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Posted: August 12, 2016 at 2:38 pm
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The Life Extension Foundation was the first organization to defy the FDA by promoting the use of antioxidant vitamins to maintain health.
Life Extension uses only premium quality vitamins and other ingredients. Their dedication to excellence insists that their nutritional supplements meet the highest standards and criteria. That is why Life Extension insists on purchasing only the highest quality raw materials from all over the world, primarily from leading US, Japanese and European sources. The unique ingredients included in Life Extensions products are often years ahead of the products sold by commercial vitamin companies.
Blueberry Extract with Pomegranate 60 capsule $30.00 $22.50
Life Extension Blueberry Extract with Pomegranate When scientists analyze fruits and vegetables for their antioxidant capability, blueberries rank among the highest in their capacity to destroy free radicals. Rich in…
Bone Restore (Without K) 120 Capsules $22.00 $16.50
Throughout life, cells known as osteoblasts construct bone matrix and fill it with calcium. At the same time, osteoclasts work just as busily to tear down and resorb bone. This fine balance is regulated by many factors,…
Calcium Citrate with Vitamin D 300 Capsules $24.00 $18.00
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body …primarily found in the bones and teeth. In bone formation, calcium forms crystals that provide strength to maturing bone. Calcium is needed for more than just healthy bones…
Cognitex with Brain Shield 90 Soft Gels $60.00 $45.00
Life Extension Cognitex with Brain Shield Complex Protecting brain health is vital if the pursuit of a longer life is to have any meaning. According to current wisdom, some degree of cognitive impairment is all but…
Cognitex with Pregnenolone 90 Softgels $62.00 $46.50
Brain decline affects all aging humans. Scientific studies demonstrate more youthful cognition and memory in response to the proper nutrients. Cognitex provides the following brain boosting ingredients in one advanced…
Cognizin CDP Choline 250 mg 60 Capsules $36.00 $27.00
Choline is a substance needed by the brain to produce acetylcholine, a major brain/motor neuron neurotransmitter that facilitates the transmission of impulses between neurons. The importance of choline for maintaining…
D-Ribose 100 Vegetarian Tablets $32.00 $24.00
Life Extension D-Ribose 120 vegetarian capsules People suffering from cardiac and other debilitating health problems often exhibit severely depleted cellular energy in heart and muscle tissue, which can greatly impair normal…
Enhanced Super Digestive Enzymes 60 Veg Capsules $22.00 $16.50
Life Extension Enhanced Super Digestive Enzymes The aging process and certain health issues cause a reduction in the bodys enzyme production. One effect of this reduction is a bloated feeling soon after eating a large meal…
FLORASSIST Oral Hygiene Probiotic 30 lozenges $20.00 $15.00
Florassist is Probiotics for the mouth. Oral health disorders are among the most common health problems in US adults. Regular brushing and flossing is often not enough to achieve optimal oral health. Since the mouth is the…
Glucosamine Chondroitin 100 Capsules $38.00 $28.50
Life Extension Glucosamine Chondroitin Capsules A naturally occurring amino sugar synthesized in the body from L-glutamine and glucose, glucosamine stimulates the manufacture of glycosaminoglycans, important components of…
Immune Protect With Paractin 30 capsules $29.50 $22.13
Life Extension Immune Protect With Paractin Immune Protect with PARACTIN contains a combination of patented ingredients that have been clinically shown to boost immune function, increasing the bodys natural ability to combat…
Integra Lean African Mango Irvingia 60 Veg Caps $28.00 $21.00
Life Extension Integra-Lean Irvingia 150mg, 60 Vegetarian Capsules Scientists have identified specific biological mechanisms that cause aging people to gain weight no matter how little they eat. The problem was that there…
MacuGuard Ocular Support 60 Soft Gels $22.00 $16.50
Life Extension MacuGuard Ocular Support The eye is a highly complex organ that must safely harvest, control, focus, and react to light in order to produce vision. Light enters the anterior portion of the eye through the…
MacuGuard Ocular Support with Astaxanthin 60 Softgels $42.00 $31.50
Lutein is one of the major components of macular pigment and it is essential to proper vision.1 Eating large quantities of lutein and zeaxanthin-containing vegetables can help provide the nutritional building blocks…
Magnesium 500 mg 100 Capsules $12.00 $9.00
Many Americans do not obtain adequate amounts of magnesium in their diets. Magnesium is one of the bodys most important minerals. It is required as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic processes within cells. It helps…
Magnesium Citrate 160 mg 100 Capsules $9.00 $6.75
Many Americans do not obtain adequate amounts of magnesium in their diets. Magnesium is one of the bodys most important minerals. It is required as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic processes within cells. It helps…
Melatonin 10 mg 60 Capsules $28.00 $21.00
Life Extension Melatonin 10 mg capsules Melatonin releases from the pineal gland, reaching its peak at night to help maintain healthy cell division in tissues throughout the body. Secretion of melatonin declines…
Melatonin 3 mg 60 Capsules $8.00 $6.00
Life Extension Melatonin 3 mg capsules Melatonin releases from the pineal gland, reaching its peak at night to help maintain healthy cell division in tissues throughout the body. Secretion of melatonin declines significantly…
Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ 120 capsules $94.00 $70.50
All cells in our bodies contain tiny organelles called mitochondria that function to produce cellular energy by means of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism…
Mix 315 Tablets $80.00 $60.00
Numerous scientific studies document that people who eat the most fruits and vegetables have much lower incidences of health problems. Few people, however, consistently eat enough plant food to protect against common…
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Posted: July 23, 2016 at 4:22 am
Welcome to Oceania Cruises
Your World. Your Way.
Filled with a spectacular array of diverse and exotic destinations, your world awaits your discovery. There is simply no better way to explore it than aboard the elegant ships of Oceania Cruises. Our unique itineraries are handcrafted, featuring the most fascinating destinations throughout the world. As Regatta, Insignia, Nautica, Sirena, Marina and Riviera are all comfortably mid-size, each ship calls on the worlds most desirable ports, from historic cities and modern meccas to charming seaside villages and faraway islands. On a voyage with Oceania Cruises, each day offers the rewarding opportunity to experience the history, culture and cuisine of a wondrous new destination.
Relax on board our luxurious ships and savor exquisite cuisine that not only is renowned as the finest at sea, but also rivals the best restaurants ashore. Inspired by Master Chef Jacques Ppin, these culinary delights have always been a hallmark that distinguishes the Oceania Cruises experience from any other. Considering the uncompromising quality, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of an Oceania Cruises voyage is its incredible value. Lavish complimentary amenities abound, and there are never supplemental charges in any of the onboard restaurants. Value packages ensure that sipping a glass of vintage wine, surfing the Internet or enjoying a shore excursion is both convenient and affordable.
As the leader in destination cruising, Oceania Cruises sails to more than 330 ports around the globe. Itineraries are unique in that they call on the perfect mix of must-see marquee and boutique, off-the-beaten-path ports. Multiple overnight calls afford an in-depth, enriching destination experience and allow travelers to immerse themselves in the cuisine, culture and history of the ports we visit.
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Posted: July 16, 2016 at 11:15 pm
Offshore oil rig jobs are great way to play an important role in the global energy business. If want to work in an office were you get to watch the sunset and feel the ocean breeze every day and make a ton of money while doing it then a drilling platform is a place for you. Find out how to get hired for oil rig jobs here.
Oil and gas play a giant role in Louisiana. With many offshore drilling companies located here, you can find many offshore jobs in Louisiana. Read this article to find out more about your options and how to get started soon.
If you are really serious about working on an oil rig but have no previous experience in the oil industry this is for you. Roustabout jobs can be dirty and hard but if you are man to take this opportunity, theres simply no better way to learn from the ground floor.
Oil and gas jobs put you in the forefront of the global energy industry. Even though alternative fuels are gaining strength, the fact is oil and gas are going to be dominant energy source for decades to come. Now is the time to find employment in this amazing field.
Are you ready to make some good money in one of the most exciting industries on earth? If you dont mind getting your hands dirty there are always roughneck jobs available for you. Find out more about how your next job could be on an offshore oil platform.
Have you ever work on a oil drilling crew before? Are you looking for the ultimate job adventure? If so, find out how offshore drilling jobs are right for you.
Offshore catering jobs are a great way to use your cooking skills. Plus, youll make more than you ever would at most restaurants on land. Find all the latest offshore catering jobs like cook, baker, and steward here.
Are you a good welder? Looking for an exciting job? Then if youre ready to make good money using your skills in one of the most exciting industries on earth, read as to find out how offshore welding jobs are just the thing for you.
Entry level offshore jobs are many peoples foot in the door in this amazing industry. For those of you just starting out it can be tough, but dont give up. This industry is always willing to give a good, honest worker a fair shot.
Everyday thousands of people go to work on a drilling rig. Would you like to be one of them? There are so many different drilling rig jobs available it helps to know where your skills will fit in. Read this to find out what job opportunities there are for you offshore.
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Posted: July 14, 2016 at 4:28 pm
Were part of a robust community of neurohackers with backgrounds in neuroscience, cognitive psychology, smart drugs and nootropics, integrative medicine, bioethics, and private laboratory experimentation.
Aligned with our mission of curating the most meaningful neurohacks, were developing an online hub for our peers to answer questions, give input, and share experiential research on the most promising technologies currently available.
Many incredible technologies exist for enhancing our subjective experience, but most people have never heard about them and likely wouldnt stumble upon them through a typical google search. We want to change that.
We are taking on the challenge of curating a directory of the most effective and promising neurohacking technologies and tools out there. That includes anything that influences the neurologic hardware responsible for mediating our conscious experience and performative capabilities: chemical technologies like nootropics and smart drugs, bioelectrical technologies like transcranial stimulation, photic therapies like low level laser therapy, all the way to neurofeedback techniques, meditation training, or embodied practices like somatics.
Our goal is to broadly cover the various categories of technologies that meet our criteria for neurohacks, then hone in on a vetted list of tools and practices weve discovered that produce the most significant positive results. As new discoveries and breakthroughs are made, well work with the community to keep this resource continually updated.
Citizen science and the quantified self movement have opened new portals for discovery, empowering us to collect and analyze data about ourselves, and share what works and what doesnt with each other.
In that spirit, were developing an app to help track changes in psychological states and cognitive capacities, as a function of using our products or any other neurohacking technologies. The data generated will help us better understand the most effective ways to positively influence our neurology to experience a higher quality of life.
Lets just say, cognitive enhancement is only the beginning.
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Posted: July 9, 2016 at 8:09 pm
Numerous scientific studies document that people who eat the most fruits and vegetables have a lower incidence of health problems. Few people, however, consistently eat enough plant food to provide vital phyto-protection against common age-related decline. Commercial multivitamins do not contain all of the vital plant components needed to maintain good health.1-3
Life Extension Mix is vastly superior to other multivitamins on the market todaypartly because it provides a remarkably broad array of fruit and vegetable extracts.
Packed into this blend are extracts of fruits ranging from grape and maqui to bilberry and tart cherry. Its standardized vegetable extracts range from broccoli to artichoke. All with known health benefits throughout the body.
Rounding out the superiority of Life Extension Mix is its extensive list of water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, amino acids. Life Extension Mix provides enzymatically-active forms of B vitamins like pyridoxal-5-phosphate that provide immediate antiglycation benefits. This formula is the only multivitamin to contain 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), the active form of folate that is more bioavailable than folic acid. This greater bioavailability is especially important in people who have a genetic deficiency since it requires no conversion to become metabolically active.
Scientists have identified multiple mechanisms by which green tea extract helps protect against LDL oxidation, neuronal degradation, and a host of other structural and functional age-related changes. Life Extension Mix provides more green tea extract than found in commercial formulations.
Broccoli is one of the vegetables best documented to protect healthy DNA. The broccoli concentrate in Life Extension Mix is standardized to provide sulforaphane and other glucosinolates, compounds responsible for broccolis protective benefits.
Olive polyphenols help protect against LDL oxidation, quench free radicals, and stabilize cell membranes. Life Extension Mix contains an olive extract standardized to provide the best-documented polyphenol called hydroxytyrosol.
Luteolin is a flavonoid found in parsley, artichoke, basil, celery and other foods. It has shown the ability to help protect against DNA oxidative damage. When measured against 27 other citrus flavonoids, luteolin proved one of the most beneficial at maintaining healthy DNA. Luteolin also suppresses excess levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1b. Life Extension Mix contains a standardized dose of 8 mg of luteolin.
Lycopene is the red carotenoid in tomatoes that supports a healthy prostate and helps promote healthy lipid profiles for those already within a normal range. Lutein is found in spinach and collard greens and has been shown to help maintain eye macula pigment structure.
Pomegranate may be the most effective plant to help maintain optimal endothelial function. This pomegranate extract is standardized to provide the punicalagins and other polyphenols found in up to 2.6 ounces of pomegranate juice.
Sesame lignans increase tissue levels of vitamin E, including gamma tocopherol, and inhibit the formation of an inflammatory precursor called arachidonic acid.
The wild blueberry extract in Life Extension Mix is standardized to help maintain optimal neuronal function.
Bilberry extract has antioxidative properties that not only are neuroprotective, but help suppress photooxidative processes and have been shown to improve microcapillary circulation.
Cyanidin-3-glucoside is a berry compound that promotes healthy function of the retina to help support night vision.
Pterostilbene is a compound naturally found in blueberries and grapes that has been shown to have beneficial, anti-aging effects on gene expression and to promote healthy cognitive function.
D-glucarate is found in grapefruit, apples, oranges, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. D-glucarate supports a detoxification process that helps to remove DNA toxins.
Unlike folic acid, 5-MTHFwhich is more bioavailableis able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This is especially important for people with cognitive difficulties to enhance the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain, the neurotransmitter associated with memory. It also better facilitates maintenance of healthy homocysteine levels.
Vitamin D3 helps maintain healthy bone density and DNA. There is five times more vitamin D in Life Extension Mix compared to conventional multivitamins.
Life Extension Mix utilizes natural mixed tocopherols that provide natural vitamin E from alpha tocopherol and a small amount of gamma tocopherol (40 mg). Compared to synthetic vitamin E, the natural form is far more bioavailable.
N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppresses free radicals inside the cell and maintains healthy glutathione levels. Taurine may protect against free radicals between cells and supports eye health.
Life Extension Mix contains the sodium selenite, selenomethionine, and Se-methyl L-selenocysteine forms of selenium. Some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of selenium may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer; however, the FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive.
Zinc is often poorly absorbed, but Life Extension Mix provides two of the most bioavailable forms of zinc.
Boron is not only needed to maintain healthy bone density but may also help promote healthy prostate cell function.
Life Extension Mix provides a high amount of an optimal form of chromium to help maintain arterial wall structure and already normal glucose levels.
Magnesium helps protect arteries and heart valves, and supports heart and brain cells. Life Extension Mix provides high potencies of six different forms of magnesium to fully saturate the body with this life-saving mineral.
Choline, phosphatidylcholine and inositol help maintain high levels of acetylcholine in the brain to support cognitive function and memory.
A healthy type of dietary fat, medium-chain triglycerides are easily absorbed intact and transported directly to the liver, where they are immediately used for energy.
Due to license restrictions, this product is not for sale to doctors and MLM wholesalers in the USA, Canada or the Philippines.
Posted: July 7, 2016 at 4:12 pm
Nootropics are a class of cognitive enhancing supplements that are used to improve concentration and boost memory power. Nootropics are often used to increase attention spans, help individuals focus and as studying aids.
You will occasionally see Nootropics referred to as smart drugs as they are associated with increased intelligence, motivation, and mental energy.
However, unlike smart drugs which can often cause negative side effects with long-term use, nootropics must be safe, neuroprotective and pose a very low risk of side effects when used appropriate.
Many nootropics share similar mechanisms of action by enhancing increased communication between neurons, helping to balance neurotransmitter levels or by promoting brain cell health. They may help improve energy metabolism in your neurons, support neuroplasticity, or even stimulate the growth of new neurons and synapses.
What are Nootropics and how do they really work? Which are the best nootropics to use if you are a new user?
This article will provide a basic guide to nootropics and give you an overview of how to use these supplements to enhance your mental capabilities.
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Nootropics are broadly any type of neuro enhancing drug or natural supplement with very low prevalence of side effects. The actual definition of what makes a supplement a nootropic is somewhat of a loose concept.
The original description comes from Belgian pharmacologists S. Giurgea and V. Skondia who invented the first Nootropic a compound known as Piracetam in 1963.
They established the classification of Nootropics to refer to cognitive boosting substances with extremely low toxicity that can be taken for long-term use.
This highlights the fact that Piracetam and other Nootropics are able to improve brain functions without any of the negative side effects associated with brain stimulants.
Piracetam (known also by the name Nootropil) is one of the best known Nootropics and makes up part of the Racetam family along with Aniracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Pramiracetam, Oxiracetam, Nefiracetam, Coluracetam and Nebracetam. These are all synthetic compounds that have been created in the lab, but there are also a number of effective herbal and natural nootropic supplements.
For example, fish oil, grape seed extract, bacopa monnieri, yerba mate and even licorice are all natural nootropics. (Click here to see a full Nootropics List of supplements that are available.) You will often find these supplements combined together in a Nootropic Stack to further enhance their effectiveness.
What exactly do Nootropics do? Like smart drugs, Nootropics will not instantaneously give you a higher IQ or a better intellect. But they may boost your brain functions by increasing the production and signalling of various neurotransmitters.
Your brain is essentially a network of billions of neurons connected by synapses. These neurons communicate and work together through chemicals known as neurotransmitters. When neurotransmitters are able to send signals more efficiently, you experience improved concentration, better memory, mood elevation, increased processing ability for mental work, and longer attention spans.
With continued supplementation of certain nootropics, you can improve the synaptic plasticity of neurons, causing long lasting improvement to the health and functioning of your brain.
Other nootropics show effects of vasodilation which means they increase the blood flow to your brain. This supplies your brain with more oxygen, nutrients, and glucose the primary energy source used by the brain during long periods of focus.
The brain requires an immense amount of energy to perform its function, sustain consciousness and to pay attention to your external environment. Even though the brain is only 2% of your bodyweight, it constitutes 20% of your energy expenditure.
Performing mental exercises, learning new things, concentrating on your work and staying alert during the day all burn a lot of energy. By raising bloodflow and oxygenation, you can immediately experience greater capacity for memory and focus.
Supplements that can improve the energy supply to your brain cells (like Acetyl L-Carnitine, Caffeine, Creatine, Ginkgo Biloba, or Vinpocetine) can all enhance focus, mental energy and clarity. This type of nootropic is especially favored among students for studying as their effects are felt immediately.
Nootropics can also show signs of neuro-preservation and neuro-protection. These compounds directly affect the levels of brain chemicals associated with slowing down the aging process. Some nootropics could in an increase in the production of Nerve Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor to stimulate the growth of neurons and neurites while slowing down the rate of damage as well.
Over time, this could potentially slow down signs of aging like loss of memory and even counter the development of disorders like Alzheimers disease.
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Below is a list of some of the most popular and best nootropics that are available today. Each supplement with have its own unique mechanism of action that is distinct from other nootropics.
You can either select the supplement that best matches your needs or goals, or you can combine several nootropic compounds together in what is known as a stack. A stack simply involves any pairing of substances that enhance and complement each other when taken simultaneously.
Most of the pre-packaged brain boosters available will stack together several different herbal or synthetic nootropics like those listed below, but you can also buy the bulk raw powder and mix your own capsules to design a formula that is right for you.
Racetam: As mentioned previously, racetams are a class of nootropics including the widely used Piracetam, Aniracetam, Pramiracetam, and Oxiracetam.
They all share a similar chemical structure with a Pyrrolidone nucleus. Racetams work by dramatically increasing levels of neurotransmitters and other chemicals required for proper brain function like glutamate and acetylcholine.
They have been tested to improve cognitive function, prevent damage to brain cells from alcohol consumption and other factors, and to increase the communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Choline: Choline is frequently found in a nootropic stack with racetams like Piracetam and Aniracetam. Taking choline supplements will cause greater production of the acetylcholine neurotransmitter in the brain.
Since Racetams result in increased uptake and demand for acetylcholine, stacking choline with this nootropic will further enhance your results. Studies have shown that choline supplementation can improve performance on memory tests as well as social behavior. Choline also plays a key role in the production of phospholipids that are incorporated into brain cell membranes.
Pyritinol: Pyritinol has anti-oxidant effects for supporting the long-term health of the brain. But its primary benefit is aiding glucose uptake for periods of extended mental strain. If you are studying or working for a long period of time,
your brain will start to diminish its glucose (sugar) stores which are the primary way that the brain derives its energy.
Psychological studies have shown that continuing to refuel your brain with glucose will improve concentration and cognitive ability during extended periods of mental work. Supplementing Pyritinol aids further in glucose uptake so that your mental energy levels are higher.
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Vinpocetine: Vinpocetine has been shown as one of the most effective nootropics for improving brain blood flow. After taking Vinpocetine, the blood vessels dilate and are able to circulate more blood to the brain.
This causes a number of immediately noticeable effects such as concentration boosting, better mental agility, and higher energy levels and motivation.
There are many more nootropics available out there and different ones can assist you in improving your brain in various different ways. For a full Nootropics List, keep reading this website and check out our many Nootropic reviews.
Which nootropic supplement you pick is largely a matter of personal preference. You might want to check out the pre-made nootropic products like Alpha Brain or you might prefer to design your own stack by purchasing ingredients like Piracetam powder.
The health and capabilities of your brain are one of the most important determining factors in a happy and successful life, so whatever you pick you can rest assured that you are making a smart investment.
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Posted: July 3, 2016 at 12:22 pm
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On April 27, 2016, Sirena, the newest member of the Oceania Cruises fleet, was christened in Barcelona, Spain. Watch the event as it happened live, including opening remarks from Oceania Cruises President Jason Montague, Sirenas Godmother Claudine Ppin, the christening of the ship, and all the festivities!
Filled with a spectacular array of diverse and exotic destinations, your world awaits your discovery. There is simply no better way to explore it than aboard the elegant ships of Oceania Cruises. Our unique itineraries are wide-ranging, featuring the most fascinating destinations throughout the world. Regatta, Insignia, Nautica, Sirena, Marina and Riviera are all intimate and luxurious, with each calling on the worlds most desirable ports, from historic cities and modern meccas to seaside villages and faraway islands. On a voyage with Oceania Cruises, each day offers the rewarding opportunity to experience the history, culture and cuisine of a wondrous new destination.
Relax on board our luxurious ships and savor cuisine renowned as the finest at sea, rivaling even Michelin-starred restaurants ashore. Inspired by Master Chef Jacques Ppin, these culinary delights have always been a hallmark that distinguishes the Oceania Cruises experience from any other. Considering the uncompromising quality, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of an Oceania Cruises voyage is its incredible value. Lavish complimentary amenities abound, and there are never supplemental charges in any of the onboard restaurants. Value packages ensure that sipping a glass of vintage wine, surfing the Internet or enjoying a shore excursion is both convenient and affordable.
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Posted: June 25, 2016 at 10:52 am
Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.
Keywords: chamomile, dietary agents, flavonoids, polyphenols, human health
The interplay of plants and human health has been documented for thousands of years (13). Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years (2, 46). The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the tendency of herbs to work slowly, usually with minimal toxic side effects. One of the most common herbs used for medicinal purposes is chamomile whose standardized tea and herbal extracts are prepared from dried flowers of Matricaria species. Chamomile is one of the oldest, most widely used and well documented medicinal plants in the world and has been recommended for a variety of healing applications (7). Chamomile is a native of the old World and is a member of the daisy family (Asteraceae or Compositae). The hollow, bright gold cones of the flowers are packed with disc or tubular florets and are ringed with about fifteen white ray or ligulate florets, widely represented by two known varieties viz. German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) (8) . In this review we will discuss the use and possible merits of chamomile, examining its historical use and recent scientific and clinical evaluations of its potential use in the management of various human ailments.
Different classes of bioactive constituents are present in chamomile, which have been isolated and used as medicinal preparations and cosmetics (9). The plant contains 0.24%1.9% volatile oil, composed of a variety of separate oils. When exposed to steam distillation, the oil ranges in color from brilliant blue to deep green when fresh but turns to dark yellow after storage. Despite fading, the oil does not lose its potency. Approximately 120 secondary metabolites have been identified in chamomile, including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids (10, 11). The principal components of the essential oil extracted from the German chamomile flowers are the terpenoids -bisabolol and its oxide azulenes including chamazulene and acetylene derivatives. Chamazulene and bisabolol are very unstable and are best preserved in an alcoholic tincture. The essential oil of Roman chamomile contains less chamazulene and is mainly constituted from esters of angelic acid and tiglic acid. It also contains farnesene and -pinene. Roman chamomile contains up to 0.6% of sesquiterpene lactones of the germacranolide type, mainly nobilin and 3-epinobilin. Both -bisabolol, bisabolol oxides A and B and chamazulene or azulenesse, farnesene and spiro-ether quiterpene lactones, glycosides, hydroxycoumarins, flavanoids (apigenin, luteolin, patuletin, and quercetin), coumarins (herniarin and umbelliferone), terpenoids, and mucilage are considered to be the major bio-active ingredients (12, 13). Other major constituents of the flowers include several phenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, patuletin as glucosides and various acetylated derivatives. Among flavonoids, apigenin is the most promising compound. It is present in very small quantities as free apigenin, but predominantly exists in the form of various glycosides (1418).
Chamomile is known to be used in various forms of its preparations. Dry powder of chamomile flower is recommended and used by many people for traditionally established health problems. Medicinal ingredients are normally extracted from the dry flowers of chamomile by using water, ethanol or methanol as solvents and corresponding extracts are known as aqueous, ethanolic (alcoholic) and/or methanolic extracts. Optimum chamomile extracts contain about 50 percent alcohol. Normally standardized extracts contain 1.2% of apigenin which is one of the most effective bioactive agents. Aqueous extracts, such as in the form of tea, contain quite low concentrations of free apigenin but include high levels of apigenin-7-O-glucoside. Oral infusion of chamomile is recommended by the German Commission E (19, 20).Chamomile tea is one of the worlds most popular herbal teas and about a million cups are consumed every day. Tea bags of chamomile are also available in the market, containing chamomile flower powder, either pure or blended with other popular medicinal herbs. Chamomile tincture may also be prepared as one part chamomile flower in four parts of water having 12% grain alcohol, which is used to correct summer diarrhea in children and also used with purgatives to prevent cramping. Chamomile flowers are extensively used alone, or combined with crushed poppy-heads, as a poultice or hot foment for inflammatory pain or congestive neuralgia, and in cases of external swelling, such as facial swelling associated with underlying infection or abscess. Chamomile whole plant is used for making herb beers, and also for a lotion, for external application in toothache, earache, neuralgia and in cases of external swelling (20). It is also known to be used as bath additive, recommended for soothing ano-genital inflammation (21). The tea infusion is used as a wash or gargle for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat (22, 23). Inhalation of the vaporized essential oils derived from chamomile flowers is recommended to relieve anxiety, general depression. Chamomile oil is a popular ingredient of aromatherapy and hair care (24, 25). Roman chamomile is widely used in cosmetic preparations and in soothing and softening effect on the skin (26, 27).
Traditionally, chamomile has been used for centuries as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mild astringent and healing medicine (28). As a traditional medicine, it is used to treat wounds, ulcers, eczema, gout, skin irritations, bruises, burns, canker sores, neuralgia, sciatica, rheumatic pain, hemorrhoids, mastitis and other ailments (29, 30). Externally, chamomile has been used to treat diaper rash, cracked nipples, chicken pox, ear and eye infections, disorders of the eyes including blocked tear ducts, conjunctivitis, nasal inflammation and poison ivy (31, 32). Chamomile is widely used to treat inflammations of the skin and mucous membranes, and for various bacterial infections of the skin, oral cavity and gums, and respiratory tract. Chamomile in the form of an aqueous extract has been frequently used as a mild sedative to calm nerves and reduce anxiety, to treat hysteria, nightmares, insomnia and other sleep problems (33). Chamomile has been valued as a digestive relaxant and has been used to treat various gastrointestinal disturbances including flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, anorexia, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting (34, 35). Chamomile has also been used to treat colic, croup, and fevers in children (36). It has been used as an emmenagogue and a uterine tonic in women. It is also effective in arthritis, back pain, bedsores and stomach cramps.
The flowers of chamomile contain 12% volatile oils including alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabolol oxides A & B, and matricin (usually converted to chamazulene and other flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic properties (12, 19, 35, 36). A study in human volunteers demonstrated that chamomile flavonoids and essential oils penetrate below the skin surface into the deeper skin layers (37). This is important for their use as topical antiphlogistic (anti-inflammatory) agents. One of chamomiles anti-inflammatory activities involve the inhibition of LPS-induced prostaglandin E(2) release and attenuation of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme activity without affecting the constitutive form, COX-1 (38).
Most evaluations of tumor growth inhibition by chamomile involve studies with apigenin which is one of the bioactive constituents of chamomile. Studies on preclinical models of skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancer have shown promising growth inhibitory effects (3943). In a recently conducted study, chamomile extracts were shown to cause minimal growth inhibitory effects on normal cells, but showed significant reductions in cell viability in various human cancer cell lines. Chamomile exposure induced apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells at similar doses (18). The efficacy of the novel agent TBS-101, a mixture of seven standardized botanical extracts including chamomile has been recently tested. The results confirm it to have a good safety profile with significant anticancer activities against androgen-refractory human prostrate cancer PC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo situation (44).
Common cold (acute viral nasopharyngitis) is the most common human disease. It is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system. Typically common cold is not life-threatening, although its complications (such as pneumonia) can lead to death, if not properly treated. Studies indicate that inhaling steam with chamomile extract has been helpful in common cold symptoms (45); however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
It has been suggested that regular use of flavonoids consumed in food may reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease in elderly men (46). A study assessed the flavonoid intake of 805 men aged 6584 years who were followed up for 5 years. Flavonoid intake (analyzed in tertiles) was significantly inversely associated with mortality from coronary heart disease and showed an inverse relation with incidence of myocardial infarction. In another study (47), on twelve patients with cardiac disease who underwent cardiac catheterization, hemodynamic measurements obtained prior to and 30 minutes after the oral ingestion of chamomile tea exhibited a small but significant increase in the mean brachial artery pressure. No other significant hemodynamic changes were observed after chamomile consumption. Ten of the twelve patients fell into a deep sleep shortly after drinking the beverage. A large, well-designed randomized controlled trial is needed to assess the potential value of chamomile in improving cardiac health.
An apple pectin-chamomile extract may help shorten the course of diarrhea in children as well as relieve symptoms associated with the condition (47). Two clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of chamomile for the treatment of colic in children. Chamomile tea was combined with other herbs (German chamomile, vervain, licorice, fennel, balm mint) for administration. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 68 healthy term infants who had colic (2 to 8 weeks old) received either herbal tea or placebo (glucose, flavoring). Each infant was offered treatment with every bout of colic, up to 150 mL/dose, no more than three times a day. After 7 days of treatment, parents reported that the tea eliminated the colic in 57% of the infants, whereas placebo was helpful in only 26% (P
Topical applications of chamomile have been shown to be moderately effective in the treatment of atopic eczema (50). It was found to be about 60% as effective as 0.25% hydrocortisone cream (51). Roman chamomile of the Manzana type (Kamillosan (R)) may ease discomfort associated with eczema when applied as a cream containing chamomile extract. The Manzana type of chamomile is rich in active ingredients and does not exhibit chamomile-related allergenic potential. In a partially double-blind, randomized study carried out as a half-side comparison, Kamillosan(R) cream was compared with 0.5% hydrocortisone cream and a placebo consisting only of vehicle cream in patients suffering from medium-degree atopic eczema (52). After 2 weeks of treatment, Kamillosan(R) cream showed a slight superiority over 0.5% hydrocortisone and a marginal difference as compared to placebo. Further research is needed to evaluate the usefulness of topical chamomile in managing eczema.
Chamomile is used traditionally for numerous gastrointestinal conditions, including digestive disorders, “spasm” or colic, upset stomach, flatulence (gas), ulcers, and gastrointestinal irritation (53). Chamomile is especially helpful in dispelling gas, soothing the stomach, and relaxing the muscles that move food through the intestines. The protective effect of a commercial preparation (STW5, Iberogast), containing the extracts of bitter candy tuft, lemon balm leaf, chamomile flower, caraway fruit, peppermint leaf, liquorice root, Angelica root, milk thistle fruit and greater celandine herb, against the development of gastric ulcers has been previously reported (54). STW5 extracts produced a dose dependent anti-ulcerogenic effect associated with a reduced acid output, an increased mucin secretion, an increase in prostaglandin E (2) release and a decrease in leukotrienes. The results obtained demonstrated that STW5 not only lowered gastric acidity as effectively as a commercial antacid, but was more effective in inhibiting secondary hyperacidity (54).
Studies suggest that chamomile ointment may improve hemorrhoids. Tinctures of chamomile can also be used in a sitz bath format. Tincture of Roman chamomile may reduce inflammation associated with hemorrhoids (55, 56).
It has been claimed that consumption of chamomile tea boosts the immune system and helps fight infections associated with colds. The health promoting benefits of chamomile was assessed in a study which involved fourteen volunteers who each drank five cups of the herbal tea daily for two consecutive weeks. Daily urine samples were taken and tested throughout the study, both before and after drinking chamomile tea. Drinking chamomile was associated with a significant increase in urinary levels of hippurate and glycine, which have been associated with increased antibacterial activity (57). In another study, chamomile relieved hypertensive symptoms and decreased the systolic blood pressure significantly, increasing urinary output (58). Additional studies are needed before a more definitive link between chamomile and its alleged health benefits can be established.
Inflammation is associated with many gastrointestinal disorders complaints, such as esophageal reflux, diverticular disease, and inflammatory disease (5961). Studies in preclinical models suggest that chamomile inhibits Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can contribute to stomach ulcers (60). Chamomile is believed to be helpful in reducing smooth muscle spasms associated with various gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Chamomile is often used to treat mild skin irritations, including sunburn, rashes, sores and even eye inflammations (6265) but its value in treating these conditions has not been shown with evidence-based research.
Mouth ulcers are a common condition with a variety of etiologies (66). Stomatitis is a major dose-limiting toxicity from bolus 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) chemotherapy regimens. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including 164 patients was conducted (22). Patients were entered into the study at the time of their first cycle of 5-FU-based chemotherapy and were randomized to receive a chamomile or placebo mouthwash thrice daily for 14 days. There was no suggestion of any stomatitis difference between patients randomized to either protocol arm. There was also no suggestion of toxicity. Similar results were obtained with another prospective trial on chamomile in this situation. Data obtained from these clinical trials did not support the pre study hypothesis that chamomile could decrease 5-FU-induced stomatitis. The results remain unclear if chamomile is helpful in this situation.
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease resulting from low bone mass (osteopenia) due to excessive bone resorption. Sufferers are prone to bone fractures from relatively minor trauma. Agents which include selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs, biphosphonates, calcitonin are frequently used to prevent bone loss. To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, chamomile extract was evaluated for its ability to stimulate the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cells. Chamomile extract was shown to stimulate osteoblastic cell differentiation and to exhibit an anti-estrogenic effect, suggesting an estrogen receptor-related mechanism (67). However, further studies are needed before it can be considered for clinical use.
Traditionally, chamomile preparations such as tea and essential oil aromatherapy have been used to treat insomnia and to induce sedation (calming effects). Chamomile is widely regarded as a mild tranquillizer and sleep-inducer. Sedative effects may be due to the flavonoid, apigenin that binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain (68). Studies in preclinical models have shown anticonvulsant and CNS depressant effects respectively. Clinical trials are notable for their absence, although ten cardiac patients are reported to have immediately fallen into a deep sleep lasting for 90 minutes after drinking chamomile tea (47). Chamomile extracts exhibit benzodiazepine-like hypnotic activity (69). In another study, inhalation of the vapor of chamomile oil reduced a stress-induced increase in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. Diazepam, co-administered with the chamomile oil vapor, further reduced ACTH levels, while flumazenile, a BDZ antagonist blocked the effect of chamomile oil vapor on ACTH. According to Paladini et al. (70), the separation index (ratio between the maximal anxiolytic dose and the minimal sedative dose) for diazepam is 3 while for apigenin it is 10. Compounds, other than apigenin, present in extracts of chamomile can also bind BDZ and GABA receptors in the brain and might be responsible for some sedative effect; however, many of these compounds are as yet unidentified.
Chamomile has been reported in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). But the reports seem contradictory as an earlier report suggests that German chamomile showed significant inhibition of GAD activity (71). The recent results from the controlled clinical trial on chamomile extract for GAD suggests that it may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD (72). Extracts of chamomile (M. recutita) possess suitable effects on seizure induced by picrotoxin (73). Furthermore, apigenin has been shown to reduce the latency in the onset of picrotoxin-induced convulsions and reduction in locomotor activity but did not demonstrate any anxiolytic, myorelaxant, or anticonvulsant activities (16).
Studies suggest that chamomile ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic complications by suppressing blood sugar levels, increasing liver glycogen storage and inhibition of sorbitol in the human erythrocytes (74). The pharmacological activity of chamomile extract has shown to be independent of insulin secretion (75), and studies further reveal its protective effect on pancreatic beta cells in diminishing hyperglycemia-related oxidative stress (76). Additional studies are required to evaluate the usefulness of chamomile in managing diabetes.
The efficacy of lubrication of the endo-tracheal tube cuff with chamomile before intubation on postoperative sore throat and hoarseness was determined in a randomized double-blind study. 161 patients whose American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status was I or II, and undergoing elective surgical, orthopedic, gynecological or urological surgeries were divided in two groups. The study group received 10 puffs of chamomile extract (Kamillosan M spray, total 370 mg of Chamomile extract) at the site of the cuff of the endotracheal tube for lubrication, while the control group did not receive any lubrication before intubations. Standard general anesthesia with tracheal intubations was given in both groups. 41 out of 81 patients (50.6%) in the chamomile group reported no postoperative sore throat in the post-anesthesia care unit compared with 45 out of 80 patients (56.3%) in the control group. Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness both in the post-anesthesia care unit and at 24 h post-operation were not statistically different. Lubrication of endo-tracheal tube cuff with chamomile extract spray before intubations can not prevent post operative sore throat and hoarseness (77). Similar results were obtained in another double blind study (78).
Vaginal inflammation is common in women of all ages. Vaginitis is associated with itching, vaginal discharge, or pain with urination. Atrophic vaginitis most commonly occurs in menopausal and postmenopausal women, and its occurrence is often associated with reduced levels of estrogen. Chamomile douche may improve symptoms of vaginitis with few side effects (79). There is insufficient research data to allow conclusions concerning possible potential benefits of chamomile for this condition.
The efficacy of topical use of chamomile to enhance wound healing was evaluated in a double-blind trial on 14 patients who underwent dermabrasion of tattoos. The effects on drying and epithelialization were observed, and chamomile was judged to be statistically efficacious in producing wound drying and in speeding epithelialization (80). Antimicrobial activity of the extract against various microorganisms was also assessed. The test group, on day 15, exhibited a greater reduction in the wound area when compared with the controls (61 % versus 48%), faster epithelialization and a significantly higher wound-breaking strength. In addition, wet and dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content were significantly higher. The increased rate of wound contraction, together with the increased wound-breaking strength, hydroxyproline content and histological observations, support the use of M. recutita in wound management (81). Recent studies suggest that chamomile caused complete wound healing faster than corticosteroids (82). However, further studies are needed before it can be considered for clinical use.
Essential oils obtained from Roman chamomile are the basic ingredients of aromatherapy. Clinical trials of aromatherapy in cancer patients have shown no statistically significant differences between treated and untreated patients (83). Another pilot study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experience in Korean elderly women. A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design used 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, rosemary, and lemon was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break. The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem (8486). However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.
A relatively low percentage of people are sensitive to chamomile and develop allergic reactions (87). People sensitive to ragweed and chrysanthemums or other members of the Compositae family are more prone to develop contact allergies to chamomile, especially if they take other drugs that help to trigger the sensitization. A large-scale clinical trial was conducted in Hamburg, Germany, between 1985 and 1991 to study the development of contact dermatitis secondary to exposure to a mixture of components derived from the Compositae family. Twelve species of the Compositae family, including German chamomile, were selected and tested individually when the mixture induced allergic reactions. During the study, 3,851 individuals were tested using a patch with the plant extract (88). Of these patients, 118 (3.1%) experienced an allergic reaction. Further tests revealed that feverfew elicited the most allergic reactions (70.1% of patients) followed by chrysanthemums (63.6%) and tansy (60.8%). Chamomile fell in the middle range (56.5%). A study involving 686 subjects exposed either to a sesquiterpene lactone mixture or a mixture of Compositae extracts led to allergic reactions in 4.5% of subjects (89). In another study it was shown that eye washing with chamomile tea in hay fever patients who have conjunctivitis exacerbates the eye inflammation, whereas no worsening of eye inflammation was noted when chamomile tea was ingested orally (90). Chamomile is listed on the FDA’s GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. It is possible that some reports of allergic reactions to chamomile may be due to contamination of chamomile by “dog chamomile,” a highly allergenic and bad-tasting plant of similar appearance. Evidence of cross-reactivity of chamomile with other drugs is not well documented, and further study of this issue is needed prior to reaching conclusions. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with liver or kidney disease has not been established, although there have not been any credible reports of toxicity caused by this common beverage tea.
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Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future
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The salon d’Esgrignon represented the upper aristocracy (the returning Troisvilles attached themselves to it); the Cormon salon represented, under the clever influence of du Bousquier, that fatal class of opinions which, without being truly liberal or resolutely royalist, gave birth to the 221 on that famous day when the struggle openly began between the most august, grandest, and only true power, ROYALTY, and the most false, most changeful, most oppressive of all powers,–the power called PARLIAMENTARY, which elective assemblies exercise. this paragraph refers to controversies, before the French “July Revolution” of 1830, between rightist (“cote droit” = right side) legitimists, who read the official “Moniteur” newspaper and supported the absolutist Bourbon monarchy of King Charles X, and leftist (“cote gauche” = left side) liberals, who read “Le Temps” and argued for reform or revolution; “nothing good could come of Nazareth” = from the Bible, John, I, 46: “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth”} He served out some grog with a liberal hand, And bade them sit down on the beach: And they could not but own that their Captain looked grand, As he stood and delivered his speech. Having a little time upon my hands, I resolved to gratify a liberal curiosity by making a trip thither. I infinitely prefer the tender and liberal spirit of Mainwaring, which, impressed with the deepest conviction of my merit, is satisfied that whatever I do must be right; and look with a degree of contempt on the inquisitive and doubtful fancies of that heart which seems always debating on the reasonableness of its emotions. The liberal military code makes provision for hanging many kinds of persons, and gentlemen are not excluded. Therefore measure not thine advancements, by quantity, but frame them by measure: and defer not charities till death; for, certainly, if a man weigh it rightly, he that doth so, is rather liberal of another man’s, than of his own. But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education. Having already sufficiently considered the general principles of this subject, let us now go into the practical part thereof; the one is a liberal employment for the mind, the other necessary. But when at an election the Liberals had written on his garden fence in large blue letters: This way to Rome, he had been very angry, and threatened to prosecute the leaders of the Liberal party in Blackstable. Liberalism has just as much right to exist as has the most moral conservatism; but I am attacking RUSSIAN liberalism; and I attack it for the simple reason that a Russian liberal is not a Russian liberal, he is a non-Russian liberal. Now those vague liberal dreams with which the Emperor Alexander had ascended the throne, and which he had tried to put into effect with the aid of his associates, Czartoryski, Novosiltsev, Kochubey, and Strogonov- whom he himself in jest had called his Comite de salut public- were taking shape and being realized.