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Right ascension – Wikipedia

Posted: January 13, 2017 at 7:09 am

Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol ) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.[1] When combined with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the direction of a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system.

An old term, right ascension (Latin, ascensio recta[2]) refers to the ascension, or the point on the celestial equator which rises with any celestial object, as seen from the Earth’s equator, where the celestial equator intersects the horizon at a right angle. It is contrasted with oblique ascension, the point on the celestial equator which rises with a celestial object as seen from almost anywhere else on Earth, where the celestial equator intersects the horizon at an oblique angle.[3]

Right ascension is the celestial equivalent of terrestrial longitude. Both right ascension and longitude measure an angle from a primary direction (a zero point) on an equator. Right ascension is measured from the vernal equinox or the First Point of Aries, which is the place on the celestial sphere where the Sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north at the March equinox and is located in the constellation Pisces. Right ascension is measured continuously in a full circle from that equinox towards the east.[4]

Any units of angular measure could have been chosen for right ascension, but it is customarily measured in hours (h), minutes (m), and seconds (s), with 24h being equivalent to a full circle. Astronomers have chosen this unit to measure right ascension because they measure a star’s location by timing its passage through the highest point in the sky as the Earth rotates. The highest point in the sky, called meridian, is the projection of a longitude line onto the celestial sphere. Since a complete circle contains 24h of right ascension or 360 (degrees of arc), 124 of a circle is measured as 1h of right ascension, or 15; 1(2460) of a circle is measured as 1m of right ascension, or 15 minutes of arc (also written as 15); and 1(246060) of a circle contains 1s of right ascension, or 15 seconds of arc (also written as 15). A full circle, measured in right-ascension units, contains 246060 = 86400s, or 2460 = 1440m, or 24h.[5]

Because right ascensions are measured in hours (of rotation of the Earth), they can be used to time the positions of objects in the sky. For example, if a star with RA=01h 30m 00s is on the meridian, then a star with RA=20h 00m 00s will be on the meridian 18.5 sidereal hours later.

Sidereal hour angle, used in celestial navigation, is similar to right ascension, but increases westward rather than eastward. Usually measured in degrees (), it is the complement of right ascension with respect to 24h.[6] It is important not to confuse sidereal hour angle with the astronomical concept of hour angle, which measures angular distance of an object westward from the local meridian.

The Earth’s axis rotates slowly westward about the poles of the ecliptic, completing one circuit in about 26,000 years. This effect, known as precession, causes the coordinates of stationary celestial objects to change continuously, if rather slowly. Therefore, equatorial coordinates (including right ascension) are inherently relative to the year of their observation, and astronomers specify them with reference to a particular year, known as an epoch. Coordinates from different epochs must be mathematically rotated to match each other, or to match a standard epoch.[7] Right ascension for “fixed stars” near the ecliptic and equator increases by about 3.3 seconds per year on average, or 5.5 minutes per century, but for fixed stars further from the ecliptic the rate of change can be anything from negative infinity to positive infinity. The right ascension of Polaris is increasing quickly. The North Ecliptic Pole in Draco and the South Ecliptic Pole in Dorado are always at right ascension 18h and 6h respectively.

The currently used standard epoch is J2000.0, which is January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT. The prefix “J” indicates that it is a Julian epoch. Prior to J2000.0, astronomers used the successive Besselian Epochs B1875.0, B1900.0, and B1950.0.[8]

The concept of right ascension has been known at least as far back as Hipparchus who measured stars in equatorial coordinates in the 2nd century BC. But Hipparchus and his successors made their star catalogs in ecliptic coordinates, and the use of RA was limited to special cases.

With the invention of the telescope, it became possible for astronomers to observe celestial objects in greater detail, provided that the telescope could be kept pointed at the object for a period of time. The easiest way to do that is to use an equatorial mount, which allows the telescope to be aligned with one of its two pivots parallel to the Earth’s axis. A motorized clock drive often is used with an equatorial mount to cancel out the Earth’s rotation. As the equatorial mount became widely adopted for observation, the equatorial coordinate system, which includes right ascension, was adopted at the same time for simplicity. Equatorial mounts could then be accurately pointed at objects with known right ascension and declination by the use of setting circles. The first star catalog to use right ascension and declination was John Flamsteed’s Historia Coelestis Britannica (1712, 1725).

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Offshore drilling – Wikipedia

Posted: January 8, 2017 at 8:10 pm

Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed. It is typically carried out in order to explore for and subsequently extract petroleum which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. Most commonly, the term is used to describe drilling activities on the continental shelf, though the term can also be applied to drilling in lakes, inshore waters and inland seas.

Offshore drilling presents environmental challenges, both from the produced hydrocarbons and the materials used during the drilling operation. Controversies include the ongoing US offshore drilling debate.

There are many different types of facilities from which offshore drilling operations take place. These include bottom founded drilling rigs (jackup barges and swamp barges), combined drilling and production facilities either bottom founded or floating platforms, and deepwater mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) including semi-submersibles and drillships. These are capable of operating in water depths up to 3,000 metres (9,800ft). In shallower waters the mobile units are anchored to the seabed, however in deeper water (more than 1,500 metres (4,900ft) the semisubmersibles or drillships are maintained at the required drilling location using dynamic positioning.

Around 1891, the first submerged oil wells were drilled from platforms built on piles in the fresh waters of the Grand Lake St. Marys (a.k.a. Mercer County Reservoir) in Ohio. The wells were developed by small local companies such as Bryson, Riley Oil, German-American and Banker’s Oil.

Around 1896, the first submerged oil wells in salt water were drilled in the portion of the Summerland field extending under the Santa Barbara Channel in California. The wells were drilled from piers extending from land out into the channel.[1][2]

Other notable early submerged drilling activities occurred on the Canadian side of Lake Erie in the 1900s and Caddo Lake in Louisiana in the 1910s. Shortly thereafter wells were drilled in tidal zones along the Texas and Louisiana gulf coast. The Goose Creek Oil Field near Baytown, Texas is one such example. In the 1920s drilling activities occurred from concrete platforms in Venezuela’s Lake Maracaibo.

One of the oldest subsea wells is the Bibi Eibat well, which came on stream in 1923 in Azerbaijan.[3][dubious discuss] The well was located on an artificial island in a shallow portion of the Caspian Sea. In the early 1930s, the Texas Co., later Texaco (now Chevron) developed the first mobile steel barges for drilling in the brackish coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1937, Pure Oil (now Chevron) and its partner Superior Oil (now ExxonMobil) used a fixed platform to develop a field 1 mile (1.6km) offshore of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana in 14 feet (4.3m) of water.

In 1938, Humble Oil built a mile-long wooden trestle with railway tracks into the sea at McFadden Beach on the Gulf of Mexico, placing a derrick at its end – this was later destroyed by a hurricane.[4]

In 1945, concern for American control of its offshore oil reserves caused President Harry Truman to issue an Executive Order unilaterally extending American territory to the edge of its continental shelf, an act that effectively ended the 3-mile limit “freedom of the seas” regime.

In 1946, Magnolia Petroleum (now ExxonMobil) drilled at a site 18 miles (29km) off the coast, erecting a platform in 18 feet (5.5m) of water off St. Mary Parish, Louisiana.

In early 1947, Superior Oil erected a drilling and production platform in 20 feet (6.1m) of water some 18 miles (29km) off Vermilion Parish, La. But it was Kerr-McGee Oil Industries (now Anadarko Petroleum), as operator for partners Phillips Petroleum (ConocoPhillips) and Stanolind Oil & Gas (BP) that completed its historic Ship Shoal Block 32 well in October 1947, months before Superior actually drilled a discovery from their Vermilion platform farther offshore. In any case, that made Kerr-McGee’s well the first oil discovery drilled out of sight of land.[5]

When offshore drilling moved into deeper waters of up to 30 metres (98ft), fixed platform rigs were built, until demands for drilling equipment was needed in the 100 feet (30m) to 120 metres (390ft) depth of the Gulf of Mexico, the first jack-up rigs began appearing from specialized offshore drilling contractors such as forerunners of ENSCO International.

The first semi-submersible resulted from an unexpected observation in 1961. Blue Water Drilling Company owned and operated the four-column submersible Blue Water Rig No.1 in the Gulf of Mexico for Shell Oil Company. As the pontoons were not sufficiently buoyant to support the weight of the rig and its consumables, it was towed between locations at a draught midway between the top of the pontoons and the underside of the deck. It was noticed that the motions at this draught were very small, and Blue Water Drilling and Shell jointly decided to try operating the rig in the floating mode. The concept of an anchored, stable floating deep-sea platform had been designed and tested back in the 1920s by Edward Robert Armstrong for the purpose of operating aircraft with an invention known as the ‘seadrome’. The first purpose-built drilling semi-submersible Ocean Driller was launched in 1963. Since then, many semi-submersibles have been purpose-designed for the drilling industry mobile offshore fleet.

The first offshore drillship was the CUSS 1 developed for the Mohole project to drill into the Earth’s crust.

As of June, 2010, there were over 620 mobile offshore drilling rigs (Jackups, semisubs, drillships, barges) available for service in the competitive rig fleet.[6]

One of the world’s deepest hubs is currently the Perdido in the Gulf of Mexico, floating in 2,438 meters of water. It is operated by Royal Dutch Shell and was built at a cost of $3 billion.[7] The deepest operational platform is the Petrobras America Cascade FPSO in the Walker Ridge 249 field in 2,600 meters of water.

Notable offshore fields include:

Offshore oil and gas production is more challenging than land-based installations due to the remote and harsher environment. Much of the innovation in the offshore petroleum sector concerns overcoming these challenges, including the need to provide very large production facilities. Production and drilling facilities may be very large and a large investment, such as the Troll A platform standing on a depth of 300 meters.

Another type of offshore platform may float with a mooring system to maintain it on location. While a floating system may be lower cost in deeper waters than a fixed platform, the dynamic nature of the platforms introduces many challenges for the drilling and production facilities.

The ocean can add several billion meters or more to the fluid column. The addition increases the equivalent circulating density and downhole pressures in drilling wells, as well as the energy needed to lift produced fluids for separation on the platform.

The trend today is to conduct more of the production operations subsea, by separating water from oil and re-injecting it rather than pumping it up to a platform, or by flowing to onshore, with no installations visible above the sea. Subsea installations help to exploit resources at progressively deeper waterslocations which had been inaccessibleand overcome challenges posed by sea ice such as in the Barents Sea. One such challenge in shallower environments is seabed gouging by drifting ice features (means of protecting offshore installations against ice action includes burial in the seabed).

Offshore manned facilities also present logistics and human resources challenges. An offshore oil platform is a small community in itself with cafeteria, sleeping quarters, management and other support functions. In the North Sea, staff members are transported by helicopter for a two-week shift. They usually receive higher salary than onshore workers do. Supplies and waste are transported by ship, and the supply deliveries need to be carefully planned because storage space on the platform is limited. Today, much effort goes into relocating as many of the personnel as possible onshore, where management and technical experts are in touch with the platform by video conferencing. An onshore job is also more attractive for the aging workforce in the petroleum industry, at least in the western world. These efforts among others are contained in the established term integrated operations. The increased use of subsea facilities helps achieve the objective of keeping more workers onshore. Subsea facilities are also easier to expand, with new separators or different modules for different oil types, and are not limited by the fixed floor space of an above-water installation.

Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, most notably oil spills from oil tankers or pipelines transporting oil from the platform to onshore facilities, and from leaks and accidents on the platform.[9]Produced water is also generated, which is water brought to the surface along with the oil and gas; it is usually highly saline and may include dissolved or unseparated hydrocarbons.

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Artificial Intelligence Market Size and Forecast by 2024

Posted: January 4, 2017 at 6:06 pm

Artificial intelligence is a fast emerging technology, dealing with development and study of intelligent machines and software. This software is being used across various applications such as manufacturing (assembly line robots), medical research, and speech recognition systems. It also enables in-build software or machines to operate like human beings, thereby allowing devices to collect, analyze data, reason, talk, make decisions and act The global artificial intelligence market was valued at US$ 126.24 Bn in 2015 and is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 36.1% from 2016 to 2024 to reach a value of US$ 3,061.35 Bn in 2024.

The global artificial intelligence market is currently witnessing healthy growth as companies have started leveraging the benefits of such disruptive technologies for effective customer reach and positioning of their services/solutions. Market growth is also supported by an expanding application base of artificial intelligence solutions across various industries. However, factors such as low funding access or high upfront investment, and demand for skilled resources (workforce) are presently acting as major deterrents to market growth.

On the basis of types of artificial intelligence systems, the market is segmented into artificial neural network, digital assistance system, embedded system, expert system, and automated robotic system. Expert system was the most adopted or revenue generating segment in 2015. This was mainly due to the extensive use of artificial intelligence across various sectors including diagnosis, process control, design, monitoring, scheduling and planning.

Based on various applications of artificial intelligence systems, the market has been classified into deep learning, smart robots, image recognition, digital personal assistant, querying method, language processing, gesture control, video analysis, speech recognition, context aware processing, and cyber security. Image recognition is projected to be the fastest growing segment by application in the global artificial intelligence market. This is due to the growing demand for affective computing technology across various end-use sectors for better study of systems that can recognize, analyze, process, and simulate human effects.

North America was the leader in the global artificial intelligence market in 2015, holding approximately 38% of the global market revenue share, and is expected to remain dominant throughout the forecast period from 2016 to 2024. High government funding and a strong technological base have been some of the major factors responsible for the top position of the North America region in the artificial intelligence market over the past few years. Middle East and Africa is expected to grow at the highest CAGR of 38.2% throughout the forecast period. This is mainly attributed to enormous opportunities for artificial intelligence in the MEA region in terms of new airport developments and various technological innovations including robotic automation.

The key market players profiled in this report include QlikTech International AB, MicroStrategy Inc., IBM Corporation, Google, Inc., Brighterion Inc., Microsoft Corporation, IntelliResponse Systems Inc., Next IT Corporation, Nuance Communications, and eGain Corporation.

Chapter 1 Preface 1.1 Research Scope 1.2 Market Segmentation 1.3 Research Methodology

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2.1 Market Snapshot: Global Artificial Intelligence Market, 2015 & 2024 2.2 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Revenue, 2014 2024 (US$ Bn) and CAGR (%)

Chapter 3 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 3.1 Key Trends Analysis 3.2 Market Dynamics 3.2.1 Drivers 3.2.2 Restraints 3.2.3 Opportunities 3.3 Value Chain Analysis 3.4 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Types 3.4.1 Overview 3.4.2 Artificial Neural Network 3.4.3 Digital Assistance System 3.4.4 Embedded System 3.4.5 Expert System 3.4.6 Automated Robotic System 3.5 Global Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 3.5.1 Overview 3.5.2 Deep Learning 3.5.3 Smart Robots 3.5.4 Image Recognition 3.5.5 Digital Personal Assistant 3.5.6 Querying Method 3.5.7 Language Processing 3.5.8 Gesture Control 3.5.9 Video Analysis 3.5.10 Speech Recognition 3.5.11 Context Aware Processing 3.5.12 Cyber Security 3.6 Competitive Landscape 3.6.1 Market Positioning of Key Players in Artificial Intelligence Market (2015) 3.6.2 Competitive Strategies Adopted by Leading Players

Chapter 4 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 4.1 Overview 4.3 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 4.3.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 4.4 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 4.4.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 4.5 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 4.5.1 North America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 5 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 5.1 Overview 5.3 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 5.3.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 5.4 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 5.4.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 5.5 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 5.5.1 Europe Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 6 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 6.1 Overview 6.3 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 6.3.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 6.4 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 6.4.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 6.5 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 6.5.1 Asia Pacific Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 7 Middle East and Africa (MEA) Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 7.1 Overview 7.3 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 7.3.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 7.4 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 7.4.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 7.5 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 7.5.1 MEA Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 8 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis 8.1 Overview 8.3 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Types 8.3.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Types, 2015 & 2024 (%) 8.4 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, By Application 8.4.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Application, 2015 & 2024 (%) 8.5 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Analysis, by Region 8.5.1 Latin America Artificial Intelligence Market Share Analysis, by Region, 2015 & 2024 (%)

Chapter 9 Company Profiles 9.1 QlikTech International AB 9.2 MicroStrategy, Inc. 9.3 IBM Corporation 9.4 Google, Inc. 9.5 Brighterion, Inc. 9.6 Microsoft Corporation 9.7 IntelliResponse Systems Inc. 9.8 Next IT Corporation 9.9 Nuance Communications 9.10 eGain Corporation

The Artificial Intelligence Market report provides analysis of the global artificial intelligence market for the period 20142024, wherein the years from 2016 to 2024 is the forecast period and 2015 is considered as the base year. The report precisely covers all the major trends and technologies playing a major role in the artificial intelligence markets growth over the forecast period. It also highlights the drivers, restraints, and opportunities expected to influence the market growth during this period. The study provides a holistic perspective on the markets growth in terms of revenue (in US$ Bn), across different geographies, which includes Asia Pacific (APAC), Latin America (LATAM), North America, Europe, and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

The market overview section of the report showcases the markets dynamics and trends such as the drivers, restraints, and opportunities that influence the current nature and future status of this market. Moreover, the report provides the overview of various strategies and the winning imperatives of the key players in the artificial intelligence market and analyzes their behavior in the prevailing market dynamics.

The report segments the global artificial intelligence market on the types of artificial intelligence systems into artificial neural network, digital assistance system, embedded system, expert system, and automated robotic system. By application, the market has been classified into deep learning, smart robots, image recognition, digital personal assistant, querying method, language processing, gesture control, video analysis, speech recognition, context aware processing, and cyber security. Thus, the report provides in-depth cross-segment analysis for the artificial intelligence market and classifies it into various levels, thereby providing valuable insights on macro as well as micro level.

The report also provides the competitive landscape for the artificial intelligence market, thereby positioning all the major players according to their geographic presence, market attractiveness and recent key developments. The complete artificial intelligence market estimates are the result of our in-depth secondary research, primary interviews, and in-house expert panel reviews. These market estimates have been analyzed by taking into account the impact of different political, social, economic, technological, and legal factors along with the current market dynamics affecting the artificial intelligence markets growth.

QlikTech International AB, MicroStrategy Inc., IBM Corporation, Google, Inc., Brighterion Inc., Microsoft Corporation, IntelliResponse Systems Inc., Next IT Corporation, Nuance Communications, and eGain Corporation are some of the major players which have been profiled in this study. Details such as financials, business strategies, recent developments, and other such strategic information pertaining to these players has been provided as part of company profiling.

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Offshore installation manager – Wikipedia

Posted: December 25, 2016 at 11:09 pm

The Offshore Installation Manager (OIM) is the most senior manager of an offshore platform operating on the UKCS.

Many offshore operators have adopted this UK offshore management model and title and applied it to their operations in all global regions irrespective of the local regulations in force.

In the UK the individual must be officially registered as an OIM with the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive and the OIM is responsible for the health, welfare and safety of the personnel on board the installation, whether a drilling rig, production platform or a support vessel (e.g. a flotel).

The OIM position had arisen in part from the Inquiry into the 1965 Sea Gem disaster, in which the Sea Gem drilling rig collapsed and sank in the southern sector of the North Sea with a loss of 13 lives. The Inquiry recommended that ” … there ought to be a ‘master’ or unquestioned authority on these rigs” and that ” … there ought to be the equivalent of a shipmaster’s daily round when the ‘master’ could question those responsible for different aspects of the day-to-day management of the whole.”[1] The recommendations from the Sea Gem Inquiry were formalised in the Mineral Workings (Offshore Installations) Act 1971 which requires a registered OIM to be in charge of each installation.

Training and selection of OIMs has been the subject of research projects[2] and specialist training.[3]

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California Eugenics Laws: Professor Says State Should …

Posted: December 19, 2016 at 6:04 pm

University of Michigan professor Alex Stern has completed a database of thousands recommended for sterilization when California had eugenics laws on the book and she says those alive should be compensated. Michigan Photography hide caption

There’s a grim chapter in American history that involves forced sterilization. And for much of this past century, California had one of the most active sterilization programs in the country.

A state law from 1909 authorized the surgery for people judged to have “mental disease, which may have been inherited.” That law remained on the books until 1979.

University of Michigan professor Alexandra Minna Stern has been working to identify people who were forcibly sterilized under California’s program. NPR’s Ailsa Chang spoke with Stern, who said this idea of eugenics was intended to “eradicate certain genes from the population.”

The professor describes the program as a historic injustice and called for the state of California to compensate surviving victims of sterilization of relatives of those who are now deceased.

The interview highlights contain some extra content that did not air in the broadcast version.

A 1935 recommendation to sterilize a 23-year-old male patient at Pacific Colony, based a supposed IQ of 75. His foster mother refused the sterilization. The outcome of this case is unknown, but in some instances medical superintendents disregarded such appeals. California Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects Protocol ID 13-08-1310 and the University of Michigan Biomedical IRB HUM00084931 hide caption

A 1935 recommendation to sterilize a 23-year-old male patient at Pacific Colony, based a supposed IQ of 75. His foster mother refused the sterilization. The outcome of this case is unknown, but in some instances medical superintendents disregarded such appeals.

On how she found the names of all the victims

The names are located in 19 microfilm reels that I happened upon while doing research in Sacramento about seven years ago.

On what made her look at the microfilms

I’ve written a book on the history of eugenics in California. But at that point, I still knew very little about the sterilizations themselves; who was sterilized, where did all of the sterilizations take place, how is the policy enacted?

So I did a bit of sleuthing and went to the actual departments themselves the department of mental health in this case, in Sacramento and was fortunate that someone there directed me to some file cabinets that contained microfilm reels with materials that had been microfilmed over the course of the ’60s and ’70s.

And lo and behold, there they were! I was able to begin using them as historical documents and that’s how the project started.

On whether she found any patterns among the 20,000 names she discovered

Our team (and I should say this is the effort of a research team that includes epidemiologists, historians, digital humanists), we have a found a variety of patterns and we keep discovering more.

For example, we have determined that patients with Spanish surnames were much more likely to be sterilized than other patients, demonstrating that there was a racial bias in the sterilization program. We were also able to show the kinds of diagnoses that were given to patients, how that affected times of sterilization. We’re able to look at age of sterilization and also patterns related to gender.

So there’s a whole range of patterns that will help us to understand this pattern of history in California and also how it relates to national dynamics more broadly.

On what Stern and her team found with regard to age and gender patterns

Well, we found that people were sterilized at very young ages, that really often the focus was on minors, people as young as 7. The average age of sterilization was the low 20s, so many of these people were 15, 16, 17 and 18. We also found that, as I mentioned before, that the Spanish surname individuals were more likely to be sterilized at younger ages, indicating that there was interest on behalf of the state at targeting them at lower reproductive ages. In terms of gender, that pattern that I just mentioned, pertains to women as well.

One of the interesting things that we discovered is that initially, more men were sterilized. It started off as sterilization in general and across the country and in California, focused more on men in the teens and 20s and into the 30s. But by the 1930s, that pattern started to change. So by the ’40s and ’50s, more women were being sterilized.

On what kinds of “mental diseases” were focused on

It’s very important to take that terminology with many historic grains of salt. If we go back in time and look at what the terms meant, it often meant people who were not conforming to societal norms, people who were poor, people who lacked education, perhaps didn’t speak sufficient English to make it through school, and so on.

But what it meant for those who were enacting the law were people who were determined to have poor IQs, people with certain psychiatric disorders. But generally, often the way it was used was much more as a catch-all category so people who just didn’t fit, kind of like the misfits of society, so to speak. That’s the way they looked at them.

Looking back on it, I would say that those who were institutionalized because many more people where institutionalized than actually sterilized was because maybe they had a psychiatric condition and they were sent to an institution as was the policy at the time in the mid-20th century. …

But for the most part, this program of eugenics … the idea of sterilization was to eradicate certain genes from the population.

On whether anyone among those who were sterilized are still alive

I haven’t found anyone who’s still alive. I have been contacted by relatives … people who contacted me whose aunts or uncles were sterilized at some of these institutions. In the recent paper that my team published, we determined through statistical analysis that it is likely that slightly over 800 people, about 500 women and 300 men, are alive today.

Those numbers don’t map on to exact people, they don’t correspond to a precise person. But what we’ve done, we’ve generated the most reliable estimates, and based on that estimate and also looking at the timing, we estimate that the majority of these people were sterilized between 1945 and 1949 and their average age is about 88, so fairly old.

So what we could do is we could go and look at the records. And that’s where I’d like to work with the state of California, because we’ve essentially created a eugenics registry. We can look at the records and identify likely individuals and then reach out and contact them.

I, however, would like to mention that two states that have enacted policies for monetary reparations for sterilization victims North Carolina and Virginia the states have to lead in kind of creating a committee and a registry. And because it was the state seeking to provide some type of redress and acknowledge this history, the state was able to actively set up a program and seek out and try to identify individuals. So they would come to the state and they would confirm through documentation that they had been sterilized and then receive recognition and monetary compensation.

On if there are indications that California is interested in compensating victims of sterilization

There’s indication that the state is interested in this history and is aware of possibility of sterilization abuse. Just three years ago, news broke that about 150 women in two California women’s prisons had been sterilized without proper consent and proper procedure. That resulted in a state audit in the interest of the state legislators and eventually, a law that was unanimously passed, banning sterilizations except under extreme medical circumstances in California state prisons. So this issue is on the radar screen.

It’s easy to forget about these patients who were in these remote institutions in the 1940s and ’50s in California. However, I think it behooves the state to not forget this history, and all of us to not forget this history. So hopefully, having this fairly solid number that we’ve generated of an estimate of likely living survivors could help facilitate that process. …

It would also be a good idea to think about other forms of recognition of this historical injustice. For example, putting up a historical plaque in Sacramento somewhere to recognize those who were sterilized, or at one of the institutions such as the Sonoma State Home or the Patton State Home, making sure this history is included in K-12 curriculum.

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KUKA Robotics | KUKA AG

Posted: December 14, 2016 at 11:59 pm

KUKA industrial robots are the key factor in achieving higher productivity and greater profitability. They improve the quality of the products and reduce the requirement for costly materials and limited energy resources.

At KUKA Robotics, our vision is to establish the industrial robot as an intelligent assistant to humans during manufacturing: humans and robots work hand in hand, ideally complementing each other with their respective skills. This also makes it possible for small and medium-sized companies to deploy robots cost-effectively.

KUKA Robotics supplies industrial robots which are perfectly tailored to your application. From the actual robot itself and the controller all the way to the appropriate software: customers from a diverse range of industries benefit from innovative technologies and sophisticated engineering.

KUKA Robotics can offer you the following product spectrum:

We also supply controllers, software and a broad range of services, for example customer support, training courses at KUKA College or engineering.Our solutions are implemented in the following industries in particular:

Find out about the other divisions of KUKA: KUKA Systems, KUKA Industries and Swisslog.

KUKA Robotics is the North American headquarters of KUKA Roboter GmbH. The Shelby Township, MI location is home to KUKA Robotics USA-based sales, applications, project engineering, service, parts, training and administrative staff, plus North American business leadership personnel.

Half of the building is dedicated to hands-on experiences with the latest robotics technologies, products, and training. Stocks of robots and parts are also on-hand to meet ever increasing pressure for fast delivery.

KUKA Robotics core competencies include the development, production, and sale of industrial robots, controllers, software, linear units, and omniMove omni-directional motion platforms.

KUKA robots are utilized in a diverse range of industries including the appliance, automotive, aerospace, consumer goods, logistics, food, pharmaceutical, medical, foundry and plastics industries as well as multiple applications including material handling, machine loading, assembly, packaging, palletizing, welding, bending, joining, and surface finishing.

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Human height – Wikipedia

Posted: December 10, 2016 at 1:44 pm

Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer,[1] usually in centimetres when using the metric system,[2][3] or feet and inches when using the imperial system.[4][5]

When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are medical conditions caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities.[6]

The development of human height can serve as an indicator of two key welfare components, namely nutritional quality and health.[7] In regions of poverty or warfare, environmental factors like chronic malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may result in delayed growth and/or marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.

The study of height is known as auxology.[8] Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences among populations. Average height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.[9]

Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe are the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed.[10] Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations. Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations.[11] This has been seen in North Korea, parts of Africa, certain historical Europe, and other populations.[12]Developing countries such as Guatemala have rates of stunting in children under 5 living as high as 82.2% in Totonicapn, and 49.8% nationwide.[13]

Height measurements are by nature subject to statistical sampling errors even for a single individual.[clarification needed] In a clinical situation, height measurements are seldom taken more often than once per office visit, which may mean sampling taking place a week to several months apart. The smooth 50th percentile male and female growth curves illustrated above are aggregate values from thousands of individuals sampled at ages from birth to age 20. In reality, a single individual’s growth curve shows large upward and downward spikes, partly due to actual differences in growth velocity, and partly due to small measurement errors.

For example, a typical measurement error of plus or minus 0.5cm may completely nullify 0.5cm of actual growth resulting in either a “negative” 0.5cm growth (due to overestimation in the previous visit combined with underestimation in the latter), up to a 1.5cm growth (the first visit underestimating and the second visit overestimating) in the same elapsed time period between measurements. Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length (with the child on his or her back), used in measuring infants and toddlers and standing height typically measured from age 2 onwards.

Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child’s height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the mean, therefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves. Genetic potential and a number of hormones, minus illness, is a basic determinant for height. Other factors include the genetic response to external factors such as diet, exercise, environment, and life circumstances.

Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum (at around 1112 years for female, and 1314 years for male), followed by a steady decline to zero. On average, female growth speed trails off to zero at about 15 or 16 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 1820. These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.

Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical period and pregnancy, has a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions.[12] The pregnant mother’s health is important for herself but also for the fetus as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good. Thus, there is a cumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.

The age of the mother also has some influence on her child’s height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age, though these early studies suggest that trend is due to various socio-economic situations that select certain demographics as being more likely to have a first birth early in the mother’s life.[14][15][16] These same studies show that children born to a young mother are more likely to have below-average educational and behavioural development, again suggesting an ultimate cause of resources and family status rather than a purely biological explanation.[15][16]

It has been observed that first-born males are shorter than later-born males.[17] However, more recently the reverse observation was made.[18] The study authors suggest that the cause may be socio-economic in nature.

The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. Differences in human height is 60%80% heritable, according to several twin studies[19] and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago. A genome-wide association (GWA) study of more than 180,000 individuals has identified hundreds of genetic variants in at least 180 loci associated with adult human height.[20] The number of individuals has since been expanded to 253,288 individuals and the number of genetic variants identified is 697 in 423 genetic loci.[21] In a separate study of body proportion using sitting-height ratio, it reports that these 697 variants can be partitioned into 3 specific classes, (1) variants that primarily determine leg length, (2) variants that primarily determine spine and head length, or (3) variants that affect overall body size. This gives insights into the biological mechanisms underlying how these 697 genetic variants affect overall height.[22]

The effect of environment on height is illustrated by studies performed by anthropologist Barry Bogin and coworkers of Guatemala Mayan children living in the United States. In the early 1970s, when Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 157.5 centimetres (5ft 2in) in height and the women averaged 142.2 centimetres (4ft 8in). Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War, during which up to a million Guatemalans fled to the United States. He discovered that Maya refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts.[23] By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24cm (4.03in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and health care.[24] Bogin also noted that American Maya children had relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02cm (2.76in) longer than the Guatemalan Maya (a significantly lower sitting height ratio).[24][25]

The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Shilluk and Dinka have been described as some of the tallest in the world. Dinka Ruweng males investigated by Roberts in 195354 were on average 181.3 centimetres (5ft 1112in) tall, and Shilluk males averaged 182.6 centimetres (6ft 0in).[26] The Nilotic people are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather.[27] However, male Dinka and Shilluk refugees measured in 1995 in Southwestern Ethiopia were on average only 1.764 m and 1.726 m tall, respectively. As the study points out, Nilotic people “may attain greater height if priviledged with favourable environmental conditions during early childhood and adolescence, allowing full expression of the genetic material.”[28] Before fleeing, these refugees were subject to privation as a consequence of the succession of civil wars in their country from 1955 to the present. The tallest living married couple are ex-basketball players Yao Ming and Ye Li (both of China) who measure 228.6cm (7 ft 11 in) and 190.5cm (6 ft 3 in) respectively, giving a combined height of 419.1cm (13 ft 9 in). They married in Shanghai, China, on 6 August 2007.[29]

In Tibet, the khampas are known for their great height. Khampa males are on average 180cm tall (5ft 11 in).[30][31]

The people of the Dinaric Alps (mainly North Albanians and South Slavs) are on record as being the tallest in the world, with a male average height of 185.6cm (6ft 1.1 in) and female average height of 170.9cm (5ft 7.3 in).

Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver. Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence. The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.

The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait, with men having proportionately longer legs. Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length. The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails.[citation needed] It has been shown that a log-normal distribution fits the data equally well, besides guaranteeing a non-negative lower confidence limit, which could otherwise attain a non-physical negative height value for arbitrarily large confidence levels.[32]

Most intra-population variance of height is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature. Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others. There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities.

Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population). An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized “problem”, is idiopathic tall stature.

If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment. This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.

Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardiovascular health and shortness with longevity.[33] Cancer risk has also been found to grow with height.[34]

Nonetheless, modern westernized interpretations of the relationship between height and health fail to account for the observed height variations worldwide.[35] Cavalli-Sforza and Cavalli-Sforza note that variations in height worldwide can be partly attributed to evolutionary pressures resulting from differing environments. These evolutionary pressures result in height related health implications. While tallness is an adaptive benefit in colder climates such as found in Europe, shortness helps dissipate body heat in warmer climatic regions.[35] Consequently, the relationships between health and height cannot be easily generalized since tallness and shortness can both provide health benefits in different environmental settings.

At the extreme end, being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, because of the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and problems resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed trouble walking as his height increased throughout his life. In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support. Late in his life, although he died at age 22, he had to wear braces on his legs and walk with a cane; and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces.

Sources are in disagreement about the overall relationship between height and longevity. Samaras and Elrick, in the Western Journal of Medicine, demonstrate an inverse correlation between height and longevity in several mammals including humans.[33]

Women whose height is under 150cm (4ft 11in) may have a small pelvis, resulting in such complications during childbirth as shoulder dystocia.[36]

A study done in Sweden in 2005 has shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between height and suicide among Swedish men.[37]

A large body of human and animal evidence indicates that shorter, smaller bodies age slower, and have fewer chronic diseases and greater longevity. For example, a study found eight areas of support for the “smaller lives longer” thesis. These areas of evidence include studies involving longevity, life expectancy, centenarians, male vs. female longevity differences, mortality advantages of shorter people, survival findings, smaller body size due to calorie restriction, and within species body size differences. They all support the conclusion that smaller individuals live longer in healthy environments and with good nutrition. However, the difference in longevity is modest. Several human studies have found a loss of 0.5 year/centimeter of increased height (1.2 yr/inch). But these findings do not mean that all tall people die young. Many live to advanced ages and some become centenarians.[38]

There is a large body of research in psychology, economics, and human biology that has assessed the relationship between several seemingly innocuous physical features (e.g., body height) and occupational success.[39] The correlation between height and success was explored decades ago.[40][41] Shorter people are considered to have an advantage in certain sports (e.g., gymnastics, race car driving, etc.), whereas in many other sports taller people have a major advantage. In most occupational fields, body height is not relevant to how well people are able to perform, but nonetheless has been found to correlate with their success in several studies, although there may be other factors such as gender or socioeonomic status that explain this.[39][40][42][43]

A demonstration of the height-success association can be found in the realm of politics. In the United States presidential elections, the taller candidate won 22 out of 25 times in the 20th century.[44] Nevertheless, Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, was 150cm (4ft 11in) and several prominent world leaders of the 20th century, such as Vladimir Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Nicolae Ceauescu and Joseph Stalin were of below average height. These examples, however, were all before modern forms of multi-media, i.e., television, which may further height discrimination in modern society. Further, growing evidence suggests that height may be a proxy for confidence, which is likewise strongly correlated with occupational success.[45]

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, people of European descent in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world.[10] The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time.[46]

In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today its population is among the world’s tallest with young men averaging 183.8cm (6ft 0.4in) tall.[47]

According to a study by economist John Komlos and Francesco Cinnirella, in the first half of the 18th century, the average height of an English male was 165cm (5ft 5 in), and the average height of an Irish male was 168cm (5ft 6 in). The estimated mean height of English, German, and Scottish soldiers was 163.6cm 165.9cm (5ft 4.4 in 5ft 5.3 in) for the period as a whole, while that of Irish was 167.9cm (5ft 6.1 in). The average height of male slaves and convicts in North America was 171cm (5ft 7 in).[48]

American-born colonial soldiers of the late 1770s were on average more than 7.6cm (3 inches) taller than their English counterparts who served in Royal Marines at the same time.[49]

Average height of Americans and Europeans decreased during periods of rapid industrialization, possibly due to rapid population growth and increased economic inequality.[50] In early 19th century England, the difference between average height of English upper class youth (students of Sandhurst Military Academy) and English lower class youth (Marine Society boys) reached 22cm (8.7in), the highest that has been observed.[51]

Data derived from burials show that before 1850, the mean stature of males and females in Leiden, Netherlands was respectively 166.7cm (5ft 5.6 in) and 156.7cm (5ft 1.7 in). The average height of 19-year-old Dutch orphans in 1865 was 160cm (5ft 3 in).[52]

According to a study by J.W. Drukker and Vincent Tassenaar, the average height of Dutch decreased from 1830 to 1857, even while Dutch real GNP per capita was growing at an average rate of more than 0.5 percent per year. The worst decline were in urban areas that in 1847, the urban height penalty was 2.5cm (1in). Urban mortality was also much higher than rural regions. In 1829, the average urban and rural Dutchman was 164cm (5ft 4.6 in). By 1856, the average rural Dutchman was 162cm (5ft 3.8 in) and urban Dutchman was 158.5cm (5ft 2.4 in).[53]

A 2004 report citing a 2003 UNICEF study on the effects of malnutrition in North Korea, due to “successive famines,” found young adult males to be significantly shorter.[specify] In contrast South Koreans “feasting on an increasingly Western-influenced diet,” without famine, were growing taller. The height difference is minimal for Koreans over 40, who grew up at a time when economic conditions in the North were roughly comparable to those in the South, while height disparities are most acute for Koreans who grew up in the mid-1990s a demographic in which South Koreans are about 12cm (4.7in) taller than their North Korean counterparts as this was a period during which the North was affected by a harsh famine.[54] A study by South Korean anthropologists of North Korean children who had defected to China found that 18-year-old males were 5inches (13cm) shorter than South Koreans their age due to malnutrition.[55]

The tallest living man is Sultan Ksen of Turkey, at 251cm (8ft 3in). The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow (19181940), from Illinois, in the United States, who was 272cm (8ft 11in) at the time of his death. The tallest woman in medical history was Zeng Jinlian of Hunan, China, who stood 248cm (8ft 112in) when she died at the age of 17. The shortest adult human on record was Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal at 54.6cm (1ft 912in).

Adult height between populations often differs significantly. For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is greater than that of men from Malawi. This may be caused by genetic differences, childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor), or both.

Depending on sex, genetic and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but tends to be universal in the extremely aged. This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.

As with any statistical data, the accuracy of such data may be questionable for various reasons:

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The Prophecy of WW3 – oriharu.net

Posted: December 8, 2016 at 5:12 pm

There is a Prophecy of Nostradamus (6-21)

To Japanese document.(201306050409)

The Prophecy of Vladimir Solovyov is accurate. He wrote a book of prophecy in 1900 is right about upheavals of the 20th century, too. ( http://members.valley.net/~transnat/solsoc.html ) ( http://www.iep.utm.edu/solovyov/ ) He mentioned about Anti-Christ(666). I translated it from Japanese.( http://oriharu.net/j2031.htm#expelled_from_Italy )

According to Vladimir Solovyov, The United States of Europe will appear. At that time, Israel’s population is about 30 million people. The Anti-Christ(666) becomes the first president of The United States of Europe.

Many people will die, near future. Perhaps around 2031.

I beg you to please work something out. (201304150351)

Prophecy is offered to mankind as a door for changing the future.(201304152014)

In Italy, with the authority of substantial is the prime minister. Prime Minister is supposed to be appointed by the President. At that time, be appointed from civilian is also possible. I think there is a risk that Anti-Christ(666) will be appointed from the private sector. As possibility, The President will be acquired or threatened ? (201304252032)

Thank you for coming to my home page.

Brazilian prophet Jucelino Nobrega da Luz prophesy the collapse of dollar happens on June 15, 2010. I think this incident will becomes communist’s excuse.

Anton Johansson, Sweden (1858-1909) prophesied the following details:

2) New diseases used as weapons will cause 25 million people to die.

3) Persia and Turkey will be conquered by what seem to be Russian troops.

4) Revolutionaries will instigate unrest and war in India and Egypt to facilitate the occupation of India and Europe.

5) The Russians will conquer the Balkans.

6) There will be great destruction in Italy.

7) The “red storm” will approach France through Hungary, Austria, northern Italy and Switzerland. France will be conquered from inside and outside.

8) American supply depots will fall into Russian hands.

9) Germany will be attacked from the east.

10) There will be a civil war, Germans will fight against Germans.

11) The Eastern Bloc will cause a civil war in England.

12) Russia will lead a mass attack against the United States, so U.S. forces will be prevented from reinforcing Europe.

13) New weapons will cause huge hurricanes and firestorms in the USA where the largest cities will be destroyed.

Anton Johansson said The Third World War would break out at “the end of July, beginning of August.” Her further added: “I do not know the year.”

A Canadian prophet Anthony Carr prophesied “Effel Tower of Paris falls sideways” as in this year(2010). Is this Russian armies attack ? And he prophesied about June 12, 2010. He said “A certain dramatic happening will change many people’s life”. Is this the collapse of dollar ? -> (It must be this Emergency in Kyrgyz at June 12, 2010 (201006132151))

Anthony Carr prophesy that Canada and U.S.A. are forgotten economically and finally it will be as large as the recession of 1930’s. It seems to happen natural disaster and The War like The World War I, The World War II to kill us. Is this means The World War III? It must be so.

Anthony Carr prophesy about 2010.07.04(Sun) that people cannot notice that begins in the day, and they cannot make preparations, either.(201006162150) Is this the meaning that a communism political change happens in any European countries? (201006191723)

Now I want to introduce you the scene explained in detail about WW3 (P23 to P30) from a book “Prophecies”(by Wladyslaw Biernacki). (201006030117)

Now I will describe the course of the Third World War. It will be a hell on earth. And yet in its greatest fury it will last only three and a half months. The Third World War will begin in Italy. There will be an appallingly bloody revolution there, which will start within the Vatican City itself. A Communist government will be set up, and the Communists will harass, torture and murder the clergy. Amidst this disorder, and surrounded by the corpses of his faithful Cardinals, Pope John Paul II will flee from the Holy See to France, and then to Poland. He will remain in Poland – at Czestochowa, and elsewhere – until after the end of the war. During much of this period he will in some sense be ‘invisible’ – perhaps in hiding? Altogether, Pope John Paul II will be in exile for three and a half years. During this time, the Communists will mock and lay waste to the Holy See. It will be a great punishment on the Church, to atone for the personal shortcomings of certain Popes in the past. It is possible that around this time there will be a surprise Soviet military invasion of southern Europe. What is certain is that the revolution will be deliberately introduced from Italy into France and Spain, and Communist governments established in those two countries. However, these regimes will survive for only between forty and forty-six days, and will quite quickly collapse. West Germany will feel desperately threatened by all these developments, but will also see an opportunity at hand to re-unite with East Germany, and to encircle the Red Army divisions stationed there. And so the southernmost division of the West German Army will suddenly move into Czechoslovakia. The invading troops will be welcomed by the local civilian population, and also by the Czech elements in the state army. However, the Slovak Military Units will try to oppose the German advance. From Czechoslovakia, the West German forces will drive deep into Poland, penetrating as far as Walbrzyeh. Walbrzych, Klodzko, Zloty Stok and all the countryside round about those places will be utterly laid waste in the ensuing fighting.

On the opposite flank – that is to say, to the north – German forces will invade Poland both from sea, and by airborne landings at Kolobrzeg. I have seen that Kolobrzeg will be utterly devastated (particularly the resort area of the town), the destruction being as severe as that which it suffered in the Second World War. There will be a great number of casualties, but finally the Germans will take Kolobrzeg, and will hold it for eight days. On the ninth day, however, the joint Polish-Russian Armies will surround and overwhelm the German positions at Kolobrzeg, and the survivors will be taken prisoner. After this, the conflict in the north will escalate in intensity, and the area of heavy fighting will spread out right along the Baltic Sea, in a belt fifty kilometres wide and extending from Klajpeda to Szczecin. Individual towns and villages will be attacked from the direction of the shore, where a NATO operational Headquarters will have been established. In some places, the Red Army will for a while be forced back, and as they withdraw, they will demolish entire cities (like Gdansk, and Elblag) behind them. In central Poland, meanwhile, there will have been no fighting at all. However, that isn’t to say that there won’t, in the near future, be any destruction there of any sort, since those central provinces (like everywhere else in the world) will be affected by the earthquakes, gales, thunderstorms, famine and other calamities which will rage across the globe. Once Kolobrzeg has been recaptured and secured, the Warsaw Pact forces will formally wage war on, and invade West Germany. In the first Russian counter-thrust, therefore, the German Division in the south of Poland will be driven back to Prague. There will be an enormous military build-up there; and fighting so fierce that the streets will be ankle-deep in the blood of both soldiers and civilians, and all the splendid buildings reduced to rubble. This dreadful catastrophe will befall the Czechs as a result of that nation’s apostasy from Christ. Prague will never be rebuilt. In the next thrust, the Red Army will strike across West Germany, right up as far as the French border, and at the limit of their advance will be occupying three-quarters of German territory. They will be assisted in their attack by the Czechoslovakian army (although the actual Czech units, as I’ve said, will have joined the Germans.) This will be the end of the initial phase of the Third World War.

All kinds of patriotic Ukranian factions will have been formed round about this time, all having an independent Ukraine as their common goal. These Ukranian nationalist groups will try to drive off the Russian armies. But tilings will turn out even worse for them than they did for the Czechs, as the Russians will adopt a ‘scorched earth’ policy. Anything and everybody they come across will be set on fire, or otherwise destroyed. At this point the Ukranians, seeing themselves to be on the brink of extinction as a nation, will appeal for help to the new Polish ruler. This help will be granted them immediately, and the Polish army will march east at the greatest possible speed. Soon, the front line from Klajpeda down to the Mediterranean will have been made secure against the Russians. The armies of certain other countries will now come into the fray, on the Polish side. These nations will be, to the north, Sweden, Norway and Finland; and to the south, Hungary and Romania. (These last-named countries will both have experienced their own anti-Communist risings, at round about the same time as those in Poland.) France, too, will offer her economic and military help in the Polish cause; as also will a number of black African states. The Russian troops will disperse in the face of the combined allied might, and will scatter widely. Near Kostopol, on the river Horyn, they will re-group, but will be routed in the ferocious battle which will follow, and which will last three days and nights. There will be so many casualties on each side that the Horyn will flow red with blood. In the aftermath of this crushing defeat, all surviving Russian units will surrender. The Polish army will continue its advance until it reaches the river Dniepr – in former times, the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Poland. The troops will halt there and rest, for a number of days.

(You may have to receive this part flexibly because Mr.Wladyslaw Biernacki is a Polish farmer. As for Pope John Paul II, it is connected with one meaning to his friend John Paul II for him. (201006071614) )

Return

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Tahiti Tourisme – Official Web Site

Posted: December 7, 2016 at 8:07 am

Immersed in a world of majestic mountain peaks, turquoise waters and white-sand beaches, visitors to our islands create memories through authentic experiences that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. For centuries, the Tahitian people have referred to this as “Mana”. Mana is a life force and spirit that surrounds and connects all living things. You can see it. Touch it. Taste it. Feel it. And from the moment you arrive, you will understand why we say our islands are Embraced by Mana. Read More

The Islands of Tahiti are located in the heart of the South Pacific, just eight hours from Los Angeles and on the same side of the International Dateline as North America. In addition to the destination’s natural beauty, tranquility, and privacy, The Islands of Tahiti offer an array of diverse experiences combined with rich Tahitian culture.

Come discover the rich stories of our people, our culture and our heritage while experiencing the world-renowned iconic beauty that has lured travelers for centuries. Surrounded by pristine, crystal clear blue waters, the 118 islands and atolls offer natural beauty, authentic island culture and unique French Polynesian style. Each island offers a variety of activities and accommodation experiences from luxurious resorts with overwater bungalows, to family pensions to sailing via private charter or scheduled cruise. From our more well known islands of Tahiti, Moorea and Bora Bora, to Tetiaroa, Taha’a, Raiatea, Huahine, Tikehau, Rangiroa, Fakarava, to the Marquesas, Gambier and Austral archipelagoes, the country covers more than two million square miles of the South Pacific Ocean.

Easier to travel to than you might imagine, Tahiti’s Faa’a International Airport is under 8 hours by air from Los Angeles (LAX) airport, with daily nonstop flights. As far south of the equator as Hawaii is north, The Islands of Tahiti are halfway between California and Australia, on the same side of the International Date Line as North America, and in the same time zone as Hawaii. Spanning an area in the South Pacific as large as Western Europe, the total land mass of all the islands adds up to an area only slightly larger than the tiny state of Rhode Island.Close

An insider’s guide to The Islands of Tahiti.

A collection of stunning Tahiti pictures.

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Tahiti Tourisme – Official Web Site

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Crown of Immortality – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:03 am

The Crown of Immortality is a literary and religious metaphor traditionally represented in art first as a laurel wreath and later as a symbolic circle of stars (often a crown, tiara, halo or aureola). The Crown appears in a number of Baroque iconographic and allegoric works of art to indicate the wearer’s immortality.

In ancient Egypt, the crown of justification was a wreath placed on the deceased to represent victory over death in the afterlife, in emulation of the resurrecting god Osiris. It was made of various materials including laurel, palm, feathers, papyrus, roses, or precious metals, with numerous examples represented on the Fayum mummy portraits of the Roman Imperial period.[1]

In ancient Greece, a wreath of laurel or olive was awarded to victorious athletes and later poets. Among the Romans, generals celebrating a formal triumph wore a laurel wreath, an honor that during the Empire was restricted to the Imperial family. The placing of the wreath was often called a “crowning”, and its relation to immortality was problematic; it was supposed to secure the wearer immortality in the form of enduring fame, but the triumphator was also reminded of his place within the mortal world: in the traditional tableaux, an accompanying slave whispered continually in the general’s ear Memento mori, “Remember you are mortal”.[2] Funerary wreaths of gold leaf were associated particularly with initiates into the mystery religions.[3]

From the Early Christian era the phrase “crown of immortality” was widely used by the Church Fathers in writing about martyrs; the immortality was now both of reputation on earth, and of eternal life in heaven. The usual visual attribute of a martyr in art, was a palm frond, not a wreath.[citation needed] The phrase may have originated in scriptural references, or from incidents such as this reported by Eusebius (Bk V of History) describing the persecution in Lyon in 177, in which he refers to literal crowns, and also brings in an athletic metaphor of the “victor’s crown” at the end:

“From that time on, their martyrdoms embraced death in all its forms. From flowers of every shape and color they wove a crown to offer to the Father; and so it was fitting that the valiant champions should endure an ever-changing conflict, and having triumphed gloriously should win the mighty crown of immortality. Maturus, Sanctus, Blandina, and Attalus were taken into the amphitheater to face the wild beasts, and to furnish open proof of the inhumanity of the heathen, the day of fighting wild beasts being purposely arranged for our people. There, before the eyes of all, Maturus and Sanctus were again taken through the whole series of punishments, as if they had suffered nothing at all before, or rather as if they had already defeated their opponent in bout after bout and were now battling for the victor’s crown.”[4]

The first use seems to be that attributed to the martyr Ignatius of Antioch in 107.[citation needed]

An Advent wreath is a ring of candles, usually made with evergreen cuttings and used for household devotion by some Christians during the season of Advent. The wreath is meant to represent God’s eternity. On Saint Lucy’s Day, December 13, it is common to wear crowns of candles in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Italy, Bosnia, Iceland, and Croatia.

Before the reform of the Gregorian calendar in the 16th century, St. Lucy’s Day fell on the winter solstice. The representation of Saint Lucy seems to derive from the Roman goddess Lucina, who is connected to the solstice.[5][6]

Martyrs often are idealized as combatants, with the spectacle of the arena transposed to the martyr’s struggle with Satan. Ignatius of Antioch, condemned to fight beasts in the year 107, “asked his friends not to try to save him and so rob him of the crown of immortality.”[7] In 155, Polycarp, Christian bishop of Smyrna, was stabbed after a failed attempt to burn him at the stake. He is said to have been ” crowned with the wreath of immortality … having through patience overcome the unjust governor, and thus acquired the crown of immortality.”[8]Eusebius uses similar imagery to speak of Blandina, martyred in the arena at Lyon in 177:

The crown of stars, representing immortality, may derive from the story of Ariadne, especially as told by Ovid, in which the unhappy Ariadne is turned into a constellation of stars, the Corona Borealis (Crown of the North), modelled on a jewelled crown she wore, and thus becoming immortal. In Titian’s Bacchus and Ariadne (152023, National Gallery, London), the constellation is shown above Ariadne’s head as a circle of eight stars (though Ovid specifies nine), very similar to what would become the standard depiction of the motif. Although the crown was probably depicted in classical art, and is described in several literary sources, no classical visual depictions have survived.[11] The Titian therefore appears to be the earliest such representation to survive, and it was also at this period that illustrations in prints of the Apocalypse by artists such as Drer[12][13] and Jean Duvet were receiving very wide circulation.

In Ariadne, Venus and Bacchus, by Tintoretto (1576, Doge’s Palace, Venice), a flying Venus crowns Ariadne with a circle of stars, and many similar compositions exist, such as the ceiling of the Egyptian Hall at Boughton House of 1695.

The first use of the crown of stars as an allegorical Crown of Immortality may be the ceiling fresco, Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (163339), in the Palazzo Barberini in Rome by Pietro da Cortona. Here a figure identified as Immortality is flying, with her crown of stars held out in front of her, near the centre of the large ceiling. According to the earliest descriptions she is about to crown the Barberini emblems, representing Pope Urban VIII, who was also a poet.[14][15][16] Immortality seems to have been a preoccupation of Urban; his funeral monument by Bernini in St Peter’s Basilica in Rome has Death as a life-size skeleton writing his name on a scroll.

Two further examples of the Crown of Immortality can be found in Sweden, firstly in the great hall ceiling fresco of the Swedish House of Knights by David Klcker Ehrenstrahl (between 16701675) which pictures among many allegoric figures Eterna (eternity) who holds in her hands the Crown of Immortality.[17] The second is in Drottningholm Palace, the home of the Swedish Royal Family, in a ceiling fresco named The Great Deeds of The Swedish Kings, painted in 1695 by David Klcker Ehrenstrahl.[18] This has the same motif as the fresco in the House of Knights mentioned above. The Drottningholm fresco, was shown in the 1000th stamp[19] by Czesaw Sania, the Polish postage stamp and banknote engraver.

The crown was also painted by the French Neoclassical painter Louis-Jean-Franois Lagrene, 17251805, in his Allegory on the Death of the Dauphin, where the crown was held by a young son who had pre-deceased the father (alternative titles specifically mention the crown of Immortality).[20]

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Crown of Immortality – Wikipedia

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