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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Posted: January 13, 2017 at 6:43 am

What Is Eczema?

Eczema is a descriptive term for a chronic skin condition that usually begins in early childhood. It is seen most commonly in individuals who have family members who have asthma and hay fever. This is not to say that eczema is a classical allergic disease. There seems to be general agreement that this condition is inherited because of the complete loss or relative lack of a skin protein.

There are criteria that must be met before the diagnosis of eczema is considered. In most patients, the condition began in childhood. Patients develop plaques of weeping, oozing skin that are very itchy. A personal or family history of eczema, asthma, and/or inhalant allergies is helpful. In older children or adults, the lesions of eczema tend to occur in the folds of the skin in front of the elbows and in the folds of skin behind the knees. Eczema tends to improve in most patients as they get older.

The belief that the cause of eczema seems to be a defect in the production of a particular skin protein (filaggrin) is currently quite popular. All of the other problems that seem to be present in those afflicted include dry skin, hyper-reactivity to wool, itching during sweating, colonization by pathogenic staph bacteria, predisposition to disseminated herpes simplex infections, and a variety of immunologic abnormalities.

There is a debate about which comes first in atopic eczema, the itching or the rash. This is analogous to the chicken and egg controversy. It really does not matter. When the rash is in an acute stage, it is weepy and oozy. Later after the patient has been rubbing and scratching for some weeks, it becomes a plaque of thickened skin. This is called lichenification.

Atopic eczema has a typical distribution on the surface of the skin; this can be quite helpful in making the correct diagnosis. In crawling children in diapers, the rash is frequently seen on the elbows and knees but spares the diaper area. In older children and adults, the rash is often present in the folds of skin opposite to the elbow and kneecap but spares the armpits. Other areas commonly involved include the cheeks, neck, wrists, and ankles.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is one of a number of eczematous eruptions that need to be distinguished. This is important because treatment depends on the correct diagnosis. We’ll take a look at the listed types on the following slides.

Atopic eczema is an inherited skin condition more common in individuals with a personal or family history of eczema, inhalant allergies like asthma or hay fever. Patients develop weeping, oozing, itchy lesions in a characteristic distribution. The severity depends to a great extent on the amount of moisture in the skin.

Atopic eczema is less common in very humid environments and is harder to control in arid areas in the wintertime. It often begins in infancy and improves in most people as they reach adulthood.

Contact dermatitis is a dermatitis that occurs in response to exposure to an irritant or allergenic substance. Irritants cause skin damage by producing direct toxic damage to the skin cells. Contact allergens are not necessarily irritating or toxic but are recognized by the immune system. Once the immune response is stimulated, a dermatitis occurs at the site of exposure.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent dermatitis, and it is probably the most common of all rashes in adults. The rash characteristically appears on the scalp, forehead, brows, ears, the folds that extend from the nose to the lips (nasolabial folds), middle of the chest, and middle of the back. It occurs in infants as cradle cap. Its course is distinguished by periods of improvement followed by flares.

With nummular eczema, round plaques of eczematous skin often appear on the lower legs. It often is seen in the elderly and seems to be associated with dry skin.

Lichen simplex chronicus is a localized, thickened area of skin caused by itching and rubbing. Although there is usually some inciting cause, the origin of the problem is entirely obscured by the eruption. Any of the eczematous eruptions can evolve into lichen simplex chronicus if rubbed long enough.

Stasis dermatitis usually occurs on the lower legs of patients who have sustained damage to the valves present in the large veins responsible for returning blood to the heart. These valves, along with muscular contractions of the leg muscles, help propel venous blood from the periphery to the lungs and heart. Damage to these valves causes a long column of blood to produce enough hydrostatic pressure on the wall of the vein so small leaks occur. The lower legs swell and brownish blood pigment is deposited in the skin from degradation of hemoglobin. A dermatitis often occurs, and skin ulcers are common.

Dyshidrotic eczema (pompholyx) is a common but poorly understood condition in which very itchy small blisters occur on the lateral surface of the fingers, toes, hands, and feet. Many patients note exacerbations during periods of high stress (for example, finals week).

In order to make an accurate diagnosis of eczema, it is important for your physician to take a complete history and examine all of the areas of skin that are affected. Occasionally, certain laboratory tests can be helpful in distinguishing various types of eczema. A pathologist may need to examine skin scrapings and even a small piece of biopsied skin.

Once the diagnosis of atopic eczema is established, there are certain well-established approaches to treating this condition. One of the most important is to keep the skin well moisturized. There are many inexpensive approaches to maintaining the moisture content of the skin. Once the skin is wet, a thin layer of a cream or ointment is applied to prevent the moisture from evaporating. Judicious use of such substances (emollients) can be very effective in limiting flares of atopic eczema.

Corticosteroid creams are very effective at controlling the inflammatory component of atopic eczema. The thickened, itchy, weepy lesions respond well to the applications of such creams. In addition, oral antihistamines are effective in suppressing the itching sensation as well as acting as a sleep aid during flares.

Newer drugs have become available for the treatment of atopic eczema; they claim to be devoid of the side effects of topical steroids. These newer medications inhibit the immune response by inhibiting calcineurin, an enzyme necessary for a normal inflammatory response. Though they are quite effective, they are also quite expensive and seem to lack potency when compared to the strongest topical steroids. Ultraviolet light exposure can effectively control eczema in certain patients because of its effect on inflammatory cells in the skin.

Applying a good moisturizer to damp skin is the most effective method for limiting flares of atopic eczema. Try the measures listed on this and the following slide to control and help prevent outbreaks of eczema.

Since the condition is inherited, it would be very difficult to prevent its development entirely. Living in a warm, humid environment seems to limit flares of atopic dermatitis. Sleeping with a humidifier in the bedroom can be of some help. In some patients, adding chlorine bleach to bathwater can be quite helpful (1/2 cup of bleach to a bathtub of warm water). It is important to rinse off before applying an emollient.



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California Eugenics Laws: Professor Says State Should …

Posted: December 19, 2016 at 6:04 pm

University of Michigan professor Alex Stern has completed a database of thousands recommended for sterilization when California had eugenics laws on the book and she says those alive should be compensated. Michigan Photography hide caption

There’s a grim chapter in American history that involves forced sterilization. And for much of this past century, California had one of the most active sterilization programs in the country.

A state law from 1909 authorized the surgery for people judged to have “mental disease, which may have been inherited.” That law remained on the books until 1979.

University of Michigan professor Alexandra Minna Stern has been working to identify people who were forcibly sterilized under California’s program. NPR’s Ailsa Chang spoke with Stern, who said this idea of eugenics was intended to “eradicate certain genes from the population.”

The professor describes the program as a historic injustice and called for the state of California to compensate surviving victims of sterilization of relatives of those who are now deceased.

The interview highlights contain some extra content that did not air in the broadcast version.

A 1935 recommendation to sterilize a 23-year-old male patient at Pacific Colony, based a supposed IQ of 75. His foster mother refused the sterilization. The outcome of this case is unknown, but in some instances medical superintendents disregarded such appeals. California Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects Protocol ID 13-08-1310 and the University of Michigan Biomedical IRB HUM00084931 hide caption

A 1935 recommendation to sterilize a 23-year-old male patient at Pacific Colony, based a supposed IQ of 75. His foster mother refused the sterilization. The outcome of this case is unknown, but in some instances medical superintendents disregarded such appeals.

On how she found the names of all the victims

The names are located in 19 microfilm reels that I happened upon while doing research in Sacramento about seven years ago.

On what made her look at the microfilms

I’ve written a book on the history of eugenics in California. But at that point, I still knew very little about the sterilizations themselves; who was sterilized, where did all of the sterilizations take place, how is the policy enacted?

So I did a bit of sleuthing and went to the actual departments themselves the department of mental health in this case, in Sacramento and was fortunate that someone there directed me to some file cabinets that contained microfilm reels with materials that had been microfilmed over the course of the ’60s and ’70s.

And lo and behold, there they were! I was able to begin using them as historical documents and that’s how the project started.

On whether she found any patterns among the 20,000 names she discovered

Our team (and I should say this is the effort of a research team that includes epidemiologists, historians, digital humanists), we have a found a variety of patterns and we keep discovering more.

For example, we have determined that patients with Spanish surnames were much more likely to be sterilized than other patients, demonstrating that there was a racial bias in the sterilization program. We were also able to show the kinds of diagnoses that were given to patients, how that affected times of sterilization. We’re able to look at age of sterilization and also patterns related to gender.

So there’s a whole range of patterns that will help us to understand this pattern of history in California and also how it relates to national dynamics more broadly.

On what Stern and her team found with regard to age and gender patterns

Well, we found that people were sterilized at very young ages, that really often the focus was on minors, people as young as 7. The average age of sterilization was the low 20s, so many of these people were 15, 16, 17 and 18. We also found that, as I mentioned before, that the Spanish surname individuals were more likely to be sterilized at younger ages, indicating that there was interest on behalf of the state at targeting them at lower reproductive ages. In terms of gender, that pattern that I just mentioned, pertains to women as well.

One of the interesting things that we discovered is that initially, more men were sterilized. It started off as sterilization in general and across the country and in California, focused more on men in the teens and 20s and into the 30s. But by the 1930s, that pattern started to change. So by the ’40s and ’50s, more women were being sterilized.

On what kinds of “mental diseases” were focused on

It’s very important to take that terminology with many historic grains of salt. If we go back in time and look at what the terms meant, it often meant people who were not conforming to societal norms, people who were poor, people who lacked education, perhaps didn’t speak sufficient English to make it through school, and so on.

But what it meant for those who were enacting the law were people who were determined to have poor IQs, people with certain psychiatric disorders. But generally, often the way it was used was much more as a catch-all category so people who just didn’t fit, kind of like the misfits of society, so to speak. That’s the way they looked at them.

Looking back on it, I would say that those who were institutionalized because many more people where institutionalized than actually sterilized was because maybe they had a psychiatric condition and they were sent to an institution as was the policy at the time in the mid-20th century. …

But for the most part, this program of eugenics … the idea of sterilization was to eradicate certain genes from the population.

On whether anyone among those who were sterilized are still alive

I haven’t found anyone who’s still alive. I have been contacted by relatives … people who contacted me whose aunts or uncles were sterilized at some of these institutions. In the recent paper that my team published, we determined through statistical analysis that it is likely that slightly over 800 people, about 500 women and 300 men, are alive today.

Those numbers don’t map on to exact people, they don’t correspond to a precise person. But what we’ve done, we’ve generated the most reliable estimates, and based on that estimate and also looking at the timing, we estimate that the majority of these people were sterilized between 1945 and 1949 and their average age is about 88, so fairly old.

So what we could do is we could go and look at the records. And that’s where I’d like to work with the state of California, because we’ve essentially created a eugenics registry. We can look at the records and identify likely individuals and then reach out and contact them.

I, however, would like to mention that two states that have enacted policies for monetary reparations for sterilization victims North Carolina and Virginia the states have to lead in kind of creating a committee and a registry. And because it was the state seeking to provide some type of redress and acknowledge this history, the state was able to actively set up a program and seek out and try to identify individuals. So they would come to the state and they would confirm through documentation that they had been sterilized and then receive recognition and monetary compensation.

On if there are indications that California is interested in compensating victims of sterilization

There’s indication that the state is interested in this history and is aware of possibility of sterilization abuse. Just three years ago, news broke that about 150 women in two California women’s prisons had been sterilized without proper consent and proper procedure. That resulted in a state audit in the interest of the state legislators and eventually, a law that was unanimously passed, banning sterilizations except under extreme medical circumstances in California state prisons. So this issue is on the radar screen.

It’s easy to forget about these patients who were in these remote institutions in the 1940s and ’50s in California. However, I think it behooves the state to not forget this history, and all of us to not forget this history. So hopefully, having this fairly solid number that we’ve generated of an estimate of likely living survivors could help facilitate that process. …

It would also be a good idea to think about other forms of recognition of this historical injustice. For example, putting up a historical plaque in Sacramento somewhere to recognize those who were sterilized, or at one of the institutions such as the Sonoma State Home or the Patton State Home, making sure this history is included in K-12 curriculum.

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Private Islands – Official Site

Posted: December 12, 2016 at 8:10 pm

Episode 1

Did you know that there are 12 thousand private islands in the world? On this episode of Private Islands we’re showing you how to find your own secluded paradise.

Escape from the pressures of everyday life with Private Islands. On this episode were showing you how your front yard can be miles of palm trees and glittering coastline.

Join us as we explore the most magical and luxurious private resort island in the world. Owned by famed illusionist David Copperfield, Musha Cay provides a memorable one-of-a-kind experience like nowhere else on earth.

We’re traveling 1,000 miles away from anywhere in search of the perfect private island. Forget about the jet lag because when you land in paradise, your dream becomes reality. It’s first-class service on the private island of Desroches.

The Bahamas has grown into private island real estates most in-demand market. Escape to the most exotic and remote islands a multi-millionaire buyer, celebrity, or luxury-seeking tourist can find on this episode of Private Islands!

There’s nothing like it in the Caribbean, or even in the world! The result of seven years of construction, Emerald Cay in Turks and Caicos combines pristine natural beauty with state-of-the-art luxury to provide the ultimate private island paradise.

Come see how the affluent are rediscovering themselves in the private island of Turks and Caicos. Immerse yourself in sunshine, sea and surf, just 500 miles off the coast of Florida. Life’s short, but your quality time doesn’t have to be!

Join host Christina Cindrich as she takes you on a magical journey through the private island of French Polynesia. Discover heaven on earth in your own utopian paradise full of beauty, adventure and above all, sheer escapism.

Tales of pirates, betrayal and hidden treasure all share a part of this island’s past. There are some places on earth that simply must be experienced to fully understand and Peter Island in the British Virgin Islands is one of those places.

Roatan is one of the best kept secrets of the Caribbean. We take viewers on an underwater adventure and show the most luxurious private islands Honduras has to offer.

From Miami to colorful Key West, the Florida Keys have become one of the America’s favorite tropical escapes. Join host Christina Cindrich as she takes you to some of the most secluded private islands for an experience that cannot be beat.

Join host Christina Cindrich in a country that combines both adventure and luxury into one complete island experience. With one foot planted in the mysterious jungles and the other dipped in the Caribbean Sea, Belize will awaken all of your senses.

Located off the coast of “The Spice Isle” Granada in the Caribbean is one of the most luxurious private islands you’ll ever see. Calivigny Island is truly the ultimate escape for the affluent traveler in search of their own slice of paradise.

Youll live as few have lived before in a place where the finest luxuries co-exist in absolute harmony with nature. This is Little Bokeelia Island, a private island paradise that could be yours!

Join host Christina Cindrich as she takes you to one of the worlds most exotic destinations, Fiji! Noted for its magical landscape, stunning beaches, and friendly people, these islands are a spectacular taste of heaven right here on Earth.

Join host Christina Cindrich in the postcard perfect island nation of Fiji. With its white sandy beaches, fascinating culture and magical underwater world, this is an unforgettable Private Island experience that youll never want to be rescued from!

Join host Christina Cindrich on a 300-acre private island paradise off the coast of Antigua. With its gorgeous villas and multi-million dollar estates, Jumby Bay’s beauty will cast an unforgettable spell of serene enchantment.

Join host Christina Cindrich for an unforgettable experience on two Four Seasons luxury island resorts in the Maldives. Your postcard perfect paradise will come to life right before your eyes in a destination that will surely take your breath away.

Experience the romance of the South Pacific, the laid-back beauty of the Caribbean, the adventure of Central America and the exotic splendor of Asia. Host Christina Cindrich takes you to her top 10 most incredible private islands in the world.

Perhaps nowhere else in Thailand can you enjoy the combination of sun, beach and nightlife quite like in Phuket. Thailand’s largest and most popular island seduces its visitors with a vibrant mix of nighttime entertainment and beach culture.

Isla Simca is a jungle hideaway where natural beauty, art, adventure and architecture fuse into a one-of-a-kind retreat. Join host Christina Cindrich on this Panamanian island that until now has been hidden away from the world’s prying eyes!

The Grenadines, an island chain deep in the Caribbean. The name alone elicit visions of exotic and peaceful scenery. St. Vincent being the largest, but away from the hustle and traffic, become mesmerized by the beauty of these castaway islands.

The name Laucala is whispered in all the best circles partly because only the best know how to pronounce it. Owned by the co-founder of Red Bull, this Fijian paradise is one of the worlds top island resorts and once there its easy to see why.

Conjuring up postcard-perfect images of South Pacific indulgence and breathtaking scenery, Bora Bora is a haven of exclusive luxury in French Polynesia. Join host Christina Cindrich in this exclusive Private Islands episode you wont want to miss!

Join host Christina Cindrich in a destination known as the real Africa. With its private river islands and abundance of wildlife, Zambia gives an authentic feeling of a wilderness that is wild, beautiful, and slightly unpredictable.

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Infographics – futurism.com

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:19 pm

Elon Musk has a new project in the offingand, no, it doesn’t involve Mars. This one is more prosaic, not to say more immediately realizable: it’s nothing less than to create a fully self-contained “energy ecosystem.” It’ll mean each man’s home is not just his castle, but is also his self-sufficient, sustainable power-generation plant.

In October of this year, the White House released a report titled “Preparing For the Future of Artificial Intelligence.” It’s a significant acknowledgement, from the highest organs of government, that AI is now a major part of our current and future lives. In this infographic, we’ve summarized the White House report’s key findings.

Computers that connect to the human brain could bring an end to Alzheimer’s. They could allow us to possess superhuman levels of memory and intelligence. They could change everythingand Bryan Johnson’s Kernel is making it happen.

They represent some of the most technologically sophisticated machines ever devised by humankind: reusable space planes. The U.S. Space Shuttle is undoubtedly the most famous example of this type of vehicle, but what else has been done in this direction? Here’s a look at space planes past and future.

As our technology has evolved, so has the way we interact with itand nothing exemplifies this more than the dream of a seamless brain-computer interface (BCI). Forget clunky keyboards and touchscreens: BCI is all about directly uniting humanity with the tools it creates. Here’s a look at the history and methods of BCI technology.

Machines are now able to learn and evolve without human intervention. So, how does it work exactly? And what does it mean for the future of humanity? Here’s a quick lesson on the basics of machine learning.

Thanks to New Horizons, we’ve completed the preliminary reconnaissance of the Solar System. Now it’s time to send man across our cosmic neighborhood. Here’s what that mission might look like in a few decades.

Vehicle autonomy is the wave of the futurenot just for cars anymore, we’re seeing automated technology in trains, buses, ships and even planes. The major transport, logistics and shipping companies are scrambling to develop operator-less technology just to stay relevant. Here’s a look at what else is going driverless.

Humans dreams bigand, better yet, we make those dreams a reality. It’s enabled us to tame nature, build new nations, defeat disease, defy gravity and even reach the Moon. And we’re not done yetnot by a long shot. From the quantum internet to terraforming Mars, here are some of mankind’s most ambitious future moonshots.

Visionary, polymath, scientist, artist, engineerLeonardo da Vinci was the quintessential “Renaissance Man.” Whether it was flying machines, diving suits, automatons or advanced weaponry, da Vinci envisioned the future and set about designing it. Here’s a look at Leonardo da Vinci’s most futuristic contraptions.

There’s a new aerospace technology on the horizonusing plasma, the superheated “fourth state of matter,” to enhance the aerodynamic performance of aircraft. Here, we break down the mechanics and the uses of this exciting new technology that has the aeronautics and aerospace industries all abuzz.

On September 27, Elon Musk unveiled his most ambitious project yetcalled the Interplanetary Transport System (ITS), it’s nothing less than his long-awaited plan for, not only putting humans on Mars, but colonizing the Red Planet as well. In this handy infographic, we’ve distilled the ITS architecture into seven easy steps.

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Social Darwinism: The Theory of Evolution Applied to Human …

Posted: November 8, 2016 at 3:43 pm

Social Darwinism was the application of Charles Darwin`s scientific theories of evolution and natural selection to contemporary social development. In nature, only the fittest survivedso too in the marketplace. This form of justification was enthusiastically adopted by many American businessmen as scientific proof of their superiority.

Leading proponents of Social Darwinism included the following:

Spencer was widely popular among American capitalist leaders, but held a much smaller following in his homeland.

In 1907, Sumner published his most influential book, Folkways, in which he argued that customs and mores were the most powerful influences on human behavior, even when irrational. He concluded that all forms of social reform were futile and misguided.

Sumner`s views contrasted sharply with those of the advocates of the Social Gospel.

– – – Books You May Like Include: —-

Social Darwinism in American Thought by Richard Hofstadter. Social Darwinism in American Thought portrays the overall influence of Darwin on American social theory and the notable battle waged among thinkers ov…

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Colonization of Titan – Wikipedia

Posted: October 25, 2016 at 7:34 am

Saturns largest moon Titan is one of several candidates for possible future colonization of the outer Solar System.

According to Cassini data from 2008, Titan has hundreds of times more liquid hydrocarbons than all the known oil and natural gas reserves on Earth. These hydrocarbons rain from the sky and collect in vast deposits that form lakes and dunes.[1] “Titan is just covered in carbon-bearing materialit’s a giant factory of organic chemicals”, said Ralph Lorenz, who leads the study of Titan based on radar data from Cassini. “This vast carbon inventory is an important window into the geology and climate history of Titan.” Several hundred lakes and seas have been observed, with several dozen estimated to contain more hydrocarbon liquid than Earth’s oil and gas reserves. The dark dunes that run along the equator contain a volume of organics several hundred times larger than Earth’s coal reserves.[2]

Radar images obtained on July 21, 2006 appear to show lakes of liquid hydrocarbon (such as methane and ethane) in Titan’s northern latitudes. This is the first discovery of currently existing lakes beyond Earth.[3] The lakes range in size from about a kilometer in width to one hundred kilometers across.

On March 13, 2007, Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that it found strong evidence of seas of methane and ethane in the northern hemisphere. At least one of these is larger than any of the Great Lakes in North America.[4]

The American aerospace engineer and author Robert Zubrin identified Saturn as the most important and valuable of the four gas giants in the Solar System, because of its relative proximity, low radiation, and excellent system of moons. He also named Titan as the most important moon on which to establish a base to develop the resources of the Saturn system.[5]

Dr. Robert Zubrin has pointed out that Titan possesses an abundance of all the elements necessary to support life, saying “In certain ways, Titan is the most hospitable extraterrestrial world within our solar system for human colonization.” [6] The atmosphere contains plentiful nitrogen and methane, and strong evidence indicates that liquid methane exists on the surface. Evidence also indicates the presence of liquid water and ammonia under the surface, which are delivered to the surface by volcanic activity. Water can easily be used to generate breathable oxygen and nitrogen is ideal to add buffer gas partial pressure to breathable air (it forms about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere).[7] Nitrogen, methane and ammonia can all be used to produce fertilizer for growing food.

Titan has a surface gravity of 0.138 g, slightly less than that of the Moon. Managing long-term effects of low gravity on human health would therefore be a significant issue for long-term occupation of Titan, more so than on Mars. These effects are still an active field of study. They can include symptoms such as loss of bone density, loss of muscle density, and a weakened immune system. Astronauts in Earth orbit have remained in microgravity for up to a year or more at a time. Effective countermeasures for the negative effects of low gravity are well-established, particularly an aggressive regime of daily physical exercise or weighted clothing. The variation in the negative effects of low gravity as a function of different levels of low gravity are not known, since all research in this area is restricted to humans in zero gravity. The same goes for the potential effects of low gravity on fetal and pediatric development. It has been hypothesized that children born and raised in low gravity such as on Titan would not be well adapted for life under the higher gravity of Earth.[8]

The atmospheric pressure on Titan’s surface is about one and a half times the pressure of Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, making Titan the only celestial body in the Solar System besides Earth with a surface atmospheric pressure tolerable to humans. To put it into perspective, 1.5 atmospheres is approximately equivalent to the pressure experienced by a scuba diver on Earth at a water depth of only five meters, whereas the typical maximum recommended depth for recreational scuba divers is forty meters (equivalent to about five atmospheres of pressure). Matching the pressure of a habitat on Titan’s surface to the ambient pressure would greatly reduce certain engineering difficulties. Titan’s atmosphere is not toxic to humans, however the methane and hydrogen components are flammable in an oxygen atmosphere and would therefore need to be filtered out of buffer gas made from its atmosphere.

On the other hand, the temperature on Titan is about 94 K (179C, or 290.2F), so insulation and heat generation and management would be significant concerns. However, because of the colder temperature the density of the air is closer to 4.5 times that of Earth sea level. At this density, temperature shifts over time and between one locale and another would be far smaller than comparable types of temperature changes present on Earth. The corresponding narrow range of temperature variation reduces the difficulties in structural engineering.

Relative thickness of the atmosphere combined with extreme cold makes additional troubles for human habitation. Unlike in a vacuum, the high atmospheric density makes thermoinsulation a significant engineering problem.

The engineering considerations for a spacesuit suitable for extravehicular activity on Titan’s surface are radically different compared to a spacesuit designed for use in a vacuum. On the one hand, such a spacesuit would not need to be pressurized, but it would need to protect the wearer from the extreme cold, in addition to providing a breathable atmosphere. Compared to a vacuum, heat would rapidly dissipate in Titan’s thick atmosphere. The degree of difficulty associated with working in such a spacesuit constructed with current technology would probably be at least equivalent to the difficulty associated with using a pressurized spacesuit in a vacuum.

The very high ratio of atmospheric density to surface gravity also greatly reduces the wingspan needed for an aircraft to maintain lift, so much so that a human would be able to strap on wings and easily fly through Titan’s atmosphere while wearing a spacesuit that could be manufactured with current technology.[6] Another theoretically possible means to become airborne on Titan would be to use a hot air balloon-like vehicle filled with an Earth-like atmosphere at Earth-like temperatures (because oxygen is only slightly denser than nitrogen, the atmosphere in a habitat on Titan would be about one third as dense as the surrounding atmosphere), although such a vehicle would need a skin able to keep the extreme cold out in spite of the light weight required. Due to Titan’s extremely low temperatures, heating of any flight-bound vehicle becomes a key obstacle.[9]

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Dermatitis – Wikipedia

Posted: October 20, 2016 at 11:31 pm

Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.[1] These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.[1] In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long term cases the skin may become thickened.[1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.[1][2]

Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.[1][2] The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear.[2] Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person’s history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis; however, can occur following brief exposures to specific substances to which a person is sensitive.[1]

Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams.[3] The steroid creams should generally be of mid to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur.[4]Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection.[2] Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.[5][6]Antihistamines may be used to help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.[2]

Dermatitis was estimated to affect 334 million people globally in 2013.[7] Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood.[1][2] In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people.[2] Contact dermatitis is two times more common in females than males.[8] Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time.[9] Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs, however exact rates are unclear.[10]

Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum.[11] Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.

Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands.

Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present. The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp.[12] Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline.

The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to hair loss. In severe cases, pimples may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back.[13] In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash.

Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.[14]

A patch of dermatitis that has been scratched

The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[2]

The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment. It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma.[15] The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during development, and missing out on this exposure increases risk for asthma and allergy.

While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites,[16] with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites,[17] the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.[18]

A number of genes have been associated with eczema, one of which is filaggrin.[3] Genome-wide studies found three new genetic variants associated with eczema: OVOL1, ACTL9 and IL4-KIF3A.[19]

Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the two conditions.[20][21]

Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination.[3] However, in uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful.[22] Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.[23]

Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.[24][25]

The term “eczema” refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard and unsystematic, with many synonyms being used to describe the same condition.

A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g. hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid), or by possible cause (varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type of eczema (atopic dermatitis) .

The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas.[26] Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal.

There are several different types of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema.[2] Many use the term dermatitis and eczema synonymously.[1]

Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis.[27][28][29] Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema.[3] In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one.[30]

There is no good evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk.[32] There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.[33]

People with eczema should not get the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.[34]

There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching. Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it.

Bathing once or more a day is recommended.[3] It is a misconception that bathing dries the skin in people with eczema.[35]Soaps should be avoided as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead to excessive dryness.[36] It is not clear whether dust mite reduction helps with eczema.

There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema.[37][38] There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets.[37] Benefits have not been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed.[37][38] Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.[37]

People can also wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.[39]

Moisturizing agents (also known as emollients) are recommended at least once or twice a day.[3] Oilier formulations appear to be better and water-based formulations are not recommended.[3] It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others.[40] Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used.[3]Occlusive dressings at night may be useful.[3]

There is little evidence for antihistamine and they are thus not generally recommended.[3] Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be tried in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema.[3]

If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur.[3]Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases.[41] Once daily use is generally enough.[3] For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g. hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g. clobetasol propionate) may be used. In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects.

Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia.[3] Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution.[3] They are, however, generally well tolerated.[42]Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.[43]

Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use.[44] Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids.[45] Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely.[3] Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than picrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids.[32]

The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued a health advisory a possible risk of lymph node or skin cancer from these products,[46] however subsequent research has not supported these concerns.[45] A major debate, in the UK, has been about the cost of these medications and, given only finite NHS resources, when they are most appropriate to use.[47]

When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.

Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good.[48] A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB;[49] in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer.[50]

There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema.[51] It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm.[52] Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema.[53] Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective.[54] Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset.[54]Probiotics do not appear to be effective.[55] There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.[53]

Other remedies lacking evidence to support them include chiropractic spinal manipulation and acupuncture.[56] There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments.[57][needs update] While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.[58]

Most cases are well managed with topical treatments and ultraviolet light.[3] About 2% of cases however are not.[3] In more than 60% the condition goes away by adolescence.[3]

Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population).[59] Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 1549 years.[60] In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.[3]

Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000.[61] In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.[3][62]

Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%.[63]

from Ancient Greek kzema,[64] from – ekz-ein, from ek “out” + – z-ein “to boil”

The term “atopic dermatitis” was coined in 1933 by Wise and Sulzberger.[65]Sulfur as a topical treatment for eczema was fashionable in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.[51]

The word dermatitis is from the Greek derma “skin” and – -itis “inflammation” and eczema is from Greek: ekzema “eruption”.[66]

The terms “hypoallergenic” and “doctor tested” are not regulated,[67] and no research has been done showing that products labeled “hypoallergenic” are in fact less problematic than any others.

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Eczema – National Library of Medicine – PubMed Health

Posted: September 11, 2016 at 5:19 pm

Evidence reviews Effects of antihistamines on eczema

Eczema is a common chronic disease. Itch is the most important symptom, and eczema is often accompanied by dry skin. Skin lesions include rash, redness, swelling of the skin, crusts, oozing, and sometimes also bleeding as a consequence of persistent scratching. Although the disease can resolve during childhood, it might also recur in or persist into adult life. The cause of eczema is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Moisturisers, topical corticosteroids, and topical immunomodulators are the mainstay during treatment of eczema, while more severe cases might need UV light therapy or systemic immunosuppressants. Itch is very difficult to treat and leads to scratching, which leads to more inflammation of the skin, and often people with eczema end up in a vicious circle of itching and scratching. The role of histamine in itching associated with eczema is not fully elucidated, but oral H1 antihistamines have been used for many years in the treatment of eczema. These might have been used largely for their sedative action, with highly sedative antihistamines, e.g. chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine. However, oral H1 antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, but their efficacy in alleviating itch and eczema remains unclear. This systematic review sought evidence for the effects and safety of the use of oral antihistamines for eczema, to guide their use in clinical practice.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis or childhood eczema) is a big problem worldwide. The skin of people with atopic eczema often contains high numbers of a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

This review of clinical trials aimed to find out whether topical pimecrolimus is better than topical corticosteroids or tacrolimus for treating eczema in infants, children and adults by assessing the improvement of eczema and adverse events associated with treatments.

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Eczema is a common chronic disease. Itch is the most important symptom, and eczema is often accompanied by dry skin. Skin lesions include rash, redness, swelling of the skin, crusts, oozing, and sometimes also bleeding as a consequence of persistent scratching. Although the disease can resolve during childhood, it might also recur in or persist into adult life. The cause of eczema is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Moisturisers, topical corticosteroids, and topical immunomodulators are the mainstay during treatment of eczema, while more severe cases might need UV light therapy or systemic immunosuppressants. Itch is very difficult to treat and leads to scratching, which leads to more inflammation of the skin, and often people with eczema end up in a vicious circle of itching and scratching. The role of histamine in itching associated with eczema is not fully elucidated, but oral H1 antihistamines have been used for many years in the treatment of eczema. These might have been used largely for their sedative action, with highly sedative antihistamines, e.g. chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine. However, oral H1 antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, but their efficacy in alleviating itch and eczema remains unclear. This systematic review sought evidence for the effects and safety of the use of oral antihistamines for eczema, to guide their use in clinical practice.

Probiotic supplements for pregnant women and babies can prevent the development of eczema in some children. Probiotics have been better researched than prebiotics.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis or childhood eczema) is a big problem worldwide. The skin of people with atopic eczema often contains high numbers of a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

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About Eczema – What is Eczema?

Posted: at 5:19 pm

Eczema refers to a chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by dry skin, with patches that are red and intensely itchy. These patches of eczema may ooze, become scaly, crusted, or hardened. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, and the condition can negatively impact quality of life. Eczema can occur anywhere on the skin and is commonly found on the flexors (bends of the arms, backs of the knees).

There are many types of eczema, with the most common one being atopic dermatitis. Atopy refers to a hereditary tendency toward eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). People with eczema may suffer with one of the other atopic diseases.

The exact cause of eczema is unknown, however, there are genetic, immunological and environmental factors that play a role. Eczema can come and go, and can migrate around the body; just as one patch clears up, another may develop. This is the chronic nature of the disease. When the skin cycles back to inflammation, the patient is experiencing a flare-up.

Atopic eczema is the most common form of eczema and is closely linked with asthma and hayfever. It can affect both children and adults, usually running in families. One of the most common symptoms of atopic eczema is itching (pruritus), which can be almost unbearable. Other symptoms include dryness of the skin, redness and inflammation. Constant scratching can also cause the skin to split, leaving it prone to infection. In infected eczema the skin may crack and weep and develop pustules. Treatments include emollients to maintain skin hydration and steroids to reduce inflammation.

ACD develops when the bodys immune system reacts against a substance after contact with the skin. The allergic reaction often develops over a period of time through repeated contact with the substance. For example, an allergic reaction may occur to nickel, which is often found in earrings, snaps on baby’s undershirts, belt buckles and jean buttons. Reactions can also occur after contact with other substances such as perfumes and rubber. In order to prevent repeated reactions it is best to prevent contact with anything that you know causes a rash.

This is a type of eczema caused by frequent contact with everyday substances, such as detergents and chemicals, which are irritating to the skin. It most commonly occurs on the hands of adults and can be prevented by avoiding the irritants and keeping the skin moisturized. It commonly occurs in patients who have atopic dermititis.

A condition that affects babies under one year old, the exact cause of which is unknown. Also referred to as cradle cap, it usually starts on the scalp or the nappy area and quickly spreads. Although this type of eczema looks unpleasant, it is not sore or itchy and does not cause the baby to feel uncomfortable or unwell. Normally this type of eczema will clear in just a few months, though the use of moisturising creams and bath oils can help to speed this along.

Characteristically affects adults between the ages of 20 and 40. It is usually seen on the scalp as mild dandruff, but can spread to the face, ears and chest. The skin becomes red, inflamed and starts to flake. The condition is believed to be caused by a yeast growth. If the condition becomes infected, treatment with an anti-fungal cream may be necessary.

Varicose eczema affects the lower legs of those in their middle to late years, being caused by poor circulation. Commonly the skin around the ankles is affected, becoming speckled, itchy and inflamed. Treatment is with emollients and steroid creams. If left untreated, the skin can break down, resulting in an ulcer.

Is usually found in adults and appears suddenly as a few coin shaped areas of red skin, normally on the trunk or lower legs. They become itchy and can weep fluid. Usually discoid eczema is treated with emollients (and steroid creams if necessary).

Some complications of eczema include skin infections, eczema herpticum, neurodermatitis, and eye complications.

Scratching that is associated with eczema can break the skin causing open sores which can then become infected. This can cause mild or more serious infections. See a physician if there is swelling, pain, crusting, or oozing of the eczema.

Skin that becomes inflected with the herpes simplex virus (the virus that causes cold sores) is called eczema herpeticum. The symptoms may include painful pus or fluid filled blisters or sores, which may be accompanied by fever, tiredness, and swollen glands. Prompt treatment is very important, as the inflection can spread to the eyes or internal organs, causing serious problems.

Caution should be taken around anyone with a cold sore; kissing and skin-to-skin contact should be avoided. Take extra caution with infants and children, especially those with eczema and/or open areas on their skin. Sometimes, with infants and small children, contact with the herpes simplex virus can be fatal. See a doctor immediately if there are concerns.

Long term itching and scratching of the skin can lead to an increased sensation of itch, which could possibly lead to neurodermatitis (also known as lichen simplex chronicus). These areas of the skin that are frequently scratched become thick and leathery in appearance, and the patches can be red and darker than the rest of the skin. Persistent scratching can lead to permanent changes in skin colour. See a physician if experiencing intense itch and/or there are noticeable changes in the skin.

In rare cases, severe atopic dermatitis can lead to eye complications which could potentially cause permanent eye damage. See a physician if experiencing eye watering, inflammation around the eye, and eye discharge.

Our skin is the barrier to the outside world, is somewhat waterproof, and keeps our internal organs and systems safe from the elements and from bacteria invading our bodies. Atopic dermatitis patients have impaired barrier function. This means that the skin barrier is broken down, loses moisture, and can allow bacteria to grow and enter the body (causing bacterial infections on the skin). The loss of water leaves the skin dry and cracked. The goal of eczema management is to replenish moisture, and create a barrier to protect the skin. This is why moisturizers can help.

Flare-ups can be prompted by environmental elements or triggers such as certain soaps, clothing fabrics, deodorants, carpet fibres, dust, and others. Sometimes a flare-up will occur, however, with no discernible trigger. Overheating, excessive sweating, low humidity, certain foods and stress can also contribute to flare-ups. When the skin becomes irritated by any one of these irritants, it itches, causing the sufferer to scratch the affected area. Scratching makes the condition worse and the skin becomes inflamed and reddened, aggravating the itch. This is called the itch-scratch cycle and can become severe and cause pain.

Look around you and write down all of the possible things in your surroundings that could be contributing to your flare-ups. For example, do you experience a flare-up or worsening of your eczema when you wear a certain sweater? Is your eczema worse in the winter? Do you itch on the days when you clean your house? Does perfume irritate your skin? Use this trigger chart to help to identify your triggers.

Controlling factors in your environment can help minimize flare-ups from occurring. By minimizing or eliminating your triggers, you can help to reduce the number of flare-ups experienced. One of the frustrating parts of eczema is that flare-ups can still occur even when you are diligently avoiding triggers and taking care of your skin. Keeping your skin moist is your first line of defence against eczema.

Certain foods can trigger a flare-up, just like other environmental triggers. This can occur by eating the trigger food, or by skin contact with the food during preparation or during eating (on the hands and around the mouth). It is important to note that food allergies do not cause eczema, however foods can trigger a flare-up. It is not recommended to withhold foods, or entire food groups, for long periods of time without consulting your doctor or your allergist to confirm that there is in fact an allergy to that food. Allergy skin testing can help to provide clues about environmental and food allergies, however patients with atopic dermatitis have high false positive rates, as the simple act of scratching the skin during testing can cause inflammation which may then be misinterpreted as an allergic reaction. Antihistamine use can also impact the accuracy of allergy testing. Speak with your allergist about your eczema, and your medical treatments prior to testing.

Atopic eczema is a chronic, recurring condition with “flares” (active or new patches of eczema which look red, scaly, and/or bumpy) and remissions (when eczema is not as active). Some people always seem to have some active areas. There are no definite cures for eczema although patients can achieve excellent control and live quite comfortably. Most children will grow out of their eczema, and flares will gradually reduce over time. We recommend following our Triangle of Control (LINK) and Regimen (LINK) to ease your eczema symptoms and prevent future flares. This is the first line of defence!

When one member of the family suffers with eczema, the whole family suffers. Rigorous bathing and moisturizing regimens, constant monitoring of the condition, lifestyle changes in an effort to avoid triggers, and sleepless nights can greatly impact the quality of life for all members of the family.

Talking with others who understand what you are going through is very important. Eczema is a spectrum disease, meaning that there are very mild conditions which are not bothersome to the patient, and then there are moderate and severe conditions that have significant physical and psychological impacts. Often the impact of eczema is minimized.

Eczema has a significant psychological impact on sufferers and their families.

Eczema impacts quality of life for the sufferer and their whole family. Social interactions, relationships, work, family, comfort, and self-image can all be negatively affected when eczema is not well controlled.

About Eczema – What is Eczema?

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Best On Bahamas | Great Things To Do In The Bahamas

Posted: September 3, 2016 at 11:43 pm

Welcome to Best On Bahamas, the premiere destination for things to do in the Bahamas. We only offer top quality tours, activities and shore excursions. We offer things to do in Nassau Bahamas and Freeport Bahamas. The Bahamas offers pristine beaches and dazzling coral reefs all surrounded by the beautiful turquoise waters and unique marine life. Whether it’s your first time visiting The Bahamas or you are returning for more, we want to be your Insider to the wonderful activities these islands have to offer. Let Best On Bahamas and our staff be your guide to the perfect Bahamas Vacation, helping you with everything from the best time to go, cruise excursions and information, hotels, and other insider tips on things to do in the Bahamas.

There are more than enough fun things to do to keep you and your family occupied on your Bahamas vacation. We recommend starting off your island vacation with the Biking, Shopping, and Beach Tour to familiarize yourself with the islands, meet and greet with the locals live. Get some souvenir shopping done and get your exercise for the day in as you bike behind your guide to the beach.

For the adults that want to get away from it all for some fun and dancing should take a look at the Bonfire on the Beach. Guests get to watch the sunset and spend the twilight hours next to the bonfire on the beach while sipping on drinks, and eating Bahamian cuisine, then dance the night away with new friends. If you are a person who would rather venture into the whimsical, and untouched forest of the Bahamas, then your route is going toward the Lucayan National Park and Cave tour. With this, you get the chance to be guided through the caves and the forest that the Lucayans once walked amongst.

There are so many choices when it comes to doing anything aquatic in the Bahamas. One of the most popular activities for visitors of the Bahamas to participate in are snorkeling tours. Of course, there are many to choose from, so we here at Best On Bahamas want to help you save time. One of our most popular things to do is the Bahamas Booze Cruise, which takes its passengers out on a 45-foot catamaran to a deserted island for a beach party, and crystal clear waters for snorkeling. Want to really enjoy your Bahamas vacation the Caribbean way? Jump aboard the Barefoot Sailing All Day Island Cruise, which will take passengers to rarely seen snorkeling spots. Give yourself a real, once-in-a-lifetime chance to encounter one of the most intelligent mammals on Earth, the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin. The Blue Lagoon Dolphin Close Encounter gives patrons the opportunity the get up close and personal with dolphins of the famous Blue Lagoon. Take it a step further and sign up to swim with the dolphins with the Blue Lagoon Swim with the Dolphins program.

Whether your boating trip goals are to fish the deep blue sea for your dinner, sail around the crystal clear waters, or cruise at the fastest speeds you’ve been on a boat across the ocean waves, there is something for everyone’s preference for their vacations.

The historic city of Nassau is the capital city of the Bahamas. It is a wildly popular tourist destination, both as a port of call for cruise ships and for those looking for a relaxing, exciting, and luxurious vacation. The city is filled with activities to enjoy both during the daytime and at night, and is home to some of the finest resorts anywhere. It is a vibrant mix of the Old World and modern times. Once a haven for pirates and vagrants, Nassau now exudes charm beyond compare especially with its various tours and activities.

Freeport is located on Grand Bahama Island, the fourth largest island of the Bahamas that is second in popularity only to Nassau as a tourist destination of the Bahamas. Located approximately 70 miles off the southeastern coast of Florida, Grand Bahama Island is a tropical paradise that only seems out-of-the-way. Because Grand Bahama Island is larger than New Providence Island (the home of Nassau), there are more lengths of secluded white sand beaches to relax and play on. Freeport and all of Grand Bahama Island is a bold island paradise with modern attitude mixed with a little colonial charm, and will provide endless opportunities for adventure and fun, especially with Freeport tours.

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Best On Bahamas | Great Things To Do In The Bahamas

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