Tag Archives: mobile

AI is so overhyped. VB Summit will sort through the noise – VentureBeat

Posted: February 18, 2017 at 4:17 am

AI is so hot, its all people are talking about at least in Silicon Valley. The big companies like Facebook, Google, and Apple are in an all-out war trying to hire the best talent or acquire the smartest companies in this new area. You cant sit in a SF Bay Area coffee shop these days without hearing someone dropping the word AI in pitches. And as with all major trends, theres a lot of snake oil being sold, sofiltering out the noise from the real stuff is important.

Because despite the hype, AI is very real. Its potential impact on the market is in the hundreds of billions of dollars.

Which is why were proud to announce VentureBeat Summit onJune 5 and 6 in Berkeley, CA the first senior executive-level conference focused exclusively on how companies are applying artificial intelligence to get real results.

Register today for50% off with early-bird pricing a savings of $1,100!

Reserve your ticket here.

This invite-only event, which takes place at the historic Claremont Hotel in Berkeley for VP-level execs and above, will showcase technologiesand use cases that are transforming business now fromdigital applicationsin marketing and advertising to cyber security and the collaborative workplace.

Explaining technology disruption is VentureBeats specialty, and its why Im personally excited that were leading the charge in this fascinating area of AI. Were working hard to find the most compelling cases to showcase at the Summit. For example, well be hearing from VPs of marketing and other business units about how theyre using AI, and make sure to feature the hottest up-and-coming AI technologies and providers in the process.

Progress in AI and machine learning has unleashed a new wave of product innovation. Its spawned exciting large platforms like Facebooks Bots for Messenger, Amazons Alexa/Echo and Microsofts Cortana. But AI and machine learning have also empowered smaller developers and product managers who are building smarter apps of all kinds. Photo-sharing apps like Prisma exploded onto the scene last year, offering inspiring imagery created by neural nets.

This shows that harnessing AI isnt just in reach of the largest IT companies, but open to business executives everywhere.

And over the course of 2016, and entering 2017, a number of forces converged to allow astonishing breakthroughs in applications. They include availability of big data spurred by the mobile phone revolution, breakthroughs in science of neural networks and NLP, and reduced cost of powerful computing hardware machines, like that of Nvidias, to around $1,000.

The VB Summit will focus, in particular, on the digital industries where large amounts of data make AI technologies profitable. Companies applying this technology span industry verticals including consumer services, retail brands, and B2B enterprise.

Well dig beneath the hype, and bring to the surface those real technologies and strategies allowing executives to tap these forces for competitiveadvantage.

Well be announcing the first speakers shortly, but youll want to book this one early, because we expect to be sold out again. We do have a few spots available for those wanting to applyfor admission. Take advantage of our early bird pricing (save $1,100) which will last until March 10.

As a point of clarification, the event represents the metamorphosis of our Mobile Summit event, where we have featured leading speakers such as Sundar Pichai, now the CEO of Google, to explain the unfolding mobile revolution. That event, which weve done for six years, emerged to address the mobile revolution of the past decade. This year, however, we dropped Mobile from the name. Its now theVB Summit, and this year its all about AI.

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AI is so overhyped. VB Summit will sort through the noise – VentureBeat

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Digilux, a retrofit home automation solution to control your entire home through the touch of a few buttons on your … – YourStory.com

Posted: February 15, 2017 at 12:10 am

With new technological developments and their ability to capture the market in the next few years, Padamraj K Bagrecha decided to enter the field of home automation systems. After more than a decade of experience in this line, he developed his own product Digilux, a home automation system.

He founded the company in May 2016 and headquartered it in Bangalore.

Padamraj shares, “It was after extensive research and product testing of almost seven to eight years that the final product was launched in the market.”

Mahaveer K Bagrecha: He has had experience in the semiconductor, electronics, e-surveillance, and hospitality industries. His background in finance and operations helped in the foundation of Digilux Automation Pvt Ltd.

Mr. MAK: He has experience in system architecture. He played a huge role in developing their automation solution.

Padamraj K Bagrecha: He has over a decades work experience in the fields of home automation, e-surveillance, security, and high-end AV solutions.

In total, Digilux is a 10-member-strong team today.

Digilux is into manufacturing of home automation systems. This system can be integrated with the IoT platform for energy monitoring and can be further used for feedback and data analysis.

It is a retrofit home automation solution to control an entire home through the touch of a few buttons on your mobile.

It consists of a touch-based switch control system with a handheld remote. A gateway for smartphone control is available.

IR, IP, and RS232 controllers for third-party device control.

RGB controller, energy monitoring, and apps for a smart living. It lets you integrate the product with any existing or new controllers as well. It works within a wide power range and hence can incorporated in different power conditions.

Below are the available functionalities in the Digilux home automation system

According to Padamraj, “Our revenue has steadily grown over the past few years. In the next three years, our forecast is to generate a revenue five times the current figure.

Builders providing home automation solutions to their home-owners comes as a huge market segment for them. Individual home owners and corporates for boardroom solutions are their target market.

Mahaveer adds, “With the increasing awareness of home automation, we see a surge in the market where 50-60 percent of new homeowners will go ahead with automating their homes.”

60-70 percent of people renovating their existing homes can opt for this technology.

They intend to build a dealer/system integrator model where they tie up with SI’s across India to provide the solution to end users.

For the intentional market, they plan to have a distributor network in place. They already have some experience centres present in Bengaluru, Goa, Mysore, Hassan, Mangalore, Bhubaneswar, and more.

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Digilux, a retrofit home automation solution to control your entire home through the touch of a few buttons on your … – YourStory.com

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First TMS Patient Health Data Management System for US Physicians Launched – Business News Wales

Posted: February 14, 2017 at 11:32 am

Magstim INSIGHT The first cloud-based Electronic Health Record management solution for TMS practices.

Magstim INSIGHT is a convenient and mobile platform created to securely store patient and TMS treatment information. American TMS providers will be able to share data remotely with co-workers, track patients progress and chart their treatment outcomes.

Magstim INSIGHT offers streamlined and stress-free data management, with customisable reporting tools to help users deal with insurance billing processes more efficiently.

In addition, Magstim Insight has been designed to help safeguard patients Protected Health Information in a HIPAA compliant system.

The launch of Magstim INSIGHT is a key milestone for Magstim and marks the companys first step into the sector of Mobile Health Technology. The innovative online service will complement Magstims core business and will be at the forefront of our future comprehensive medical practice support offering.

John Mullen, Managing Director of Magstim states:

We are thrilled to announce the latest technology release of Magstim INSIGHT, designed to add both efficiencies and investment returns to clinical practices, large and small.

This launch is another step in Magstims long term goal of providing a full service partnership to our partners in clinical psychiatry.

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Google Chrome Now Allows Users To Experience Virtual Reality Via WebVR – EconoTimes

Posted: February 13, 2017 at 9:20 am

Monday, February 13, 2017 5:27 AM UTC

Later this week, Google announced that they have added WebVR to the web browser Chrome.

The announcement read as follows, Virtual reality (VR) lets you tour the Turkish palace featured in Die Another Day, learn about life in a Syrian refugee camp firsthand, and walk through your dream home right from your living room. With the latest version of Chrome, were bringing VR to the webmaking it as easy to step inside Air Force One as it is to access your favorite webpage.

Toms Hardware said this type of virtual reality support help push ongoing commercial efforts. The site said, The ability to visit a web page and immediately start poking around VR content–even if it’s not as immersive as a dedicated VR headset would be–could help people better understand why VR can be so exciting.

According to Forbes, this support now allows any device to their web browser into a virtual reality platform. Simply go on a WebVR-enabled site via Chrome and then navigate using a mouse for your laptop or desktop, or your fingers on your mobile device.If you have a DayDream-ready phone or a DayDream headset, you can have a full virtual reality experience using WebVR.

Google says users can expect more headsets to handle the virtual reality-enabled websites, including the most popular Google wearable, the Google Cardboard. Techradar reports that in the meantime, there are several virtual reality-enabled websites that uses can now access. Theres Bear71, which is an interactive documentary about animals and technology, Matterport, a virtual tour of luxury homes and historic locations, Within, a compilation of VR films and documentaries, SketchFab, which features artist-made 3D scenes, and Web VR Lab, an explorable 3D area with interactive objects.

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Immunotherapy: Training the body to fight cancer

Do vegetarians live longer? Probably, but not because they’re vegetarian

Could a contraceptive app be as good as the pill?

Some scientific explanations for alien abduction that aren’t so out of this world

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Do you need to worry if your baby has a flat head?

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Google Chrome Now Allows Users To Experience Virtual Reality Via WebVR – EconoTimes

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Space exploration brought to life for pupils – Norfolk Eastern Daily Press

Posted: February 11, 2017 at 8:38 am

Toftwood Infant School pupil Arthur inside the mobile planetarium at Toftwood Junior School. Picture: Ian Burt

Archant 2017

The exciting world of space exploration has been brought to life for pupils of a Norfolk infant school.

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The company StarLincs brought a mobile planetarium to Toftwood Junior School, in Dereham, for Toftwood Infant School to explore.

Fridays event tied in with the infant schools book week and pupils dressed in costumes related to Lost in Space.

Toftwood Infant School class teacher Kelsey Hooper said: The children have loved learning about the topic of space and this event really brought it to life.

We like to do things like this to give a real wow factor and to engage the children in a subject and they have really loved it.

Ninety year one pupils, aged five and six, from Toftwood Infant School went over to Toftwood Junior School for the event.

It was held at the venue because the junior school has more space to accommodate the mobile planetarium.

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Tor Project’s New Mobile App Alerts You To Internet Surveillance … – Forbes

Posted: February 10, 2017 at 2:43 am


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Artificial Intelligence Tops Humans in Poker Battle What’s the Big Deal? – PokerNews.com

Posted: February 6, 2017 at 3:21 pm

HomeNewsPokerNews Op-Ed

Deep Blue was one hell of a chess player.

It was February 1996 and the machine developed by IBM was locked in battle with Gary Kasparov. Chess was big news as the computer system project originally begun in 1985 at Carnegie Mellon University attempted to do something other chess-playing devices had been unable to do beat a reigning world champion.

Even those with only a passing interest in chess like myself were intrigued by the matchup. Deep Blues designer said the machine could evaluate 200 million positions per second, and at the time, it was the fastest computer to match up with a world chess champion. Reports on the days progress were published in newspapers all across the globe.

Ultimately, the first match of six games was a victory for humanitywith Kasparov notching a 4-2 victory. However, in May the following year, and after some additional re-engineering, it was Deep Blue coming out on top.

The Deep Blue phenomenon has been in my head for the last couple weeks as four top poker players (Jason Les, Daniel McAulay, Jimmy Chou and Dong Kim) squared off against artificial intelligence software at the Rivers Casino in Pittsburgh.

This time the AI came out on top.

As Reuters noted, Libratus [Latin for balance], an AI built by Carnegie Mellon University racked up over $1.7 million worth of chips against four of the top professional poker players in the world in a 20-day marathon poker tournament that ended on Tuesday.

Headlines have trumpeted Libratus accomplishment around the world. Here are just a few examples:

Machine beats humans for the first time in poker (Reuter’s) Computer manages to beat 4 of world’s best poker players (FOX News) A Computer Just Clobbered Four Pros At Poker (FiveThirtyEight) A Mystery AI Just Crushed the Best Human Players at Poker (Wired magazine) Artificial Intelligence Goes All-in on Texas Holdem (Wall Street Journal)

Developers compared the victory to that of Deep Blue 20 years ago. The team certainly faced a challenge in engineering their AI to adjust to betting differences, imperfect information, unorthodox play, and that unique aspect of poker that differs it from most other games,bluffing.

Players were given a certain amount of play money and Libratus would go on to notch a computer’s first victory in the no limit variety of Texas Hold’em (a previous computer had already mastered Limit Hold’em).

Yes, poker is just a game,” University of Michigan professor Michael Wellman, who specializes in game theory and closely follows AI poker, said to Wired magazine. “But the game theory exhibited by Libratus could help with everything from financial trading to political negotiations to auctions.

Some have hailed the entire spectacle as great for the game of poker and no doubt there is some nice PR benefit that comes with it. But from a simple poker-playing perspective and in regards to its relevance among poker fans, the whole thing seems a bit too much. As a massive fan of the game of poker, this whole spectacle lacks the impact of Deep Blues win.

To me, this matchup of man versus droid/computer/software/techno-gizmo lacks the one aspect of poker that makes it so unique:risk. Its the reason that playing poker online for free or playing with your grandmother for matchsticks (or cheerios or whatever) is so lame;there is no risk of losing ones own money.

Chess is a game with merely risk of losing one individual match itself. The two combatants may have some kind of extrinsic monetary motivation, such as tournament payouts, appearance fees, etc., but there is not an inherent expected loss of ones own personal earnings.

In poker, players must square off against each other with their (usually) hard-earned money and that risk of ones own cash is a huge part of pokers appeal. Financial risk is inherently about losing money, and if youre not playing with risk in the game, youre not really playing poker.

If youre afraid to lose your money, you cant play to win, said Johnny Moss, a Texas poker legend and winner of the first two WSOP Main Events.

That attitude is something inherently flawed in making so much hoopla about Libratus’ accomplishment;a machine/software/robot has no real inherent sense of loss or risk.

And when it comes to the art of the bluff, it seems engineering a machine to make these kinds of moves misses the key component of the risk involved in doing this: the pulse-racing feel of having all your chips in on a pot when you know your hand is squadoosh as ESPN WSOP analyst Norman Chad likes to put it. A highly-engineered AI topped four poker sharks with no real money on the line.

As a poker fan, this whole event doesnt even seem like real poker and just left me asking: So what? Poker is a game that is extremely dependent on human emotion and temperament.

Artificial intelligence has no fears about losing the mortgage payment in a pot.

Artificial intelligence has no fears about losing the mortgage payment in a pot or being down to that last bit of the poker bankroll and having to look for a real job to build it back.

Another aspect of this matchup with Libratus that is really missing for me, and I think for many poker fans, is that the self-reliant, mano-a-mano, battle of minds that takes place at the poker table. Sure I can concede a machine can get the better of humans in this type of setup, but pokers appeal for me is seeing players squaring off against each other and matching skills.

A battle against a computer lacks the panache of seeing real-life humans battling it out for their own cash. Libratus may have massive amounts of computing power, but it lacks the humanity that makes poker great and now watchable on television.

Many poker insiders and those with deep roots in the game may forget that, to casual fans, seeing thousands of dollars won and lost on a single game of cards is extremely bizarre yet extremely appealing. That appeal, along with the games unique characters and history, is the reason poker has grown into the international game it is today.

Poker is great because the human aspect is so important to excelling; it is not simply a series of moves on a game board or your old Commodore 64. Players who master the game can read other players and keep their own emotions in check.

They must master the subtleties and games within the game to excel. They benefit themselves by timing their actions correctly based on other players tendencies, outlooks and general gameplay. Players like Jason Mercier and Daniel Negreanu have mastered these nuances.

Dont read my hand wrong here, I am not a poker pessimist who thinks the game is moving in the wrong direction. Quite the contrary: I think the game is moving in the right direction in general after massive growth in the 2000s.

Libratus is not the next Big Blue and these four players were not Gary Kasparov.

Actual growth of the game depends on continuing presentations of the game in its real context on the felt and focusing on the players.

Some of those include: continued growth of the WSOP and live ESPN broadcasts; the World Poker Tours continued success and international growth; great broadcasts like Poker Centrals Super High Roller Bowl (with great commentary catering to fans and hard-core players alike); progress (thought slow) of state-by-state legalized online poker; the growth of the game by appealing younger players via Twitch; and the success of middle-tier tours catering to average Joe poker players (which are still needed to grow the game) like the Heartland Poker Tour and Mid-States Poker Tour.

The AI win seems like a minute footnote in comparison. Libratus may have won the battle against mankind, but was there ever really a war? Im not sure this is a battle that means a whole lot in the big picture of modern poker.

Libratus may have won the battle against mankind, but was there ever really a war?

Libratus is not the next Big Blue and these four players were not Gary Kasparov. It may have been an interesting technological endeavor, but Im sure these players in the “Brains vs. Artificial Intelligence, as the event came to be known, would much rather bring home a WSOP gold bracelet or WPT title if they had to pick. That hardware (not software) would be tangible and real and it would certainly be a nice real-life check to cash.

Sean Chaffin is a freelance writer in Crandall, Texas, and writes frequently about gambling and poker. If you have any story ideas, please email him at seanchaffin@sbcglobal.net or follow him @PokerTraditions. His poker book is RAISING THE STAKES: True Tales of Gambling, Wagering & Poker Faces and available on amazon.com.

The opinions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions PokerNews

Be sure to complete your PokerNews experience by checking out an overview of our mobile and tablet apps here. Stay on top of the poker world from your phone with our mobile iOS and Android app, or fire up our iPad app on your tablet. You can also update your own chip counts from poker tournaments around the world with MyStack on both Android and iOS.

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Recruitment – Wikipedia

Posted: January 26, 2017 at 11:54 am

Recruitment (hiring) is a core function of human resource management. Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions, such as voluntary roles or unpaid trainee roles. Managers, human resource generalists and recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies are used to undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies to support all aspects of recruitment have become widespread.[1]

In situations where multiple new jobs are created and recruited for the first time or vacancies are there or the nature of a job has substantially changed, a job analysis might be undertaken to document the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) required or sought for the job. From these the relevant information is captured in such documents as job descriptions and job specifications. Often, a company already has job descriptions for existing positions. Where already drawn up, these documents may require review and updating to reflect current requirements. Prior to the recruitment stage, a person specification should be finalized.[2]

Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external recruitment advertising, using appropriate media, such as job portals,local or national newspapers, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, or in a variety of ways via the internet.

Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidateswho, in many cases, may be content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move. This initial research for candidatesalso called name generationproduces contact information for potential candidates, whom the recruiter can then discreetly contact and screen.[2]

Various psychological tests can assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessments are also available to measure physical ability. Recruiters and agencies may use applicant tracking systems to filter candidates, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance-based assessment.[3] In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.[2]

Employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass soft skills such as interpersonal or team leadership.[4] Many companies, including multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities, are also often concerned about whether candidate fits the prevailing company culture.[5]

The word disability carries few positive connotations for most employers. Research has shown that employer biases tend to improve through first-hand experience and exposure with proper supports for the employee[6] and the employer making the hiring decisions. As for most companies, money and job stability are two of the contributing factors to the productivity of a disabled employee, which in return equates to the growth and success of a business. Hiring disabled workers produce more advantages than disadvantages.[7] There is no difference in the daily production of a disabled worker.[8] Given their situation, they are more likely to adapt to their environmental surroundings and acquaint themselves with equipment, enabling them to solve problems and overcome adversity as with other employees. The U.S. IRS grants companies Disabled Access Credit when they meet eligibility criteria.[9]

Many major corporations recognize the need for diversity in hiring to compete successfully in a global economy.[10] Other organizations, for example universities and colleges, have been slow to embrace diversity as an essential value for their success.[11]

Recruitment Process Outsourcing, or commonly known as “RPO” is a form of business process outsourcing (BPO) where a company engages a third party provider to manage all or part of its recruitment process.

Internal recruitment (not to be confused with internal recruiters!) refers to the process of a candidate being selected from the existing workforce to take up a new job in the same organization, perhaps as a promotion, or to provide career development opportunity, or to meet a specific or urgent organizational need. Advantages include the organization’s familiarity with the employee and their competencies insofar as they are revealed in their current job, and their willingness to trust said employee. It can be quicker and have a lower cost to hire someone internally.[12]

An employee referral program is a system where existing employees recommend prospective candidates for the job offered, and in some organizations if the suggested candidate is hired, the employee receives a cash bonus.[13]

Niche firms tend to focus on building ongoing relationships with their candidates, as the same candidates may be placed many times throughout their careers. Online resources have developed to help find niche recruiters.[14] Niche firms also develop knowledge on specific employment trends within their industry of focus (e.g., the energy industry) and are able to identify demographic shifts such as aging and its impact on the industry.[15]

Social recruiting is the use of social media for recruiting including sites like Facebook and Twitter or career-oriented social networking sites such as LinkedIn and XING.[16][17] It is a rapidly growing sourcing technique, especially with middle-aged people. On Google+, the fastest-growing age group is 4554. On Twitter, the expanding generation is people from ages 5564.[18]

Mobile recruiting is a recruitment strategy that uses mobile technology to attract, engage and convert candidates. Mobile recruiting is often cited as a growing opportunity for recruiters to connect with candidates more efficiently with “over 89% of job seekers saying their mobile device will be an important tool and resource for their job search.”[19]

Some recruiters work by accepting payments from job seekers, and in return help them to find a job. This is illegal in some countries, such as in the United Kingdom, in which recruiters must not charge candidates for their services (although websites such as LinkedIn may charge for ancillary job-search-related services). Such recruiters often refer to themselves as “personal marketers” and “job application services” rather than as recruiters.[20][21]

Using Multiple-criteria decision analysis tools such as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and combining it with conventional recruitment methods provides an added advantage by helping the recruiters to make decisions when there are several diverse criteria to be considered or when the applicants lack past experience; for instance recruitment of fresh university graduates.[22]

In some companies where the recruitment volume is high, it is common to see a multi tier recruitment model where the different sub-functions are being group together to achieve efficiency.

An example of a 3 tier recruitment model:

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Recruitment – Wikipedia

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OLED – Wikipedia

Posted: January 10, 2017 at 2:45 am

An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes; typically, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as mobile phones, handheld game consoles and PDAs. A major area of research is the development of white OLED devices for use in solid-state lighting applications.[1][2][3]

There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) which has a slightly different mode of operation. OLED displays can use either passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) addressing schemes. Passive matrix OLEDs (PMOLED) uses a simple control scheme in which you control each row (or line) in the display sequentially[4] whereas active-matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off, but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes.

An OLED display works without a backlight; thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display (LCD). In low ambient light conditions (such as a dark room), an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD, regardless of whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or an LED backlight.

Andr Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Universit in France made the first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s. They applied high alternating voltages in air to materials such as acridine orange, either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons.[5][6][7][8]

In 1960 Martin Pope and some of his co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals.[9][10][11] They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. Pope’s group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a single pure crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963[12] using a small area silver electrode at 400 volts. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence.

Pope’s group reported in 1965[13] that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole, and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965, W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes,[14] the forerunner of modern double-injection devices. In the same year, Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high-voltage (5001500 V) AC-driven (1003000Hz) electrically insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder, tetracene, and graphite powder.[15] Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules.

Roger Partridge made the first observation of electroluminescence from polymer films at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The device consisted of a film of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) up to 2.2 micrometers thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The results of the project were patented in 1975[16] and published in 1983.[17][18][19][20]

Hong Kong-born American physical chemist Ching W. Tang and his co-worker Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak built the first practical OLED device in 1987.[21] This was a revolution for the technology. This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer; this resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency.

Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).[22]

Universal Display Corporation holds the majority of patents concerning the commercialization of OLEDs.[citation needed]

A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated between two electrodes, the anode and cathode, all deposited on a substrate. The organic molecules are electrically conductive as a result of delocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over part or all of the molecule. These materials have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, and are therefore considered organic semiconductors. The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of organic semiconductors are analogous to the valence and conduction bands of inorganic semiconductors.[23]

Originally, the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. One example was the first light-emitting device synthesised by J. H. Burroughes et al., which involved a single layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene). However multilayer OLEDs can be fabricated with two or more layers in order to improve device efficiency. As well as conductive properties, different materials may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile,[24] or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.[25] Many modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure, consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer. More recent developments in OLED architecture improves quantum efficiency (up to 19%) by using a graded heterojunction.[26] In the graded heterojunction architecture, the composition of hole and electron-transport materials varies continuously within the emissive layer with a dopant emitter. The graded heterojunction architecture combines the benefits of both conventional architectures by improving charge injection while simultaneously balancing charge transport within the emissive region.[27]

During operation, a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. Anodes are picked based upon the quality of their optical transparency, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability.[28] A current of electrons flows through the device from cathode to anode, as electrons are injected into the LUMO of the organic layer at the cathode and withdrawn from the HOMO at the anode. This latter process may also be described as the injection of electron holes into the HOMO. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton, a bound state of the electron and hole. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron, accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material, in this case the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO.

As electrons and holes are fermions with half integer spin, an exciton may either be in a singlet state or a triplet state depending on how the spins of the electron and hole have been combined. Statistically three triplet excitons will be formed for each singlet exciton. Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence) is spin forbidden, increasing the timescale of the transition and limiting the internal efficiency of fluorescent devices. Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spinorbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency.

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the HOMO level of the organic layer. A typical conductive layer may consist of PEDOT:PSS[29] as the HOMO level of this material generally lies between the workfunction of ITO and the HOMO of other commonly used polymers, reducing the energy barriers for hole injection. Metals such as barium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the LUMO of the organic layer.[30] Such metals are reactive, so they require a capping layer of aluminium to avoid degradation.

Experimental research has proven that the properties of the anode, specifically the anode/hole transport layer (HTL) interface topography plays a major role in the efficiency, performance, and lifetime of organic light emitting diodes. Imperfections in the surface of the anode decrease anode-organic film interface adhesion, increase electrical resistance, and allow for more frequent formation of non-emissive dark spots in the OLED material adversely affecting lifetime. Mechanisms to decrease anode roughness for ITO/glass substrates include the use of thin films and self-assembled monolayers. Also, alternative substrates and anode materials are being considered to increase OLED performance and lifetime. Possible examples include single crystal sapphire substrates treated with gold (Au) film anodes yielding lower work functions, operating voltages, electrical resistance values, and increasing lifetime of OLEDs.[31]

Single carrier devices are typically used to study the kinetics and charge transport mechanisms of an organic material and can be useful when trying to study energy transfer processes. As current through the device is composed of only one type of charge carrier, either electrons or holes, recombination does not occur and no light is emitted. For example, electron only devices can be obtained by replacing ITO with a lower work function metal which increases the energy barrier of hole injection. Similarly, hole only devices can be made by using a cathode made solely of aluminium, resulting in an energy barrier too large for efficient electron injection.[32][33][34]

Efficient OLEDs using small molecules were first developed by Dr. Ching W. Tang et al.[21] at Eastman Kodak. The term OLED traditionally refers specifically to this type of device, though the term SM-OLED is also in use.[23]

Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates (for example Alq3, used in the organic light-emitting device reported by Tang et al.), fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated dendrimers. A number of materials are used for their charge transport properties, for example triphenylamine and derivatives are commonly used as materials for hole transport layers.[35] Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths, and compounds such as perylene, rubrene and quinacridone derivatives are often used.[36] Alq3 has been used as a green emitter, electron transport material and as a host for yellow and red emitting dyes.

The production of small molecule devices and displays usually involves thermal evaporation in a vacuum. This makes the production process more expensive and of limited use for large-area devices, than other processing techniques. However, contrary to polymer-based devices, the vacuum deposition process enables the formation of well controlled, homogeneous films, and the construction of very complex multi-layer structures. This high flexibility in layer design, enabling distinct charge transport and charge blocking layers to be formed, is the main reason for the high efficiencies of the small molecule OLEDs.

Coherent emission from a laser dye-doped tandem SM-OLED device, excited in the pulsed regime, has been demonstrated.[37] The emission is nearly diffraction limited with a spectral width similar to that of broadband dye lasers.[38]

Researchers report luminescence from a single polymer molecule, representing the smallest possible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) device.[39] Scientists will be able to optimize substances to produce more powerful light emissions. Finally, this work is a first step towards making molecule-sized components that combine electronic and optical properties. Similar components could form the basis of a molecular computer.[40]

Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage. They are used as a thin film for full-spectrum colour displays. Polymer OLEDs are quite efficient and require a relatively small amount of power for the amount of light produced.

Vacuum deposition is not a suitable method for forming thin films of polymers. However, polymers can be processed in solution, and spin coating is a common method of depositing thin polymer films. This method is more suited to forming large-area films than thermal evaporation. No vacuum is required, and the emissive materials can also be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjet printing.[41][42] However, as the application of subsequent layers tends to dissolve those already present, formation of multilayer structures is difficult with these methods. The metal cathode may still need to be deposited by thermal evaporation in vacuum. An alternative method to vacuum deposition is to deposit a Langmuir-Blodgett film.

Typical polymers used in pleaded displays include derivatives of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene. Substitution of side chains onto the polymer backbone may determine the colour of emitted light[43] or the stability and solubility of the polymer for performance and ease of processing.[44]

While unsubstituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) is typically insoluble, a number of PPVs and related poly(naphthalene vinylene)s (PNVs) that are soluble in organic solvents or water have been prepared via ring opening metathesis polymerization.[45][46][47] These water-soluble polymers or conjugated poly electrolytes (CPEs) also can be used as hole injection layers alone or in combination with nanoparticles like graphene.[48]

Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes use the principle of electrophosphorescence to convert electrical energy in an OLED into light in a highly efficient manner,[50][51] with the internal quantum efficiencies of such devices approaching 100%.[52]

Typically, a polymer such as poly(N-vinylcarbazole) is used as a host material to which an organometallic complex is added as a dopant. Iridium complexes[51] such as Ir(mppy)3[49] are currently the focus of research, although complexes based on other heavy metals such as platinum[50] have also been used.

The heavy metal atom at the centre of these complexes exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling, facilitating intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states. By using these phosphorescent materials, both singlet and triplet excitons will be able to decay radiatively, hence improving the internal quantum efficiency of the device compared to a standard pleaded where only the singlet states will contribute to emission of light.

Applications of OLEDs in solid state lighting require the achievement of high brightness with good CIE coordinates (for white emission). The use of macromolecular species like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) in conjunction with the use of phosphorescent species such as Ir for printed OLEDs have exhibited brightnesses as high as 10,000cd/m2.[53]

Patternable organic light-emitting devices use a light or heat activated electroactive layer. A latent material (PEDOT-TMA) is included in this layer that, upon activation, becomes highly efficient as a hole injection layer. Using this process, light-emitting devices with arbitrary patterns can be prepared.[57]

Colour patterning can be accomplished by means of laser, such as radiation-induced sublimation transfer (RIST).[58]

Organic vapour jet printing (OVJP) uses an inert carrier gas, such as argon or nitrogen, to transport evaporated organic molecules (as in organic vapour phase deposition). The gas is expelled through a micrometre-sized nozzle or nozzle array close to the substrate as it is being translated. This allows printing arbitrary multilayer patterns without the use of solvents.

Conventional OLED displays are formed by vapor thermal evaporation (VTE) and are patterned by shadow-mask. A mechanical mask has openings allowing the vapor to pass only on the desired location.

Like ink jet material depositioning, inkjet etching (IJE) deposits precise amounts of solvent onto a substrate designed to selectively dissolve the substrate material and induce a structure or pattern. Inkjet etching of polymer layers in OLED’s can be used to increase the overall out-coupling efficiency. In OLEDs, light produced from the emissive layers of the OLED is partially transmitted out of the device and partially trapped inside the device by total internal reflection (TIR). This trapped light is wave-guided along the interior of the device until it reaches an edge where it is dissipated by either absorption or emission. Inkjet etching can be used to selectively alter the polymeric layers of OLED structures to decrease overall TIR and increase out-coupling efficiency of the OLED. Compared to a non-etched polymer layer, the structured polymer layer in the OLED structure from the IJE process helps to decrease the TIR of the OLED device. IJE solvents are commonly organic instead of water based due to their non-acidic nature and ability to effectively dissolve materials at temperatures under the boiling point of water.[59]

For a high resolution display like a TV, a TFT backplane is necessary to drive the pixels correctly. Currently, low temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) is used for commercial AMOLED displays. LTPS-TFT has variation of the performance in a display, so various compensation circuits have been reported.[60] Due to the size limitation of the excimer laser used for LTPS, the AMOLED size was limited. To cope with the hurdle related to the panel size, amorphous-silicon/microcrystalline-silicon backplanes have been reported with large display prototype demonstrations.[61]

Transfer-printing is an emerging technology to assemble large numbers of parallel OLED and AMOLED devices efficiently. It takes advantage of standard metal deposition, photolithography, and etching to create alignment marks commonly on glass or other device substrates. Thin polymer adhesive layers are applied to enhance resistance to particles and surface defects. Microscale ICs are transfer-printed onto the adhesive surface and then baked to fully cure adhesive layers. An additional photosensitive polymer layer is applied to the substrate to account for the topography caused by the printed ICs, reintroducing a flat surface. Photolithography and etching removes some polymer layers to uncover conductive pads on the ICs. Afterwards, the anode layer is applied to the device backplane to form bottom electrode. OLED layers are applied to the anode layer with conventional vapor deposition, and covered with a conductive metal electrode layer. As of 2011[update] transfer-printing was capable to print onto target substrates up to 500mm X 400mm. This size limit needs to expand for transfer-printing to become a common process for the fabrication of large OLED/AMOLED displays.[62]

The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology.

OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players, car radios and digital cameras among others. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used intermittently, so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs’ unique characteristics. Applications in flexible signs and lighting are also being developed.[86]Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand name “Lumiblade” available online[87] and Novaled AG based in Dresden, Germany, introduced a line of OLED desk lamps called “Victory” in September, 2011.[88]

OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung color cell phones, as well as some HTC, LG and Sony Ericsson models.[89]Nokia has also introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the N86 8MP, both of which feature an AMOLED display. OLED technology can also be found in digital media players such as the Creative ZEN V, the iriver clix, the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series.

The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLED screen, as does HTC’s own Desire and Legend phones. However, due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays, certain HTC models will use Sony’s SLCD displays in the future,[90] while the Google and Samsung Nexus S smartphone will use “Super Clear LCD” instead in some countries.[91]

OLED displays were used in watches made by Fossil (JR-9465) and Diesel (DZ-7086).

Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited (Hong Kong),[92]AU Optronics (Taiwan),[93]Chimei Innolux Corporation (Taiwan),[94]LG (Korea),[95] and others.[96]

In 2009, Shearwater Research introduced the Predator as the first color OLED diving computer available with a user replaceable battery.[97][98]

DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. DuPont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight-hour day.[99][100]

The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Universal Display Corporation, Eastman Kodak, DuPont, General Electric, Royal Philips Electronics, numerous universities and others.[101] There are by now thousands of patents associated with OLEDs, both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies.[23]

RIM, the maker of BlackBerry smartphones, uses OLED displays in their BlackBerry 10 devices.

A technical writer at the Sydney Herald thinks foldable OLED smartphones could be as much as a decade away because of the cost of producing them. There is a relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. As little as a speck of dust can ruin a screen during production. Creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle.[102] However, Samsung has accelerated its plans to release a foldable display by the end of 2015[103]

Textiles incorporating OLEDs are an innovation in the fashion world and pose for a way to integrate lighting to bring inert objects to a whole new level of fashion. The hope is to combine the comfort and low cost properties of textile with the OLEDs properties of illumination and low energy consumption. Although this scenario of illuminated clothing is highly plausible, challenges are still a road block. Some issues include: the lifetime of the OLED, rigidness of flexible foil substrates, and the lack of research in making more fabric like photonic textiles.[104]

By 2004 Samsung, South Korea’s largest conglomerate, was the world’s largest OLED manufacturer, producing 40% of the OLED displays made in the world,[105] and as of 2010 has a 98% share of the global AMOLED market.[106] The company is leading the world of OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006.[107] As of 2006, it held more than 600 American patents and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED technology patents.[107]

Samsung SDI announced in 2005 the world’s largest OLED TV at the time, at 21 inches (53cm).[108] This OLED featured the highest resolution at the time, of 6.22 million pixels. In addition, the company adopted active matrix based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. This was exceeded in January 2008, when Samsung showcased the world’s largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time, at 31inches (78cm) and 4.3mm.[109]

In May 2008, Samsung unveiled an ultra-thin 12.1inch (30cm) laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280768 resolution with infinite contrast ratio.[110] According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expected OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon as 2010.[111]

In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world’s thinnest OLED display, also the first to be “flappable” and bendable.[112] It measures just 0.05mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is “technically possible to make the panel thinner”.[112] To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs. Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 272. The contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200cd/m2. The colour reproduction range is 100% of the NTSC standard.

In the same month, Samsung unveiled what was then the world’s largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920 1080 pixels.[113] In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED Panel is the largest size currently possible. The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a colour gamut of 107% NTSC, and a luminance of 200cd/m2 (peak luminance of 600cd/m2).

At the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010, Samsung demonstrated a laptop computer with a large, transparent OLED display featuring up to 40% transparency[114] and an animated OLED display in a photo ID card.[115]

Samsung’s latest AMOLED smartphones use their Super AMOLED trademark, with the Samsung Wave S8500 and Samsung i9000 Galaxy S being launched in June 2010. In January 2011 Samsung announced their Super AMOLED Plus displays, which offer several advances over the older Super AMOLED displays: real stripe matrix (50% more sub pixels), thinner form factor, brighter image and an 18% reduction in energy consumption.[116]

At CES 2012, Samsung introduced the first 55″ TV screen that uses Super OLED technology.[117]

On January 8, 2013, at CES Samsung unveiled a unique curved 4K Ultra S9 OLED television, which they state provides an “IMAX-like experience” for viewers.[118]

On August 13, 2013, Samsung announced availability of a 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KN55S9C) in the US at a price point of $8999.99.[119]

On September 6, 2013, Samsung launched its 55-inch curved OLED TV (model KE55S9C) in the United Kingdom with John Lewis.[120]

Samsung introduced the Galaxy Round smartphone in the Korean market in October 2013. The device features a 1080p screen, measuring 5.7 inches (14cm), that curves on the vertical axis in a rounded case. The corporation has promoted the following advantages: A new feature called “Round Interaction” that allows users to look at information by tilting the handset on a flat surface with the screen off, and the feel of one continuous transition when the user switches between home screens.[121]

The Sony CLI PEG-VZ90 was released in 2004, being the first PDA to feature an OLED screen.[123] Other Sony products to feature OLED screens include the MZ-RH1 portable minidisc recorder, released in 2006[124] and the Walkman X Series.[125]

At the 2007 Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Sony showcased 11-inch (28cm, resolution 960540) and 27-inch (68.5cm), full HD resolution at 1920 1080 OLED TV models.[126] Both claimed 1,000,000:1 contrast ratios and total thicknesses (including bezels) of 5mm. In April 2007, Sony announced it would manufacture 1000 11-inch (28cm) OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes.[127] On October 1, 2007, Sony announced that the 11-inch (28cm) model, now called the XEL-1, would be released commercially;[122] the XEL-1 was first released in Japan in December 2007.[128]

In May 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3 millimeters thick.[129] At the Display 2008 exhibition, Sony demonstrated a 0.2mm thick 3.5inch (9cm) display with a resolution of 320200 pixels and a 0.3mm thick 11inch (28cm) display with 960540 pixels resolution, one-tenth the thickness of the XEL-1.[130][131]

In July 2008, a Japanese government body said it would fund a joint project of leading firms, which is to develop a key technology to produce large, energy-saving organic displays. The project involves one laboratory and 10 companies including Sony Corp. NEDO said the project was aimed at developing a core technology to mass-produce 40inch or larger OLED displays in the late 2010s.[132]

In October 2008, Sony published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually, bendable, see-through displays could be stacked to produce 3D images with much greater contrast ratios and viewing angles than existing products.[133]

Sony exhibited a 24.5″ (62cm) prototype OLED 3D television during the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2010.[134]

In January 2011, Sony announced the PlayStation Vita handheld game console (the successor to the PSP) will feature a 5-inch OLED screen.[135]

On February 17, 2011, Sony announced its 25″ (63.5cm) OLED Professional Reference Monitor aimed at the Cinema and high end Drama Post Production market.[136]

On June 25, 2012, Sony and Panasonic announced a joint venture for creating low cost mass production OLED televisions by 2013.[137]

As of 2010, LG Electronics produced one model of OLED television, the 15inch 15EL9500[138] and had announced a 31″ (78cm) OLED 3D television for March 2011.[139] On December 26, 2011, LG officially announced the “world’s largest 55″ OLED panel” and featured it at CES 2012.[140] In late 2012, LG announces the launch of the 55EM9600 OLED television in Australia.[141]

In January 2015, LG Display signed a long term agreement with Universal Display Corporation for the supply of OLED materials and the right to use their patented OLED emitters.[142]

Lumiotec is the first company in the world developing and selling, since January 2011, mass-produced OLED lighting panels with such brightness and long lifetime. Lumiotec is a joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ROHM, Toppan Printing, and Mitsui & Co. On June 1, 2011, Mitsubishi installed a 6-meter OLED ‘sphere’ in Tokyo’s Science Museum.[143]

On January 6, 2011, Los Angeles based technology company Recom Group introduced the first small screen consumer application of the OLED at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. This was a 2.8″ (7cm) OLED display being used as a wearable video name tag.[144] At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012, Recom Group introduced the world’s first video mic flag incorporating three 2.8″ (7cm) OLED displays on a standard broadcaster’s mic flag. The video mic flag allowed video content and advertising to be shown on a broadcasters standard mic flag.[145]

BMW plans to use OLEDs in tail lights and interior lights in their future cars; however, OLEDs are currently too dim to be used for brake lights, headlights and indicators.[146]

Research by Andre De-Guerin suggests that some newer panels now use screen printed chips connected with a continuous backplane to get around the need for a single monolithic and fragile silicon TFT. This approach is known to be used by Samsung on some of their newer phones notably the S6, Note 4 and others. It is believed that the self-assembly method used avoids the need to destroy bad backplanes as they can be pre-sorted at the manufacturing stage and the bad ICs replaced by micro-manipulators or other methods; where this is not possible the bad area can be cut off and the backplane area thus salvaged recycled for smaller displays such as on smart watches.

In 2014, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (MCC), a subsidiary of the Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings developed an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panel with a life of 30,000 hours, twice that of conventional OLED panels.[147]

The search for efficient OLED materials has been extensively supported by simulation methods. By now it is possible to calculate important properties completely computationally, independent of experimental input.[148][149] This allows cost-efficient pre-screening of materials, prior to expensive synthesis and experimental characterisation.

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What Is Posthumanism? (Posthumanities): Cary Wolfe …

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What does it mean to think beyond humanism? Is it possible to craft a mode of philosophy, ethics, and interpretation that rejects the classic humanist divisions of self and other, mind and body, society and nature, human and animal, organic and technological? Can a new kind of humanities-posthumanities-respond to the redefinition of humanity’s place in the world by both the technological and the biological or “green” continuum in which the “human” is but one life form among many?

Exploring how both critical thought along with cultural practice have reacted to this radical repositioning, Cary Wolfe-one of the founding figures in the field of animal studies and posthumanist theory-ranges across bioethics, cognitive science, animal ethics, gender, and disability to develop a theoretical and philosophical approach responsive to our changing understanding of ourselves and our world. Then, in performing posthumanist readings of such diverse works as Temple Grandin’s writings, Wallace Stevens’s poetry, Lars von Trier’s Dancer in the Dark, the architecture of Diller+Scofidio, and David Byrne and Brian Eno’s My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, he shows how this philosophical sensibility can transform art and culture.

For Wolfe, a vibrant, rigorous posthumanism is vital for addressing questions of ethics and justice, language and trans-species communication, social systems and their inclusions and exclusions, and the intellectual aspirations of interdisciplinarity. In What Is Posthumanism? he carefully distinguishes posthumanism from transhumanism (the biotechnological enhancement of human beings) and narrow definitions of the posthuman as the hoped-for transcendence of materiality. In doing so, Wolfe reveals that it is humanism, not the human in all its embodied and prosthetic complexity, that is left behind in posthumanist thought.

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Cary Wolfe is Bruce and Elizabeth Dunlevie Professor of English at Rice University. He is the author of Critical Environments: Postmodern Theory and the Pragmatics of the Outside (Minnesota, 1998) and Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory, and the editor of Zoontologies: The Question of the Animal (Minnesota, 2003).

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