume bee pollen as part of their daily diet are known to generate more energy, physical stamina and vigor.
Its benefits are many including prevention of growth of cancer cells, making it to be termed as a super food. It contains over 40% of proteins, 22 amino acids, 21 minerals, 18 enzymes, fiber, carbohydrates and other minerals. It can be taken in liquid form, as powder mixed in food or drinks, chewable tablets or capsules.
Read more about where to buy bee pollen below where weve listed the best quality online stores.
Where To Buy Bee Pollen?
Mucuna pruriens or KIpikacchu or Cowhage is a creeping vine that is grows in the tropicsof India as well as the tropical regions of the Caribbean and Africa. This plant has been used for many years as traditional medicines and the seeds, both white and black, have therapeutic value.
It has a balancing and restorative effect on the nervous system. It can strengthen the weakened areas of the body as well as enhance ones the intellect. Its seeds have been found to contain nutritive tonic which energizes, nourishes and revitalizes the nervous system and the entire body.
Where To Buy Mucuna Pruriens?
Many people consider Chia seeds as the pinnacle super food. They are natural energy supplements that can give high sustainable energy in a tasty and inexpensive way. They contain high levels of fiber, about 20% proteins, which help in tissue and muscle regeneration. They are also rich in omega 5 and 6 oils as well as other beneficial nutrients.
People who include Chia seeds in their eating habits are reported to notice higher energy levels and regular health benefits right away. They also exhibit other health benefits like muscle generation, cardiovascular health and weight loss in the long run.
Where To Buy Chia Seeds?
Being one of the oldest plants, Ginkgo Biloba has been in use in herbal and natural medicine for thousands of years. Its widely recognized as a supplement to enhance both mental and memory alertness as well as many other health benefits
Todays busy and hectic lifestyle tends to take a toll on many people affecting their physical and mental functions which in most cases leads to memory and focus loss. In such cases, a dose of Gikgo Biloba can come in handy since it helps to increase blood circulation and oxygen levels in the brain, improving concentration and the brain power.
Where To Buy Ginkgo Biloba?
Ginseng is a herb that is used as a natural energy booster and for other medicinal benefits. Oriental and American are the main species of Ginseng. Both these species have been found to boost the immune system and improve vitality.
It contains active ingredients like ginsenocides, which helps to regulate mechanism of nerves and control hormone activity. This helps to influence insulin production, regulate blood pressure and increase metabolism. You can use Ginseng regularly to boost your energy levels, reduce mental fatigue and stress, and improve performance. Ginseng has no toxicity and is thus harmless with no known side effects.
Where To Buy Ginseng?
Pine pollen is a natural testosterone booster, produced by pine trees as a yellow dust during spring. The level of Testosterone in your body will affect your energy levels, sleeping habits and other health issues like libido.
Pine pollen supplements can give your body the extra energy you need to start your workout and can also help you endure energy demanding activities for long. Other health benefits include improved immune systems, hormonal balancing, among others. Take pine pollen with sweeteners before your work out as it doesnt have a good taste.
Where To Buy Pine Pollen?
Caffeine is arguably the most known and widely consumed stimulant in all corners of the world. Caffeine is a chemical found in products like tea, coffee, guarana, and cola. These products are used as energy boosters and help to improve ones mental alertness and brain functions.
Consider taking a beverage with caffeine before your work out to boost performance, lower perceived exertion as well as increase stamina and physical endurance. However, caffeine should be taken in moderation as its habit forming and high doses of caffeine can cause health problems. Its advisable to not take more than 300 mg per day.
Royal jelly is a nutritious natural supplement produced by worker bees when they combine honey and pollen in the hive. Produced for the queen and royal family, it is rich in vitamins including vitamin-B complex, amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, natural anti-bacterial, antibiotics, calories, and useful minerals.
Royal jelly is said to have rejuvenating powers that can revive your body and lift your mood. It is used as a supplement to restore strength, energy, improve concentration, and boost the immune system. It is also said to promote longevity, although this claim has not yet been fully substantiated.
Gotu Kola is one of the best brain tonic supplements used to improve brain performance. In fact some refer to Gotu Kola as food for the brain. It is considered as one of the most spiritual and rejuvenating herbs and is commonly used by people who do Yoga to improve meditation.
If you are experiencing energy drains and you are losing concentration in your work out or daily activity, Gotu Kola can help to improve your mental function. Include Gotu Kola in your daily diet and improve your concentration and memory loss. It is also recommended for people suffering from nervous disorders.
Spirulina is yet another natural energy booster. It is a single celled algae, cyanbacteri, that is made of essential amino acids and proteins. It is also a good source of antioxidants, omega 3, 6 and 9, vitamins B and over 100 nutrients, higher than any other plant.
It contains high levels of Chlorophyll which removes toxins from the blood stream and thus improves your immune system. Chlorophyll is also responsible for creating carbohydrates which will go a long way in boosting your energy. It is also recommended for vegetarians as it contains vitamins and amino acids found in animal products.
These natural supplements are only a means but not the end to a healthy leaving. The importance of a balanced diet and exercise cannot be overstated for a healthy and longer life. Natural healthy supplements can boost your energy when your own energy has failed you. A healthy mind in a healthy body will not only make you feel good but also improve your social life.
The importance of exercising is as important as a healthy diet. Even the most basic exercise activities help in burning of calories. Regular workouts and a healthy diet play a crucial role in achieving a healthy lifestyle. You may not lose weight even if you are on a diet if you dont exercise nor will you maintain a healthy weight with exercise alone without a balanced diet.
Your muscles will work best, build up and become stronger by implementing both aspects. Engaging in activities that raise your heart rate for an extended time will help in making your heart strong and healthier.
The human body works best when engaged in regular activities. Through exercise, you achieve physical fitness by improving muscular strength, cardio-respiratory, flexibility, and endurance. Those who engage in a routine workout activity are healthier and at a lower risk of some health problems like, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, among others.
Physical activity helps in blood circulation making your cardiovascular system more efficient when oxygen nutrients are delivered to your body tissue.
People who exercise and eat healthy foods with low fats have flexible and strong bones than those who dont. When you have healthy bones, you reduce the risk of injuries and bone loss associated with aging.
A healthy and antioxidant rich diet and regular exercise is a natural safeguard against cancer. The power to live a longer and healthy life is in your hands. Engage in physical activities and extend the length of your life.
Proper exercise and a healthy diet offer a variety of mental benefits. Mild physical activities can help reduce stress just like some healthy eating habits do. When you engage in physical activities, a chemical in the brain known to make people happy is stimulated. Healthy lifestyle choices which include a healthy diet and regular exercise improve brain performance and reduce the risk of depression.
When you are unhealthy, your self-esteem if affected negatively as you may be worrying about your physical public appearance. This is the case when you are overweight. Being in good shape makes you feel better about yourself improving your self-esteem and reduces anxiety, stress or depression.
Physical activity can be a fun way of interacting with people and making new friends as you prevent excess weight gain by burning calories. You dont need to spend money for a gym membership to keep fit, start with simple activities like taking a walk or using the stairs.
Both eating healthy and physical activities are important in maintaining a healthy social life. When you maintain a healthy weight and improve your posture, you can face the world with more confident.
Start your journey to a healthy lifestyle path today. Eat healthy and start with a simple and fun physical activity. You can make a choice of healthy living, your age or race notwithstanding. Make notable adjustments in your current lifestyle by making small changes that are directed in healthy living. Go for the changes that are not only attainable and achievable, but also fun to encourage you to keep going.
Natural supplements that have minimal or no side effects can help you boost your energy when you feel like giving up. Consult with your physician before taking any supplement.
With all the above information, you cannot go wrong with natural energy supplements. In todays modern society, they have become a must have for people who are constantly on the go.
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Posted: July 12, 2016 at 6:25 am
From Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokmon encyclopedia.
Evolution (Japanese: evolution) is a process in which a Pokmon changes into a different species of Pokmon. This change is not merely physical, however, as Pokmon of a higher evolutionary stage have different (and usually more powerful) base stats than their predecessors, may have different moves that can be learned, and sometimes change their types, though usually at least one of the types of the previous form is preserved. Other statistics, such as Nature and EVs, as well as shininess, are preserved. With respect to real-world phenomena, Pokmon Evolution is more similar to metamorphosis than evolution. Evolution also appears to be a mostly independent phenomena from the aging process for most species, though Baby Pokmon need to evolve to their next stage in order to breed.
Professor Elm and Professor Rowan are the leading experts in Pokmon Evolution. According to the latter’s research, over 90% of all Pokmon are connected to at least one other through Evolution (this is true only if Legendary Pokmon are excluded.) Rowan is currently investigating whether Evolution is a form of maturity in Pokmon, and looking at the implications this process has on Legendary Pokmon, which don’t evolve.
An evolution family is a group of Pokmon who will all, if bred with Ditto or a Pokmon in the same Egg Group, make a Pokmon Egg that will hatch into the same Pokmon, excluding baby Pokmon. This also means that the most basic form has the potential to become any of the rest of the family, although it will ultimately be able to follow only one evolutionary path.
Pokmon can be divided into different evolutionary stages, based on where they appear in their evolution family. All Pokmon fall into one of four groups: baby Pokmon, unevolved Pokmon, first-evolution Pokmon, and second-evolution Pokmon. These groups are also the basis for the TCG’s grouping of Baby Pokmon, Basic Pokmon, Stage 1 Pokmon, and Stage 2 Pokmon, respectively.
Due to the fact that no evolution family contains both a baby Pokmon and a second-evolution Pokmon, many regard baby Pokmon as the most basic form, while moving their evolved counterparts one level higher. For example, originally, Pikachu was regarded as an unevolved Pokmon, however, with the release of Pichu in Generation II, many now consider it to be more on par with Pokmon like Charmeleon, though its TCG classification remains the same.
Perhaps the most well-known types of evolution families are those that feature two separate evolutionary events in the Pokmon’s development. Indeed, this type of evolution family is what all of the starter Pokmon in the core series are a part of (excluding the starter Pikachu in Pokmon Yellow, as Pichu did not yet exist and it could not be evolved into Raichu; and Eevee, which could only be taken by Blue), as well as all pseudo-legendary Pokmon. An example of this type of evolution family is below.
By far the most common type of evolution family, these families are based in a Pokmon that will only ever evolve once in its development. About one third of all Pokmon that would later get a baby form were part of this kind of evolution family before their baby form was revealed. An example of this type of evolution family is below.
The least common type of evolution family is that in which no evolutionary event takes place, meaning that it is made up of only one member. Many of the Pokmon that have no evolutionary relatives are Legendary Pokmon. However, there are still 61 other Pokmon that do not evolve. Below is a list of all non-Legendary Pokmon that do not evolve (Phione is not included due to its status as a Legendary being disputed).
Not belonging to an evolutionary family is not indicative of strength, or a lack thereof. Some Pokmon, such as Heracross and Skarmory, are comparable to fully evolved Pokmon while others, like Delibird and Luvdisc, are more comparable to unevolved Pokmon. Often this indicates a Pokmon’s possibility to be eligible for future new evolutions or pre-evolutions.
Several families, while also one- and two-evolution families, are also branch evolution families. What this means is that there is a split in the evolutionary line at some point so that even though two Pokmon of the same species evolve the same amount of times, they can become one of two or more entirely different creatures. Eevee is the best-known example of this, evolving eight different ways depending on the method used. An example of this type of evolution family is below.
A major difference between the final forms of an evolution family with a branch in evolution is in the way that their base stats line up. For example, Kirlia can evolve into both Gardevoir and Gallade, which both have 518 total base stats. However, Gallade’s base stat in Attack is 125 and its base stat in Special Attack is 65. The reverse is true for Gardevoir, whose Special Attack is 125 and whose Attack is 65. This is true of many opposing evolutions, with one focusing in one specific stat, the other focusing in a separate stat, and both having the same total stats. This is especially obvious in the Eeveelutions, who each have exactly the same base stats, though organized differently.
A listing of the stat focuses is below.
The various triggers for a Pokmon’s evolution are almost as varied as the Pokmon themselves, and some Pokmon have a unique evolution method. The most common of them is Evolution by leveling up at or above a certain level. Other methods include the following:
Additionally, holding an Everstone prevents a Pokmon from evolving, as well as surprising a Pokmon via the B Button. The latter method is known as an “Evolution cancel”.
Pokmon that get knocked out during a battle will evolve at the end of that battle if its requirements have been met. However, before Generation VI, losing a battle would make Pokmon not evolve even if the conditions have been met.
Pokmon that can evolve into more than one Pokmon will usually have the ways in which the evolution is activated being slightly similar, such as having both being initiated by evolutionary stone or by trading while holding an item. Closely-related Pokmon, such as Nidoran and Nidoran, will also have very similar, if not identical, evolution methods.
Some Pokmon have different evolutions depending on their gender. For example, only female Combee can evolve into Vespiquen; male Combee cannot evolve at all. Meanwhile, all Snorunt can evolve into Glalie, but females ones have the option of evolving into Froslass instead. This instance occurs in a similar way with Kirlia, albeit with males having split evolution instead.
Also, there have been situations in which the current party must be configured in a specific manner for some Pokmon to evolve. So far, only three Pokmon need to have these special requirements. Mantyke will evolve into Mantine if leveled up with a Remoraid in the player’s party. Nincada will evolve into Ninjask when it reaches level 20. However, if there happens to be an empty space in the player’s party (and a spare Pok Ball in Generation IV onward), a Shedinja will also appear in the party. Pancham evolves into Pangoro if its level is 32 or higher and there is a Dark-type Pokmon in the player’s party.
Some Pokmon evolve in other unique ways. If one trades a Karrablast for a Shelmet, they will evolve into Escavalier and Accelgor, respectively, though neither will evolve if one of them holds an Everstone. When Inkay reaches level 30, the player must hold the 3DS upside-down for it to evolve into Malamar. Also introduced was a weather-based evolution: Sliggoo will evolve into Goodra beginning at level 50 only if it is raining in the area that the player is in. Finally, Sylveon can only be obtained be leveling up an Eevee that knows any Fairy-type moves and has at least two hearts of affection in Pokmon-Amie.
Some missions Hey You, Pikachu! involve Pikachu interacting with other Pokmon in certain ways to cause their evolution. In Caring for Caterpie, the player and Pikachu supervise a group of Caterpie, who will evolve into Metapod and then Butterfree if treated well. In Field Trip, Pikachu can water wild Oddish and Gloom, causing them to evolve into Gloom and Vileplume, respectively.
In Pokmon Colosseum and XD: Gale of Darkness, while evolution typically works as normal in the main series, Shadow Pokmon are incapable of evolving until they are purified and return to normal. In Pokmon XD: Gale of Dakrness, the player’s Eevee is incapable of evolving into Espeon or Umbreon through normal methods, because the game does not have a Time mechanic. However, early in the game, the player is given their choice of evolution item to evolve it, including the Sun and Moon Shards, Key Items that will evolve Eevee into Espeon or Umbreon respectively after it levels up.
In Pokmon Conquest, because the mechanics of levels, experience, and friendship do not exist, Pokmon typically evolve once they reach a certain link threshold with their partnered Warrior or Warlord. Pokmon that normally evolve via high friendship in the main series games, such as Golbat, instead evolve after reaching a certain link percentage, usually between 60 and 70 percent. Pokmon that normally evolve at a set level instead evolve when a certain stat reaches a specific value. For example, Spheal evolves when its HP has reached a value of 138, which is partially determined by the link with its Warrior. Warriors with Pokmon that require an evolutionary stone to evolve must equip themselves with that item and then perform an action that causes their link to improve, such as completing a battle.
In Pokmon Pinball and Pokmon Pinball: Ruby & Sapphire, the player can evolve Pokmon they caught in Catch ‘Em Mode in a separate mode called Evolution Mode (EVO Mode in Pinball RS). In this mode the player selects an evolution-capable Pokmon in their possession, then guide their ball towards three symbols representative of their method of evolution in the main games, such as EX for Level evolution, or a Link Cable for Trade evolution. If the player collects the three symbols in time, they can bring their ball to the Center Hole to evolve their Pokmon, awarding them with their Pokdex entry and points.
In the Mystery Dungeon series, Evolution is restricted until the player complete the main scenario of the respective games. Evolution is typically done in a ritual held in several locations across the Pokmon world, including Luminous Cave, the Luminous Spring, or the Tree of Life. However, starting in Explorers of Time and Explorers of Darkness, the player character and their partner may not evolve until they complete an additional scenario. Pokmon who evolve through unusual methods require an additional item to act as a catalyst.
In Pokmon Mystery Dungeon: Gates to Infinity forward, enemy Pokmon may evolve at will after defeating a member of the player’s party. In Super Mystery Dungeon, the player character and their partner evolve into their final forms several times throughout the story. In addition, recruitable Pokmon that exist as NPCs in this game or previous games will refuse evolution. However, because all Pokmon can be recruited separately though the Connection Orb, the player can still access their respective evolved forms in alternate ways.
In Pokmon Snap, the player can interact with Pokmon in certain ways that will make them evolve.
In the anime, Evolution happens in much the same way as it does in the games; though level-based evolutions and trade-based evolutions do not occur using those methods, there are similarities in the way they come about. For example, Misty’s Poliwhirl evolved into Politoed because it found Ash’s King’s Rock and was holding it when Misty sent it out, while in the games it is required that Poliwhirl be traded while holding the King’s Rock for the evolution to take place (It should be noted that Poliwhirl had been through a machine in connection with it being healed at the Pokmon Center, while holding the item). When a Beedrill attacked Ash’s Metapod, it caused a crack to appear on its shell, which Butterfree came out of.
Additionally, a difference can be seen in the fact that Pokmon evolve during a battle, as opposed to after it. Pokmon may also evolve when they are needed to, for an extra boost of power or gaining new abilities, instead of after a set amount of training, such as when Ash’s Charmeleon evolved into Charizard. In addition, Pokmon can sometimes choose not to evolve, even if they evolve by a ‘natural’ method such as leveling up. It appears that Evolution has emotional implications for Pokmon – some Pokmon, such as Team Rocket’s Meowth, dislike their evolved forms, while others such as Ash’s Pikachu simply want to prove they can be powerful without evolving. Conversely, when Pokmon do evolve, this can often be linked with an experience that causes them to mature emotionally or deal with an emotional issue, such as when the Poochyena in A Bite to Remember evolved, or the Paras in The Problem With Paras. Poochyena, for some reason, had an aversion to using the move Bite, while Paras was extremely timid and weak in battle. Both of them evolved shortly after overcoming these issues.
For a list of all evolutions that Pokmon belonging to the main cast have undergone, see List of anime Pokmon by evolution.
Evolution in the Pokmon Trading Card Game is very similar in some aspects to its counterpart in the core series. However, it differs mostly in the fact that there are no different methods needed to evolve a Pokmon, but instead, all Pokmon evolve simply by placing the next stage on top of a Pokmon in play that it evolves into.
Pokmon cannot be evolved on the first turn of the game or on the first turn they come into play. They also cannot be evolved if on the same turn they were previously evolved or devolved.
There are four different stages of evolution in the TCG, Baby Pokmon, Basic Pokmon, Stage 1 Pokmon, and Stage 2 Pokmon. Of these, only Baby and Basic Pokmon may be placed onto the Bench during the setup phase and during play; Stage 1 and Stage 2 Pokmon are considered to be evolution cards and therefore unable to be played except on top of their corresponding pre-evolved forms. The stage of evolution is indicated in a conspicuous place on each and every Pokmon card, though the placement differs among the four generations of cards.
Within the deck and discard pile, only Stage 1 and Stage 2 cards are considered to be “evolution cards” for the purpose of a Trainer card or Pokmon Power which allows them to be searched for. In play, a Basic Pokmon card can be considered an evolution card if it is evolved from its Baby stage.
A Baby Pokmon is much the same in the TCG as it is in the core series of games. In fact, as with baby Pokmon released beyond Generation II, it is not even necessary for a Pokmon to even go through this stage of their evolutionary line, as the Pokmon can just start from their basic form. Baby Pokmon are among the weakest in the TCG, most often having 30 HP, as well as one of two special Pok-Bodys: one prevents all damage done to the Baby Pokmon while it is Asleep (Baby Pokmon with this Pok-Body also usually have an attack that changes their status to Asleep), and the other forces a Pokmon attempting to attack the Baby Pokmon to flip a coin, the attack doing nothing if that coin ends up tails.
A Basic Pokmon is the most basic of Pokmon cards, as can be deduced from its name. Commonly basic Pokmon will have low HP, a common rarity, and low damage and Energy costs. These cards can be placed directly into play without another Pokmon card needing to be in play first. Pokmon that evolve from a Pokmon released in a later generation, such as Electabuzz or Pikachu, always are basic Pokmon, despite being the second Pokmon in their own evolutionary lines. Baby Pokmon, Shining Pokmon, Pokmon , Pokemon SP, and Pokmon-EX are always Basic, the latter four cannot evolve.
A Stage 1 Pokmon are the first kind of evolution card, being able to be evolved from a Basic Pokmon. Stage 1 cards are most commonly uncommon in rarity. Stage 1 Pokmon are also able to be Dark Pokmon and Light Pokmon.
A Stage 2 Pokmon is the highest of evolution cards, commonly rare or holographic in rarity, and can only, in normal conditions, be evolved from a Stage 1 Pokmon. Stage 2 Pokmon are also able to be Dark Pokmon and Light Pokmon.
M Pokmon-EX cards were introduced in XY expansion and introduce the Mega Evolution mechanic featured in Pokmon X and Y. They are identified by a stylized graphic on the card name. M Pokmon-EX can only be played by Mega Evolving from basic Pokmon-EX. Doing so ends a players Turn immediately. Other than this, M Pokmon-EX share the same rules and design as regular Pokmon-EX and evolving Pokmon, with the addition of boosted Hit Points and more powerful Attacks.
A Pokmon card that is in the player’s hand must say specifically that it evolves from a Pokmon card that is in play on the player’s side. For example, Dark Blastoise states on the card “Evolves from Dark Wartortle”. This means that any card named Dark Wartortle may be evolved into Dark Blastoise. However, a card simply named Wartortle cannot. Likewise, Pokmon such as Rhyhorn cannot be evolved into a Pokmon that says on it “Evolves from Team Magma’s Rhyhorn”.
However, Pokmon cards from different sets may evolve into one another. For example, Dark Crobat can evolve from either Dark Golbat of the Team Rocket set or Dark Golbat of the EX Team Rocket Returns set. So long as the card names match precisely both to (here Dark Crobat) and from (here Dark Golbat), the evolution is legal. This rule, of course, can be circumvented by certain means, such as Pokmon Powers and Trainer cards, however, this is not common.
Evolution in Pokmon, for most species, is more akin to metamorphosis than to actual evolution. This is because real life evolution happens to a population rather than to individuals, and happens over much larger time scales than in the Pokmon world. In the Pokmon Adventures manga, it is mentioned that Pokmon Evolution is an entirely separate phenomenon from the normal process of evolution, and is a mysterious ability exclusive to Pokmon that is still not fully understood. In Pokmon Super Mystery Dungeon, it is described in the health class at the school in Serene Village as when a Pokmon’s body rapidly grows larger with many other changes bringing a Pokmon closer to being an adult, being described akin to puberty.
Posted: at 5:53 pm
Feature Video now available The Genomic Landscape of Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry
On Tuesday, June 7, Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, M.D., F.A.C.P., presented The Genomic Landscape of Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry, the final lecture in the 2016 Genomics and Health Disparities Lecture Series. Dr. Olufunmilayo is director of the Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics at the University of Chicago School of Medicine. Read more | Watch the video
The NHGRI History of Genomics Program closed its six-part seminar series featuring Human Genome Project (HGP) participants who helped launch the HGP with the talk: The Genome is for Life, by David Bentley, D.Phil., on Thursday, May 26th. Dr. Bentley is vice president and chief scientist at Illumina Inc. His long-term research interest is the study of human sequence variation and its impact on health and disease. Read more about the series
In this issue of The Genomics Landscape, we feature the use of model organisms to explore the function of genes implicated in human disease. This month’s issue also highlights a recently completed webinar series to help professionals in the health insurance industry understand genetic testing, new funding for training in genomic medicine research, and NHGRI’s Genome Statute and Legislation Database. Read more
Cristina Kapusti, M.S., has been named chief of the Policy and Program Analysis Branch (PPAB) at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). In her new role, she will oversee policy activities and evaluation as well as program reporting and assessment to support institute priorities. PPAB is a part of the Division of Policy, Communications and Education (DPCE), whose mission is to promote the understanding and application of genomic knowledge to advance human health and society. Read more
Last Updated: July 7, 2016
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Posted: July 7, 2016 at 4:12 pm
Nootropics are a class of cognitive enhancing supplements that are used to improve concentration and boost memory power. Nootropics are often used to increase attention spans, help individuals focus and as studying aids.
You will occasionally see Nootropics referred to as smart drugs as they are associated with increased intelligence, motivation, and mental energy.
However, unlike smart drugs which can often cause negative side effects with long-term use, nootropics must be safe, neuroprotective and pose a very low risk of side effects when used appropriate.
Many nootropics share similar mechanisms of action by enhancing increased communication between neurons, helping to balance neurotransmitter levels or by promoting brain cell health. They may help improve energy metabolism in your neurons, support neuroplasticity, or even stimulate the growth of new neurons and synapses.
What are Nootropics and how do they really work? Which are the best nootropics to use if you are a new user?
This article will provide a basic guide to nootropics and give you an overview of how to use these supplements to enhance your mental capabilities.
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Nootropics are broadly any type of neuro enhancing drug or natural supplement with very low prevalence of side effects. The actual definition of what makes a supplement a nootropic is somewhat of a loose concept.
The original description comes from Belgian pharmacologists S. Giurgea and V. Skondia who invented the first Nootropic a compound known as Piracetam in 1963.
They established the classification of Nootropics to refer to cognitive boosting substances with extremely low toxicity that can be taken for long-term use.
This highlights the fact that Piracetam and other Nootropics are able to improve brain functions without any of the negative side effects associated with brain stimulants.
Piracetam (known also by the name Nootropil) is one of the best known Nootropics and makes up part of the Racetam family along with Aniracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam, Nefiracetam, Coluracetam and Nebracetam. These are all synthetic compounds that have been created in the lab, but there are also a number of effective herbal and natural nootropic supplements.
For example, fish oil, grape seed extract, bacopa monnieri, yerba mate and even licorice are all natural nootropics. (Click here to see a full Nootropics List of supplements that are available.) You will often find these supplements combined together in a Nootropic Stack to further enhance their effectiveness.
What exactly do Nootropics do? Like smart drugs, Nootropics will not instantaneously give you a higher IQ or a better intellect. But they may boost your brain functions by increasing the production and signalling of various neurotransmitters.
Your brain is essentially a network of billions of neurons connected by synapses. These neurons communicate and work together through chemicals known as neurotransmitters. When neurotransmitters are able to send signals more efficiently, you experience improved concentration, better memory, mood elevation, increased processing ability for mental work, and longer attention spans.
With continued supplementation of certain nootropics, you can improve the synaptic plasticity of neurons, causing long lasting improvement to the health and functioning of your brain.
Other nootropics show effects of vasodilation which means they increase the blood flow to your brain. This supplies your brain with more oxygen, nutrients, and glucose the primary energy source used by the brain during long periods of focus.
The brain requires an immense amount of energy to perform its function, sustain consciousness and to pay attention to your external environment. Even though the brain is only 2% of your bodyweight, it constitutes 20% of your energy expenditure.
Performing mental exercises, learning new things, concentrating on your work and staying alert during the day all burn a lot of energy. By raising bloodflow and oxygenation, you can immediately experience greater capacity for memory and focus.
Supplements that can improve the energy supply to your brain cells (like Acetyl L-Carnitine, Caffeine, Creatine, Ginkgo Biloba, or Vinpocetine) can all enhance focus, mental energy and clarity. This type of nootropic is especially favored among students for studying as their effects are felt immediately.
Nootropics can also show signs of neuro-preservation and neuro-protection. These compounds directly affect the levels of brain chemicals associated with slowing down the aging process. Some nootropics could in an increase in the production of Nerve Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor to stimulate the growth of neurons and neurites while slowing down the rate of damage as well.
Over time, this could potentially slow down signs of aging like loss of memory and even counter the development of disorders like Alzheimers disease.
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Below is a list of some of the most popular and best nootropics that are available today. Each supplement with have its own unique mechanism of action that is distinct from other nootropics.
You can either select the supplement that best matches your needs or goals, or you can combine several nootropic compounds together in what is known as a stack. A stack simply involves any pairing of substances that enhance and complement each other when taken simultaneously.
Most of the pre-packaged brain boosters available will stack together several different herbal or synthetic nootropics like those listed below, but you can also buy the bulk raw powder and mix your own capsules to design a formula that is right for you.
Racetam: As mentioned previously, racetams are a class of nootropics including the widely used Piracetam, Aniracetam, Pramiracetam, and Oxiracetam.
They all share a similar chemical structure with a Pyrrolidone nucleus. Racetams work by dramatically increasing levels of neurotransmitters and other chemicals required for proper brain function like glutamate and acetylcholine.
They have been tested to improve cognitive function, prevent damage to brain cells from alcohol consumption and other factors, and to increase the communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Choline: Choline is frequently found in a nootropic stack with racetams like Piracetam and Aniracetam. Taking choline supplements will cause greater production of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter in the brain.
Since Racetams result in increased uptake and demand for acetylcholine, stacking choline with this nootropic will further enhance your results. Studies have shown that choline supplementation can improve performance on memory tests as well as social behavior. Choline also plays a key role in the production of phospholipids that are incorporated into brain cell membranes.
Pyritinol: Pyritinol has anti-oxidant effects for supporting the long-term health of the brain. But its primary benefit is aiding glucose uptake for periods of extended mental strain. If you are studying or working for a long period of time,
your brain will start to diminish its glucose (sugar) stores which are the primary way that the brain derives its energy.
Psychological studies have shown that continuing to refuel your brain with glucose will improve concentration and cognitive ability during extended periods of mental work. Supplementing Pyritinol aids further in glucose uptake so that your mental energy levels are higher.
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Vinpocetine: Vinpocetine has been shown as one of the most effective nootropics for improving brain blood flow. After taking Vinpocetine, the blood vessels dilate and are able to circulate more blood to the brain.
This causes a number of immediately noticeable effects such as concentration boosting, better mental agility, and higher energy levels and motivation.
There are many more nootropics available out there and different ones can assist you in improving your brain in various different ways. For a full Nootropics List, keep reading this website and check out our many Nootropic reviews.
Which nootropic supplement you pick is largely a matter of personal preference. You might want to check out the pre-made nootropic products like Alpha Brain or you might prefer to design your own stack by purchasing ingredients like Piracetam powder.
The health and capabilities of your brain are one of the most important determining factors in a happy and successful life, so whatever you pick you can rest assured that you are making a smart investment.
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The Genomics Landscape The Power of Model Organisms for Studying Rare Diseases In this issue of The Genomics Landscape, we feature the use of model organisms to explore the function of genes implicated in human disease. This month’s issue also highlights a recently completed webinar series to help professionals in the health insurance industry understand genetic testing, new funding for training in genomic medicine research, and NHGRI’s Genome Statute and Legislation Database. Read more New training grants prime doctors to tackle genomic medicine The practice of medicine is expensive and doesn’t fit in a one-hour time frame. Tests can only eliminate one diagnosis at a time. Questioning and family history can help a doctor arrive at the correct diagnosis, but even with the information gathered upfront, there are a huge number of tests to consider, and many tests may still be needed. Training doctors to use genomic sequencing is a powerful solution to the challenges facing today’s medical practice. Read more One little fish hooks genome researchers with its versatility Modern molecular biology and the genome of a tiny silver and black striped fish – the zebrafish – are making waves in genomics research. This tiny fish is a powerhouse tool that helps researchers better understand the genes that are implicated in disease. Here, at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), researchers are working to advance human health by coupling the potential of this little fish with an institute-funded resource known as The Zebrafish Core. Read more New NIH studies seek adults and families affected by sickle cell disease/trait People with sickle cell disease (SCD) can experience excruciating pain, kidney problems, a higher risk of stroke and, in rare cases, chronic leg ulcers. Little is known about why the severity of these symptoms varies throughout a lifetime or why these symptoms differ from person to person. NHGRI researchers are seeking help from people affected by SCD to find the factors – environmental, social and genetic – that impact the severity of the symptoms. Read more Video now available The Genomic Landscape of Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry On June 7, Olufunmilayo I. Olopade, M.D., F.A.C.P., presented The Genomic Landscape of Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry, the final lecture in the 2016 Genomics and Health Disparities Lecture Series. Dr. Olufunmilayo is director of the Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics at the University of Chicago School of Medicine. She is an expert in cancer risk assessment and treatment for aggressive forms of breast cancer. Watch video | Read about the series
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