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Survivalism (song) – NinWiki

Posted: July 21, 2016 at 2:11 am

“Survivalism” Album: Year Zero Length: 4:23 Tempo: 130 BPM Versions: Survivalism Survivalism (Instrumental) Survivalism (Radio Edit) Survivalism_Tardusted Survivalism_OpalHeartClinic_Niggy_Tardust!(Escaped… Survivalism (David Sitek Remix) Survivalism (deadmau5 Remix) Live: Performance 2007 through NIN 2014 Europe/UK Tour

“Survivalism” is the third track and the first single from the 2007 album Year Zero.

Survivalism is the belief that one must be prepared to survive a major catastrophe by stocking up on food and weapons. A survivalist therefore is a person who anticipates and prepares for a future disruption in local, regional or worldwide social or political order. Survivalists often prepare for this anticipated disruption by learning skills (e.g., emergency medical training), stockpiling food and water, or building structures that will help them to survive (e.g., an underground shelter).

On March 13, the source files for the song were released in GarageBand format at NIN.com. “Survivalism” is the third NIN song to be officially released as source files”Only” and “The Hand That Feeds” were previously released.

Found on Year Zero as well as the Survivalism single and promo. Characterized by much synthetic layering and a consistent eighth note drum machine pulse, matched by a single note bass riff that begins on the second eighth and ends on the eighth before repeating. This gives the song an apparent metric shift one eighth note forward, though the first downbeat of each measure is actually in the space between the stop and start of the bass and guitar riff. The chorus features many layers of group vocals, including some by Saul Williams. After the final chorus, a new guitar riff leads off a coda that builds in layers of drones until suddenly stopping and leading into “The Good Soldier.”

This unmastered vocal-less mix was released by Reznor through his remix.nin.com account.

A radio-friendly edited version that is found on the Survivalism promo. The word “whore” is edited out.

Included on the Survivalism single and Y34RZ3R0R3M1X3D, this remix was created by Williams and Thavius Beck. The music isn’t as guitar-driven as the album version and the chorus consists of Reznor’s vocals with Williams’ vocal contributions reduced significantly. The breakdown repeats the lyric “All a part of this great nation.” There is also hand-clap percussion over pulsating beats and some distortion on Reznor’s vocals at some points in the song. Although it may not seem as heavy as the original, it’s still heavy in terms of percussion.

Remix: Saul Williams, Thavius Beck

Available on the UK 9″ Vinyl Survivalism single. This remix, also by Williams, features him incorporating new lyrics into the verses and delivering them with more of a spoken word/hip-hop flow. Reznor’s vocals become backing vocals on this track, allowing Williams to come to the front. The music is very similar to that used in the “Tardusted” version. The new lyrics sung by Williams are as follows:

The spoken word rhythm of this remix has a strong resemblance to Williams’ song “P.G.” from Saul Williams.

David Andrew Sitek is member of TV On The Radio, who opened for Nine Inch Nails during the With Teeth tour. This remix was originally available as a UK-only iTunes download. It came as a free bonus track packaged with the full album download of Year Zero. It is alternatively available on the Capital G single. It is akin to the original song sound-wise, but features a heavier and more plodding drum line. Additionally, it enhances Williams’ back up vocals and makes them more prominent than in the original. The structure and length of the song remains relatively unchanged.

This is a remix by deadmau5, originally released through his official SoundCloud account in 2012, then commercially on his album while(1

On 3/13/07 Garage Band files for Survivalism were released on nin.com. Along with Survivalism, there was another file called Survivalism Our End Trip with some weird sounds. After rearranging the file through a spectogram, this was found. The following case number for Judson Ogram was found:

Filming for the “Survivalism” video began on February 5, 2007. It was directed by Alex Lieu, Rob Sheridan, and Reznor, and produced by Susan Bonds. The video was “leaked” to the internet via flash drives found dotted around the venue by people attending the Nine Inch Nails concert in London on March 7, 2007.

SPOILERS BEGIN A wall of surveillance monitors details the activities of several people in an apartment building. A group of rebels is creating stencils and spray-painting the “Art Is Resistance” logo on walls. In an apartment, a pair of gay lovers share an intimate moment. In another dwelling, a young asian woman stands topless at her mirror doing her hair and applying make-up. Elsewhere someone is high on drugs, while a couple just sits on their couch in their home. A man is seen on a computer with several photos and news clippingsbehind him. Another man is seen on camera eating his dinner. Seen on several monitors is Nine Inch Nails playing the song in what is assumed to be their practice space. Intercut with these scenes is footage of armed soldiers, dressed like SWAT members, moving in on the building and one of the spaces in the video.

At the end of the video the people in the other monitors seem to respond to an ado in one of the spaces seen on the monitor wall. The space where NIN was playing has its door busted in and a pool of blood leading out, while all of the other cameras trained on the band have gone to static. At the very end a body is seen being dragged around a corner, leaving a trail of blood. Presumably the body is that of Reznor, as it wears the same scarf that he is seen wearing throughout the video. END SPOILERS

The video has aired on MTV2, but in a censored form. The screens with the woman at her mirror and the gay lovers have been replaced by a white screen bearing the seal of the US Bureau of Morality and the phrase “CENSORED FOR YOUR PROTECTION.” This is not unlike the use of SCENE MISSING screens in the “Closer” video. Interestingly enough, the word “whore” and the screen depicting the girl using opal are left intact. Even the ending scenes of the pool of blood in the band’s space and the body getting dragged off are retained.

“Survivalism” was played live for the first time at the Razzmatazz in Barcelona, Spain, on February 19, 2007, and since then became a staple song for 2007 performance and all tours that followed. [3]

Here is a video of the performance in Barcelona.

However, the last lines of the third verse are changed to the following on the actual recording:

Excerpt from:

Survivalism (song) – NinWiki

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Censorship In America – Censorship | Laws.com

Posted: July 18, 2016 at 3:29 pm

What is Censorship in America? Censorship in America is the act of altering, adjusting, editing, or banning of any or all media resulting from the presumption that its content is perceived to be objectionable, incendiary, illicit, or immoral by the Federal Government of the United States. The ideology, methodology, and measures or determination regarding media subject to Censorship in America varies; in conjunction to the precepts expressed within the 1st Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, unless the nature of the media in question is in direct violation of American legislation, its Censorship in America will typically undergo judicial review. Media Censorship in America The nature of the term media is subject to substantial variation – the classification of which may be reliant on time period, applicable legislation, and the technological means enacted for its respective disbursement. The following are some examples of varying natures of media with regard to both their respective structures, as well as their subjection to prospective Censorship in America: Public Media Censorship in America A Public Media Broadcast is defined as the transmission of media on the part of a single individual or group via electronic recipients called receivers within wired circuitry responsible for delivering the picture to individual televisions and radios. A radio broadcast is transmitted over amplitude or frequency modulated airwaves, while a television broadcast is transmitted over basic cable or specified television stations. Public Broadcast A Public Broadcast is defined as a transmission of media through the usage of transceivers and/or receivers belonging to the public and regulated by the Federal Government. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is the governmental branch that is responsible for the regulation of content expressed through media disseminated through the use of publically-owned airwaves; the regulations and stipulations undertaken by the FCC are responsible for the oversight of Censorship in America. Private Broadcast A Private Broadcast is a method of Broadcasting in which the media being transmitted is neither sanctioned, nor regulated by a governmental agency. A vast array means for private broadcast exist with regard to subscription-based media channels and avenues, cable television, Internet Satellite Radio, and private websites on the Internet.Guidelines for Censorship in America Violence and Censorship in America Media involving the promotion or undertaking of criminal activity, threat, malice, or the promotion of illegal and damaging ideas with the intent to cause harm; although there exists a vast amount debate with regards to the depiction of criminal activity for entertainment purposes in contrast to those media outlets that are deemed to glorify that same activity, the law enforcement agencies are responsible for the regulation and classification of such media. Activities Sexual in Nature and Censorship in America Media including pornographic images depicting minors, children, or individuals below the age of 18 is considered to be a very serious offense; this criminal activity is not only applicable to those parties responsible for the release of this nature of media, but also to those individuals in ownership of that material: Furthermore, pornographic images depicting sexual acts involving animals, violence, injury, and simulated relationships illicit and unlawful in nature are also considered to be illegal and subject to Censorship in America Comments


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Darwinism – RationalWiki

Posted: July 14, 2016 at 4:27 pm

[“Darwinism” and “Darwinist”] suggest a false narrowness to the field of modern evolutionary biology, as though it was the brainchild of a single person 150 years ago, rather than a vast, complex and evolving subject to which many other great figures have contributed

The word Darwinism is shorthand for evolution by natural selection, named after Charles Darwin, the scientist who first developed, popularised and gathered evidence for the theory. The nuances of its use, however, are dependent on who is using the term. Within biology it is synonymous with natural selection, but within creationism it is more of a snarl word.

To creationists and intelligent design proponents, Darwinism is a derogatory phrase used to describe evolution. By retitling natural selection as “Darwinism”, creationists seek to reduce the theory to the level of any other “ism”, and thus no more worthy of teaching than creationism. See the evolutionism article for more.

To most biologists, notably Richard Dawkins for example, Darwinism is simply a synonym for evolution by natural selection.[2] This contrasts it against Lamarckism, which is a competing (but completely discredited) mechanism for evolution – and Dawkins often refers to natural selection as “Darwinian”. Various other permutations of the term bump around the Internet and blogs. Darwinist is used to describe a vocal proponent of evolution, while neo-Darwinism – to differentiate currently accepted theories about evolution with some of Darwin’s original ideas that have turned out to be incorrect. Neo-Darwinism is generally used to refer to the “Modern Evolutionary Synthesis” of Darwinian evolution and Mendelian genetics. Neo-Darwinism is sometimes contrasted with newer schools of thought such as “evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo),” which seeks to incorporate more findings from molecular genetics and developmental biology into the evolutionary paradigm.

The main problem with this term is that science is about evidence and not personality cults, so naming a branch of science directly after its inventor or discoverer is a dubious practice at best. While great contributors to a field of study are respected, they are not worshipped and revered like gurus.

It is interesting to note how this mentality of describing Darwin as the supposed “worshiped father of evolution” reflects the creationists’ need for a worshiped father figure to be the head of everything. It is like calling any one who accepts gravity exists “Newtonists” or those who accept relativity “Einsteinians” or “Galileans” as if the way that the universe works is a world view, passed down and declared from on high. Although Charles Darwin is a seminal figure in the modern theory of evolution, and his contribution is certainly recognized, there have been over 150 years of advancements since his initial publication of The Origin of Species – the study of evolution has expanded well beyond Darwin’s original works and the ideas he outlined, namely that evolution can now be described in terms of DNA, something that Darwin was unaware of.

While it is certainly true that the “isms” which are based on people’s names (such as Thatcherism, Marxism, and Confucianism) obviously base their thoughts largely or entirely on the writings or thoughts of those individuals, the same cannot be said of “Darwinism”. Therefore to think that a modern evolutionary biologist would hang on every word Darwin said as unchangeable gospel is certainly a parody of science that has no basis in reality.

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Oceania (The Smashing Pumpkins album) – Wikipedia, the free …

Posted: July 10, 2016 at 6:07 pm

Oceania is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock band The Smashing Pumpkins, released on June 19, 2012 through EMI, Reprise Records and Martha’s Music. Produced by Billy Corgan and Bjorn Thorsrud, the album is part of the band’s ongoing 44-song box set, Teargarden by Kaleidyscope.[5] As of September 2012, Oceania has sold over 102,000 copies in the US.[6]

A live performance of the album, Oceania: Live in NYC, was released on September 24, 2013.[7]

On April 26, 2011, in a video on the band’s Facebook fan page, frontman Billy Corgan announced plans to release Oceania as “an album within an album,”[8] relating to Teargarden by Kaleidyscope which involved releasing songs one by one, for free on the Internet from late 2009, and then releasing them in EPs after claiming that albums are a dead medium. While Oceania may appear to contradict that, Corgan explains:

“I still stand by my view that I don’t think albums are particularly relevant at this time. That may change. But as far as making music…from a writing point of view, it’s really going to focus me to put a group of songs together that are supposed to go together.”[9]

Corgan later admitted that they switched back to the album format because he “…reached a point where I saw that the one-song-at-a-time idea had maxed itself out…I just saw we weren’t getting the penetration in to everybody that I would have hoped.”[10]

The band finished mixing the album on September 18, 2011.[11]

Oceania was the first full-length album recorded with guitarist Jeff Schroeder, and the only album recorded with drummer Mike Byrne and bassist Nicole Fiorentino. The band was supplemented in-studio by an unnamed session keyboardist.[12] Fiorentino had this to say about her role in recording Oceania:

“I think because we are all working together on this record it is naturally going to have a different vibe than any of the other records on which Billy played most of the instruments himself. I think we delved into new territory for sure, but what I love about this record is that it has that familiar old-school Pumpkins feel to it, with a modern twist. The cool thing is he was able to capture the energy of the old material without ripping it off. Billy’s definitely found his way back to whatever he was tapping into when writing Gish and Siamese Dream.”[13]

Guitarist Jeff Schroeder also hinted that the album may be less heavy than past albums, stating “In this day and age, with what’s going on politically and socially, it just feels right to play something that’s a little more spacey and dreamy. We want music to move people on an emotional level.”[14]

In November 2011, the album’s release date was pushed back to spring 2012 and announced via Twitter.[15]

Corgan has said that Oceania is the Pumpkins’ “best effort since Mellon Collie”. Comparing it to his previous works, he said, “it is the first time where you actually hear me escape the old band. I’m not reacting against it or for it or in the shadow of it.” [16]

In describing Oceania’s theme, Billy Corgan said the album is partly about “people struggling to find a social identity in today’s fast-paced, technology-rich culture”, adding “I think alienation seems to be the key theme alienation in love and alienation in culture,” he says.[17]

Regarding the album’s lyrical content, Corgan noted “If you listen to the lyrics, it was written around some serious relationship strife. When somebody breaks your heart, you can choose to accept, embrace, and forgive them, as opposed to condemn them. I got a few albums out of [sic] condemn! Now I’m working on compassion as a device.”[18]

The album was tentatively scheduled to be released on September 1, 2011,[19] but the release date was pushed to June 19, 2012.[20] On March 27, 2012, EMI/Caroline Distribution announced that it has entered into an exclusive agreement with Martha’s Music to release the album on June 19, 2012.[21] In late May 2012, the band announced that they were holding a event called “Imagine Oceania”, requesting fans to take and submit their own photos for the album.[22] On June 12, the album was made available to stream in full via iTunes.[23] The album also became available for full streaming on Spotify, Soundcloud, Spinner, and Ustream. Corgan appeared on The Howard Stern Show on June 19, performing an acoustic version of “Tonight, Tonight”. Howard Stern interviewed Corgan for more than an hour and premiered “Violet Rays” from the album.[24] On June 21, 2012, “The Celestials” was released as the album’s first single.[25] They performed the song on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on August 23, 2012.[26] “Panopticon” was released as the second single on September 15, 2012.[27] In 2014, the song “My Love is Winter” was featured on the soundtrack for the video game Watch Dogs.[28]

The album cover features the North Shore Sanitary District Tower.

According to Billboard, the album in its first week of release sold 54,000 copies in the US, debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 chart and at number one on the Independent Albums chart[41]making it the band’s seventh top 10 album to date.[42] The album has received generally positive reviews, with many reviewers finding Oceania to be a return to form for Corgan. On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received thus far an average score of 72, indicating “generally favorable reviews”.[29]RedEye gave the album three stars out of four, saying “Oceania, the first full-length Pumpkins album since 2007’s Zeitgeist, is the best thing Corgan and Co. have produced in quite some time. Longtime fans will hear hints of the grungy, vicious band of the Gish era and also the mellow, almost pop Adore era. It’s a mix that works.”[43] Antiquiet gave album four out of five stars and called it “best Corgan work in a decade”.[44]Gigwise gave the album four stars out of five and praised its production and themes.[45]Toronto Sun gave the album four stars out of five, saying “With Billy Corgan, bigger is better. And his latest projectthe ongoing 44-song Teargarden by Kaleidyscopeis his most ambitious since 2000’s Machina. In keeping, this ‘album-within-an-album’ bears all the classic Pumpkins hallmarks: Searing guitars and busy drums, epic songs and complex arrangements, wistful romanticism and bombastic grandeur. His best work in years.”[46]

PopMatters gave the album seven out of 10 stars, describing the album as “…a spinoff that doesn’t hold the brilliance of an original, but is charismatic in its own right. A more grown-up manifestation of the adolescent self-obsessed gloomy beginnings.”[47]BBC gave the album a positive review, saying “On Oceania Smashing Pumpkins sound energised and alive.” About.com gave the album four stars out of five, saying “Corgan has claimed that friends who had heard Oceania had claimed it was his best since Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness. Time will tell, but for now it’s clear that Oceania is the first Smashing Pumpkins record since then to fully stimulate the senses and stir the heart.” Allmusic gave the album four out of five stars, saying “On Oceania there are some of the most memorable and rousing songs Corgan has delivered since 1993’s Siamese Dream”. ARTISTdirect gave the album a five out of five stars, saying “Oceania is the year’s best rock record and a milestone for the genre. Hopefully, it incites and inspires a new generation. The Pumpkins are no strangers to that concept…”[48]Ology gave the album a B+, stating it is “…simply a really good new album, one that deserves to be referenced and included in the company of the classic Smashing Pumpkins albums it delightfully demonstrates little interest in resembling.”[35] The Chicago Sun-Times gave the album four out of four stars, saying “this album within an album revives Corgan’s gutter-epic vision with a clarity and ferocity not seen since 1995’s Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness.”[49]Daily Express gave the album four out of fivestars, saying “Oceania is Corgan on especially potent form”. Sputnikmusic gave the album four out of fivestars, saying “SP have forged ahead to create a record that could well be the catalyst of a stellar second era for one of rock’s more interesting groups”.[39]

Kerrang gave the album four stars.[50] and NME gave the album six out of 10 stars and criticised the album because it doesn’t feature the original band members.[51] In a brief review, Rolling Stone gave the album three out of five stars and called it “bong prog” and said that Oceania “sounds like Yes hanging in a German disco circa 1977”,[52]Stereogum gave album a positive review, calling it a return to form.[53]USA Today gave the album 3.5 out of four stars, praising the production and song writing.[54]The A.V. Club gave the album a B and called it “a solid start to a new Smashing Pumpkins era”.[55]Pitchfork Media rated the album 6.3 out of 10, purporting that on Oceania, Corgan plays with a “hired-via-contest crew of strangers” and that it is “difficult not to notice he’s repeating himself,” comparing several new songs to earlier Smashing Pumpkins hits.[36]Daily Nebraskan gave the album A and called it “one of this years best rock records”.[56]Consequence of Sound gave the album four out of five stars and called it “best Corgan work in a long time”.[57]CraveOnline gave Oceania an 8 out of 10 review, stating that “If Oceania is a testament of what’s to come, I may need to pull my old Smashing Pumpkin t-shirt out of the closet.”[58]SPIN gave a rating of 7 out of 10, declaring that it is “easily Corgan’s best work since his rat-in-a-cage heyday.”[59] The Seattle Post-Intelligencer scored the album with 4.5 out of five stars, stating it “is full of winners.”[60] The album was listed at #48 on Rolling Stone’s list of the top 50 albums of 2012, saying “The most recent dispatch from whatever far-off planet Billy Corgan currently resides on is the finest slab of cosmic prog he’s thrown down since the Pumpkins’ early-Nineties heyday.”[61]

All songs written and composed by Billy Corgan.

Total length:

Credits adapted from Oceania album liner notes[62] and Allmusic.[63]

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Egoism – Queensborough Community College

Posted: at 5:57 pm

There are several theories about the principle of the GOOD that would serve human decision making in reaching a conclusion as to what is the morally correct thing to do. One approach or group of theories is known as being Teleological.


In this approach to ethics it is the consequence of the act that is the basis for determining its worth. One of the most basic of consequences is the impact on people and one of the most basic of all values for determining whether something is good or not is the pleasure that it brings to someone. Some think that emotional and physical PLEASURE is the ONLY basis for determining what is GOOD

Theories of the GOOD based on pleasure are termed HEDONISM

There are two popular theories of the GOOD based on pleasure. One is based on pleasure to one self. EGOISM

The other is based on the pleasure that results for all humans in the world. UTILITARIANISM.

This section will focus on EGOISM.


There are five types of Egoism the focus here is on the last:


Assuming that my killing him will be in my best interest but detrimental to my grandfather, while refraining from killing him will be to my detriment but in my grandfathers interest, then if ethical conflict-regulation is sound, there can be a sound moral guideline regulating this conflict (presumably by forbidding this killing). But then ethical egoism cannot be sound, for it precludes the interpersonally authoritative regulation of interpersonal conflicts of interest, since such a regulation implies that conduct contrary to ones interest is sometimes morally required of one, and conduct in ones best interest is sometimes morally forbidden to one. Thus, ethical egoism is incompatible with ethical conflict-regulation.

References: Baier, Kurt. 1991 “Egoism” in a Companion to Ethics. (ed. P. Singer) Oxford: Blackwell, 197-204.

Internet Encyclopedia READ: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/egoism.htm

A famous Egoist was Thomas Hobbes

Ethical Egoism and EGOISTS READ: http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/sect7.html


Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05328a.htm

Ethical EGOISM Powerpoint presentation http://ethics.sandiego.edu/presentations/Theory/EthicalEgoism/index_files/frame.html

Literature on Egoism-links to sites http://ethics.sandiego.edu/theories/Egoism/index.asp


An action is morally right if and only if it is to the advantage of the person doing it.


1. An altruistic moral theory that demands total self-sacrifice is degrading to the moral agent.

Objection: This is a false dilemma: there are many non-egoistic moral theories that do not demand total self-sacrifice.

2. Everyone is better off if each pursues his or her self-interest.

Objection: (a) This probably is not true in practice; and (b) True egoism isn’t concerned with what will make everyone better off.


1. Provides no moral basis for solving conflicts between people.

2. Obligates each person to prevent others from doing the right thing.

3. Has the same logical basis as racism.

4. The egoist cannot advise others to be egoists because it works against the first egoists interest.

5. No one person can expect the entire worlds population to act in such a way as to produce the most benefit (pleasure) for that one person.

The Truth in Psychological Egosim by Hugh LaFollette


So although we all know people who attempt to live their lives as egoists, they are not generally well liked. Being so totally focused on the self is not likely to make someone many friends. Egoists can but friends but most people avoid egoists as they are thought to be untrustworthy.

EGOISM is not the basis for the moral foundation needed for social life.

There are other options.

turn to next section

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From Darwinism to Transhumanism | Center on Human …

Posted: July 9, 2016 at 8:07 pm

Print ArticlePrimo Posthuman–the 3M+ edition–More comfort, better performance, lower price, touts the advertisement. The Primo Posthuman is ageless, has replaceable genes, allows for various upgrades, contains an error detection device, will run multiple viewpoints simultaneously. It is impervious to environmental damage, sports a metabrain and enhanced senses, and even includes gender changeability.

As of 2003, the Primo Posthuman is still on the drawing board, but given the rate of scientific advance in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and genetic engineering, proponents of Transhumanism expect it to be a reality sometime within the next fifty years.

What exactly is a Posthuman? you well ask. Some kind of robot?

No. It is the envisioned transformation of human nature by technology–not technology outside the body, but a high-tech fusion of man and machine. This fusion, Transhumanist advocates argue, will bring about the final phase of evolution, an eclipse of humanity and the dawning of a post-human engineered techno-paradise.

We might be inclined to dismiss Transhumanist devotees as yet another science fiction induced group of harmless mooncalves, destined merely to play out their impotent, self-absorbed fantasies in internet chatrooms, reechy out-of-the-way bars, and occasional sparsely attended conferences.

That would be a mistake. As will soon become apparent, we should be taking Transhumanism with the utmost seriousness, a seriousness with which one prepares (to borrow from C. S. Lewis) for the Last Battle. To understand this urgency, we must look at the past, present, and future of the movement.

Darwin, Eugenics, and the Demise of Human Nature

Transhumanists believe that they are heirs to Darwin but claim to do Darwin one better. According to Charles Darwin, all species, including the human species, are the result of natural selection acting upon random variations in individuals. In his famous Origin of Species, published in 1859, Darwin noted that domestic animal breeders were able to select for desired traits artificially, and direct the transformation of cattle, pigeons, horses, and dogs, creating all kinds of interesting, new domestic species within a relatively short time. Couldnt this same kind of rational, artificial breeding be applied to human beings?

Fearing public opinion, Darwin did not openly advocate the controlled breeding of human beings until the publication of his Descent of Man in 1871. By that time, his cousin, Francis Galton, had already coined the term eugenics to describe the science of improving stockespecially in the case of man, a science that would give to the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have had.

For both Darwin and Galton, and the rest of the eugenic movement, the point of eugenics was to remove the production and maintenance of human nature from the hands of chance. The blind forces of evolution had given us a good start, but to progress yet further, we would have to take evolution into our own hands. For Darwin, that meant that we must prevent the reckless, the vicious and otherwise inferior members of society from increasing at a quicker rate than the better class of men because progress depends on an increaseon the number of men endowed with high intellectual and moral faculties

Thus, we have the birth of two defining aspects of the Transhumanist movement in Darwinism. First, human nature is not a cosmic given, but represents a particular phase of continuing evolutionary transformation. Second, while human beings might through their own negligence sink lower on the scale of evolution, they could, through their own eugenic diligence, climb even higher, transcending the current givens of human nature.

Transhumanism and Techno-Eugenics

For Transhumanists, a new and radically different chapter of evolution is about to begin, a burst of self-directed hyper-evolution where we must leave the flesh and most of its evolved habits behind. This will not be achieved by mere old-fashioned selected breeding, but through enlightened self-fabrication. Further evolution entails becoming one with our technologies, guided by our rational desire to become like our finest imaginary gods: eternal, omniscient, omnipotent.

These are the aspirations of the movement according to the Transtopian website, Transtopianism being one brand of the larger Transhumanist movement. If such misplaced desire were confined to a few places on the Internet, we would have no reason to fear. But such is not the case. Transhumanism has proponents in much higher and more powerful places.

Just this June, in fact, there was a large conference held at Yale. “The Adaptable Human Body: Transhumanism and Bioethics in the 21st Century” was co-sponsored by the Yale Interdisciplinary Bioethics Program’s Working Group on Artificial Intelligence, Nanotechnology and Transhumanism. The conference speakers included a long list of Ph.D.s from prestigious institutions all over America, almost all of whom were outspoken advocates of the technical transformation of human nature.

For example, there was Gregory Stock, Ph.D., Director of the Program on Medicine, Technology, and Society at UCLAs School of Public Health, and author of Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future, Engineering The Human Germline, and Metaman. Another was Gregory Pence, Ph. D. from the philosophy department at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, who testified in support of cloning before Congress in March of 2001. Pence is the author of Whose Afraid of Cloning?and Brave New Bioethics. Steering the conference was Nick Bostrom, Ph. D., co-founder of World Transhumanist Association who taught at Yale but has since moved on to Oxford to become a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow and a member of the philosophy faculty. The list goes on, and the lesson is that Transhumanism has friends in high academic places.

But not just in academia. Transhumanist aspirations depend on the latest technology as applied to the human body, especially in the area of medicine. Thus, its goals are entwined with all the advances in nanotechnology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, and cloning. Indeed, in all too many cases, Transhumanism is simply the explicit and refined form of the implicit philosophy of those who work in these areas. These areas are well-funded, to say the least, and the Transhumanist movement will grow as the technical advances in nanotechnology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, and cloning grow.

The Last Battle

Because of the inevitable growth of technology directly and indirectly applicable to Transhumanist goals, Christians must prepare themselves for direct and continual attackand not just from Transhumanists. The majority of people in the technologically advanced nations happily embrace all the latest comfort- and pleasure-producing paraphernalia, and look to medicine to reduce or eliminate all suffering and extend life spans indefinitely.

Transhumanists promise all this, and more–paradise engineering, a world voided of pain, and saturated with technologically-enhanced physical pleasures. According to David Pearce, co-founder of the World Transhumanist Association and head of BLTC Research (a Transhumanist research and development company), third-millennium bioscience allows us to rewrite the vertebrate genome, redesign the global ecosystem, [and] deliver genetically pre-programmed well-being.

The envisioned transtopia promises a hedonist heaven on earth, and indeed, is dr
iven by a self-proclaimed hedonist imperative that strives to eradicate completely the biological substrates of suffering. Since Transhumanists believe that all suffering is biological in origin, the triumph of their doctrines will mean that physical and mental pain alike are destined to disappear into evolutionary history, including the phasing out of the biochemistry of everyday discontents.

In place of merely natural human beings, matter and energy will be sculpted into perpetually life-loving super-beings, whose states of mind are likely to be incomprehensibly diverse by comparison with today, yet in such diversity, all will share at least one common feature: a sublime and all-pervasive happiness.

Needless to say, Transhumanists are atheists, and adamantly reject the pestiferous Christian belief in other-worldly happiness and the doctrinal belief in the necessity for suffering in union with Christ to ensure entrance into a heaven not of this world. Equally obvious, in contrast to Christianity, the only acceptable Eden is encased in hedonism.

As has already become clear in regard to genetic engineering and cloning, the battle line between Christians and Transhumanists will be drawn, ultimately, upon one question: Is there such a thing as human nature, or is human nature merely a passing phase in evolutionary history, one which we must transcend for our own well-being? The battle will occur at every level of public debate and upon every conceivable issue, between those that regard human beings as made in the image of God, and those who believe that We must evolveby literally becoming one with our technologies, guided by our rational desire to become like our finest imaginary gods: eternal, omniscient, omnipotent.

To become like gods. Now doesnt that sound like a familiar promissssss?

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What is virtual reality? – A simple introduction

Posted: July 5, 2016 at 11:42 pm

by Chris Woodford. Last updated: May 27, 2015.

You’ll probably never go to Mars, swim with dolphins, run an Olympic 100 meters, or sing onstage with the Rolling Stones. But if virtual reality ever lives up to its promise, you might be able to do all these thingsand many morewithout even leaving your home. Unlike real reality (the actual world in which we live), virtual reality means simulating bits of our world (or completely imaginary worlds) using high-performance computers and sensory equipment, like headsets and gloves. Apart from games and entertainment, it’s long been used for training airline pilots and surgeons and for helping scientists to figure out complex problems such as the structure of protein molecules. How does it work? Let’s take a closer look!

Photo: Virtual reality means blocking yourself off from the real world and substituting a computer-generated alternative. Often, it involves wearing a wraparound headset called a head-mounted display, clamping stereo headphones over your ears, and touching or feeling your way around your imaginary home using datagloves (gloves with built-in sensors). Picture by Wade Sisler courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center.

Virtual reality (VR) means experiencing things through our computers that don’t really exist. From that simple definition, the idea doesn’t sound especially new. When you look at an amazing Canaletto painting, for example, you’re experiencing the sites and sounds of Italy as it was about 250 years agoso that’s a kind of virtual reality. In the same way, if you listen to ambient instrumental or classical music with your eyes closed, and start dreaming about things, isn’t that an example of virtual realityan experience of a world that doesn’t really exist? What about losing yourself in a book or a movie? Surely that’s a kind of virtual reality?

If we’re going to understand why books, movies, paintings, and pieces of music aren’t the same thing as virtual reality, we need to define VR fairly clearly. For the purposes of this simple, introductory article, I’m going to define it as:

Putting it another way, virtual reality is essentially:

Artwork: This Canaletto painting of Venice, Italy is believable and in some sense explorable (you can move your eyes around and think about different parts of the picture), but it’s not interactive, computer-generated, or immersive, so it doesn’t meet our definition of virtual reality: looking at this picture is not like being there. There’s nothing to stop us making an explorable equivalent in VR, but we need CGInot oil paintsto do it. Picture courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

We can see from this why reading a book, looking at a painting, listening to a classical symphony, or watching a movie don’t qualify as virtual reality. All of them offer partial glimpses of another reality, but none are interactive, explorable, or fully believable. If you’re sitting in a movie theater looking at a giant picture of Mars on the screen, and you suddenly turn your head too far, you’ll see and remember that you’re actually on Earth and the illusion will disappear. If you see something interesting on the screen, you can’t reach out and touch it or walk towards it; again, the illusion will simply disappear. So these forms of entertainment are essentially passive: however plausible they might be, they don’t actively engage you in any way.

VR is quite different. It makes you think you are actually living inside a completely believable virtual world (one in which, to use the technical jargon, you are partly or fully immersed). It is two-way interactive: as you respond to what you see, what you see responds to you: if you turn your head around, what you see or hear in VR changes to match your new perspective.

“Virtual reality” has often been used as a marketing buzzword for compelling, interactive video games or even 3D movies and television programs, none of which really count as VR because they don’t immerse you either fully or partially in a virtual world. Search for “virtual reality” in your cellphone app store and you’ll find hundreds of hits, even though a tiny cellphone screen could never get anywhere near producing the convincing experience of VR. Nevertheless, things like interactive games and computer simulations would certainly meet parts of our definition up above, so there’s clearly more than one approach to building virtual worldsand more than one flavor of virtual reality. Here are a few of the bigger variations:

For the complete VR experience, we need three things. First, a plausible, and richly detailed virtual world to explore; a computer model or simulation, in other words. Second, a powerful computer that can detect what we’re going and adjust our experience accordingly, in real time (so what we see or hear changes as fast as we movejust like in real reality). Third, hardware linked to the computer that fully immerses us in the virtual world as we roam around. Usually, we’d need to put on what’s called a head-mounted display (HMD) with two screens and stereo sound, and wear one or more sensory gloves. Alternatively, we could move around inside a room, fitted out with surround-sound loudspeakers, onto which changing images are projected from outside. We’ll explore VR equipment in more detail in a moment.

A highly realistic flight simulator on a home PC might qualify as nonimmersive virtual reality, especially if it uses a very wide screen, with headphones or surround sound, and a realistic joystick and other controls. Not everyone wants or needs to be fully immersed in an alternative reality. An architect might build a detailed 3D model of a new building to show to clients that can be explored on a desktop computer by moving a mouse. Most people would classify that as a kind of virtual reality, even if it doesn’t fully immerse you. In the same way, computer archaeologists often create engaging 3D reconstructions of long-lost settlements that you can move around and explore. They don’t take you back hundreds or thousands of years or create the sounds, smells, and tastes of prehistory, but they give a much richer experience than a few pastel drawings or even an animated movie.

What about “virtual world” games like Second Life and Minecraft? Do they count as virtual reality? Although they meet the first four of our criteria (believable, interactive, computer-created and explorable), they don’t really meet the fifth: they don’t fully immerse you. But one thing they do offer that cutting-edge VR typically doesn’t is collaboration: the idea of sharing an experience in a virtual world with other people, often in real time or something very close to it. Collaboration and sharing are likely to become increasingly important features of VR in future.

Virtual reality was one of the hottest, fastest-growing technologies in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but the rapid rise of the World Wide Web largely killed off interest after that. Even though computer scientists developed a way of building virtual worlds on the Web (using a technology analogous to HTML called Virtual Reality Markup Language, VRML), ordinary people were much more interested in the way the Web gave them new ways to access real realitynew ways to find and publish information, shop, and share thoughts, ideas, and experiences with friends through social media. With Facebook’s growing interest in the technology, the future of VR seems likely to be both Web-based and collaborative.

Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets have put what used to be supercomputer power in our hands and pockets. If we’re wandering round the world, maybe visiting a heritage site like the pyramids or a fascinating foreign city we’ve never been to before, what we want is typically not virtual reality but an enhanced experience of the exciting reality we can see in front of us. That’s spawned the idea of augmented reality (AR), where, for example, you point your smartphone at a landmark or a striking building and interesting information about it pops up automatically. Augmented reality is all about connecting the real world we experience to the vast virtual world of information that we’ve collectively created on the Web. Neither of these worlds is virtual, but the idea of exploring and navigating the two simultaneously does, nevertheless, have things in common with virtual reality. For example, how can a mobile device figure out its precise location in the world? How do the things you see on the screen of your tablet change as you wander round a city? Technically, these problems are similar to the ones developers of VR systems have to solveso there are close links between AR and VR.

Photo: Augmented reality: A heads-up display, like this one used by the US Air Force, superimposes useful, computer-based information on top of the things you see with your own eyes. Picture by Major Chad E. Gibson courtesy of US Air Force.

Close your eyes and think of virtual reality and you probably picture something like our top photo: a geek wearing a wraparound headset (HMD) and datagloves, wired into a powerful workstation or supercomputer. What differentiates VR from an ordinary computer experience (using your PC to write an essay or play games) is the nature of the input and output. Where an ordinary computer uses things like a keyboard, mouse, or (more exotically) speech recognition for input, VR uses sensors that detect how your body is moving. And where a PC displays output on a screen (or a printer), VR uses two screens (one for each eye), stereo or surround-sound speakers, and maybe some forms of haptic (touch and body perception) feedback as well. Let’s take a quick tour through some of the more common VR input and output devices.

There are two big differences between VR and looking at an ordinary computer screen: in VR, you see a 3D image that changes smoothly, in real-time, as you move your head. That’s made possible by wearing a head-mounted display, which looks like a giant motorbike helmet or welding visor, but consists of two small screens (one in front of each eye), a blackout blindfold that blocks out all other light (eliminating distractions from the real world), and stereo headphones. The two screens display slightly different, stereoscopic images, creating a realistic 3D perspective of the virtual world. HMDs usually also have built-in accelerometers or position sensors so they can detect exactly how your head and body are moving (both position and orientationwhich way they’re tilting or pointing) and adjust the picture accordingly. The trouble with HMDs is that they’re quite heavy, so they can be tiring to wear for long periods; some of the really heavy ones are even mounted on stands with counterweights.

Photo: The view from inside. A typical HMD has two tiny screens that show different pictures to each of your eyes, so your brain produces a combined 3D (stereoscopic) image. Picture by courtesy of US Air Force.

An alternative to putting on an HMD is to sit or stand inside a room onto whose walls changing images are projected from outside. As you move in the room, the images change accordingly. Flight simulators use this technique, often with images of landscapes, cities, and airport approaches projected onto large screens positioned just outside a mockup of a cockpit. A famous 1990s VR experiment called CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), developed at the University of Illinois by Thomas de Fanti, also worked this way. People moved around inside a large cube-shaped room with semi-transparent walls onto which stereo images were back-projected from outside. Although they didn’t have to wear HMDs, they did need stereo glasses to experience full 3D perception.

See something amazing and your natural instinct is to reach out and touch iteven babies do that. So giving people the ability to handle virtual objects has always been a big part of VR. Usually, this is done using datagloves, which are ordinary gloves with sensors wired to the outside to detect hand and figure motions. One technical method of doing this uses fiber-optic cables stretched the length of each finger. Each cable has tiny cuts in it so, as you flex your fingers back and forth, more or less light escapes. A photocell at the end of the cable measures how much light reaches it and the computer uses this to figure out exactly what your fingers are doing. Other gloves use strain gauges, piezoelectric sensors, or electromechanical devices (such as potentiometers) to measure finger movements.

Photos: Left: EXOS datagloves produced by NASA in the 1990s had very intricate external sensors to detect finger movements with high precision. Picture courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC). Right: This more elaborate EXOS glove had separate sensors on each finger segment, wired up to a single ribbon cable connected up to the main VR computer. Picture by Wade Sisler courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center.

Artwork: How a fiber-optic dataglove works. Each finger has a fiber-optic cable stretched along its length. (1) At one end of the finger, a light-emitting diode (LED) shines light into the cable. (2) Light rays shoot down the cable, bouncing off the sides. (3) There are tiny abrasions in the top of each fiber through which some of the rays escape. The more you flex your fingers, the more light escapes. (4) The amount of light arriving at a photocell at the end gives a rough indication of how much you’re flexing your finger. (5) A cable carries this signal off to the VR computer. This is a simplified version of the kind of dataglove VPL patented in 1992, and you’ll find the idea described in much more detail in US Patent 5,097,252.

Even simpler than a dataglove, a wand is a stick you can use to touch, point to, or otherwise interact with a virtual world. It has position or motion sensors (such as accelerometers) built in, along with mouse-like buttons or scroll wheels. Originally, wands were clumsily wired into the main VR computer; increasingly, they’re wireless.

Photo: A typical handheld virtual reality controller (complete with elastic bands), looking not so different from a video game controller. Photo courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center.

VR has always suffered from the perception that it’s little more than a glorified arcade gameliterally a “dreamy escape” from reality. In that sense, “virtual reality” can be an unhelpful misnomer; “alternative reality,” “artificial reality,” or “computer simulation” might be better terms. The key thing to remember about VR is that it really isn’t a fad or fantasy waiting in the wings to whistle people off to alternative worlds; it’s a hard-edged practical technology that’s been routinely used by scientists, doctors, dentists, engineers, architects, archaeologists, and the military for about the last 30 years. What sorts of things can we do with it?

Difficult and dangerous jobs are hard to train for. How can you safely practice taking a trip to space, landing a jumbo jet, making a parachute jump, or carrying out brain surgery? All these things are obvious candidates for virtual reality applications. As we’ve seen already, flight cockpit simulators were among the earliest VR applications; they can trace their history back to mechanical simulators developed by Edwin Link in the 1920s. Just like pilots, surgeons are now routinely trained using VR. In a 2008 study of 735 surgical trainees from 28 different countries, 68 percent said the opportunity to train with VR was “good” or “excellent” for them and only 2 percent rated it useless or unsuitable.

Photo: Flight training is a classic application of virtual reality, though it doesn’t use HMDs or datagloves. Instead, you sit in a pretend cockpit with changing images projected onto giant screens to give an impression of the view you’d see from your plane. The cockpit is a meticulous replica of the one in a real airplane with exactly the same instruments and controls. Photo by Javier Garcia courtesy of US Air Force.

Anything that happens at the atomic or molecular scale is effectively invisible unless you’re prepared to sit with your eyes glued to an electron microscope. But suppose you want to design new materials or drugs and you want to experiment with the molecular equivalent of LEGO. That’s another obvious application for virtual reality. Instead of wrestling with numbers, equations, or two-dimensional drawings of molecular structures, you can snap complex molecules together right before your eyes. This kind of work began in the 1960s at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where Frederick Brooks launched GROPE, a project to develop a VR system for exploring the interactions between protein molecules and drugs.

Photo: If you’re heading to Mars, a trip in virtual reality could help you visualize what you’ll find when you get there. Picture courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center.

Apart from its use in things like surgical training and drug design, virtual reality also makes possible telemedicine (monitoring, examining, or operating on patients remotely). A logical extension of this has a surgeon in one location hooked up to a virtual reality control panel and a robot in another location (maybe an entire continent away) wielding the knife. The best-known example of this is the daVinci surgical robot, released in 2009, of which several thousand have now been installed in hospitals worldwide. Introduce collaboration and there’s the possibility of a whole group of the world’s best surgeons working together on a particularly difficult operationa kind of WikiSurgery, if you like!

Architects used to build models out of card and paper; now they’re much more likely to build virtual reality computer models you can walk through and explore. By the same token, it’s generally much cheaper to design cars, airplanes, and other complex, expensive vehicles on a computer screen than to model them in wood, plastic, or other real-world materials. This is an area where virtual reality overlaps with computer modeling: instead of simply making an immersive 3D visual model for people to inspect and explore, you’re creating a mathematical model that can be tested for its aerodynamic, safety, or other qualities.

From flight simulators to race-car games, VR has long hovered on the edges of the gaming worldnever quite good enough to revolutionize the experience of gamers, largely due to computers being too slow, displays lacking full 3D, and the lack of decent HMDs and datagloves. All that may be about to change with the development of affordable new peripherals like the Oculus Rift.

Like any technology, virtual reality has both good and bad points. How many of us would rather have a complex brain operation carried out by a surgeon trained in VR, compared to someone who has merely read books or watched over the shoulders of their peers? How many of us would rather practice our driving on a car simulator before we set foot on the road? Or sit back and relax in a Jumbo Jet, confident in the knowledge that our pilot practiced landing at this very airport, dozens of times, in a VR simulator before she ever set foot in a real cockpit?

Critics always raise the risk that people may be seduced by alternative realities to the point of neglecting their real-world livesbut that criticism has been leveled at everything from radio and TV to computer games and the Internet. And, at some point, it becomes a philosophical and ethical question: What is real anyway? And who is to say which is the better way to pass your time? Like many technologies, VR takes little or nothing away from the real world: you don’t have to use it if you don’t want to.

The promise of VR has loomed large over the world of computing for at least the last quarter centurybut remains largely unfulfilled. While science, architecture, medicine, and the military all rely on VR technology in different ways, mainstream adoption remains virtually nonexistent; we’re not routinely using VR the way we use computers, smartphones, or the Internet. But the 2014 acquisition of VR company Oculus, by Facebook, greatly renewed interest in the area and could change everything. Facebook’s basic idea is to let people share things with their friends using the Internet and the Web. What if you could share not simply a photo or a link to a Web article but an entire experience? Instead of sharing photos of your wedding with your Facebook friends, what if you could make it possible for people to attend your wedding remotely, in virtual reality, in perpetuity? What if we could record historical events in such a way that people could experience them again and again, forever more? These are the sorts of social, collaborative virtual reality sharing that (we might guess) Facebook is thinking about exploring right now. If so, the future of virtual reality looks very bright indeed!

So much for the future, but what of the past. Virtual reality has a long and very rich history. Here are a few of the more interesting highlights…

Artwork: The first virtual reality machine? Morton Heilig’s 1962 Sensorama. Picture courtesy US Patent and Trademark Office.

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What is virtual reality? – A simple introduction

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Oceania Cruises – Cruise Vacations & Cruise Deals | Mid-Sized …

Posted: July 3, 2016 at 12:22 pm

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On April 27, 2016, Sirena, the newest member of the Oceania Cruises fleet, was christened in Barcelona, Spain. Watch the event as it happened live, including opening remarks from Oceania Cruises President Jason Montague, Sirenas Godmother Claudine Ppin, the christening of the ship, and all the festivities!

Filled with a spectacular array of diverse and exotic destinations, your world awaits your discovery. There is simply no better way to explore it than aboard the elegant ships of Oceania Cruises. Our unique itineraries are wide-ranging, featuring the most fascinating destinations throughout the world. Regatta, Insignia, Nautica, Sirena, Marina and Riviera are all intimate and luxurious, with each calling on the worlds most desirable ports, from historic cities and modern meccas to seaside villages and faraway islands. On a voyage with Oceania Cruises, each day offers the rewarding opportunity to experience the history, culture and cuisine of a wondrous new destination.

Relax on board our luxurious ships and savor cuisine renowned as the finest at sea, rivaling even Michelin-starred restaurants ashore. Inspired by Master Chef Jacques Ppin, these culinary delights have always been a hallmark that distinguishes the Oceania Cruises experience from any other. Considering the uncompromising quality, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of an Oceania Cruises voyage is its incredible value. Lavish complimentary amenities abound, and there are never supplemental charges in any of the onboard restaurants. Value packages ensure that sipping a glass of vintage wine, surfing the Internet or enjoying a shore excursion is both convenient and affordable.

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Cyberpunk Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre

Posted: at 12:18 pm

Origem: Wikipdia, a enciclopdia livre.

Cyberpunk (de Cyber(netic) + punk) um subgnero de fico cientfica, conhecido por seu enfoque de “Alta tecnologia e baixo nvel de vida” (“High tech, Low life”) e toma seu nome da combinao de ciberntica e punk.[1] Mescla cincia avanada, como as tecnologias de informao e a ciberntica junto com algum grau de desintegrao ou mudana radical na ordem social.[2] De acordo com Lawrence Person: “Os personagens do cyberpunk clssico so seres marginalizados, distanciados, solitrios, que vivem margem da sociedade, geralmente em futuros distpicos onde a vida diria impactada pela rpida mudana tecnolgica, uma atmosfera de informao computadorizada ambgua e a modificao invasiva do corpo humano.”

Segundo William Gibson, em seu livro Neuromancer, o indivduo cyberpunk uma espcie de “pichador virtual” que se utiliza de seu conhecimento acima da mdia dos usurios para realizar protestos contra a sistemtica vigente das grandes corporaes, sob a forma de vandalismo com cunho depreciativo, a fim de infligir-lhes prejuzos sem, contudo, auferir qualquer ganho pessoal com tais atos.

O termo “Cyberpunk” tambm significa uma subcultura que focada na Cybercultura e se destaca pela preferencia por msica psicodlica e de gneros de fuso entre punk rock e msica eletrnica e por adereos de moda futuristas.

O estilo ciberpunk descreve o lado niilista e underground da sociedade digital que comeou a se desenvolver nas ltimas duas dcadas do sculo XX. Um mundo ciberpunk distpico chamado de anttese das vises utpicas de mundos de fico cientfica e meados do sculo XX como tipificadas pelo mundo de Jornada nas Estrelas (Star Trek), embora incorporando algumas dessas utopias, principalmente na questo do mito da separao entre corpo e mente, muito discutida na filosofia cartesiana.

Na literatura ciberpunk, muito da ao se ambienta virtualmente, no ciberespao – a fronteira evidente entre o real e o virtual fica embaada. Uma caracterstica tpica (ainda que no universal) desse gnero uma ligao direta entre o crebro humano e sistemas de computador.

O mundo ciberpunk um lugar sinistro, sombrio, com computadores ligados em rede que dominam todos os aspectos da vida cotidiana. Empresas multinacionais gigantes substituram o Estado como centros de poder. A batalha do excludo alienado contra um sistema totalitrio um tema comum na fico cientfica; entretanto, na FC convencional tais sistemas tendem a ser estreis, ordenados, e controlados pelo Estado. Em contraste a isso, no ciberpunk, mostram-se as entranhas da corporatocracia, e a batalha sisfica entre seu poder por renegados desiludidos.

As histrias ciberpunk so vistas como representaes ficcionais do presente a partir de uma extrapolao e especulao das tecnologias de comunicao, como por exemplo, a internet.

O argumento da escrita cyberpunk se centra em um conflito entre hackers, inteligncias artificiais, e megacorporaes, tendentes a serem postos dentro da Terra num futuro prximo, em oposio do futuro distante panorama de encontros galcticos em romances como a Fundao de Isaac Asimov ou Dune de Frank Herbert. As vises deste futuro tendem a ser distopias ps-industriais, mas esto normalmente marcadas por um fomento cultural extraordinrio e o uso de tecnologias em mbitos nunca antecipados por seus criadores (“A rua encontra suas prprias aplicaes pras coisas”). A atmosfera do gnero em sua maioria faz eco no cine negro e se utiliza pouco neste gnero tcnicas de romances policiais.[3] Entre os primeiros expoentes do gnero cyberpunk se encontran William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker e John Shirley. As influncias do Cyberpunk se estenderam por outros gneros literrios, e so visveis, por exemplo, em traos da obra de Stephen King, como no livro O Concorrente, onde o mundo um cenrio Cyberpunk prximo temporalmente. O termo Cyberpunk se cunhou nos anos 80 e continua sendo atual.

Diferente da fico cientfica da New Wave, que importou as tcnicas e as preocupaes estilsticas que j existiam na literatura e na cultura, o cyberpunk se originou na fico cientfica primeiro, antes de incrementar a tendncia dominante de sua exposio. No comeo e meio dos anos 80, o cyberpunk se converteu num tema de moda nos crculos acadmicos, onde comeou a ser objeto de investigao do ps-modernismo. Neste mesmo perodo, o gnero ingressou a Hollywood e se converteu em um dos estilos da fico cientfica do segmento do cinema. Muitos filmes influentes tais como Blade Runner[3] e a trilogia de Matrix se podem ver como consequncias proeminentes dos estilos e dos temas do gnero. Os jogos de computador, os jogos de tabuleiro e os jogos de RPG, tais como Shadowrun, ou o apropriadamente nomeado Cyberpunk 2020, oferecem a mido roteiros que esto fortemente influenciados pelos filmes e a literatura cyberpunk. Iniciando os anos 90, algumas tendncias da moda e a msica foram etiquetadas como tal.

Enquanto que uma grande variedade de escritores comeou a trabalhar com conceitos do cyberpunk, novos sub-gneros emergiram, que se centravam na tecnologia e seus efeitos sociais de uma maneira diferente. Os exemplos incluem o steampunk, iniciado por Tim Powers, Kevin Wayne Jeter e James Blaylock, e o biopunk (ou alternativamente ribofunk), no qual Paul Di Filippo proeminente. Adicionalmente algumas pessoas consideram trabalhos tais como A era do Diamante de Neal Stephenson como o incio da categoria ps-cyberpunk.

Os escritores cyberpunk tendem a usar elementos do romance policial duro, o cine negro e a prosa ps-moderna para descrever as caractersticas do lado subterrneo de uma sociedade eletrnica. A viso do gnero de um futuro alterado pouco chamada de as antteses das vises utpicas gerais do futuro, populares entre 1940 e 1950. (Gibson define a antipatia cyberpunk fico cientfica utpica em seu conto de 1981, “The Gernsback Continuum”, no qual condena at certo ponto a fico cientfica utpica).

O escritor cyberpunk Bruce Sterling resume o ponto de partida do cyberpunk em Cyberpunk nos anos 90 da seguinte forma: Qualquer coisa que se possa fazer a um rato se pode fazer a um humano.E podemos fazer quase qualquer coisa aos ratos. duro pensar nisto, mas a verdade.Isto no mudar com ns cobrindo os olhos. Isto cyberpunk.

Na literatura cyberpunk, muito da ao se ambienta virtualmente, no ciberespao – a fronteira evidente entre o real e o virtual fica embaada. Uma caracterstica tpica (ainda que no universal) desse gnero uma ligao direta entre o crebro humano e sistemas de computador.

O mundo cyberpunk um lugar sinistro, sombrio, com computadores ligados em rede que dominam todos os aspectos da vida cotidiana. Empresas multinacionais gigantes substituram o Estado como centros de poder. A batalha do excludo alienado contra um sistema totalitrio um tema comum na fico cientfica e particularmente no cyberpunk, ainda que na fico cientfica convencional os sistemas totalitrios tendem a ser estreis, ordenados e controlados pelo Estado.

Os protagonistas da literatura cyberpunk geralmente so hackers moldados frequentemente na idia de heri solitrio que combate a injustia: cowboy, ronin, etc. Normalmente so pessoas desprivilegiadas, colocadas em situaes extraordinrias, que mais se adaptam ao perfil de cientistas brilhantes buscando avanos ou aventura do que aos de verdadeiros heris, (uma comparao conveniente pode ser a ambiguidade moral do personagem de Clint Eastwood na Trilogia dos dlares).

Um dos personagens prottipo do gnero cyberpunk Case, do romance Neuromancer de William Gibson. Case um cowboy do pc, um hacker brilhante, que trai seus scios do crime organizado. Roubado de seu talento por leso que o deixa incapaz de atuar como hacker, fruto de uma vingana por parte de seus scios criminosos, Case recebe uma inesperada e nica oportunidade na vida de ser curado com assistncia mdica avanada, contudo, em troca de sua participao em outra empresa criminosa com uma nova equipe. Como Case, muitos protagonistas cyberpunk so manipulados, postos em situaes onde tm pouca ou nenhuma opo, e ainda que eles podem ver-se nisto, no necessariamente chegam a estar mais longe do que previamente estavam. Estes anti-heris criminosos, prias, visionrios, desertores e inadaptados no experimentam o caminho de heri de Campbell como um protagonista da epopia homrica ou um romance de Alexandre Dumas. Eles em troca, traem memoria o investigador privado do romance policial, que poderia solucionar os casos mais complexos, mas nunca receber uma recompensa justa. Esta nfase sobre os inadaptados e descontentes – que Thomas Pynchon chama o “pretrito” e Frank Zappa o “esquecimento da Grande Sociedade” – o componente “punk” do cyberpunk.

A literatura cyberpunk usada constantemente como uma metfora pras preocupaes atuais sobre os efeitos e o controle das corporaes e multinacionais capitalistas sobre as pessoas, a corrupo nos governos, a alienao e a vigilncia tecnolgica. O cyberpunk pode ser entendido como uma inquietude aos leitores e um chamado ao. Isto sempre expressa o sentido de rebelio, sugerindo que um pudera descrev-lo como um tipo de fico cientfica contra-cultural. Nas palavras do autor e crtico David Brin,

As histrias cyberpunk se tem considerado as vezes como prognsticos fictcios da evoluo da Internet. O mundo virtual agora conhecido como Internet, aparece sempre sob vrios nomes, incluindo “Cyberespao”, “a Rede” e “a Matriz”. Neste contexto importante observar que as descries mais precoces duma rede global de comunicaes vieram muito antes que a World Wide Web se incorporasse ao conhecimento popular, ainda que no antes de que os escritores tradicionais da fico cientfica tais como Arthur Charles Clarke e alguns comentaristas sociais como James Burke comearam a prever que tais redes eventualmente se formariam.

O editor de fico cientfica Gardner Dozois geralmente conhecido como a pessoa que popularizou o uso do termo cyberpunk como um tipo de literatura. O escritor Bruce Bethke cunhou o termo em 1980 para seu conto “Cyberpunk”, ainda que a historia no se publicou at novembro de 1983, em Histrias Assombrosas de Fico Cientfica, Volume 57, Nmero 4.

O termo foi rapidamente acolhido como uma etiqueta aplicada aos trabalhos de William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, John Shirley, Rudy Rucker, Michael Swanwick, Pat Cadigan, Lewis Shiner, Richard Kadrey e outros. Destes Sterling iniciou o movimento, liderando a ideologia, graas a seu fanzine Cheap Truth.

Os elementos cyberpunk esto presentes nos Cantos Hyperion de Dan Simmons; o planeta Lusus possui muitas caractersticas do mundo distpico de Neuromance e os nveis cibernticos da vida e a existncia da I.A. tem bvias influncias dos trabalhos de Gibson.

William Gibson com seu Neuromancer, provavelmente o mais famoso escritor conectado com o termo. O estilo enftico, a fascinao com a superfcie e a aparncia e sensao de futuro, e a atmosfera j tradicional na fico vista como a ruptura e s vezes como o trabalho arquetpico do ciberpunk. Neuromancer foi agraciado com os prmios Hugo, Nbula e Philip K. Dick. De acordo com o arquivo do jargo A total ignorncia de Gibson sobre computadores a cultura hacker atual o permitiram especular sobre o RPG dos computadores e hackers no futuro de modo que ambas so desde ento irritativamente ingnuas e tremendamente estimulantes.

Cedo o cyberpunk foi aclamado como uma ruptura radical dos padres da fico cientfica e uma nova manifestao de vitalidade, mas pouco tempo depois, surgiram muitos crticos para mudar seu status a movimento revolucionrio. Estes crticos dizem que a fico cientfica de Nova onda dos anos 60 era muito mais inovadora quanto ao estilo e tcnicas narrativas. Alm disso, enquanto o narrador de Neuromancer pde ter uma voz inusual para fico cientfica, se podem encontrar muitos outros exemplos anteriores a este: a voz narrativa de Gibson, por exemplo se assemelha do atualissimo Raymond Chandler em seu romance O Grande Sonho (1939). Outros consideram que os rasgos considerados nicos do ciberpunk, de fato se podem encontrar em trabalhos mais antigos de outros escritores, dos que podemos citar James Graham Ballard, Philip K. Dick, Harlan Ellison, Stanislaw Lem, Samuel R. Delany e inclusive William Burroughs. Por exemplo os trabalhos de Philip K. Dick contm temas recorrentes de decaimento social, inteligncia artificial, parania e linhas ocultas entre a realidade e uma espcie de realidade virtual; o filme Blade Runner est baseado num destes livros. Humanos vinculados com maquinas so o cimento do romance “Wolfbane de Frederik Pohl” , “Cyril M. Kornbluth (1959)” , “Criaturas de luz” e “obscuridade” de Roger Zelazny (1986).

Em 1994 o acadmico Brian Stonehill insinuou que o romance “O arco-ris de gravidade” de Thomas Pynchon no s insulta seno que plagia aos precursores do cyberespao. Outros importantes predecessores incluem dois romances muito celebrados de Alfred Bester, “O homem demolido” e “as estrelas meu destino”, assim como o romance de Vernor Vinge “Nomes Verdadeiros”.

O escritor de fico cientfica David Brin descreve o cyberpunk como a campanha de promoo gratuita mais fina empreendida a nome da fico cientfica. Este pode no haver atrado aos verdadeiros punks , mas este atraiu a muitos novos leitores, e isto disps a classe de movimento que a literatura ps-modernista buscava comentar.(Uma ilustrao disto o “Manifesto Cyborg” de Donna Haraway, uma tentativa de construir um mito poltico usando cyborgs como metforas da realidade social contempornea). O cyberpunk fez mais atrativa a fico cientfica pros acadmicos, argumenta Brin, alm disso, fez a fico cientfica mais lucrativa para Hollywood e as artes visuais em geral. Ainda quando sua importncia retrica e queixas de perseguio da parte dos aficcionados cyberpunk era irritante no pior e cmico no melhor dos casos, Brin declara que Os rebeldes puseram as cosas de pernas pro ar, lhes temos uma dvida []. Mas, ele pergunta Foram eles originais?.

O futuro cyberpunk inspirou a muitos escritores profissionais que no se encontravam entre os cyberpunks originais ao incorporar idias cyberpunk em seus prprios trabalhos, tais como Walter Jon Williams com “Hardwired” e “Voz da tormenta”, e George Alec Effinger com sua obra “Quando a gravidade falha”. Enquanto novos escritores e artistas comearam a experimentar com idias cyberpunk, novas variedades de fico emergiram, s vezes manejando o mesmo nvel de crtica que as histrias do cyberpunk original.Lawrence Person escreveu em um ensaio publicado no frum de Internet Slashdot,

Muitos escritores que cresceram lendo em 1980 agora esto publicando suas histrias e novelas. Para eles o cyberpunk no foi uma revoluo ou uma filosofia alien que invadiu a fico cientfica, mas era outro sabor da fico cientfica. Como os escritores dos anos 1970 e 1980 que assimilaram as obras clssicas e tcnicas estilsticas da nova onda sem necessariamente conhecer ou conservar o estilo dos manifestos e as ideologias que nasceram com eles, os novos escritores muito bem puderam haver lido Neuromancer ao tempo que a Fundao de Asimov, Todos sobre “Zanzibar” de John Brunner, o “Mundo Anel” de Larry Niven e no ver uma descontinuidade, seno uma srie contnua.

O ensaio de Person advoga usando o termo ps-cyberpunk para etiquetar os novos trabalhos que estes escritores produzem. Nesta viso, as histrias tpicas do ps-cyberpunk continuam enfocando-se numa atmosfera de dados ubqua de informao computarizada e o aumento ciberntico no corpo humano, mas sem assumir a distopa. Bons exemplos podem ser “A era do diamante” de Neal Stephenson ou “Transmetropolitan” de Warren Ellis e Darick Robertson. Como todas as categorias includas na fico cientfica, os limites do ps-cyberpunk so suscetveis de mudar ou serem mal definidos. Para complicar o assunto, h um mercado contnuo de romances cyberpunk puros fortemente influenciados pelo trabalho precoce de Gibson, tal como “Carbono Alterado” de Richard Morgan.

O filme Blade Runner (1982), adaptado do livro “Sonham os andrides com ovelhas eltricas?” de Philip Kindred Dick, se centra em uma distopia futura na qual seres manufaturados chamados replicantes so usados como escravos em colnias do espao, na Terra presa de vrios caadores de recompensas, os quais se encarregam de aposent-los (mat-los). Ainda que Blade Runner no foi um xito em seu lanamento, encontrou um grande nicho no mercado de aluguel de filmes. Posto que o filme omite os elementos religiosos e msticos do livro de Dick (e.g, caixas de empatia e Wilbur Mercer) cai mais estritamente dentro do gnero cyberpunk que a obra. William Gibson revelaria depois que a primeira vez que viu o filme, se havia surpreendido muito de como a aparncia deste filme era similar a sua viso quando estava trabalhando em Neuromancer.

Segundo o mencionado anteriormente, a srie de TV “Max Headroom” tambm expandiu o cyberpunk, qui com um xito mais popular que os primeiros trabalhos escritos do gnero.

O nmero de filmes deste gnero, ou pelo menos de um de seus elementos h crescido constantemente desde Blade Runner. Vrios dos trabalhos de Philip Kindred Dick se ho adaptado telona, com elementos cyberpunk chegando a ser tipicamente dominantes, os exemplos incluem Screamers (1996), Minority Report (2002), Paycheck (2003) e A Scanner Darkly (2006). Mas infelizmente pro argumento original, o filme Johnny Mnemonic (1995) foi um fracasso, comercialmente e para crtica. Os fs de Gibson reclamam que o argumento se desviou substancialmente do trabalho original, ainda quando o mesmo Gibson escreveu o roteiro final.

O diretor Darren Aronofsky direciona sua obra-prima (1998) em uma Nova York atual, mas construiu o livreto com influncias da esttica cyberpunk. De acordo com comentrios do DVD, ele fez esta produo usando deliberadamente mquinas antigas (como o diskete de 5- de polegada), imitando o estilo tecnolgico de “Brazil” (1985), para criar una sensao cyberpunk. Aronofsky descreve o Chinatown, onde se dirige o filme, como a vizinhana cyberpunk depois de Nova York.

A srie Robocop se ajusta mais ao futuro prximo onde h pelo menos uma corporao, Omni Produtos de Consumo, que uma empresa toda-poderosa na cidade de Detroit. At o fim do mundo (1991) mostra outro exemplo onde o cyberpunk o tema de fundo, e uma estratgia de argumento, para v-la de outro modo e dirigir o personagem da histria. Gattaca (1997) dirigida por Andrew Niccol um filme negro futurista cujo empapado modo distpico provem um bom exemplo do biopunk.

A srie Matrix, que iniciou em 1999 com “The Matrix” (conformada tambm por Matrix Reloaded, Matrix Revolutions e Animatrix) usam uma ampla variedade de elementos cyberpunk.

O estilo cyberpunk e o desenho futurista so encontrados tambm com uma vasta exposio no anime e no mang, incluindo “Akira” (1 referente anime do gnero), “Cowboy Bebop”, “Gunnm – Battle Angel”, “Bubblegum Crisis”, “Ergo Proxy”, “Armitage III”, “Blame!”, e outros mangs da mesma srie o “Noise” e “Biomega”, “Silent Mbius”, “Serial Experiments Lain”, “Texhnolyze”, Psycho-Pass ,”Eat-Man” “Boogiepop Phamtom” e “Ghost in the Shell”, sendo esta ltima a que mais tem influenciado a juventude contempornea japonesa que vive com uma relativa proximidade ambientao da srie, que mostra um Japo com tecnologias de ponta e que adverte sobre os riscos que pode causar isto ante uma possvel perda de identidade humana.

O anime tambm h proporcionado exemplos do sub-gnero steampunk, particularmente em muitos dos trabalhos de Hayao Miyazaki, em “Full Metal Alchemist”, e tambm notavelmente em “Last Exile”, de 2003, criado pelo estdio “GONZO” e dirigido por Koichi Chigira, que oferece uma curiosa mescla de sociedade vitoriana e batalhas futursticas entre naves areas. Tambm notvel “Steamboy” (2004) dirigido por Katsuhiro Otomo e mais recentemente “Ergo Proxy” produzida por Manglobe.

O termo msica cyberpunk pode referir-se a duas categorias pouco superpostas, como denotar a ampla gama dos trabalhos musicais que os filmes cyberpunk utilizam como trilha sonora. Estes trabalhos variam em gnero desde a msica clssica e o jazz usado en Blade Runner, e que por outra parte evoca o ambiente do cine negro- e a msica eletrnica. Tipicamente os filmes fazem uso do eletrnico, msica industrial, future-pop, rock alternativo, rock gtico, chiptunes e intelligent dance music para criar a sensao apropriada. O mesmo principio aplica aos videogames. Naturalmente, enquanto os trabalhos escritos no esto associados a trilhas sonoras com tanta frequncia como os filmes, a aluso a trabalhos musicais usada pro mesmo efeito. Por exemplo o romance grfico “Kling Klang Klatch” (1992), uma fantasia obscura sobre um mundo de brinquedos vivos, onde um urso de pelcia amargado tem uma atrao pelo acar e uma paixo pelo jazz.

O Nine Inch Nails, por exemplo, criou toda uma atmosfera futurstica e apocalptica no seu lbum conceito Year Zero, que revela um mundo totalmente desmoronado pelo capitalismo, onde a pobreza, a censura e o militarismo impera. No contexto da histria tambm se destaca um grupo de “guerrilheiros hackers” que fazem parte de uma resistncia artstica, conspirando contra o governo com sabotagens virtuais, atravs de fruns e websites fictcios. Outro grupo musical, Atari Teenage Riot, tambm ficou conhecido por ser uma banda de anarco-punk totalmente eletrnica, incitando o terrorismo potico, o ativismo e a revoluo.

A msica cyberpunk tambm descreve os trabalhos associados com a tendncia da moda que emergiu do desenvolvimento da fico cientfica. O livro “Future Shock” de Alvin Toffler desenhou influncias tanto pro grupo techno de Detroit Cybortron, que surgiu nos incios de 1980, como pros pioneiros europeus do synth-pop Kraftwerk, produzindo canes que evocam um claro modo distpico. Nos anos 90, a cultura popular comeou a incluir um movimento na msica e na moda que chamaram tambm cyberpunk e que chegou a ser particularmente associada com as sub-culturas rave e techno. Com o novo milnio chegou um novo movimento de bandas que faziam msica de porttil. Punks e invasores sem lar se armaram com equipe digital e fundiram a tecnologia com sons de rua. A sub-cultura hacker documentada em lugares como o arquivo da gria contempla este movimento com sentimentos encontrados, desde os auto-proclamados cyberpunks que esto frequentemente inclinados ate o couro negro e o cromo os quais falam entusiasmados de tecnologia em lugar de aprender ou ver-se envolvidos nisto. (A atitude no substitui a capacidade, entrada do Arquivo).

Certos gneros musicais como o “drum and bass” foram diretamente influenciados pelo cyberpunk, inclusive gerando um sub-gnero completo chamado Neurofunk. Tambm o estilo msical “Trance Psicadlico y Goa Trance tem influncia do Cyber punk. Esta msica asociada a movimentos, tambm neo hippies e os quais advm da perspectiva de Aldous Huxley refletida em muitas das suas diferentes obras. Em que alm da j avanada escrita literiaria e capacidade imaginria para criar textos de fico cientfica, com aspectos mais tarde encontrados na perspectiva cyber punk. Neo hippis, hipies dos anos 60 y movimentos cyber punk. Uma fuso de estilos e filosofias, das mais ocidentalisadas e actuais s orientais e antigas. Matrix um exemplo desta mistura.

Os games frequentemente usam o cyberpunk como fonte de inspirao, alguns destes como Blade Runner ou Enter the Matrix, so baseados nos filmes do gnero, enquanto outros como Deus Ex e System Shock, Final Fantasy VII, Snatcher e as sries de Metal Gear so trabalhos originais.

Existem vrios jogos de RPG chamados Cyberpunk: Cyberpunk 2013, Cyberpunk 2020 e Cyberpunk V.3 de Talsorian Games[4] e GURPS Cyberpunk, publicado por Steve Jackson Games como um mdulo do sistema GURPS. Cyberpunk 2020 foi desenhado com o argumento dos escritos de William Gibson em mente, e at certo ponto com sua aprovao, diferente da aproximao (qui mais criativa) feita pela FASA na produo do jogo Shadowrun.[5] Ambos jogos se ambientam num futuro prximo, num mundo onde a ciberntica proeminente. Netrunner um jogo de cartas colecionveis introduzido em 1996, baseado no jogo de RPG Cyberpunk 2020; foi lanado junto a um popular jogo de realidade virtual chamado Webrunner, que permite aos jogadores ingressar ao mainframe duma perversa organizao futurista.[6] Em adio Iron Crown Enterprises lanou o RPG chamado Cyberspace, agora fora de edio.

Em 1990, em uma inusual unio entre a realidade e a fico do cyberpunk, o Servio Secreto dos EUA chegou s instalaes de Steve Jackson Games e confiscaram todos seus PCs baixo a Operaao Sundevil, que foi um massivo golpe aos hackers e crackers de PC. Isto se deveu a que supostamente o livro de GURPS Cyberpunk poderia ser usado para preparar crimes via PC.[7] Esta, por efeito, no foi a principal razo para blitz, mas trs o evento j foi muito tarde para corrigir a impresso do pblico. Mais tarde Steve Jackson Games ganhou o processo contra o Servio Secreto, ajudados pela Electronic Frontier Foundation, de mente mais ampla. Este evento alcanou algo de notoriedade, o que se estendeu tambm ao livro. Todas as edies publicadas de GURPS Cyberpunk contm, uma citao na capa que diz O livro que foi confiscado pelo Servio Secreto dos EUA!. Em seu interior o livro exibe um resumo da blitz e suas consequncias.

2004 trouxe numerosas publicaes novas de RPG’s cyberpunk, destaque entre elas Ex Machina, um jogo mais cinematogrfico com 4 cenrios completos e focado em atualizar o lado divertido do gnero a temas correntes dentro da fico cyberpunk. Estas mudanas incluem um maior ngulo poltico, transferindo o alinhamento do gnero e inclusive incorporando temas trans-humanos. 2006 viu a largamente esperada publicao de Cyberpunk V.3 de Talsorian Games, a sequela de Cyberpunk 2020, mas muitos a viram mais como uma edio trans-humanista ou ps-cyberpunk que realmente cyberpunk.

Os jogos de RPG tambm ho produzido uma das mais originais tomadas do gnero na forma das sries de jogos Shadowrun de 1989. Aqui, o cenrio um distpico futuro prximo; Mas tambm incorpora elementos da fantasia e literatura, como magia, espritos, duendes e drages. As facetas cyberpunk de Shadowrun foram modeladas em grande parte baseadas nos escritos de William Gibson, e a FASA, que o publicaram originalmente, ho sido acusados por alguns de copiar o trabalho de Gibson sem sequer mencionar sua influncia. Gibson, enquanto tanto, h mostrado seu desagrado pela incluso de elementos de fantasia dentro dos cenrios que ele ajudou a desenvolver. Mas Shadowrun h introduzido muitos ao gnero, e segue sendo popular entre os jogadores.

O jogo de RPG Torg, publicado por West End Games tambm incluiu uma variante do cenrio (ou cosmos) cyberpunk chamado Cyberpapacy. Este cenrio foi inicialmente uma distopia religiosa medieval que repentinamente sofreu um surgimento tecnolgico. Em vez de corporaes e governos corruptos, o Cyberpapacy foi dominado pelo Falso Papado de Avignon. Em lugar da Internet, os hackers navegam pela GodNet, uma red comum de computadores com simbolismo religioso, lar de anjos, demnios e outras figuras bblicas. Outro cosmos a parte do jogo Torg foi Nippon Tech, o qual incorporava outros aspectos do cyberpunk como corporaes dominantes com assassinos profissionais, mas no inclui redes de computadores como parte fundamental do cenrio.

O cyberpunk tambm h sido usado em jogos de aventura para computadores, destacam o agora freeware Beneath a Steel Sky, publicado por Revolution Software, Neuromancer, publicado por Interplay em 1988, Bloodnet, publicado por MicroProse em 1993 e Hell: A Cyberpunk Thriller, por Gametek em 1994, o jogo Dystopia (2008) para PC. jogo de ao e aventura Neuromancer est baseado diretamente no romance, incluindo Chiba City, alguns dos personagens, hacking de bases de dados e plataformas cyberespaciais.

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Principato di Sealand – Wikipedia

Posted: July 1, 2016 at 2:46 pm

Da Wikipedia, l’enciclopedia libera.

Coordinate: 515339.93N 12856.91E / 51.894425N 1.482475E51.894425; 1.482475

Il principato di Sealand (in inglese Principality of Sealand, terra del mare) una struttura artificiale creata dal governo inglese durante la seconda guerra mondiale, occupata fin dal 1967 dalla famiglia di Paddy Roy Bates e dai loro compagni, che la proclamarono “principato con sovranit indipendente”.

Anche se i componenti della famiglia di Bates, attuali custodi, la dichiarano essere una micronazione indipendente, Sealand in realt non riconosciuta come Stato sovrano da nessuna nazione del mondo.

Nel 1942, durante la Seconda guerra mondiale, il HM Fort Rough venne costruito in Inghilterra come una delle Fortezze marittime Maunsell. Comprendeva una grande zattera galleggiante con una sovrastruttura di due torri unite da un ponte sul quale potevano essere aggiunte altre strutture. La zattera venne trainata fino al banco di sabbia Rough Sands dove venne intenzionalmente allagata, in modo che lo scafo affondasse e si appoggiasse sul fondo. Le colonne, rimaste emerse, e la piattaforma superiore costituiscono la sovrastruttura del vascello rimasta in vista.

La struttura (a cui era stato dato il nome di Roughs Tower oltre a quello di Fort Rough, per via delle secche su cui era appoggiato) venne occupata da 150-300 membri della Royal Navy per tutta la Seconda guerra mondiale; la loro funzione era quella di difesa antiaerea, ma, dopo la guerra, tutto il personale venne evacuato e l’HMS Fort Rough abbandonato.

La vigilia di Natale del 1966, il forte venne occupato da Paddy Roy Bates (sposato con Joan Collins), un cittadino britannico che aveva avuto problemi legali a causa di una stazione radio, “Radio Essex”. Egli dopo aver discusso coi suoi avvocati su come fare per mantenere la sua radio attiva decise di proclamare la piattaforma uno stato indipendente.

Nel 1968 Michael Bates (figlio di Roy) venne convocato a giudizio a causa di un incidente in cui vennero anche sparati alcuni colpi da una fregata della marina inglese nella vicinanze di Sealand. Secondo alcuni rapporti, gli occupanti del vascello intendevano espellere Bates dalla fortezza, mentre per altri stavano semplicemente tentando di riparare una vicina boa nautica. Il 25 novembre 1968 la corte afferm che, poich l’incidente era avvenuto al di fuori delle acque territoriali inglesi, essa non aveva alcuna giurisdizione sull’avvenuto.[2]

Nel 1978, mentre Roy Bates era assente, il “primo ministro” che egli aveva incaricato, il professor Alexander Achenbach, e diversi cittadini dei Paesi Bassi organizzarono la cattura di Roughs Tower, trattenendo Michael, figlio di Bates, come ostaggio, prima di rilasciarlo diversi giorni dopo nei Paesi Bassi.

Bates arruol dei mercenari e con un elicottero d’assalto riprese la fortezza. Tenne quindi prigionieri gli invasori reclamandoli come prigionieri di guerra. I cittadini dei Paesi Bassi partecipanti all’invasione furono rimpatriati alla cessazione della “guerra”; invece Achenbach, di cittadinanza tedesca, venne accusato di “tradimento contro Sealand” e imprigionato indefinitamente. I governi dei Paesi Bassi e della Germania avanzarono una petizione al governo britannico per il suo rilascio, ma la Gran Bretagna disconobbe ogni responsabilit, citando la decisione della corte del 1968.[3]

La Germania invi allora un diplomatico a Roughs Tower per negoziare il rilascio di Achenbach e dopo diverse settimane Roy Bates cedette, affermando successivamente che, a suo dire, la visita diplomatica costituiva il riconoscimento de facto di Sealand da parte della Germania (la Germania non ha confermato questa interpretazione personale di Bates).

In seguito al suo rimpatrio, il professor Achenbach stabil un “Governo in esilio” in Germania, in opposizione a quello di Roy Bates, assumendo il titolo di “Segretario del Concilio Privato”. Alle dimissioni di Achenbach per ragioni di salute nell’agosto 1989 il “Ministro per la Cooperazione Economica” del governo ribelle, Johannes Seiger, assunse il controllo con la posizione di “Primo Ministro e Segretario del Concilio Privato”. Seiger continua ad affermare di essere l’autorit legittima di governo di Sealand.[4]

A partire dagli anni novanta, per un certo periodo, Sealand produsse anche passaporti. A causa della quantit massiccia di passaporti in circolazione (stimata in circa 150.000 unit), nel 1997, la famiglia Bates revoc tutti i passaporti di Sealand che aveva essa stessa emesso nei precedenti 30 anni.[5]

L’affermazione che Sealand sia uno Stato indipendente e sovrano si basa su una interpretazione di una decisione, di magistratura inglese, risalente al 1968, in cui stato dichiarato che Roughs Tower si trovasse in acque internazionali e quindi al di fuori della giurisdizione dei tribunali nazionali.

Nel diritto internazionale, le scuole di pensiero pi comuni per la creazione di uno stato sono le teorie costitutive e dichiarative della creazione dello stato. La teoria costitutiva il modello standard ottocentesco della statualit e la teoria dichiarativa stata sviluppata nel XX secolo per ovviare alle carenze della teoria costitutiva. Nella teoria costitutiva, esiste uno stato esclusivamente tramite il riconoscimento da parte di altri stati. La teoria si divide se questo riconoscimento richiede ‘riconoscimento diplomatico’ o semplicemente ‘il riconoscimento dell’esistenza’. Sealand non ha ricevuto alcun riconoscimento ufficiale, ma stato sostenuto da Bates che i negoziati condotti dalla Germania a seguito di un breve episodio di ostaggi costituisca ‘il riconoscimento dell’esistenza’ (e, dato che il governo tedesco secondo come riferito ha inviato un ambasciatore alla torre, riconoscimento diplomatico). Nella teoria dichiarativa di statualit, un’entit diventa uno stato non appena soddisfa i criteri minimi per la statualit. Pertanto, il riconoscimento da parte di altri Stati puramente ‘dichiarativo’.

A prescindere dal suo status giuridico, Sealand gestito dalla famiglia Bates come se fosse un’entit sovrana riconosciuta e verrebbe trasmesso agli eredi di famiglia. Roy Bates si designato come ‘il principe Roy’ e la sua vedova come ‘principessa Joan’. Il loro figlio chiamato nella piattaforma “sua altezza reale il principe Michael” ed stato indicato come il ‘Principe Reggente’ della famiglia Bates dal 1999. In questo ruolo, egli sarebbe ‘Capo dello Stato’ e anche ‘capo di Governo ‘. In una conferenza sulle micronazioni, ospitate dall’Universit di Sunderland nel 2004, Sealand fu rappresentata da Michael Bates . L’impianto ora occupato da uno o pi bidelli rappresentanti di Michael Bates, il quale risiede in Essex, Inghilterra.

La Costituzione di Sealand stata scritta nel 1974. Si compone di un preambolo e sette articoli. Il preambolo afferma l’indipendenza del Sealand, mentre gli articoli variamente trattano lo stato di Sealand come una monarchia costituzionale, il potenziamento degli uffici di governo, il ruolo di un nominato, Senato consultivo, le funzioni di una nomina, di consulenza tribunale legale, il divieto di portare armi, se non per i membri di un designato ‘Sealand Guardia’, il diritto esclusivo del sovrano di formulare la politica estera e modificare la costituzione e la patrilineare successione ereditaria della monarchia. Il sistema giudiziario di Sealand afferma di seguire la common law britannica e gli statuti assumono la forma di decreti emanati dal sovrano. Sealand ha rilasciato passaporti di “fantasia” (come definito dal Consiglio dell’Unione europea), che ovviamente non sono validi per i viaggi internazionali e detiene il Guinness World Record per ‘la pi piccola area che rivendica lo status di nazione’. Il motto di Sealand Ex Mare Libertas (dal mare, Libert). Appare sugli oggetti Sealandic – come francobolli, passaporti e monete – ed il titolo dell’inno: Sealandic. L’inno stato composto dal londinese Basil Simonenko; essendo un inno strumentale, non ha parole. Nel 2005, l’inno stato registrato dalla Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra e pubblicato nel loro CD “Inni Nazionali del Mondo”, vol. 7: Qatar – Siria.

Nel 2000 la polizia spagnola ha scoperto un gruppo criminale che vendeva passaporti di Sealand (dichiarati come falsi da Sealand); si sospett che il gruppo fosse coinvolto in molti crimini di alto profilo, incluso l’omicidio di Gianni Versace.[1]

Intorno al 2000, Sealand si fece conoscere da molti appassionati di informatica, proponendosi dapprima di ospitare siti web ritenuti di dubbia legalit nei paesi di origine, poi offrendo asilo a Napster. Nel 2007 Sealand stato messo in vendita da Michael Bates[6][7]. Il prezzo stimato nel 2007 era di 750 milioni di euro. Il 9 gennaio 2007, il sito The Pirate Bay, uno dei pi famosi tracker per BitTorrent, ha annunciato di voler acquistare Sealand raccogliendo fondi attraverso libere donazioni versate su conto Paypal. Tuttavia ha rinunciato, dopo solo due settimane, a causa del disinteresse per la vendita mostrato da Bates.

La vendita poi sfumata del tutto a seguito della chiusura dell’agenzia immobiliare spagnola che se ne occupava, Inmonaranja, nel 2008.[8]

Il 9 ottobre del 2012, Roy Bates deceduto per cause naturali a 91 anni. Il titolo di “principe”, per diritto ereditario, andato a Michael Bates (coniugato con Lorraine Wheeler), figlio primogenito che dal 1999 serviva come “reggente”, essendo il padre affetto dalla malattia di Alzheimer. Suo erede James, il secondogenito nato nel 1986.[9]

Il 10 marzo 2016 deceduta in una casa di riposo anche la “principessa” Joan Bates, all’et di 86 anni.[8]

La struttura si trova a circa 10km al largo della costa del Suffolk (Inghilterra), alle coordinate 51 53′ 40 N e 1 28′ 57 E. Sulla struttura artificiale abitano cinque persone, su una superficie di circa 1300m.

Per la sua costruzione, una chiatta della Royal Navy venne rimorchiata sopra la secca marittima di Rough Sands, nel Mare del Nord, e affondata intenzionalmente.

Il 22 maggio 2013 l’alpinista Kenton Cool posiziona una bandiera di Sealand alla sommit del monte Everest.

L’ideazione della nobilt del principato divenuta una fonte di reddito in quanto essa non acquisibile per via ereditaria, ma si pu acquistare (anche su Internet), indipendentemente dalla cittadinanza posseduta, un attestato, approvato con nulla osta dalla famiglia reale, che conferisce il titolo di “lord”, “barone” o “conte” (oppure anche di “lady”, “baronessa” o “contessa”) di Sealand; nel 2013 stato ideato anche il titolo di “cavaliere” dell’ordine di Sealand.[10]. I certificati sono ovviamente riconosciuti all’interno del solo principato e permettono di essere invitati come consiglieri del “principe”, partecipare a banchetti e manifestazioni che si possono tenere nel principato stesso o anche in sede estera.[11]

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Principato di Sealand – Wikipedia

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