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Colonization of Titan – Wikipedia

Posted: October 25, 2016 at 7:34 am

Saturns largest moon Titan is one of several candidates for possible future colonization of the outer Solar System.

According to Cassini data from 2008, Titan has hundreds of times more liquid hydrocarbons than all the known oil and natural gas reserves on Earth. These hydrocarbons rain from the sky and collect in vast deposits that form lakes and dunes.[1] “Titan is just covered in carbon-bearing materialit’s a giant factory of organic chemicals”, said Ralph Lorenz, who leads the study of Titan based on radar data from Cassini. “This vast carbon inventory is an important window into the geology and climate history of Titan.” Several hundred lakes and seas have been observed, with several dozen estimated to contain more hydrocarbon liquid than Earth’s oil and gas reserves. The dark dunes that run along the equator contain a volume of organics several hundred times larger than Earth’s coal reserves.[2]

Radar images obtained on July 21, 2006 appear to show lakes of liquid hydrocarbon (such as methane and ethane) in Titan’s northern latitudes. This is the first discovery of currently existing lakes beyond Earth.[3] The lakes range in size from about a kilometer in width to one hundred kilometers across.

On March 13, 2007, Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that it found strong evidence of seas of methane and ethane in the northern hemisphere. At least one of these is larger than any of the Great Lakes in North America.[4]

The American aerospace engineer and author Robert Zubrin identified Saturn as the most important and valuable of the four gas giants in the Solar System, because of its relative proximity, low radiation, and excellent system of moons. He also named Titan as the most important moon on which to establish a base to develop the resources of the Saturn system.[5]

Dr. Robert Zubrin has pointed out that Titan possesses an abundance of all the elements necessary to support life, saying “In certain ways, Titan is the most hospitable extraterrestrial world within our solar system for human colonization.” [6] The atmosphere contains plentiful nitrogen and methane, and strong evidence indicates that liquid methane exists on the surface. Evidence also indicates the presence of liquid water and ammonia under the surface, which are delivered to the surface by volcanic activity. Water can easily be used to generate breathable oxygen and nitrogen is ideal to add buffer gas partial pressure to breathable air (it forms about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere).[7] Nitrogen, methane and ammonia can all be used to produce fertilizer for growing food.

Titan has a surface gravity of 0.138 g, slightly less than that of the Moon. Managing long-term effects of low gravity on human health would therefore be a significant issue for long-term occupation of Titan, more so than on Mars. These effects are still an active field of study. They can include symptoms such as loss of bone density, loss of muscle density, and a weakened immune system. Astronauts in Earth orbit have remained in microgravity for up to a year or more at a time. Effective countermeasures for the negative effects of low gravity are well-established, particularly an aggressive regime of daily physical exercise or weighted clothing. The variation in the negative effects of low gravity as a function of different levels of low gravity are not known, since all research in this area is restricted to humans in zero gravity. The same goes for the potential effects of low gravity on fetal and pediatric development. It has been hypothesized that children born and raised in low gravity such as on Titan would not be well adapted for life under the higher gravity of Earth.[8]

The atmospheric pressure on Titan’s surface is about one and a half times the pressure of Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, making Titan the only celestial body in the Solar System besides Earth with a surface atmospheric pressure tolerable to humans. To put it into perspective, 1.5 atmospheres is approximately equivalent to the pressure experienced by a scuba diver on Earth at a water depth of only five meters, whereas the typical maximum recommended depth for recreational scuba divers is forty meters (equivalent to about five atmospheres of pressure). Matching the pressure of a habitat on Titan’s surface to the ambient pressure would greatly reduce certain engineering difficulties. Titan’s atmosphere is not toxic to humans, however the methane and hydrogen components are flammable in an oxygen atmosphere and would therefore need to be filtered out of buffer gas made from its atmosphere.

On the other hand, the temperature on Titan is about 94 K (179C, or 290.2F), so insulation and heat generation and management would be significant concerns. However, because of the colder temperature the density of the air is closer to 4.5 times that of Earth sea level. At this density, temperature shifts over time and between one locale and another would be far smaller than comparable types of temperature changes present on Earth. The corresponding narrow range of temperature variation reduces the difficulties in structural engineering.

Relative thickness of the atmosphere combined with extreme cold makes additional troubles for human habitation. Unlike in a vacuum, the high atmospheric density makes thermoinsulation a significant engineering problem.

The engineering considerations for a spacesuit suitable for extravehicular activity on Titan’s surface are radically different compared to a spacesuit designed for use in a vacuum. On the one hand, such a spacesuit would not need to be pressurized, but it would need to protect the wearer from the extreme cold, in addition to providing a breathable atmosphere. Compared to a vacuum, heat would rapidly dissipate in Titan’s thick atmosphere. The degree of difficulty associated with working in such a spacesuit constructed with current technology would probably be at least equivalent to the difficulty associated with using a pressurized spacesuit in a vacuum.

The very high ratio of atmospheric density to surface gravity also greatly reduces the wingspan needed for an aircraft to maintain lift, so much so that a human would be able to strap on wings and easily fly through Titan’s atmosphere while wearing a spacesuit that could be manufactured with current technology.[6] Another theoretically possible means to become airborne on Titan would be to use a hot air balloon-like vehicle filled with an Earth-like atmosphere at Earth-like temperatures (because oxygen is only slightly denser than nitrogen, the atmosphere in a habitat on Titan would be about one third as dense as the surrounding atmosphere), although such a vehicle would need a skin able to keep the extreme cold out in spite of the light weight required. Due to Titan’s extremely low temperatures, heating of any flight-bound vehicle becomes a key obstacle.[9]

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Colonization of Titan – Wikipedia

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Dermatitis – Wikipedia

Posted: October 20, 2016 at 11:31 pm

Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.[1] These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.[1] In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long term cases the skin may become thickened.[1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.[1][2]

Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.[1][2] The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear.[2] Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person’s history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis; however, can occur following brief exposures to specific substances to which a person is sensitive.[1]

Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams.[3] The steroid creams should generally be of mid to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur.[4]Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection.[2] Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.[5][6]Antihistamines may be used to help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.[2]

Dermatitis was estimated to affect 334 million people globally in 2013.[7] Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood.[1][2] In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people.[2] Contact dermatitis is two times more common in females than males.[8] Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time.[9] Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs, however exact rates are unclear.[10]

Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum.[11] Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.

Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands.

Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present. The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp.[12] Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline.

The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to hair loss. In severe cases, pimples may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back.[13] In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash.

Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.[14]

A patch of dermatitis that has been scratched

The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[2]

The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment. It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma.[15] The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during development, and missing out on this exposure increases risk for asthma and allergy.

While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites,[16] with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites,[17] the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.[18]

A number of genes have been associated with eczema, one of which is filaggrin.[3] Genome-wide studies found three new genetic variants associated with eczema: OVOL1, ACTL9 and IL4-KIF3A.[19]

Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the two conditions.[20][21]

Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination.[3] However, in uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful.[22] Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.[23]

Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.[24][25]

The term “eczema” refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard and unsystematic, with many synonyms being used to describe the same condition.

A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g. hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid), or by possible cause (varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type of eczema (atopic dermatitis) .

The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas.[26] Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal.

There are several different types of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema.[2] Many use the term dermatitis and eczema synonymously.[1]

Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis.[27][28][29] Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema.[3] In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one.[30]

There is no good evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk.[32] There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.[33]

People with eczema should not get the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.[34]

There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching. Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it.

Bathing once or more a day is recommended.[3] It is a misconception that bathing dries the skin in people with eczema.[35]Soaps should be avoided as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead to excessive dryness.[36] It is not clear whether dust mite reduction helps with eczema.

There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema.[37][38] There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets.[37] Benefits have not been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed.[37][38] Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.[37]

People can also wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.[39]

Moisturizing agents (also known as emollients) are recommended at least once or twice a day.[3] Oilier formulations appear to be better and water-based formulations are not recommended.[3] It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others.[40] Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used.[3]Occlusive dressings at night may be useful.[3]

There is little evidence for antihistamine and they are thus not generally recommended.[3] Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be tried in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema.[3]

If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur.[3]Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases.[41] Once daily use is generally enough.[3] For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g. hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g. clobetasol propionate) may be used. In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects.

Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia.[3] Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution.[3] They are, however, generally well tolerated.[42]Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.[43]

Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use.[44] Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids.[45] Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely.[3] Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than picrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids.[32]

The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued a health advisory a possible risk of lymph node or skin cancer from these products,[46] however subsequent research has not supported these concerns.[45] A major debate, in the UK, has been about the cost of these medications and, given only finite NHS resources, when they are most appropriate to use.[47]

When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.

Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good.[48] A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB;[49] in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer.[50]

There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema.[51] It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm.[52] Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema.[53] Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective.[54] Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset.[54]Probiotics do not appear to be effective.[55] There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.[53]

Other remedies lacking evidence to support them include chiropractic spinal manipulation and acupuncture.[56] There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments.[57][needs update] While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.[58]

Most cases are well managed with topical treatments and ultraviolet light.[3] About 2% of cases however are not.[3] In more than 60% the condition goes away by adolescence.[3]

Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population).[59] Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 1549 years.[60] In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.[3]

Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000.[61] In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.[3][62]

Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%.[63]

from Ancient Greek kzema,[64] from – ekz-ein, from ek “out” + – z-ein “to boil”

The term “atopic dermatitis” was coined in 1933 by Wise and Sulzberger.[65]Sulfur as a topical treatment for eczema was fashionable in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.[51]

The word dermatitis is from the Greek derma “skin” and – -itis “inflammation” and eczema is from Greek: ekzema “eruption”.[66]

The terms “hypoallergenic” and “doctor tested” are not regulated,[67] and no research has been done showing that products labeled “hypoallergenic” are in fact less problematic than any others.

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Eczema – National Library of Medicine – PubMed Health

Posted: September 11, 2016 at 5:19 pm

Evidence reviews Effects of antihistamines on eczema

Eczema is a common chronic disease. Itch is the most important symptom, and eczema is often accompanied by dry skin. Skin lesions include rash, redness, swelling of the skin, crusts, oozing, and sometimes also bleeding as a consequence of persistent scratching. Although the disease can resolve during childhood, it might also recur in or persist into adult life. The cause of eczema is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Moisturisers, topical corticosteroids, and topical immunomodulators are the mainstay during treatment of eczema, while more severe cases might need UV light therapy or systemic immunosuppressants. Itch is very difficult to treat and leads to scratching, which leads to more inflammation of the skin, and often people with eczema end up in a vicious circle of itching and scratching. The role of histamine in itching associated with eczema is not fully elucidated, but oral H1 antihistamines have been used for many years in the treatment of eczema. These might have been used largely for their sedative action, with highly sedative antihistamines, e.g. chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine. However, oral H1 antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, but their efficacy in alleviating itch and eczema remains unclear. This systematic review sought evidence for the effects and safety of the use of oral antihistamines for eczema, to guide their use in clinical practice.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis or childhood eczema) is a big problem worldwide. The skin of people with atopic eczema often contains high numbers of a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

This review of clinical trials aimed to find out whether topical pimecrolimus is better than topical corticosteroids or tacrolimus for treating eczema in infants, children and adults by assessing the improvement of eczema and adverse events associated with treatments.

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Eczema is a common chronic disease. Itch is the most important symptom, and eczema is often accompanied by dry skin. Skin lesions include rash, redness, swelling of the skin, crusts, oozing, and sometimes also bleeding as a consequence of persistent scratching. Although the disease can resolve during childhood, it might also recur in or persist into adult life. The cause of eczema is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Moisturisers, topical corticosteroids, and topical immunomodulators are the mainstay during treatment of eczema, while more severe cases might need UV light therapy or systemic immunosuppressants. Itch is very difficult to treat and leads to scratching, which leads to more inflammation of the skin, and often people with eczema end up in a vicious circle of itching and scratching. The role of histamine in itching associated with eczema is not fully elucidated, but oral H1 antihistamines have been used for many years in the treatment of eczema. These might have been used largely for their sedative action, with highly sedative antihistamines, e.g. chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine. However, oral H1 antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders, such as urticaria, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis, but their efficacy in alleviating itch and eczema remains unclear. This systematic review sought evidence for the effects and safety of the use of oral antihistamines for eczema, to guide their use in clinical practice.

Probiotic supplements for pregnant women and babies can prevent the development of eczema in some children. Probiotics have been better researched than prebiotics.

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis or childhood eczema) is a big problem worldwide. The skin of people with atopic eczema often contains high numbers of a bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

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About Eczema – What is Eczema?

Posted: at 5:19 pm

Eczema refers to a chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by dry skin, with patches that are red and intensely itchy. These patches of eczema may ooze, become scaly, crusted, or hardened. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, and the condition can negatively impact quality of life. Eczema can occur anywhere on the skin and is commonly found on the flexors (bends of the arms, backs of the knees).

There are many types of eczema, with the most common one being atopic dermatitis. Atopy refers to a hereditary tendency toward eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). People with eczema may suffer with one of the other atopic diseases.

The exact cause of eczema is unknown, however, there are genetic, immunological and environmental factors that play a role. Eczema can come and go, and can migrate around the body; just as one patch clears up, another may develop. This is the chronic nature of the disease. When the skin cycles back to inflammation, the patient is experiencing a flare-up.

Atopic eczema is the most common form of eczema and is closely linked with asthma and hayfever. It can affect both children and adults, usually running in families. One of the most common symptoms of atopic eczema is itching (pruritus), which can be almost unbearable. Other symptoms include dryness of the skin, redness and inflammation. Constant scratching can also cause the skin to split, leaving it prone to infection. In infected eczema the skin may crack and weep and develop pustules. Treatments include emollients to maintain skin hydration and steroids to reduce inflammation.

ACD develops when the bodys immune system reacts against a substance after contact with the skin. The allergic reaction often develops over a period of time through repeated contact with the substance. For example, an allergic reaction may occur to nickel, which is often found in earrings, snaps on baby’s undershirts, belt buckles and jean buttons. Reactions can also occur after contact with other substances such as perfumes and rubber. In order to prevent repeated reactions it is best to prevent contact with anything that you know causes a rash.

This is a type of eczema caused by frequent contact with everyday substances, such as detergents and chemicals, which are irritating to the skin. It most commonly occurs on the hands of adults and can be prevented by avoiding the irritants and keeping the skin moisturized. It commonly occurs in patients who have atopic dermititis.

A condition that affects babies under one year old, the exact cause of which is unknown. Also referred to as cradle cap, it usually starts on the scalp or the nappy area and quickly spreads. Although this type of eczema looks unpleasant, it is not sore or itchy and does not cause the baby to feel uncomfortable or unwell. Normally this type of eczema will clear in just a few months, though the use of moisturising creams and bath oils can help to speed this along.

Characteristically affects adults between the ages of 20 and 40. It is usually seen on the scalp as mild dandruff, but can spread to the face, ears and chest. The skin becomes red, inflamed and starts to flake. The condition is believed to be caused by a yeast growth. If the condition becomes infected, treatment with an anti-fungal cream may be necessary.

Varicose eczema affects the lower legs of those in their middle to late years, being caused by poor circulation. Commonly the skin around the ankles is affected, becoming speckled, itchy and inflamed. Treatment is with emollients and steroid creams. If left untreated, the skin can break down, resulting in an ulcer.

Is usually found in adults and appears suddenly as a few coin shaped areas of red skin, normally on the trunk or lower legs. They become itchy and can weep fluid. Usually discoid eczema is treated with emollients (and steroid creams if necessary).

Some complications of eczema include skin infections, eczema herpticum, neurodermatitis, and eye complications.

Scratching that is associated with eczema can break the skin causing open sores which can then become infected. This can cause mild or more serious infections. See a physician if there is swelling, pain, crusting, or oozing of the eczema.

Skin that becomes inflected with the herpes simplex virus (the virus that causes cold sores) is called eczema herpeticum. The symptoms may include painful pus or fluid filled blisters or sores, which may be accompanied by fever, tiredness, and swollen glands. Prompt treatment is very important, as the inflection can spread to the eyes or internal organs, causing serious problems.

Caution should be taken around anyone with a cold sore; kissing and skin-to-skin contact should be avoided. Take extra caution with infants and children, especially those with eczema and/or open areas on their skin. Sometimes, with infants and small children, contact with the herpes simplex virus can be fatal. See a doctor immediately if there are concerns.

Long term itching and scratching of the skin can lead to an increased sensation of itch, which could possibly lead to neurodermatitis (also known as lichen simplex chronicus). These areas of the skin that are frequently scratched become thick and leathery in appearance, and the patches can be red and darker than the rest of the skin. Persistent scratching can lead to permanent changes in skin colour. See a physician if experiencing intense itch and/or there are noticeable changes in the skin.

In rare cases, severe atopic dermatitis can lead to eye complications which could potentially cause permanent eye damage. See a physician if experiencing eye watering, inflammation around the eye, and eye discharge.

Our skin is the barrier to the outside world, is somewhat waterproof, and keeps our internal organs and systems safe from the elements and from bacteria invading our bodies. Atopic dermatitis patients have impaired barrier function. This means that the skin barrier is broken down, loses moisture, and can allow bacteria to grow and enter the body (causing bacterial infections on the skin). The loss of water leaves the skin dry and cracked. The goal of eczema management is to replenish moisture, and create a barrier to protect the skin. This is why moisturizers can help.

Flare-ups can be prompted by environmental elements or triggers such as certain soaps, clothing fabrics, deodorants, carpet fibres, dust, and others. Sometimes a flare-up will occur, however, with no discernible trigger. Overheating, excessive sweating, low humidity, certain foods and stress can also contribute to flare-ups. When the skin becomes irritated by any one of these irritants, it itches, causing the sufferer to scratch the affected area. Scratching makes the condition worse and the skin becomes inflamed and reddened, aggravating the itch. This is called the itch-scratch cycle and can become severe and cause pain.

Look around you and write down all of the possible things in your surroundings that could be contributing to your flare-ups. For example, do you experience a flare-up or worsening of your eczema when you wear a certain sweater? Is your eczema worse in the winter? Do you itch on the days when you clean your house? Does perfume irritate your skin? Use this trigger chart to help to identify your triggers.

Controlling factors in your environment can help minimize flare-ups from occurring. By minimizing or eliminating your triggers, you can help to reduce the number of flare-ups experienced. One of the frustrating parts of eczema is that flare-ups can still occur even when you are diligently avoiding triggers and taking care of your skin. Keeping your skin moist is your first line of defence against eczema.

Certain foods can trigger a flare-up, just like other environmental triggers. This can occur by eating the trigger food, or by skin contact with the food during preparation or during eating (on the hands and around the mouth). It is important to note that food allergies do not cause eczema, however foods can trigger a flare-up. It is not recommended to withhold foods, or entire food groups, for long periods of time without consulting your doctor or your allergist to confirm that there is in fact an allergy to that food. Allergy skin testing can help to provide clues about environmental and food allergies, however patients with atopic dermatitis have high false positive rates, as the simple act of scratching the skin during testing can cause inflammation which may then be misinterpreted as an allergic reaction. Antihistamine use can also impact the accuracy of allergy testing. Speak with your allergist about your eczema, and your medical treatments prior to testing.

Atopic eczema is a chronic, recurring condition with “flares” (active or new patches of eczema which look red, scaly, and/or bumpy) and remissions (when eczema is not as active). Some people always seem to have some active areas. There are no definite cures for eczema although patients can achieve excellent control and live quite comfortably. Most children will grow out of their eczema, and flares will gradually reduce over time. We recommend following our Triangle of Control (LINK) and Regimen (LINK) to ease your eczema symptoms and prevent future flares. This is the first line of defence!

When one member of the family suffers with eczema, the whole family suffers. Rigorous bathing and moisturizing regimens, constant monitoring of the condition, lifestyle changes in an effort to avoid triggers, and sleepless nights can greatly impact the quality of life for all members of the family.

Talking with others who understand what you are going through is very important. Eczema is a spectrum disease, meaning that there are very mild conditions which are not bothersome to the patient, and then there are moderate and severe conditions that have significant physical and psychological impacts. Often the impact of eczema is minimized.

Eczema has a significant psychological impact on sufferers and their families.

Eczema impacts quality of life for the sufferer and their whole family. Social interactions, relationships, work, family, comfort, and self-image can all be negatively affected when eczema is not well controlled.

About Eczema – What is Eczema?

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Best On Bahamas | Great Things To Do In The Bahamas

Posted: September 3, 2016 at 11:43 pm

Welcome to Best On Bahamas, the premiere destination for things to do in the Bahamas. We only offer top quality tours, activities and shore excursions. We offer things to do in Nassau Bahamas and Freeport Bahamas. The Bahamas offers pristine beaches and dazzling coral reefs all surrounded by the beautiful turquoise waters and unique marine life. Whether it’s your first time visiting The Bahamas or you are returning for more, we want to be your Insider to the wonderful activities these islands have to offer. Let Best On Bahamas and our staff be your guide to the perfect Bahamas Vacation, helping you with everything from the best time to go, cruise excursions and information, hotels, and other insider tips on things to do in the Bahamas.

There are more than enough fun things to do to keep you and your family occupied on your Bahamas vacation. We recommend starting off your island vacation with the Biking, Shopping, and Beach Tour to familiarize yourself with the islands, meet and greet with the locals live. Get some souvenir shopping done and get your exercise for the day in as you bike behind your guide to the beach.

For the adults that want to get away from it all for some fun and dancing should take a look at the Bonfire on the Beach. Guests get to watch the sunset and spend the twilight hours next to the bonfire on the beach while sipping on drinks, and eating Bahamian cuisine, then dance the night away with new friends. If you are a person who would rather venture into the whimsical, and untouched forest of the Bahamas, then your route is going toward the Lucayan National Park and Cave tour. With this, you get the chance to be guided through the caves and the forest that the Lucayans once walked amongst.

There are so many choices when it comes to doing anything aquatic in the Bahamas. One of the most popular activities for visitors of the Bahamas to participate in are snorkeling tours. Of course, there are many to choose from, so we here at Best On Bahamas want to help you save time. One of our most popular things to do is the Bahamas Booze Cruise, which takes its passengers out on a 45-foot catamaran to a deserted island for a beach party, and crystal clear waters for snorkeling. Want to really enjoy your Bahamas vacation the Caribbean way? Jump aboard the Barefoot Sailing All Day Island Cruise, which will take passengers to rarely seen snorkeling spots. Give yourself a real, once-in-a-lifetime chance to encounter one of the most intelligent mammals on Earth, the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin. The Blue Lagoon Dolphin Close Encounter gives patrons the opportunity the get up close and personal with dolphins of the famous Blue Lagoon. Take it a step further and sign up to swim with the dolphins with the Blue Lagoon Swim with the Dolphins program.

Whether your boating trip goals are to fish the deep blue sea for your dinner, sail around the crystal clear waters, or cruise at the fastest speeds you’ve been on a boat across the ocean waves, there is something for everyone’s preference for their vacations.

The historic city of Nassau is the capital city of the Bahamas. It is a wildly popular tourist destination, both as a port of call for cruise ships and for those looking for a relaxing, exciting, and luxurious vacation. The city is filled with activities to enjoy both during the daytime and at night, and is home to some of the finest resorts anywhere. It is a vibrant mix of the Old World and modern times. Once a haven for pirates and vagrants, Nassau now exudes charm beyond compare especially with its various tours and activities.

Freeport is located on Grand Bahama Island, the fourth largest island of the Bahamas that is second in popularity only to Nassau as a tourist destination of the Bahamas. Located approximately 70 miles off the southeastern coast of Florida, Grand Bahama Island is a tropical paradise that only seems out-of-the-way. Because Grand Bahama Island is larger than New Providence Island (the home of Nassau), there are more lengths of secluded white sand beaches to relax and play on. Freeport and all of Grand Bahama Island is a bold island paradise with modern attitude mixed with a little colonial charm, and will provide endless opportunities for adventure and fun, especially with Freeport tours.

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Life Extension – Page 1 – Health Food Emporium

Posted: August 12, 2016 at 2:38 pm

Sort by: Sort by Featured Items Newest Items Bestselling Alphabetical: A to Z Alphabetical: Z to A Avg. Customer Review Price: Low to High Price: High to Low Sort by: Sort by Featured Items Newest Items Bestselling Alphabetical: A to Z Alphabetical: Z to A Avg. Customer Review Price: Low to High Price: High to Low

The Life Extension Foundation was the first organization to defy the FDA by promoting the use of antioxidant vitamins to maintain health.

Life Extension uses only premium quality vitamins and other ingredients. Their dedication to excellence insists that their nutritional supplements meet the highest standards and criteria. That is why Life Extension insists on purchasing only the highest quality raw materials from all over the world, primarily from leading US, Japanese and European sources. The unique ingredients included in Life Extensions products are often years ahead of the products sold by commercial vitamin companies.

Blueberry Extract with Pomegranate 60 capsule $30.00 $22.50

Life Extension Blueberry Extract with Pomegranate When scientists analyze fruits and vegetables for their antioxidant capability, blueberries rank among the highest in their capacity to destroy free radicals. Rich in…


Bone Restore (Without K) 120 Capsules $22.00 $16.50

Throughout life, cells known as osteoblasts construct bone matrix and fill it with calcium. At the same time, osteoclasts work just as busily to tear down and resorb bone. This fine balance is regulated by many factors,…


Calcium Citrate with Vitamin D 300 Capsules $24.00 $18.00

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body …primarily found in the bones and teeth. In bone formation, calcium forms crystals that provide strength to maturing bone. Calcium is needed for more than just healthy bones…


Cognitex with Brain Shield 90 Soft Gels $60.00 $45.00

Life Extension Cognitex with Brain Shield Complex Protecting brain health is vital if the pursuit of a longer life is to have any meaning. According to current wisdom, some degree of cognitive impairment is all but…


Cognitex with Pregnenolone 90 Softgels $62.00 $46.50

Brain decline affects all aging humans. Scientific studies demonstrate more youthful cognition and memory in response to the proper nutrients. Cognitex provides the following brain boosting ingredients in one advanced…


Cognizin CDP Choline 250 mg 60 Capsules $36.00 $27.00

Choline is a substance needed by the brain to produce acetylcholine, a major brain/motor neuron neurotransmitter that facilitates the transmission of impulses between neurons. The importance of choline for maintaining…


D-Ribose 100 Vegetarian Tablets $32.00 $24.00

Life Extension D-Ribose 120 vegetarian capsules People suffering from cardiac and other debilitating health problems often exhibit severely depleted cellular energy in heart and muscle tissue, which can greatly impair normal…


Enhanced Super Digestive Enzymes 60 Veg Capsules $22.00 $16.50

Life Extension Enhanced Super Digestive Enzymes The aging process and certain health issues cause a reduction in the bodys enzyme production. One effect of this reduction is a bloated feeling soon after eating a large meal…


FLORASSIST Oral Hygiene Probiotic 30 lozenges $20.00 $15.00

Florassist is Probiotics for the mouth. Oral health disorders are among the most common health problems in US adults. Regular brushing and flossing is often not enough to achieve optimal oral health. Since the mouth is the…


Glucosamine Chondroitin 100 Capsules $38.00 $28.50

Life Extension Glucosamine Chondroitin Capsules A naturally occurring amino sugar synthesized in the body from L-glutamine and glucose, glucosamine stimulates the manufacture of glycosaminoglycans, important components of…


Immune Protect With Paractin 30 capsules $29.50 $22.13

Life Extension Immune Protect With Paractin Immune Protect with PARACTIN contains a combination of patented ingredients that have been clinically shown to boost immune function, increasing the bodys natural ability to combat…


Integra Lean African Mango Irvingia 60 Veg Caps $28.00 $21.00

Life Extension Integra-Lean Irvingia 150mg, 60 Vegetarian Capsules Scientists have identified specific biological mechanisms that cause aging people to gain weight no matter how little they eat. The problem was that there…


MacuGuard Ocular Support 60 Soft Gels $22.00 $16.50

Life Extension MacuGuard Ocular Support The eye is a highly complex organ that must safely harvest, control, focus, and react to light in order to produce vision. Light enters the anterior portion of the eye through the…


MacuGuard Ocular Support with Astaxanthin 60 Softgels $42.00 $31.50

Lutein is one of the major components of macular pigment and it is essential to proper vision.1 Eating large quantities of lutein and zeaxanthin-containing vegetables can help provide the nutritional building blocks…


Magnesium 500 mg 100 Capsules $12.00 $9.00

Many Americans do not obtain adequate amounts of magnesium in their diets. Magnesium is one of the bodys most important minerals. It is required as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic processes within cells. It helps…


Magnesium Citrate 160 mg 100 Capsules $9.00 $6.75

Many Americans do not obtain adequate amounts of magnesium in their diets. Magnesium is one of the bodys most important minerals. It is required as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic processes within cells. It helps…


Melatonin 10 mg 60 Capsules $28.00 $21.00

Life Extension Melatonin 10 mg capsules Melatonin releases from the pineal gland, reaching its peak at night to help maintain healthy cell division in tissues throughout the body. Secretion of melatonin declines…


Melatonin 3 mg 60 Capsules $8.00 $6.00

Life Extension Melatonin 3 mg capsules Melatonin releases from the pineal gland, reaching its peak at night to help maintain healthy cell division in tissues throughout the body. Secretion of melatonin declines significantly…


Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ 120 capsules $94.00 $70.50

All cells in our bodies contain tiny organelles called mitochondria that function to produce cellular energy by means of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism…


Mix 315 Tablets $80.00 $60.00

Numerous scientific studies document that people who eat the most fruits and vegetables have much lower incidences of health problems. Few people, however, consistently eat enough plant food to protect against common…


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Home – Oceania

Posted: July 23, 2016 at 4:22 am

Welcome to Oceania Cruises

Your World. Your Way.

Filled with a spectacular array of diverse and exotic destinations, your world awaits your discovery. There is simply no better way to explore it than aboard the elegant ships of Oceania Cruises. Our unique itineraries are handcrafted, featuring the most fascinating destinations throughout the world. As Regatta, Insignia, Nautica, Sirena, Marina and Riviera are all comfortably mid-size, each ship calls on the worlds most desirable ports, from historic cities and modern meccas to charming seaside villages and faraway islands. On a voyage with Oceania Cruises, each day offers the rewarding opportunity to experience the history, culture and cuisine of a wondrous new destination.

Relax on board our luxurious ships and savor exquisite cuisine that not only is renowned as the finest at sea, but also rivals the best restaurants ashore. Inspired by Master Chef Jacques Ppin, these culinary delights have always been a hallmark that distinguishes the Oceania Cruises experience from any other. Considering the uncompromising quality, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of an Oceania Cruises voyage is its incredible value. Lavish complimentary amenities abound, and there are never supplemental charges in any of the onboard restaurants. Value packages ensure that sipping a glass of vintage wine, surfing the Internet or enjoying a shore excursion is both convenient and affordable.

As the leader in destination cruising, Oceania Cruises sails to more than 330 ports around the globe. Itineraries are unique in that they call on the perfect mix of must-see marquee and boutique, off-the-beaten-path ports. Multiple overnight calls afford an in-depth, enriching destination experience and allow travelers to immerse themselves in the cuisine, culture and history of the ports we visit.

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Offshore Jobs | $69,999+ Pay Possible | #1 Trusted …

Posted: July 16, 2016 at 11:15 pm

Offshore oil rig jobs are great way to play an important role in the global energy business. If want to work in an office were you get to watch the sunset and feel the ocean breeze every day and make a ton of money while doing it then a drilling platform is a place for you. Find out how to get hired for oil rig jobs here.

Oil and gas play a giant role in Louisiana. With many offshore drilling companies located here, you can find many offshore jobs in Louisiana. Read this article to find out more about your options and how to get started soon.

If you are really serious about working on an oil rig but have no previous experience in the oil industry this is for you. Roustabout jobs can be dirty and hard but if you are man to take this opportunity, theres simply no better way to learn from the ground floor.

Oil and gas jobs put you in the forefront of the global energy industry. Even though alternative fuels are gaining strength, the fact is oil and gas are going to be dominant energy source for decades to come. Now is the time to find employment in this amazing field.

Are you ready to make some good money in one of the most exciting industries on earth? If you dont mind getting your hands dirty there are always roughneck jobs available for you. Find out more about how your next job could be on an offshore oil platform.

Have you ever work on a oil drilling crew before? Are you looking for the ultimate job adventure? If so, find out how offshore drilling jobs are right for you.

Offshore catering jobs are a great way to use your cooking skills. Plus, youll make more than you ever would at most restaurants on land. Find all the latest offshore catering jobs like cook, baker, and steward here.

Are you a good welder? Looking for an exciting job? Then if youre ready to make good money using your skills in one of the most exciting industries on earth, read as to find out how offshore welding jobs are just the thing for you.

Entry level offshore jobs are many peoples foot in the door in this amazing industry. For those of you just starting out it can be tough, but dont give up. This industry is always willing to give a good, honest worker a fair shot.

Everyday thousands of people go to work on a drilling rig. Would you like to be one of them? There are so many different drilling rig jobs available it helps to know where your skills will fit in. Read this to find out what job opportunities there are for you offshore.

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Posted: July 14, 2016 at 4:28 pm

Community Forum

Were part of a robust community of neurohackers with backgrounds in neuroscience, cognitive psychology, smart drugs and nootropics, integrative medicine, bioethics, and private laboratory experimentation.

Aligned with our mission of curating the most meaningful neurohacks, were developing an online hub for our peers to answer questions, give input, and share experiential research on the most promising technologies currently available.

Many incredible technologies exist for enhancing our subjective experience, but most people have never heard about them and likely wouldnt stumble upon them through a typical google search. We want to change that.

We are taking on the challenge of curating a directory of the most effective and promising neurohacking technologies and tools out there. That includes anything that influences the neurologic hardware responsible for mediating our conscious experience and performative capabilities: chemical technologies like nootropics and smart drugs, bioelectrical technologies like transcranial stimulation, photic therapies like low level laser therapy, all the way to neurofeedback techniques, meditation training, or embodied practices like somatics.

Our goal is to broadly cover the various categories of technologies that meet our criteria for neurohacks, then hone in on a vetted list of tools and practices weve discovered that produce the most significant positive results. As new discoveries and breakthroughs are made, well work with the community to keep this resource continually updated.

Citizen science and the quantified self movement have opened new portals for discovery, empowering us to collect and analyze data about ourselves, and share what works and what doesnt with each other.

In that spirit, were developing an app to help track changes in psychological states and cognitive capacities, as a function of using our products or any other neurohacking technologies. The data generated will help us better understand the most effective ways to positively influence our neurology to experience a higher quality of life.

Lets just say, cognitive enhancement is only the beginning.

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Life Extension Mix Tablets, 315 tablets

Posted: July 9, 2016 at 8:09 pm

Numerous scientific studies document that people who eat the most fruits and vegetables have a lower incidence of health problems. Few people, however, consistently eat enough plant food to provide vital phyto-protection against common age-related decline. Commercial multivitamins do not contain all of the vital plant components needed to maintain good health.1-3

Life Extension Mix is vastly superior to other multivitamins on the market todaypartly because it provides a remarkably broad array of fruit and vegetable extracts.

Packed into this blend are extracts of fruits ranging from grape and maqui to bilberry and tart cherry. Its standardized vegetable extracts range from broccoli to artichoke. All with known health benefits throughout the body.

Rounding out the superiority of Life Extension Mix is its extensive list of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, amino acids. Life Extension Mix provides enzymatically-active forms of B vitamins like pyridoxal-5-phosphate that provide immediate antiglycation benefits. This formula is the only multivitamin to contain 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), the active form of folate that is more bioavailable than folic acid. This greater bioavailability is especially important in people who have a genetic deficiency since it requires no conversion to become metabolically active.

Scientists have identified multiple mechanisms by which green tea extract helps protect against LDL oxidation, neuronal degradation, and a host of other structural and functional age-related changes. Life Extension Mix provides more green tea extract than found in commercial formulations.

Broccoli is one of the vegetables best documented to protect healthy DNA. The broccoli concentrate in Life Extension Mix is standardized to provide sulforaphane and other glucosinolates, compounds responsible for broccolis protective benefits.

Olive polyphenols help protect against LDL oxidation, quench free radicals, and stabilize cell membranes. Life Extension Mix contains an olive extract standardized to provide the best-documented polyphenol called hydroxytyrosol.

Luteolin is a flavonoid found in parsley, artichoke, basil, celery and other foods. It has shown the ability to help protect against DNA oxidative damage. When measured against 27 other citrus flavonoids, luteolin proved one of the most beneficial at maintaining healthy DNA. Luteolin also suppresses excess levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1b. Life Extension Mix contains a standardized dose of 8 mg of luteolin.

Lycopene is the red carotenoid in tomatoes that supports a healthy prostate and helps promote healthy lipid profiles for those already within a normal range. Lutein is found in spinach and collard greens and has been shown to help maintain eye macula pigment structure.

Pomegranate may be the most effective plant to help maintain optimal endothelial function. This pomegranate extract is standardized to provide the punicalagins and other polyphenols found in up to 2.6 ounces of pomegranate juice.

Sesame lignans increase tissue levels of vitamin E, including gamma tocopherol, and inhibit the formation of an inflammatory precursor called arachidonic acid.

The wild blueberry extract in Life Extension Mix is standardized to help maintain optimal neuronal function.

Bilberry extract has antioxidative properties that not only are neuroprotective, but help suppress photooxidative processes and have been shown to improve microcapillary circulation.

Cyanidin-3-glucoside is a berry compound that promotes healthy function of the retina to help support night vision.

Pterostilbene is a compound naturally found in blueberries and grapes that has been shown to have beneficial, anti-aging effects on gene expression and to promote healthy cognitive function.

D-glucarate is found in grapefruit, apples, oranges, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. D-glucarate supports a detoxification process that helps to remove DNA toxins.

Unlike folic acid, 5-MTHFwhich is more bioavailableis able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This is especially important for people with cognitive difficulties to enhance the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain, the neurotransmitter associated with memory. It also better facilitates maintenance of healthy homocysteine levels.

Vitamin D3 helps maintain healthy bone density and DNA. There is five times more vitamin D in Life Extension Mix compared to conventional multivitamins.

Life Extension Mix utilizes natural mixed tocopherols that provide natural vitamin E from alpha tocopherol and a small amount of gamma tocopherol (40 mg). Compared to synthetic vitamin E, the natural form is far more bioavailable.

N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppresses free radicals inside the cell and maintains healthy glutathione levels. Taurine may protect against free radicals between cells and supports eye health.

Life Extension Mix contains the sodium selenite, selenomethionine, and Se-methyl L-selenocysteine forms of selenium. Some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of selenium may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer; however, the FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive.

Zinc is often poorly absorbed, but Life Extension Mix provides two of the most bioavailable forms of zinc.

Boron is not only needed to maintain healthy bone density but may also help promote healthy prostate cell function.

Life Extension Mix provides a high amount of an optimal form of chromium to help maintain arterial wall structure and already normal glucose levels.

Magnesium helps protect arteries and heart valves, and supports heart and brain cells. Life Extension Mix provides high potencies of six different forms of magnesium to fully saturate the body with this life-saving mineral.

Choline, phosphatidylcholine and inositol help maintain high levels of acetylcholine in the brain to support cognitive function and memory.

A healthy type of dietary fat, medium-chain triglycerides are easily absorbed intact and transported directly to the liver, where they are immediately used for energy.

Due to license restrictions, this product is not for sale to doctors and MLM wholesalers in the USA, Canada or the Philippines.

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