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Abolition – The African-American Mosaic Exhibition …

Posted: August 14, 2016 at 7:12 pm

The American Anti-Slavery Society was established in 1833, but abolitionist sentiment antedated the republic. For example, the charter of Georgia prohibited slavery, and many of its settlers fought a losing battle against allowing it in the colony, Before independence, Quakers, most black Christians, and other religious groups argued that slavery was incompatible with Christ’s teaching. Moreover, a number of revolutionaries saw the glaring contradiction between demanding freedom for themselves while holding slaves. Although the economic center of slavery was in the South, northerners also held slaves, as did African Americans and Native Americans. Moreover, some southerners opposed slavery. Blacks were in the vanguard of the anti-slavery movement. Abolitionist literature began to appear about 1820. Until the Civil War, the anti-slavery press produced a steadily growing stream of newspapers, periodicals, sermons, children’s publications, speeches, abolitionist society reports, broadsides, and memoirs of former slaves.

The Library of Congress has a wealth of material that demonstrates the extent of public support for and opposition to abolition. Broadsides advertise fairs and bazaars that women’s groups held to raise money for the cause. Other publications advertise abolitionist rallies, some of which are pictured in prints from contemporaneous periodicals. To build enthusiasm at their meetings, anti-slavery organizations used songs, some of which survive. The Library also has many political and satirical prints from the 1830s through the 1850s that demonstrate the rising sectional controversy during that time.

Although excellent studies of the abolition movement exist, further research in the Library’s manuscripts could document the lesser known individuals who formed the movement’s core. Other promising topics include the roles of women and black abolitionists and the activities of state and local abolitionist societies.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr., (17451801), was, like his more famous father, a Congregationalist minister. He served at the White Haven Church in New Haven, Connecticut, and later became president of Union College in Schenectady, New York. In this sermon, Edwards presented forceful arguments against ten common pro-slavery positions. One of the earliest anti-slavery publications in the Library of Congress collections, the sermon demonstrates the existence of strong anti-slavery feeling in the early days of the republic.

Injustices and Impolicy of the Slave Trade and of the Slavery of Africans. Title page. Jonathan Edwards [Jr.], Author. New Haven: Thomas & Samuel Green, 1791. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (35)

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On January 1, 1794, delegates from the abolition societies of Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland met in Philadelphia, a stronghold of the anti-slavery Quaker religion. The group voted to petition Congress to prohibit the slave trade and also to appeal to the legislatures of the various states to abolish slavery. The petitions pointed out the inconsistency of a country that had recently rejected the tyranny of kings engaging in domestic despotism. Delegates published an address urging on U.S. citizens the obligations of justice, humanity, and benevolence toward our Africa brethren, whether in bondage or free. The group planned to meet each January until slavery was abolished.

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The American Anti-Slavery Society produced The Slave’s Friend, a monthly pamphlet of abolitionist poems, songs, and stories for children. In its pages, young readers were encouraged to collect money for the anti-slavery cause. Here a picture of the coffle- yoke used to chain groups of slaves together illustrates a dialogue about the horrors of slavery between a girl named Ellen and her father, Mr. Murray. A shocked Ellen concludes that I will never boast of our liberty while there is a slave in this land.

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Anti-colonization sentiment was common in abolitionist publications such as The Anti-Slavery Picknick, a collection of speeches, poems, dialogues, and songs intended for use in schools and anti-slavery meetings. A song called the Colored Man’s Opinion of Colonization denounces plans to transport free blacks out of the United States. Many African-Americans opposed colonization, and, in 1831, a convention of free blacks meeting in New York asserted, This is our home, and this is our country. Beneath its sod lie the bones of our fathers; for it some of them fought, bled, and died. Here we were born, and here we will die.

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Although women were heavily involved in abolitionist activities, opinion was divided as to their proper role. Some people believed that women should serve in auxiliary roles that did not expose them to competition with men. However, many women played a highly visible role as writers and speakers for the cause. Some of them gained activist experience that they later used in support of women’s rights. In this circular, the women of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society advertise a fundraising event to support an agent. Well-known abolitionists such as Maria W. Chapman, a spirited speaker, song writer, and editor of many volumes of The Liberty Bell songbook, and Helen E. Garrison, wife of William Lloyd Garrison, were involved in the event.

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This broadside condemns the sale and keeping of slaves in the District of Columbia. The work was issued during the 18351836 campaign to have Congress abolish slavery in the Capital. At the top are contrasting scenes: a view of a reading of the Declaration of Independence, captioned The Land of the Free, with a scene of slaves being led past the Capitol, captioned The Home of the Oppressed. Also shown is the infamous Franklin & Armfield Slave Prison, still standing on Duke Street in Alexandria, Virginia. Opened in 1828, this center soon gained control of nearly half the sea trade in slaves between Virginia and Maryland and New Orleans. Most area slaves sold South were held there before being shipped to a dreaded future on a rice, cotton or indigo plantation.

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This handbill urging opponents of abolitionists to obstruct an anti-slavery meeting demonstrates the depth of pro-slavery feeling. Although the handbill advocates peaceful means, violence sometimes erupted between the two factions. An emotion-laden handbill was a factor in the well-known Boston riot of October 21, 1835. In that incident, a mob broke into the hall where the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society was meeting, and threatened William Lloyd Garrison’s life.

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Each year the American Anti-Slavery Society distributed an almanac containing poems, drawings, essays, and other abolitionist material. This issue was compiled by Lydia Maria Child (18021880), a popular writer recruited to the abolitionist cause by William Lloyd Garrison. In 1833, Mrs. Child produced An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans, a sensational anti-slavery publication that won converts to the movement. From 1841 to 1849, she edited the New York-based National Anti-Slavery Standard newspaper.

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Joseph Cinquez (or Cinque) was one of a group of Africans from Sierra Leone who had been kidnapped and sold into slavery. In July 1839, Cinquez led a revolt on the slave ship Amistad, off Cuba. The slaves took control of the ship and killed the crew, but were soon captured and charged with piracy. Their subsequent trials in New Haven, Connecticut, were causes celebres, pitting abolitionists against President Martin Van Buren’s administration. In March 1841, the Supreme Court upheld the lower court’s decision to return Cinquez and his surviving friends to Africa. John Quincy Adams had represented the Africans before the Supreme Court, and they were set free largely as a result of his eloquent pleading.

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The illustration on this sheet-music cover is an allegory of the triumph of abolitionism. A railroad car called Immediate Emancipation, is pulled by a locomotive named Liberator. These two names refer to William Lloyd Garrison, whose demand for immediate emancipation was expressed in his newspaper The Liberator. Repealer, the second locomotive, probably refers to the Irish insurgent movement, a cause with which many U.S. abolitionists were allied. Flags bearing the names of two other abolitionist publications, the Herald of Freedom and American Standard (or National Anti-Slavery Standard) fly from the Emancipation car. In the distance, two other trains, one marked Van, the other Clay, crash, and their passengers flee. These trains allude to Democrat and Whig presidential hopefuls Martin Van Buren and Henry Clay.

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Like many other reformers, abolitionists felt that good crusades required singing. Hence, many abolitionists expressed themselves in verse and songs. The cover of this sheet-music shows a fictionalized and inaccurate version of the escape from slavery of Frederick Douglass (18171895), who actually fled by ship. The song is dedicated to Douglass for his fearless advocacy, signal ability, and wonderful success in behalf of His Brothers in Bonds.

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Abolitionist materials aimed at women often appealed to their sympathetic feeling as wives and mothers for the plight of slave women who might be separated from their husbands or children.

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Abolition – The African-American Mosaic Exhibition …

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The Second Amendment, the Bill of Rights, and the …

Posted: June 25, 2016 at 10:53 am

In 1803 a distinguished Virginia jurist named St. George Tucker published the first extended analysis and commentary on the recently adopted U.S. Constitution. Though it is mostly forgotten today, Tucker’s View of the Constitution of the United States was a major work in its time. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, generations of lawyers and scholars would reach for Tucker’s View as a go-to constitutional law textbook.

I was reminded of Tucker’s dusty tome in recent days after reading one liberal pundit after another smugly assert that the original meaning of the Second Amendment has nothing whatsoever to do with individual rights. Slate’s Dahlia Lithwick, for example, denounced the individual rights interpretation of the Second Amendment as a “a hoax” peddled in recent years by the conniving National Rifle Association. Likewise, Rolling Stone’s Tim Dickinson complained that “the NRA’s politicking has warped the Constitution itself” by tricking the Supreme Court into “recast[ing] the Second Amendment as a guarantee of individual gun rights.”

Old St. George Tucker never encountered any “politicking” by the NRA. A veteran of the Revolutionary war and a one-time colleague of James Madison, Tucker watched in real time as Americans publicly debated whether or to ratify the Constitution, and then watched again as Americans debated whether or not to amend the Constitution by adopting the Bill of Rights. Afterwards Tucker sat down and wrote the country’s first major constitutional treatise. And as far Tucker was concerned, there was simply no doubt that the Second Amendment protected an individual right to arms. “This may be considered as the true palladium of liberty,” Tucker wrote of the Second Amendment. “The right of self-defense is the first law of nature.”

The individual rights interpretation of the Second Amendment was widely held during the founding era. How do we know this? Because the historical evidence overwhelmingly points in that direction. For example, consider the historical context in which the Second Amendment was first adopted.

When the Constitution was ratified in 1789 it lacked the Bill of Rights. Those first 10 amendments came along a few years later, added to the Constitution in response to objections made during ratification by the Anti-Federalists, who wanted to see some explicit protections added in order to safeguard key individual rights. As the pseudonymous Anti-Federalist pamphleteer “John DeWitt” put it, “the want of a Bill of Rights to accompany this proposed system, is a solid objection to it.”

Library of CongressJames Madison, the primary architect of the new Constitution, took seriously such Anti-Federalist objections. “The great mass of the people who opposed [the Constitution],” Madison told Congress in 1789, “dislike it because it did not contain effectual provision against encroachments on particular rights.” To remove such objections, Madison said, supporters of the Constitution should compromise and agree to include “such amendments in the constitution as will secure those rights, which [the Anti-Federalists] consider as not sufficiently guarded.” Madison then proposed the batch of amendments that would eventually become the Bill of Rights.

What “particular rights” did the Anti-Federalists consider to be “not sufficiently guarded” by the new Constitution? One right that the Anti-Federalists brought up again and again was the individual right to arms.

For example, Anti-Federalists at the New Hampshire ratification convention wanted it made clear that, “Congress shall never disarm any Citizen unless such as are or have been in Actual Rebellion.” Anti-Federalists at the Massachusetts ratification convention wanted the Constitution to “be never construed…to prevent the people of the United States, who are peaceable, from keeping their own arms.”

Meanwhile, in the Anti-Federalist stronghold of Pennsylvania, critics at that state’s ratification convention wanted the Constitution to declare, “that the people have a right to bear arms for the defense of themselves and their own State, or the United States, or for the purpose of killing game; and no law shall be passed for disarming the people or any of them, unless for crimes committed, or real danger of public injury from individuals.”

One of the central purposes of the Second Amendment was to mollify such concerns by enshrining the individual right to arms squarely within the text of the Constitution. Just as the First Amendment was added to address fears of government censorship, the Second Amendment was added to address fears about government bans on private gun ownership.

Like it or not, the idea that the Second Amendment protects an individual right is as old as the Second Amendment itself.

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Cloning – The New York Times

Posted: June 19, 2016 at 2:37 pm

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The companies behind it, Boyalife Group and Soaam Biotech, must contend with consumers in a country where food safety is a near obsession.

By OWEN GUO

The retraction by Science of a study of changing attitudes on gay marriage is the latest in a growing number of prominent withdrawals of the results of studies from scientific literature.

By MICHAEL ROSTON

Scientists have moved a step closer to the goal of creating stem cells perfectly matched to a patients DNA in order to treat diseases, they announced on Thursday, creating patient-specific cell lines out of the skin cells of two adult men.

Nearly a decade after his downfall for faking research, the South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-suk has won patents for his work in an attempt to resume studying human stem cells.

Bringing extinct animals back to life is really happening and its going to be very, very cool. Unless it ends up being very, very bad.

By NATHANIEL RICH

Dr. Hwang Woo-suk of South Korea received the patent for the method by which he claimed in 2004 to have extracted stem cells from cloned human embryos.

A cloning experiment in mice indicates that for one type of cancer, at least, cancerous cells may be able to revert to normal. But the study does not reveal a way to cure cancer. Instead, it addresses a theoretical question about the genetic nature of one type of cancer.

France banned human cloning, calling it a crime against the human race. But Parliament suspended a ban on stem-cell research on human embryos for five years to assess the merits of research that might lead to treatments for illnesses like Alzheimer’s, diabetes and heart disease. The law, which updates three 1994 laws on bioethics, makes human cloning punishable by 30 years in prison and a fine of more than $9 million. It also forbids cloning for therapeutic purposes — the generation of stem cells for medical research — and bans certain techniques used in embryo research. The use of stem cells, master cells that can develop into specialized cells, has drawn wide opposition because the most promising cells are derived from human embryos.

The Vatican said today that claims that a cloned baby had been born were a sign of a ”brutal” mentality devoid of ethical considerations. A papal spokesman, Joaquin Navarro-Valls, said that the announcement came with no scientific proof and that it ”has already given rise to the skepticism and moral condemnation of a great part of the international scientific community.”

President Bush named 17 academics, doctors and lawyers to his bioethics advisory council today, the day before the group was opening its first meeting with a discussion of human cloning. The group, the President’s Council on Bioethics, is to tackle issues like embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia and assisted reproduction, which primarily involves in vitro fertilization.

Lawmakers dropped controversial proposals on stem cell research and cloning today after the provisions threatened to create gridlock as the Senate hurried to complete work on spending bills. Senator Arlen Specter, Republican of Pennsylvania, had included language in a labor and health spending bill that would have bent President Bush’s policy on stem cell research to allow couples to donate unused embryos from fertility clinics. And Senator Sam Brownback, Republican of Kansas, an ardent abortion opponent, had threatened to counter with several amendments of his own.

A panel of experts has urged the government to allow the cloning of human embryonic stem cells for scientific study of transplants. The government accepted the recommendation today and said it would submit legislation to adopt it. If the legislation passes, the British government could become the first to allow its researchers to work with the cells, which are from fertilized eggs, in test tubes.

Japanese scientists have cloned a cloned bull, the first time a large cloned animal has itself been cloned, researchers said today. The calf, born on Sunday, is part of a project to study the life expectancy and aging of cloned animals, said scientists at the Kagoshima Prefectural Cattle Breeding Development Institute in southern Japan.

The tiny club of animals cloned from adult cells, restricted until now to females like Dolly the sheep and Cumulina the mouse, has gone co-ed with the cloning of a male mouse, researchers said today. The male mouse, Fibro, is also the first documented live mammal cloned from adult cells that do not originate in the reproductive system. The accomplishment suggests that adult animals can be cloned from any cell in the body.

A physicist who has said that he wants to raise money to open a clinic to clone humans said today that he foresaw as many as 200,000 human clones a year once his process was perfected, at a price for each clone far lower than the $1 million the first one would cost. The physicist, Dr. Richard Seed of Riverside, Ill., said the initial market for human clones would come from the 10 percent to 15 percent of infertile couples who cannot conceive by alternative methods, like test-tube fertilization.

The uproar over Dolly the sheep and human embryonic stem cells, revisited in a Retro Report video, shows how emotions can cloud understanding of science.

By NICHOLAS WADE

In 1997, Scottish scientists revealed they had cloned a sheep and named her Dolly, sending waves of future shock around the world that continue to shape frontiers of science today.

Retro Report

Researchers fused skin cells with donated human eggs to create human embryos that were genetically identical to the person who provided the skin cells.

By ANDREW POLLACK

It could be years before scientists succeed in bringing species back from extinction, but they are thinking of ways to give new life to creatures like woolly mammoths and weird frogs.

By GINA KOLATA

The companies behind it, Boyalife Group and Soaam Biotech, must contend with consumers in a country where food safe
ty is a near obsession.

By OWEN GUO

The retraction by Science of a study of changing attitudes on gay marriage is the latest in a growing number of prominent withdrawals of the results of studies from scientific literature.

By MICHAEL ROSTON

Scientists have moved a step closer to the goal of creating stem cells perfectly matched to a patients DNA in order to treat diseases, they announced on Thursday, creating patient-specific cell lines out of the skin cells of two adult men.

Nearly a decade after his downfall for faking research, the South Korean scientist Hwang Woo-suk has won patents for his work in an attempt to resume studying human stem cells.

Bringing extinct animals back to life is really happening and its going to be very, very cool. Unless it ends up being very, very bad.

By NATHANIEL RICH

Dr. Hwang Woo-suk of South Korea received the patent for the method by which he claimed in 2004 to have extracted stem cells from cloned human embryos.

A cloning experiment in mice indicates that for one type of cancer, at least, cancerous cells may be able to revert to normal. But the study does not reveal a way to cure cancer. Instead, it addresses a theoretical question about the genetic nature of one type of cancer.

France banned human cloning, calling it a crime against the human race. But Parliament suspended a ban on stem-cell research on human embryos for five years to assess the merits of research that might lead to treatments for illnesses like Alzheimer’s, diabetes and heart disease. The law, which updates three 1994 laws on bioethics, makes human cloning punishable by 30 years in prison and a fine of more than $9 million. It also forbids cloning for therapeutic purposes — the generation of stem cells for medical research — and bans certain techniques used in embryo research. The use of stem cells, master cells that can develop into specialized cells, has drawn wide opposition because the most promising cells are derived from human embryos.

The Vatican said today that claims that a cloned baby had been born were a sign of a ”brutal” mentality devoid of ethical considerations. A papal spokesman, Joaquin Navarro-Valls, said that the announcement came with no scientific proof and that it ”has already given rise to the skepticism and moral condemnation of a great part of the international scientific community.”

President Bush named 17 academics, doctors and lawyers to his bioethics advisory council today, the day before the group was opening its first meeting with a discussion of human cloning. The group, the President’s Council on Bioethics, is to tackle issues like embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia and assisted reproduction, which primarily involves in vitro fertilization.

Lawmakers dropped controversial proposals on stem cell research and cloning today after the provisions threatened to create gridlock as the Senate hurried to complete work on spending bills. Senator Arlen Specter, Republican of Pennsylvania, had included language in a labor and health spending bill that would have bent President Bush’s policy on stem cell research to allow couples to donate unused embryos from fertility clinics. And Senator Sam Brownback, Republican of Kansas, an ardent abortion opponent, had threatened to counter with several amendments of his own.

A panel of experts has urged the government to allow the cloning of human embryonic stem cells for scientific study of transplants. The government accepted the recommendation today and said it would submit legislation to adopt it. If the legislation passes, the British government could become the first to allow its researchers to work with the cells, which are from fertilized eggs, in test tubes.

Japanese scientists have cloned a cloned bull, the first time a large cloned animal has itself been cloned, researchers said today. The calf, born on Sunday, is part of a project to study the life expectancy and aging of cloned animals, said scientists at the Kagoshima Prefectural Cattle Breeding Development Institute in southern Japan.

The tiny club of animals cloned from adult cells, restricted until now to females like Dolly the sheep and Cumulina the mouse, has gone co-ed with the cloning of a male mouse, researchers said today. The male mouse, Fibro, is also the first documented live mammal cloned from adult cells that do not originate in the reproductive system. The accomplishment suggests that adult animals can be cloned from any cell in the body.

A physicist who has said that he wants to raise money to open a clinic to clone humans said today that he foresaw as many as 200,000 human clones a year once his process was perfected, at a price for each clone far lower than the $1 million the first one would cost. The physicist, Dr. Richard Seed of Riverside, Ill., said the initial market for human clones would come from the 10 percent to 15 percent of infertile couples who cannot conceive by alternative methods, like test-tube fertilization.

The uproar over Dolly the sheep and human embryonic stem cells, revisited in a Retro Report video, shows how emotions can cloud understanding of science.

By NICHOLAS WADE

In 1997, Scottish scientists revealed they had cloned a sheep and named her Dolly, sending waves of future shock around the world that continue to shape frontiers of science today.

Retro Report

Researchers fused skin cells with donated human eggs to create human embryos that were genetically identical to the person who provided the skin cells.

By ANDREW POLLACK

It could be years before scientists succeed in bringing species back from extinction, but they are thinking of ways to give new life to creatures like woolly mammoths and weird frogs.

By GINA KOLATA

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Cloning – The New York Times

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TMS – What does TMS stand for? The Free Dictionary

Posted: at 3:42 am

Acronym Definition TMS Transportation Management System TMS Texas Motor Speedway TMS Toyota Motor Sales TMS Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (alternative medicine for depression) TMS Test Match Special (sports – cricket) TMS Tuition Management Systems (Warwick, RI) TMS Tribune Media Services TMS Trimethylsilyl (gas chromatography) TMS The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society TMS Transport Management System (SAP software component) TMS Tetramethylsilane TMS Test Mode Select TMS Tandberg Management Suite (for Video Teleconference equipment) TMS The Muppet Show TMS Training Management System TMS Tension Myositis Syndrome TMS Traffic Management System TMS Texas Memory Systems (electronics) TMS Too Many Secrets TMS The Masonry Society TMS Travel Management System TMS Time Management System TMS The Money Store TMS Talent Management System (KnowledgePool) TMS Traumatic Masturbatory Syndrome TMS Truth Maintenance System TMS Tether Management System (remotely operated vehicle operation) TMS Traffic Monitoring System (advanced vehicle control) TMS Troy Middle School (Bradford County, Pennsylvania) TMS Tape Management System TMS Thymidylate Synthase TMS Too Much Stuff TMS Telephone Management System TMS The Mothership TMS Time Management Software TMS Task Management System TMS Turrentine Middle School (North Carolina) TMS Texas Medical School (Houston, Texas) TMS Temperature Monitoring System TMS Trouble Musculo-Squelettique TMS Temperature Management System TMS Tool Management System TMS Thematic Mapper Simulator TMS Theocratic Ministry School TMS Telecommunications Management System TMS TIGER Mapping Service TMS Tax Management System TMS Track Management System TMS Topical Memory System TMS Tennis Master Series TMS Transactions on Mathematical Software TMS The Meadows School (Las Vegas, Nevada) TMS Trouble Management System TMS Tray Management System TMS TIGER Map Service (US Census Bureau) TMS Type Model Series TMS Transmission Management System (networking) TMS Transition Metal Systems tMs the MONORAIL Society TMS Transmission Measuring Set TMS The Mother Superior TMS Tactical Message System TMS Test Match Series (sports – cricket) TMS Tuscaloosa Middle School (Tuscaloosa, AL, USA) TMS Tactical Messaging System TMS Time-shared Monitor System (also seen as TSMS) TMS Top MUD Sites (website/list) TMS Traffic Matrix Statistics (Cisco) TMS TM Soundararajan (Tamil, India film singer) TMS Time Multiplier Setting (Power System Protection Systems) TMS Trans Membrane Segment (protein nomenclature) TMS Technical & Management Support TMS TM Sounderarajan (Tamil Nadu, India singer) TMS Thoreau Middle School TMS Tyrrell Middle School (Wolcott, CT) TMS The Monarch School (Houston, Texas) TMS Thomson Multimedia SA (stock symbol) TMS Time-Multiplex Switch TMS Trainee Management System TMS Twist Monitoring System (HESSI) TMS Thompkins Middle School (Evansville, IN) TMS Time Motion Study TMS Target Management Switch TMS Traffic Management Simulator TMS Triangle Micro Systems (Raleigh, NC) TMS Tool-Made Sample TMS Thermal Maneuvering System TMS Turret Mooring System (naval engineering) TMS The Microsoft Situation TMS Tactical Message Switch TMS The MacDuffie School (Springfield, Massachusetts) TMS Technology Multi Sources TMS S-Band Transmitter TMS Tax Map Sequence Number (property registration) TMS Trivitron Medical Systems TMS Turbidity Monitoring System TMS Turret Maintenance Trainer TMS Technical Maintenance Standard TMS Track Management Services TMS Tactical Maneuver System TMS Target Management Systems TMS Telecommunications & Marketing Service Organization TMS Terminal Monitoring System TMS Transvaal Meteorological Station TMS Test/Maintenance Supervisor TMS Total Manufacturing System TMS Traffic Management Station HWCI TMS Technical Marginal Substitution TMS Training and Maneuver Systems TMS Technology Methods Standards TMS Transverse Magnetic Scattering TMS Toronto Mandarin School (Ontario, Canada) TMS Transformer Maintenance and Service TMS Thomas Mntzer Scheune (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany student recreation center) TMS Translation Memory System (software) TMS The Mad Scientist TMS Territory Account Management TMS Talent Management Solutions

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TMS – What does TMS stand for? The Free Dictionary

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The War on Drugs (band) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: June 17, 2016 at 5:04 am

The War on Drugs

Adam Granduciel from The War on Drugs

The War on Drugs is an American indie rock band from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, formed in 2005. The band consists of Adam Granduciel (vocals, guitar), David Hartley (bass), Robbie Bennett (keyboards), Charlie Hall (drums), Jon Natchez (saxophone, keyboards) and Anthony LaMarca (guitar).

Founded by close collaborators Granduciel and Kurt Vile, The War on Drugs released their debut studio album, Wagonwheel Blues, in 2008. Vile departed shortly after its release to focus on his solo career. The band’s second studio album Slave Ambient was released in 2011 to favorable reviews and extensive touring.

Written and recorded following extensive touring and a period of loneliness and depression for primary songwriter Granduciel, the band’s third album, Lost in the Dream, was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim and increased exposure. Previous collaborator Charlie Hall joined the band as its full-time drummer during the recording process, with saxophonist Jon Natchez and additional guitarist Anthony LaMarca accompanying the band for its world tour.

In 2003, frontman Adam Granduciel moved from Oakland, California to Philadelphia, where he met Kurt Vile, who had also recently moved back to Philadelphia after living in Boston for two years.[3] The duo subsequently began writing, recording and performing music together.[4] Vile stated, “Adam was the first dude I met when I moved back to Philadelphia in 2003. We saw eye-to-eye on a lot of things. I was obsessed with Bob Dylan at the time, and we totally geeked-out on that. We started playing together in the early days and he would be in my band, The Violators. Then, eventually I played in The War On Drugs.”[5]

Granduciel and Vile began playing as The War on Drugs in 2005. Regarding the band’s name, Granduciel noted, “My friend Julian and I came up with it a few years ago over a couple bottles of red wine and a few typewriters when we were living in Oakland. We were writing a lot back then, working on a dictionary, and it just came out and we were like “hey, good band name so eventually when I moved to Philadelphia and got a band together I used it. It was either that or The Rigatoni Danzas. I think we made the right choice. I always felt though that it was the kind of name I could record all sorts of different music under without any sort of predictability inherent in the name”[6]

While Vile and Granduciel formed the backbone of the band, they had a number of accompanists early in the group’s career, before finally settling on a lineup that added Charlie Hall as drummer/organist, Kyle Lloyd as drummer and Dave Hartley on bass.[7] Granduciel had previously toured and recorded with The Capitol Years, and Vile has several solo albums.[8] The group gave away its Barrel of Batteries EP for free early in 2008.[9] Their debut LP for Secretly Canadian, Wagonwheel Blues, was released in 2008.[10]

Following the album’s release, and subsequent European tour, Vile departed from the band to focus on his solo career, stating, “I only went on the first European tour when their album came out, and then I basically left the band. I knew if I stuck with that, it would be all my time and my goal was to have my own musical career.”[5] Fellow Kurt Vile & the Violators bandmate Mike Zanghi joined the band at this time, with Vile noting, “Mike was my drummer first and then when The War On Drugs’ first record came out I thought I was lending Mike to Adam for the European tour but then he just played with them all the time so I kind of had to like, while they were touring a lot, figure out my own thing.”[11]

The lineup underwent several changes, and by the end of 2008, Kurt Vile, Charlie Hall, and Kyle Lloyd had all exited the group. At that time Granduciel and Hartley were joined by drummer Mike Zanghi, whom Granduciel also played with in Kurt Vile’s backing band, the Violators.

After recording much of the band’s forthcoming studio album, Slave Ambient, Zanghi departed from the band in 2010. Drummer Steven Urgo subsequently joined the band, with keyboardist Robbie Bennett also joining at around this time. Regarding Zanghi’s exit, Granduciel noted: “I loved Mike, and I loved the sound of The Violators, but then he wasn’t really the sound of my band. But you have things like friendship, and he’s down to tour and he’s a great guy, but it wasn’t the sound of what this band was.”[12]

The band’s second studio album, Slave Ambient was released to favorable reviews in 2011.

In 2012, Patrick Berkery replaced Urgo as the band’s drummer.[13]

On 4 December 2013 the band announced the upcoming release of its third studio album, Lost in the Dream (March 18, 2014). The band streamed the album in its entirety on NPR’s First Listen site for a week before its release.[14]

Lost in the Dream was featured as the Vinyl Me, Please record of the month in August 2014. The pressing was a limited edition pressing on mint green colored vinyl.

In June 2015, The War on Drugs signed with Atlantic Records for a two-album deal.[15]

Adam Granduciel and Mike Zanghi are both former members of founding guitarist Kurt Vile’s backing band The Violators, with Granduciel noting, “There was never, despite what lazy journalists have assumed, any sort of falling out, or resentment”[16] following Vile’s departure from The War on Drugs. In 2011, Vile stated, “When my record came out, I assumed Adam would want to focus on The War On Drugs but he came with us in The Violators when we toured the States. The Violators became a unit, and although the cast does rotate, weve developed an even tighter unity and sound. Adam is an incredible guitar player these days and there is a certain feeling [between us] that nobody else can tap into. We dont really have to tell each other what to play, it just happens.”

Both David Hartley and Adam Granduciel contributed to singer-songwriter Sharon Van Etten’s fourth studio album, Are We There (2014). Hartley performs bass guitar on the entire album, with Granduciel contributing guitar on two tracks.

Adam Granduciel is currently producing the new Sore Eros album. They have been recording it in Philadelphia and Los Angeles on and off for the past several years.[5]

Current members

Former members

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Space Exploration News – Space News, Space Exploration …

Posted: June 16, 2016 at 5:50 pm

The jagged shores of Pluto’s highlands

This enhanced color view from NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft zooms in on the southeastern portion of Pluto’s great ice plains, where at lower right the plains border rugged, dark highlands informally named Krun Macula. (Krun …

After decades of research to discern seasonal patterns in Martian dust storms from images showing the dust, but the clearest pattern appears to be captured by measuring the temperature of the Red Planet’s atmosphere.

Astronomers using the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico have produced the most detailed radio map yet of the atmosphere of Jupiter, revealing the massive movement of ammonia gas that underlies the colorful …

On Pluto, icebergs floating in a sea of nitrogen ice are key to a possible explanation of the quilted appearance of the Sputnik Planum region of the dwarf planet’s surface.

Space station astronauts opened the world’s first inflatable space habitat Monday and floated inside.

The US government, in a first, is preparing to approve a private commercial space mission beyond the Earth’s orbit, the Wall Street Journal has reported.

(Phys.org)Discovered in 1983, the near-Earth asteroid Phaethon is an intriguing object, primarily due to its unusual orbit. Recently, an international team of astronomers has conducted a detailed study of this unique space …

For some comets, breaking up is not that hard to do. A new study led by Purdue University and the University of Colorado Boulder indicates the bodies of some periodic comets – objects that orbit the sun in less than 200 years …

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft took this stunning image of Pluto only a few minutes after closest approach on July 14, 2015. The image was obtained at a high phase angle -that is, with the sun on the other side of Pluto, …

One of Europe’s smallest states, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, cast its eyes to the cosmos on Friday, announcing it would draw up a law to facilitate mining on asteroids.

An important amino acid called glycine has been detected in a comet for the first time, supporting the theory that these cosmic bodies delivered the ingredients for life on Earth, researchers said Friday.

(Phys.org)As we become more advanced in astronomy, continuously searching and finding lots of potentially habitable extrasolar planets that could harbor alien life, it seems that it’s not a matter of if but when we will …

(Phys.org)In September 2016, NASA plans to launch its first-ever asteroid sample return mission loaded with tasks that will help us better understand the composition of asteroids, their origin, and possibly even Earth’s …

(Phys.org)The team that has posted a project called KickSat on crowd sourcing site KickStarter, has arranged to have the tiny satellite system sent to the International Space Station on July 6. KickSat is a satellite system …

Europe’s trailblazing spacecraft Rosetta has resumed its exploration of a comet hurtling through the Solar System after a “dramatic weekend” in which contact with Earth was lost for nearly 24 hours, mission control said Thursday.

Before humans could take their first steps on the moon, that mysterious and forbidding surface had to be reconnoitered by robots. When President John Kennedy set a goal of landing astronauts on the lunar surface in 1961, …

After the Apollo missions scooped up rocks from the Moon’s surface and brought them home, scientists were convinced for decades that they had proof our nearest celestial neighbour was drier than a bone.

Since its launch five years ago, there have been three forces tugging at NASA’s Juno spacecraft as it speeds through the solar system. The sun, Earth and Jupiter have all been influentiala gravitational trifecta of sorts. …

For the past 40 years, eye-tracking technologywhich can determine where in a visual scene people are directing their gazehas been widely used in psychological experiments and marketing research, but it’s required pricey …

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detected a clear signal from oxygen in a galaxy located 13.1 billion light-years away from us. This is the most distant oxygen ever detected. Oxygen …

A facial recognition database compiled by the FBI has more than 400 million images to help criminal investigations, but lacks adequate safeguards for accuracy and privacy protection, a congressional audit shows.

The supermassive black holes found at the centre of every galaxy, including our own Milky Way, may, on average, be smaller than we thought, according to work led by University of Southampton astronomer Dr Francesco Shankar.

The first eukaryote is thought to have arisen when simpler archaea and bacteria joined forces. But in an Opinion paper published June 16 in Trends in Cell Biology, researchers propose that new genomic evidence derived from …

A new procedure developed at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) may revolutionize the culturing of adult stem cells. In their report that has been published online prior to its appearance in the August 6 issue of Cell Stem …

Researchers at the Texas Analog Center of Excellence (TxACE) at UT Dallas are working to develop an affordable electronic nose that can be used in breath analysis for a wide range of health diagnosis.

An exhaustive look at how bacteria hold their ground and avoid getting pushed around by their environment shows how dozens of genes aid the essential job of protecting cells from popping when tensions run high.

A team of University of Miami researchers has developed a model to identify behavioral patterns among serious online groups of ISIS supporters that could provide cyber police and other anti-terror watchdogs a roadmap to their …

The world won’t be able to fish its way to feeding 10 billion people by mid-century, but a shift in management practices could save hundreds of millions of fish-dependent poor from malnutrition, according to an analysis led …

Modern rockets and their launch vehicles commonly rely on hydrogen-oxygen mixtures as propellant, but this combination is highly explosive. The Challenger space shuttle catastrophe of 1986 is associated with self-ignition …

University of Iowa researchers are working with a California-based startup company to make clean energy from sunlight and any source of water.

Moving through water can be a drag, but the use of supercavitation bubbles can reduce that drag and increase the speed of underwater vehicles. Sometimes these bubbles produce a bumpy ride, but now a team of engineers from …

First postulated more than 230 years ago, black holes have been extensively researched, frequently depicted, even featured in sci-fi films.

The researchers have established that chickens – just like people – have colour constancy. For birds, this means that they, in different environments and under different lighting conditions, recognise the colour of, for instance, …

In an essay to be published on June 17, 2016 in Science magazine Susan Landau, professor of cybersecurity policy at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), argues that the FBI’s recent and widely publicized efforts to compel …

The competition is fierce and only the strongest survive the obstacle course within the female reproductive tract. Of the millions of sperm that enter the vagina, only about 10 or so make it to the oocyte or egg, demonstrating …

China’s massive investment to mitigate the ecosystem bust that has come in the wake of the nation’s economic boom is paying off. An international group of scientists finds both humans and nature can thrivewith careful …

In the Canadian province of Quebec, a study of more than 26,000 trees across an area the size of Spain forecasts potential winners and losers in a changing climate.

Picture a singer, accompanied by a grand piano. As the singer’s voice dances through multiple octaves of range, the pianist’s fingers trip from one end of the keyboard to the other. Both the singer’s voice and the piano are …

University of Utah materials science and engineering associate professor Mike Scarpulla wants to shed light on semiconductorsliterally.

New research shows permafrost below shallow Arctic lakes is thawing as a result of changing winter climate.

(Phys.org)A team of researchers with the Carnegie Institution for Science and the University of Pennsylvania has developed a model that allows for accurately predicting how ferroelectric materials will behave when exposed …

When they come under attack by a predatory treesnake, red-eyed treefrog embryos must escape in seconds or risk becoming lunch. However, most frog embryos take hours to hatch. Intrigued by the treefrogs rapid emergence, scientists …

On December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC, scientists observed gravitational wavesripples in the fabric of spacetimefor the second time.

(Phys.org)Cell phones and Wi-Fi devices typically transmit data using radio waves, but as the demand for wireless data transfer increases, congestion in the radio spectrum is expected to become more of a problem. One way …

Carbon dioxide emissions from dry and oxygen-rich environments are likely to play a much greater role in controlling future rates of climate change caused by permafrost thaw than rates of methane release from oxygen-poor …

Northwestern University astrophysicists have predicted history. In a new study, the scientists show their theoretical predictions last year were correct: The historic merger of two massive black holes detected Sept. 14, 2015, …

Like a pair of human hands, certain organic molecules have mirror-image versions of themselves, a chemical property known as chirality. These so-called “handed” molecules are essential for biology and have intriguingly been …

May’s temperatures broke global records yet again, as the northern hemisphere finishes its hottest spring on record, statistics released Tuesday by NASA showed.

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Traci Carte – Kennesaw State University

Posted: June 3, 2016 at 9:45 pm

Degree program meets demand for data security professionals in Georgia

KENNESAW Ga. (Feb. 10, 2016) The information security and assurance degree atKennesaw State Universitys Michael J. Coles College of Business has been ranked secondnationwide by TheBestSchools.org in its 2016 ranking of online information assurance and security degree programs.

Kennesaw State is the only university in the Southeast to make the list, and the only university in Georgia to offer a Bachelor of Business Administration in Information Security and Assurance. The Coles degree is listed second to Pennsylvania State University in the TheBestSchools.org ranking.

Our ability to deliver high-quality information security and assurance courses has been recognized in a number of ways: national adoption of textbooks written by our faculty, NSA recognition as a center of excellence through multiple cycles and now this ranking, said Traci Carte, chair of the Department of Information Systems at Coles College of Business. We couldnt be more proud of our ISA faculty, alumni, partners and students.

According to TheBestSchools.org, information assurance and security degrees prepare students for jobs in the growing field of data security. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts 18 percent growth for information security analysts from 2014 to 2024, nearly twice the national average, with median wages of $88,890.

The Coles College of Business ISA degree was recognized for its unique blend of technical expertise and managerial acumen. This combination teaches graduates to understand how data security connects with all areas of business, and prepares them to effectively protect business systems.

We are focused on keeping the information security and assurance curriculum at KSU aimed toward the evolving threats faced by current commercial information systems, as well as maintaining the balance between the managerial and technical capabilities in the program curriculum, said Herb Mattord, associate director of the Center for Information Security Education at Coles College of Business. We strive to prepare our students for the ever-changing demands for effective information security professionals needed by the business community.

Students in the Coles College online ISA program graduate ready for careers such as network systems administrator, information security analyst, systems manager, business risk analyst, or compliance analyst. Coursework includes law and ethics, data protection, network security, application and software security, e-commerce defense, cybersecurity and more.

TheBestSchools.org ranking is based on academic excellence, range of courses provided, awards, rankings, faculty strength and reputation.

The National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security have recognized Kennesaw State University as a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education.

For more information or to see the full ranking list, visit:http://www.thebestschools.org/rankings/best-online-bachelors-information-assurance-security-degree-programs/

# # #

Kennesaw State University is the third-largest university in Georgia, offering nearly 150 undergraduate, graduate and doctoral degrees. A member of the University System of Georgia, Kennesaw State is a comprehensive university with more than 33,000 students from over 130 countries. In January 2015, Kennesaw State and Southern Polytechnic State University consolidated to create one of the 50 largest public universities in the country.

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Annotation 3 – Fourth Amendment – FindLaw

Posted: June 1, 2016 at 2:44 pm

Valid Searches and Seizures Without Warrants

While the Supreme Court stresses the importance of warrants and has repeatedly referred to searches without warrants as ”exceptional,” 1 it appears that the greater number of searches, as well as the vast number of arrests, take place without warrants. The Reporters of the American Law Institute Project on a Model Code of Pre- Arraignment Procedure have noted ”their conviction that, as a practical matter, searches without warrant and incidental to arrest have been up to this time, and may remain, of greater practical importance” than searches pursuant to warrants. ”[T]he evidence on hand . . . compel[s] the conclusion that searches under warrants have played a comparatively minor part in law enforcement, except in connection with narcotics and gambling laws.” 2 Nevertheless, the Court frequently asserts that ”the most basic constitutional rule in this area is that ‘searches conducted outside the judicial process, without prior approval by judge or magistrate, are per se unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment–subject only to a few specially established and well-delineated exceptions.” 3 The exceptions are said to be ”jealously and carefully drawn,” 4 and there must be ”a showing by those who seek exemption . . . that the exigencies of the situation made that course imperative.” 5 While the record does indicate an effort to categorize the exceptions, the number and breadth of those exceptions have been growing.

Detention Short of Arrest: Stop-and-Frisk .–Arrests are subject to the requirements of the Fourth Amendment, but the courts have followed the common law in upholding the right of police officers to take a person into custody without a warrant if they have probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed a felony or has committed a misdemeanor in their presence. 6 The probable cause is, of course, the same standard required to be met in the issuance of an arrest warrant, and must be satisfied by conditions existing prior to the policeman’s stop, what is discovered thereafter not sufficing to establish retroactively reasonable cause. 7 There are, however, instances when a policeman’s suspicions will have been aroused by someone’s conduct or manner, but probable cause for placing such a person under arrest will be lacking. 8 In Terry v. Ohio, 9 the Court almost unanimously approved an on-the-street investigation by a police officer which involved ”patting down” the subject of the investigation for weapons.

The case arose when a police officer observed three individuals engaging in conduct which appeared to him, on the basis of training and experience, to be the ”casing” of a store for a likely armed robbery; upon approaching the men, identifying himself, and not receiving prompt identification, the officer seized one of the men, patted the exterior of his clothes, and discovered a gun. Chief Justice Warren for the Court wrote that the Fourth Amendment was applicable to the situation, applicable ”whenever a police officer accosts an individual and restrains his freedom to walk away.” 10 Since the warrant clause is necessarily and practically of no application to the type of on-the-street encounter present in Terry, the Chief Justice continued, the question was whether the policeman’s actions were reasonable. The test of reasonableness in this sort of situation is whether the police officer can point to ”specific and articulable facts which, taken together with rational inferences from those facts,” would lead a neutral magistrate on review to conclude that a man of reasonable caution would be warranted in believing that possible criminal behavior was at hand and that both an investigative stop and a ”frisk” was required. 11 Inasmuch as the conduct witnessed by the policeman reasonably led him to believe that an armed robbery was in prospect, he was as reasonably led to believe that the men were armed and probably dangerous and that his safety required a ”frisk.” Because the object of the ”frisk” is the discovery of dangerous weapons, ”it must therefore be confined in scope to an intrusion reasonably designed to discover guns, knives, clubs, or other hidden instruments for the assault of the police officer.” 12 If, in the course of a weapons frisk, ”plain touch” reveals presence of an object that the officer has probable cause to believe is contraband, the officer may seize that object. Supp.3 The Court viewed the situation as analogous to that covered by the ”plain view” doctrine: obvious contraband may be seized, but a search may not be expanded to determine whether an object is contraband. Supp.4

Terry did not pass on a host of problems, including the grounds that could permissibly lead an officer to momentarily stop a person on the street or elsewhere in order to ask questions rather than frisk for weapons, the right of the stopped individual to refuse to cooperate, and the permissible response of the police to that refusal. Following that decision, the standard for stops for investigative purposes evolved into one of ”reasonable suspicion of criminal activity.” That test permits some stops and questioning without probable cause in order to allow police officers to explore the foun dations of their suspicions. 13 While not elaborating a set of rules governing the application of the tests, the Court was initially restrictive in recognizing permissible bases for reasonable suspicion. 14 Extensive instrusions on individual privacy, e.g., transportation to the stationhouse for interrogation and fingerprinting, were invalidated in the absence of probable cause. 15 More recently, however, the Court has taken less restrictive approaches. 16

It took the Court some time to settle on a test for when a ”seizure” has occurred, and the Court has recently modified its approach. The issue is of some importance, since it is at this point that Fourth Amendment protections take hold. The Terry Court recognized in dictum that ”not all personal intercourse between policemen and citizens involves ‘seizures’ of persons,” and suggested that ”[o]nly when the officer, by means of physical force or show of authority, has in some way restrained the liberty of a citizen may we conclude that a ‘seizure’ has occurred.” 17 Years later Justice Stewart proposed a similar standard, that a person has been seized ”only if, in view of all of the circumstances surrounding the incident, a reasonable person would have believed that he was not free to leave.” 18 This reasonable perception standard was subse quently endorsed by a majority of Justices, 19 and was applied in several cases in which admissibility of evidence turned on whether a seizure of the person not justified by probable cause or reasonable suspicion had occurred prior to the uncovering of the evidence. No seizure occurred, for example, when INS agents seeking to identify illegal aliens conducted work force surveys within a garment factory; while some agents were positioned at exits, others systematically moved through the factory and questioned employees. 20 This brief questioning, even with blocked exits, amounted to ”classic consensual encounters rather than Fourth Amendment seizures.” 21 The Court also ruled that no seizure had occurred when police in a squad car drove alongside a suspect who had turned and run down the sidewalk when he saw the squad car approach. Under the circumstances (no siren, flashing lights, display of a weapon, or blocking of the suspect’s path), the Court concluded, the police conduct ”would not have communicated to the reasonable person an attempt to capture or otherwise intrude upo
n [one’s] freedom of movement.” 22

Soon thereafter, however, the Court departed from the Mendenhall reasonable perception standard and adopted a more formalistic approach, holding that an actual chase with evident intent to capture did not amount to a ”seizure” because the suspect did not comply with the officer’s order to halt. Mendenhall, said the Court in California v. Hodari D., stated a ”necessary” but not a ”sufficient” condition for a seizure of the person through show of authority. 23 A Fourth Amendment ”seizure” of the person, the Court determined, is the same as a common law arrest; there must be either application of physical force (or the laying on of hands), or submission to the assertion of authority. 24 Indications are, however, that Hodari D. does not signal the end of the reasonable perception standard, but merely carves an exception applicable to chases and perhaps other encounters between suspects and police.

Later in the same term the Court ruled that the Mendenhall ”free-to-leave” inquiry was misplaced in the context of a police sweep of a bus, but that a modified reasonable perception approach still governed. 25 In conducting a bus sweep, aimed at detecting illegal drugs and their couriers, police officers typically board a bus during a stopover at a terminal and ask to inspect tickets, identification, and sometimes luggage of selected passengers. The Court did not focus on whether an ”arrest” had taken place, as adherence to the Hodari D. approach would have required, but instead suggested that the appropriate inquiry is ”whether a reasonable person would feel free to decline the officers’ requests or otherwise terminate the encounter.” 26 ”When the person is seated on a bus and has no desire to leave,” the Court explained, ”the degree to which a reasonable person would feel that he or she could leave is not an accurate measure of the coercive effect of the encounter.” 27

A Terry search need not be limited to a stop and frisk of the person, but may extend as well to a protective search of the passenger compartment of a car if an officer possesses ”a reasonable belief, based on specific and articulable facts . . . that the suspect is dangerous and . . . may gain immediate control of weapons.” 28 How lengthy a Terry detention may be varies with the circumstances. In approving a 20-minute detention of a driver made necessary by the driver’s own evasion of drug agents and a state police decision to hold the driver until the agents could arrive on the scene, the Court indicated that it is ”appropriate to examine whether the police diligently pursued a means of investigation that was likely to confirm or dispel their suspicions quickly, during which time it was necessary to detain the defendant.” 29

Similar principles govern detention of luggage at airports in order to detect the presence of drugs; Terry ”limitations applicable to investigative detentions of the person should define the permissible scope of an investigative detention of the person’s luggage on less than probable cause.” 30 The general rule is that ”when an officer’s observations lead him reasonably to believe that a traveler is carrying luggage that contains narcotics, the principles of Terry . . . would permit the officer to detain the luggage briefly to investigate the circumstances that aroused his suspicion, provided that the investigative detention is properly limited in scope.” 31 Seizure of luggage for an expeditious ”canine sniff” by a dog trained to detect narcotics can satisfy this test even though seizure of luggage is in effect detention of the traveler, since the procedure results in ”limited disclosure,” impinges only slightly on a traveler’s privacy interest in the contents of personal luggage, and does not constitute a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment. 32 By contrast, taking a suspect to an interrogation room on grounds short of probable cause, retaining his air ticket, and retrieving his luggage without his permission taints consent given under such circumstances to open the luggage, since by then the detention had exceeded the bounds of a permissible Terry investigative stop and amounted to an invalid arrest. 33 But the same requirements for brevity of detention and limited scope of investigation are apparently inapplicable to border searches of international travelers, the Court having approved a 24-hour detention of a traveler suspected of smuggling drugs in her alimentary canal. 34

Search Incident to Arrest .–The common-law rule permitting searches of the person of an arrestee as an incident to the arrest has occasioned little controversy in the Court. 35 The dispute has centered around the scope of the search. Since it was the stated general rule that the scope of a warrantless search must be strictly tied to and justified by the circumstances which rendered its justification permissible, and since it was the rule that the justification of a search of the arrestee was to prevent destruction of evidence and to prevent access to a weapon, 36 it was argued to the court that a search of the person of the defendant arrested for a traffic offense, which discovered heroin in a crumpled cigarette package, was impermissible, inasmuch as there could have been no destructible evidence relating to the offense for which he was arrested and no weapon could have been concealed in the cigarette package. The Court rejected this argument, ruling that ”no additional justification” is required for a custodial arrest of a suspect based on probable cause. 37

However, the Justices have long found themselves embroiled in argument about the scope of the search incident to arrest as it extends beyond the person to the area in which the person is arrested, most commonly either his premises or his vehicle. Certain early cases went both ways on the basis of some fine distinctions, 38 but in Harris v. United States, 39 the Court approved a search of a four-room apartment pursuant to an arrest under warrant for one crime and in which the search turned up evidence of another crime. A year later, in Trupiano v. United States, 40 a raid on a distillery resulted in the arrest of a man found on the premises and a seizure of the equipment; the Court reversed the conviction because the officers had had time to obtain a search warrant and had not done so. ”A search or seizure without a warrant as an incident to a lawful arrest has always been considered to be a strictly limited right. It grows out of the inherent necessities of the situation at the time of the arrest. But there must be something more in the way of necessity than merely a lawful arrest.” 41 This decision was overruled in United States v. Rabinowitz, 42 in which officers arrested defendant in his one-room office pursuant to an arrest warrant and proceeded to search the room completely. The Court observed that the issue was not whether the officers had the time and opportunity to obtain a search warrant but whether the search incident to arrest was reasonable. Though Rabinowitz referred to searches of the area within the arrestee’s ”immediate control,” 43 it provided no standard by which this area was to be determined, and extensive searches were permitted under the rule. 44

In Chimel v. California, 45 however, a narrower view was asserted, the primacy of warrants was again emphasized, and a standard by which the scope of searches pursuant to arrest could be ascertained was set out. ”When an arrest is made, it is reasonable for the arresting officer to search the person arrested in order to remove any weapons that the latter might seek to use in order to resist arrest or effect his
escape. Otherwise, the officer’s safety might well be endangered, and the arrest itself frustrated. In addition, it is entirely reasonable for the arresting officer to search for and seize any evidence on the arrestee’s person in order to prevent its concealment or destruction. And the area into which an arrestee might reach in order to grab a weapon or evidentiary items must, of course, be governed by a like rule. A gun on a table or in a drawer in front of one who is arrested can be as dangerous to the arresting officer as one concealed in the clothing of the person arrested. There is ample justification, therefore, for a search of the arrestee’s person and the area ‘within his immediate control’–construing that phrase to mean the area from within which he might gain possession of a weapon or destructible evidence.

”There is no comparable justification, however, for routinely searching any room other than that in which an arrest occurs–or, for that matter, for searching through all the desk drawers or other closed or concealed areas in that room itself. Such searches, in the absence of well-recognized exceptions, may be made only under the authority of a search warrant.” 46

Although the viability of Chimel had been in doubt for some time as the Court refined and applied its analysis of reasonable and justifiable expectations of privacy, 47 it has in some but not all contexts survived the changed rationale. Thus, in Mincey v. Arizona, 48 the Court rejected a state effort to create a ”homicide-scene” exception for a warrantless search of an entire apartment extending over four days. The occupant had been arrested and removed and it was true, the Court observed, that a person legally taken into custody has a lessened right of privacy in his person, but he does not have a lessened right of privacy in his entire house. And, in United States v. Chadwick, 49 emphasizing a person’s reasonable expectation of privacy in his luggage or other baggage, the Court held that, once police have arrested and immobilized a suspect, validly seized bags are not subject to search without a warrant. 50 Police may, however, in the course of jailing an arrested suspect conduct an inventory search of the individual’s personal effects, including the contents of a shoulder bag, since ”the scope of a station-house search may in some circumstances be even greater than those supporting a search immediately following arrest.” 51

Still purporting to reaffirm Chimel, the Court in New York v. Belton 52 held that police officers who had made a valid arrest of the occupant of a vehicle could make a contemporaneous search of the entire passenger compartment of the automobile, including containers found therein. Believing that a fairly simple rule understandable to authorities in the field was desirable, the Court ruled ”that articles inside the relatively narrow compass of the passenger compartment of an automobile are in fact generally, if not inevitably, within ‘the area into which an arrestee might reach in order to grab a weapon or evidentiary ite[m].”’ 53

Chimel has, however, been qualified by another consideration. Not only may officers search areas within the arrestee’s immediate control in order to alleviate any threat posed by the arrestee, but they may extend that search if there may be a threat posed by ”unseen third parties in the house.” A ”protective sweep” of the entire premises (including an arrestee’s home) may be undertaken on less than probable cause if officers have a ”reasonable belief,” based on ”articulable facts,” that the area to be swept may harbor an individual posing a danger to those on the arrest scene. 54

Vehicular Searches .–In the early days of the automobile the Court created an exception for searches of vehicles, holding in Carroll v. United States 55 that vehicles may be searched without warrants if the officer undertaking the search has probable cause to believe that the vehicle contains contraband. The Court explained that the mobility of vehicles would allow them to be quickly moved from the jurisdiction if time were taken to obtain a warrant. 56

Initially the Court limited Carroll’s reach, holding impermissible the warrantless seizure of a parked automobile merely because it is movable, and indicating that vehicles may be stopped only while moving or reasonably contemporaneously with movement. 57 Also, the Court ruled that the search must be reasonably contemporaneous with the stop, so that it was not permissible to remove the vehicle to the stationhouse for a warrantless search at the convenience of the police. 58

The Court next developed a reduced privacy rationale to supplement the mobility rationale, explaining that ”the configuration, use, and regulation of automobiles often may dilute the reasonable expectation of privacy that exists with respect to differently situated property.” 59 ”’One has a lesser expectation of privacy in a motor vehicle because its function is transportation and it seldom serves as one’s residence or as the repository of personal effects. . . . It travels public thoroughfares where both its occupants and its contents are in plain view.”’ 60 While motor homes do serve as residences and as repositories for personal effects, and while their contents are often shielded from public view, the Court extended the automobile exception to them as well, holding that there is a diminished expectation of privacy in a mobile home parked in a parking lot and licensed for vehicular travel, hence ”readily mobile.” 61

The reduced expectancy concept has broadened police powers to conduct automobile searches without warrants, but they still must have probable cause to search a vehicle 62 and they may not make random stops of vehicles on the roads, but instead must base stops of individual vehicles on probable cause or some ”articulable and reasonable suspicion” Supp.5 of traffic or safety violation orsome other criminal activity. Supp.6 By contrast, fixed-checkpoint stops in the absence of any individualized suspicion have been upheld. 64 Once police have validly stopped a vehicle, they may also, based on articulable facts warranting a reasonable belief that weapons may be present, conduct a Terry-type protective search of those portions of the passenger compartment in which a weapon could be placed or hidden. 65 And, in the absence of such reasonable suspicion as to weapons, police may seize contraband and suspicious items ”in plain view” inside the passenger compartment. 66

Once police have probable cause to believe there is contraband in a vehicle, they may remove it from the scene to the stationhouse in order to conduct a search, without thereby being required to obtain a warrant. ”[T]he justification to conduct such a warrantless search does not vanish once the car has been immobilized; nor does it depend upon a reviewing court’s assessment of the likelihood in each particular case that the car would have been driven away, or that its contents would have been tampered with, during the period required for the police to obtain a warrant.” 67 The Justices were evenly divided, however, on the propriety of warrantless seizure of an arrestee’s automobile from a public parking lot several hours after his arrest, its transportation to a police impoundment lot, and the taking of tire casts and exterior paint scrapings. 68 Because of the lessened expectation of privacy, inventory searches of impounded automobiles are justifiable in order to protect public safety and the owner’s property, and any evidence of criminal activity discovered in the course of the inventories is admissible in court. 69

It is not lawful for the police in undertaking a warrantless search of an automobile to extend the search to the passengers therein. 70 But because passengers in an automobile have no reasonable expectation of privacy in the interior area of the car, a warrantless search of the glove compartment and the spaces under the seats, which turned up evidence implicating the passengers, invaded no Fourth Amendment interest of the passengers. 71 Luggage and other closed containers found in automobiles may also be subjected to warrantless searches based on probable cause, the same rule now applying whether the police have probable cause to search only the containers 72 or whether they have probable cause to search the automobile for something capable of being held in the container. 73

Vessel Searches .–Not only is the warrant requirement inapplicable to brief stops of vessels, but also none of the safeguards applicable to stops of automobiles on less than probable cause are necessary predicates to stops of vessels. In United States v. Villamonte-Marquez, 74 the Court upheld a random stop and boarding of a vessel by customs agents, lacking any suspicion of wrongdoing, for purpose of inspecting documentation. The boarding was authorized by statute derived from an act of the First Congress, 75 and hence had ”an impressive historical pedigree” carrying with it a presumption of constitutionality. Moreover, ”important factual differences between vessels located in waters offering ready access to the open sea and automobiles on principal thoroughfares in the border area” justify application of a less restrictive rule for vessel searches. The reason why random stops of vehicles have been held impermissible under the Fourth Amendment, the Court explained, is that stops at fixed checkpoints or roadblocks are both feasible and less subject to abuse of discretion by authorities. ”But no reasonable claim can be made that permanent checkpoints would be practical on waters such as these where vessels can move in any direction at any time and need not follow established ‘avenues’ as automobiles must do.” 76 Because there is a ”substantial” governmental interest in enforcing documentation laws, ”especially in waters where the need to deter or apprehend smugglers is great,” the Court found the ”limited” but not ”minimal” intrusion occasioned by boarding for documentation inspection to be reasonable. 77 Dis senting Justice Brennan argued that the Court for the first time was approving ”a completely random seizure and detention of persons and an entry onto private, noncommercial premises by police officers, without any limitations whatever on the officers’ discretion or any safeguards against abuse.” 78

Footnotes

[Footnote 1] E.g., Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 14 (1948); McDonald v. United States, 335 U.S. 451, 453 (1948); Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 523, 528 -29 (1967); G.M. Leasing Corp. v. United States, 429 U.S. 338, 352 -53, 355 (1977).

[Footnote 2] American Law Institute, A Model Code of Pre-Arraignment Procedure, Tent. Draft No. 3 (Philadelphia: 1970), xix.

[Footnote 3] Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443, 454 -55 (1971) (quoting Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 357 (1967)); G.M. Leasing Corp. v. United States, 429 U.S. 338, 352 -53, 358 (1977).

[Footnote 4] Jones v. United States, 357 U.S. 493, 499 (1958).

[Footnote 5] McDonald v. United States, 335 U.S. 451, 456 (1948). In general, with regard to exceptions to the warrant clause, conduct must be tested by the reasonableness standard enunciated by the first clause of the Amendment, Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 20 (1968), and the Court’s development of its privacy expectation tests, supra, pp.1206-09, substantially changed the content of that standard.

[Footnote 6] United States v. Watson, 423 U.S. 411 (1976). See supra, p.1209.

[Footnote 7] Henry v. United States, 361 U.S. 98 (1959); Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 16 -17 (1948); Sibron v. New York, 392 U.S. 40, 62 – 63 (1968).

[Footnote 8] ”The police may not arrest upon mere suspicion but only on ‘probable cause.”’ Mallory v. United States, 354 U.S. 449, 454 (1957).

[Footnote 9] 392 U.S. 1 (1968). Only Justice Douglas dissented. Id. at 35.

[Footnote 10] Id. at 16. See id. at 16-20.

[Footnote 11] Id. at 20, 21, 22.

[Footnote 12] Id. at 23-27, 29. See also Sibron v. New York, 392 U.S. 40 (1968) (after policeman observed defendant speak with several known narcotics addicts, he approached him and placed his hand in defendant’s pocket, thus discovering narcotics; impermissible, because he lacked reasonable basis for frisk and in any event his search exceeded permissible scope of weapons frisk); Adams v. Williams, 407 U.S. 143 (1972) (acting on tip that defendant was sitting in his car with narcotics and firearm, police approached, asked defendant to step out, and initiated frisk and discovered weapon when he merely rolled window down; justifiable); Pennsylvania v. Mimms, 434 U.S. 106 (1977) (after validly stopping car, officer required defendant to get out of car, observed bulge under his jacket, and frisked him and seized weapon; while officer did not suspect driver of crime or have an articulable basis for safety fears, safety considerations justified his requiring driver to leave car).

[Footnote 3 (1996 Supplement)] Minnesota v. Dickerson, 508 U.S. 366 (1993).

[Footnote 4 (1996 Supplement)] Id. at 2237, 2139. In Dickerson the Court held that seizure of a small plastic container that the officer felt in the suspect’s pocket was not justified; the officer should not have continued the search, manipulating the container with his fingers, after determining that no weapon was present.

[Footnote 13] In United States v. Cortez, 449 U.S. 411 (1981), a unanimous Court attempted to capture the ”elusive concept” of the basis for permitting a stop. Officers must have ”articulable reasons” or ”founded suspicions,” derived from the totality of the circumstances. ”Based upon that whole picture the detaining officer must have a particularized and objective basis for suspecting the particular person stopped of criminal activity.” Id. at 417-18. The inquiry is thus quite fact-specific. In the anonymous tip context, the same basic approach requiring some corroboration applies regardless of whether the standard is probable cause or reasonable suspicion; the difference is that less information, or less reliable information, can satisfy the lower standard. Alabama v. White, 496 U.S. 325 (1990).

[Footnote 14] E.g., Brown v. Texas, 443 U.S. 47 (1979) (individual’s presence in high crime area gave officer no articulable basis to suspect him of crime); Delaware v. Prouse, 440 U.S. 648 (1979) (reasonable suspicion of a license or registration violation is necessary to authorize automobile stop; random stops impermissible); United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, 422 U.S. 873 (1975) (officers could not justify random automobile stop solely on basis of Mexican appearance of occupants); Reid v. Georgia, 448 U.S. 438 (1980) (no reasonable suspicion for airport stop based on appearance that suspect and another passenger were trying to conceal the fact that they were travelling together). But cf. United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543 (1976) (halting vehicles at fixed checkpoints to question occupants as to citizenship and immigration status permissible, even if officers should act on basis of appearance of occupants).

[Footnote 15] Davis v. Mississipp
i, 394 U.S. 721 (1969); Dunaway v. New York, 442 U.S. 200 (1979).

[Footnote 16] See, e.g., United States v. Hensley, 469 U.S. 221 (1985) (reasonable suspicion to stop a motorist may be based on a ”wanted flyer” as long as issuance of the flyer has been based on reasonable suspicion); United States v. Sokolow, 490 U.S. 1 , (1989) (airport stop based on drug courier profile may rely on a combination of factors that individually may be ”quite consistent with innocent travel”).

[Footnote 17] 392 U.S. at 19 , n.16.

[Footnote 18] United States v. Mendenhall, 446 U.S. 544, 554 (1980).

[Footnote 19] See, e.g., Florida v. Royer, 460 U.S. 491 (1983), in which there was no opinion of the Court, but in which the test was used by the plurality of four, id. at 502, and also endorsed by dissenting Justice Blackmun, id. at 514.

[Footnote 20] INS v. Delgado, 466 U.S. 210 (1984).

[Footnote 21] Id. at 221.

[Footnote 22] Michigan v. Chesternut, 486 U.S. 567, 575 (1988).

[Footnote 23] 499 U.S. 621, 628 (1991). As in Michigan v. Chesternut, supra n.22, the suspect dropped incriminating evidence while being chased.

[Footnote 24] Adherence to this approach would effectively nullify the Court’s earlier position that Fourth Amendment protections extend to ”seizures that involve only a brief detention short of traditional arrest.” United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, 422 U.S. 873, 878 (1975), quoted in INS v. Delgado, 466 U.S., 210, 215 (1984).

[Footnote 25] Florida v. Bostick, (1991).

[Footnote 26] Id. at 2387.

[Footnote 27] Id. The Court asserted that the case was ”analytically indistinguishable from Delgado. Like the workers in that case [subjected to the INS ”survey” at their workplace], Bostick’s freedom of movement was restricted by a factor independent of police conduct–i.e., by his being a passenger on a bus.” Id.

[Footnote 28] Michigan v. Long, 463 U.S. 1032 (1983) (suspect appeared to be under the influence of drugs, officer spied hunting knife exposed on floor of front seat and searched remainder of passenger compartment). Similar reasoning has been applied to uphold a ”protective sweep” of a home in which an arrest is made if arresting officers have a reasonable belief that the area swept may harbor another individual posing a danger to the officers or to others. Maryland v. Buie, 494 U.S. 325 (1990).

[Footnote 29] United States v. Sharpe, 470 U.S. 675, 686 (1985). A more relaxed standard has been applied to detention of travelers at the border, the Court testing the reasonableness in terms of ”the period of time necessary to either verify or dispel the suspicion.” United States v. Montoya de Hernandez, 473 U.S. 531, 544 (1985) (approving warrantless detention for more than 24 hours of traveler suspected of alimentary canal drug smuggling).

[Footnote 30] United States v. Place, 462 U.S. 696, 709 (1983).

[Footnote 31] Id. at 706.

[Footnote 32] 462 U.S. at 707 . However, the search in Place was not expeditious, and hence exceeded Fourth Amendment bounds, when agents took 90 minutes to transport luggage to another airport for administration of the canine sniff.

[Footnote 33] Florida v. Royer, 460 U.S. 491 (1983). On this much the plurality opinion of Justice White (id. at 503), joined by three other Justices, and the concurring opinion of Justice Brennan (id. at 509) were in agreement.

[Footnote 34] United States v. Montoya de Hernandez, 473 U.S. 531 (1985).

[Footnote 35] Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383, 392 (1914); Carroll v. United States, 267 U.S. 132, 158 (1925); Agnello v. United States, 269 U.S. 20, 30 (1925).

[Footnote 36] Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 19 (1968); Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752, 762 , 763 (1969).

[Footnote 37] United States v. Robinson, 414 U.S. 218, 235 (1973). See also id. at 237-38 (Justice Powell concurring). The Court applied the same rule in Gustafson v. Florida, 414 U.S. 260 (1973), involving a search of a motorist’s person following his custodial arrest for an offense for which a citation would normally have issued. Unlike the situation in Robinson, police regulations did not require the Gustafson officer to take the suspect into custody, nor did a departmental policy guide the officer as to when to conduct a full search. The Court found these differences inconsequential, and left for another day the problem of pretextual arrests in order to obtain basis to search. Soon thereafter, the Court upheld conduct of a similar search at the place of detention, even after a time lapse between the arrest and search. United States v. Edwards, 415 U.S. 800 (1974).

[Footnote 38] Compare Marron v. United States, 275 U.S. 192 (1927), with Go-Bart Importing Co. v. United States, 282 U.S. 344 (1931), and United States v. Lefkowitz, 285 U.S. 452 (1932).

[Footnote 39] 331 U.S. 145 (1947).

[Footnote 40] 334 U.S. 699 (1948).

[Footnote 41] Id. at 708.

[Footnote 42] 339 U.S. 56 (1950).

[Footnote 43] Id. at 64.

[Footnote 44] Cf. Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752, 764 -65 & n.10 (1969). But in Kremen v. United States, 353 U.S. 346 (1957), the Court held that the seizure of the entire contents of a house and the removal to F.B.I. offices 200 miles away for examination, pursuant to an arrest under warrant of one of the persons found in the house, was unreasonable. In decisions contemporaneous to and subsequent to Chimel, applying pre-Chimel standards because that case was not retroactive, Williams v. United States, 401 U.S. 646 (1971), the Court has applied Rabinowitz somewhat restrictively. See Von Cleef v. New Jersey, 395 U.S. 814 (1969), which followed Kremen; Shipley v. California, 395 U.S. 818 (1969), and Vale v. Louisiana, 399 U.S. 30 (1970) (both involving arrests outside the house with subsequent searches of the house); Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443, 455 -57 (1971). Substantially extensive searches were, however, approved in Williams v. United States, 401 U.S. 646 (1971), and Hill v. California, 401 U.S. 797 (1971).

[Footnote 45] 395 U.S. 752 (1969).

[Footnote 46] Id. at 762-63.

[Footnote 47] Supra, pp.1206-09. See, e.g., Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443, 492 , 493, 510 (1971), in which the four dissenters advocated the reasonableness argument rejected in Chimel.

[Footnote 48] 437 U.S. 385 (1978). The expectancy distinction is at 391.

[Footnote 49] 433 U.S. 1 (1977). Defendant and his luggage, a footlocker, had been removed to the police station, where the search took place.

[Footnote 50] If, on the other hand, a sealed shipping container had already been opened and resealed during a valid customs inspection, and officers had maintained surveillance through a ”controlled delivery” to the suspect, there is no reasonable expectation of privacy in the contents of the container and officers may search it, upon the arrest of the suspect, without having obtained a warrant. Illinois v. Andreas, 463 U.S. 765 (1983).

[Footnote 51] Illinois v. LaFayette, 462 U.S. 640, 645 (1983) (inventory search) (following South Dakota v. Opperman, 428 U.S. 364 (1976)). Similarly, an inventory search of an impounded vehicle may include the contents of a closed container. Colorado v. Bertine, 479 U.S. 367 (1987). Inventory searches of closed containers must, however, be guided by a police policy con
taining standardized criteria for exercise of discretion. Florida v. Wells, 495 U.S. 1 (1990).

[Footnote 52] 453 U.S. 454 (1981).

[Footnote 53] Id. at 460 (quoting Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752, 763 (1969)). In this particular instance, Belton had been removed from the automobile and handcuffed, but the Court wished to create a general rule removed from the fact-specific nature of any one case. ”’Container’ here denotes any object capable of holding another object. It thus includes closed or open glove compartments, consoles, or other receptacles located anywhere within the passenger compartment, as well as luggage, boxes, bags, clothing, and the like. Our holding encompasses only the interior of the passenger compartment of an automobile and does not encompass the trunk.” Id. at 460-61 n.4.

[Footnote 54] Maryland v. Buie, 494 U.S. 325, 334 (1990). This ”sweep” is not to be a full-blown, ”top-to-bottom” search, but only ”a cursory inspection of those spaces where a person may be found.” Id. at 335-36.

[Footnote 55] 267 U.S. 132 (1925). Carroll was a Prohibition-era liquor case, whereas a great number of modern automobile cases involve drugs.

[Footnote 56] Id. at 153. See also Husty v. United States, 282 U.S. 694 (1931); Scher v. United States, 305 U.S. 251 (1938); Brinegar v. United States, 338 U.S. 160 (1949). All of these cases involved contraband, but in Chambers v. Maroney, 399 U.S. 42 (1970), the Court, without discussion, and over Justice Harlan’s dissent, id. at 55, 62, extended the rule to evidentiary searches.

[Footnote 57] Coolidge v. New Hampshire, 403 U.S. 443, 458 -64 (1971). This portion of the opinion had the adherence of a plurality only, Justice Harlan concurring on other grounds, and there being four dissenters. Id. at 493, 504, 510, 523.

[Footnote 58] Preston v. United States, 376 U.S. 364 (1964); Dyke v. Taylor Implement Mfg. Co., 391 U.S. 216 (1968).

[Footnote 59] Arkansas v. Sanders, 442 U.S. 753, 761 (1979).

[Footnote 60] Cardwell v. Lewis, 417 U.S. 583, 590 (1974) (plurality opinion), quoted in United States v. Chadwick, 433 U.S. 1, 12 (1977). See also United States v. Ortiz, 422 U.S. 891, 896 (1975); United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543, 561 (1976); South Dakota v. Opperman, 428 U.S. 364, 367 -68 (1976); Robbins v. California, 453 U.S. 420, 424 -25 (1981); United States v. Ross, 456 U.S. 798, 807 n.9 (1982).

[Footnote 61] California v. Carney, 471 U.S. 386, 393 (1985) (leaving open the question of whether the automobile exception also applies to a ”mobile” home being used as a residence and not ”readily mobile”).

[Footnote 62] Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, 413 U.S. 266 (1973) (roving patrols); United States v. Ortiz, 422 U.S. 891 (1975). Cf. Colorado v. Bannister, 449 U.S. 1 (1980). An automobile’s ”ready mobility [is] an exigency sufficient to excuse failure to obtain a search warrant once probable cause is clear”; there is no need to find the presence of ”unforeseen circumstances” or other additional exigency. Pennsylvania v. Labron, 116 S. Ct. 2485, 2487 (1996).

[Footnote 5 (1996 Supplement)] Delaware v. Prouse, 440 U.S. 648, 663 (1979) (discretionary random stops of motorists to check driver’s license and registration papers and safety features of cars constitute Fourth Amendment violation); United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, 422 U.S. 873 (1975) (violation for rovingpatrols on lookout for illegal aliens to stop vehicles on highways near international borders when only ground for suspicion is that occupants appear to be of Mexican ancestry). In Prouse, the Court cautioned that it was not precluding the States from developing methods for spotchecks, such as questioning all traffic at roadblocks, that involve less intrusion or that do not involve unconstrained exercise of discretion. 440 U.S. at 663.

[Footnote 6 (1996 Supplement)] An officer who observes a traffic violation may stop a vehicle even if his real motivation is to investigate for evidence of other crime. Whren v. United States, 116 S. Ct. 1769 (1996). The existence of probable cause to believe that a traffic violation has occurred establishes the constitutional reasonableness of traffic stops regardless of the actual motivation of the officers involved, and regardless of whether it is customary police practice to stop motorists for the violation observed.

[Footnote 63] Deleted in 1996 Supplement.

[Footnote 64] Michigan Dep’t of State Police v. Sitz, 496 U.S. 444 (1990) (upholding a sobriety checkpoint at which all motorists are briefly stopped for preliminary questioning and observation for signs of intoxication). See also United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543 (1976) (upholding border patrol checkpoint, over 60 miles from the border, for questioning designed to apprehend illegal aliens).

[Footnote 65] Michigan v. Long, 463 U.S. 1032, 1049 (1983) (holding that contraband found in the course of such a search is admissible).

[Footnote 66] Texas v. Brown, 460 U.S. 730 (1983). Similarly, since there is no reasonable privacy interest in the vehicle identification number, required by law to be placed on the dashboard so as to be visible through the windshield, police may reach into the passenger compartment to remove items obscuring the number and may seize items in plain view while doing so. New York v. Class, 475 U.S. 106 (1986).

[Footnote 67] Michigan v. Thomas, 458 U.S. 259, 261 (1982). See also Chambers v. Maroney, 399 U.S. 42 (1970); Texas v. White, 423 U.S. 67 (1975); United States v. Ross, 456 U.S. 798, 807 n.9 (1982).

[Footnote 68] Cardwell v. Lewis, 417 U.S. 583 (1974). Justice Powell concurred on other grounds.

[Footnote 69] Cady v. Dombrowski, 413 U.S. 433 (1973); South Dakota v. Opperman, 428 U.S. 364 (1976). See also Cooper v. California, 386 U.S. 58 (1967); United States v. Harris, 390 U.S. 234 (1968). Police, in conducting an inventory search of a vehicle, may open closed containers in order to inventory contents. Colorado v. Bertine, 479 U.S. 367 (1987).

[Footnote 70] United States v. Di Re, 332 U.S. 581 (1948). While Di Re is now an old case, it appears still to control. See Ybarra v. Illinois, 444 U.S. 85, 94 -96 (1979).

[Footnote 71] Rakas v. Illinois, 439 U.S. 128 (1978).

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Annotation 3 – Fourth Amendment – FindLaw

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Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

Posted: March 21, 2016 at 1:43 pm

Freedom is a borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, United States, along the Ohio River 25 miles (40km) northwest of Pittsburgh. In the early years of the twentieth century, the chief industries were the production of oil, caskets, and monuments. In 1900, 1,783 people lived in Freedom; in 1910, 3,060 people lived there. The population was 1,763 at the 2000 census. In 1824, the Harmony Society returned to Pennsylvania, from Indiana. The society settled in what is now Ambridge, Pennsylvania, five miles (8km) up the Ohio River. One of the reasons the society left Indiana was because of harassment for their abolitionist activities. Their settlement was in Beaver County along the Ohio River. There they founded “konomie,” now better known as Old Economy Village. Here the Society gained worldwide recognition for its religious devotion and economic prosperity. The Harmonites were abolitionists, and began placing signs along the Ohio River with one word, “FREEDOM”. The Harmonites selected this location because the river curves at this point. The river is actually flowing North, so runaway slaves from the South would be traveling up the river. The FREEDOM sign on the river bank was to let runaway slaves know that they had reached freedom (and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania). If the runaway slaves were still in Illinois, Indiana, or Ohio, then slave hunters from Kentucky or Virginia could legally cross the river and capture them. Once in Pennsylvania, the slaves were free.

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Freedom, PA – Freedom, Pennsylvania Map & Directions – MapQuest

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Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

Posted: February 24, 2016 at 11:48 pm

Top Ten Illuminati Symbols The Illuminati loves taunting the Profane by putting their symbols in plain sight for all to see. Only the Illuminati insiders are privy to the symbols true meaning. Symbols of the Illuminati are present on our currencies, and are plastered all over our television, movies and newspapers.

The All-Seeing Eye or the Eye of Providence is the preeminent symbol and most widely recognized symbol of the Illuminati.

The All-Seeing Eye as seen on the United States one dollar note.

The All-Seeing Eye was added to the original design of the Great Seal of the United States in 1776 by Pierre Eugne Du Simitire and remained on the Seal with the addition of an unfinished pyramid (see Illuminati symbol #2) when it was finally adopted in 1782. In 1935 the Great Seal was added to the $1 dollar note, the most widely circulated note on the planet, by President and Freemason Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Links to the Illuminati: To conspiracy theorists, the all-seeing eye represents the Eye of Lucifer. The Eye can see all and oversees its minions which are represented by the individual bricks of the pyramid. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the 13 Illuminati Bloodlines which collectively rule over the planet. The year 1776 represent the founding of the Bavarian Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt.

US Government: The Eye is a representation of God who favors the prosperity of the United States. It is positioned above an unfinished pyramid representing the future growth of the United States. The 13 steps of the pyramid represent the original thirteen states. The year 1776 represent the birth of the United States.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: There is no evidence that the Bavarian Illuminati used the eye in any of its rituals. However, they used the point within a circle, circled dot, circumpunct, or circle with a point at its centre a () to represent the Order.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason learns that the All Seeing Eye represents the Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU) who watches and sees everything and will judge us according to our works.

The Freemasons also use the symbol. In Arcana of Masonry (p. 188), Masonic Historian Albert Churchward writes:

The point in the centre of a Circle is equal to the point at the tip of the Triangle, and this Glyph is equivalent to the Eye; the two are synonymous.

Other secret societies: In the Order of the Golden Dawn the represents Kether.

Masonic Vice-President Henry A. Wallace and Masonic President FDR added the pyramid to the dollar bill in 1935

All-Seeing Eye on the CBS logo

Original design for the Great Seal of the United States

Masonic tracing board, Germany 1770

The Illuminati Elite is represented by the capstone of the pyramid and the Profane by the stones.

The pyramid represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati with the Illuminati plutocrats at the top and the peons at the bottom.

Links to the Illuminati: In Illuminati conspiracy theories the presence of a pyramid usually represents the top-down command structure of the Illuminati rulers of the universe. The theory has become more mainstream following the rise of the Occupy Wall Street movement who refer to the rulers as the One Percent.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The pyramid was featured prominently at Minerval Assemblies of the Bavarian Illuminati. A carpet was laid out on the rooms floor featuring a Pyramid flanked on either side by the letters D and P on each of its side. (Deo Proximo God is near) There are stones scattered at the pyramids base.

The unfinished pyramid signifies that the goals of the Most Serene Order of the Illuminati are still incomplete. By working together, the Illuminati is able to make great strides towards completing their task for the glory of the Grand Architect.

Links to Freemasonry: The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Virginia is capped by a seven steps pyramid. The House of the Temple, the Headquarters for the Supreme Council of the southern jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite of Masonry is also capped by an unfinished pyramid.

Bavarian Illuminati pyramid vs. Great Seal pyramid

HW Bushs pet pyramid

Being There movie

Step pyramid surmounting George Washington Masonic National Memorial

DARPAs Information Awareness Office

Grave of Charles Taze Russell, Founder of the Jehovahs Witnesses

The owl was the symbol for Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. The Enlightened Ones see themselves as the wise rulers of the planet.

Owl at the Bohemian Grove

Links to the Illuminati: The Bohemian Grove, an exclusive elite 2,700-acre encampment situated in the Redwood forest of northern California features an owl on its logo. The planning meeting for the ultra-secret Manhattan Project is also rumored to have taken place at the Grove. It is also where Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan worked out a deal on who would run for President of the United States.

Owl on Dollar bill?

Bohemian Grove Napkin

Druid with Owl painting at the George Washington Masonic National Memorial

Justin Bieber Illuminati Minerval?

Illuminati Minerval Owl

Frost Bank Tower Austin, Texas

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The owl is an important symbol for Illuminati Minerval. The owl was a symbol of Pallas Athena and represented wisdom and vigilance. The owl was also included on the Illuminati Minerval and Illuminati Minor medallions.

The eternal flame is a powerful symbol of the Enlightenment.

The Statue of LIberty

Links to the Illuminati: Illuminati researcher Dr. Stan Monteith claims that the Statue of Liberty is the pagan goddess Semiramis, the whore of Babylon a homewrecker and a harlot. She represents the destruction of the Old World Order and the creation of the New World Order.

Illuminati researcher Mark Dice claims that the Statue of Liberty is an Illuminati symbol. The statues radiant crowns rays are a symbol of the sun or Enlightenment. The Enlightenment represents Lucifer, the torch bearer.

The Olympic Flame torch rally was first introduced by the Nazis for the 1936 Olympics. Prometheus gave fire (knowledge) to humans. For this transgression, the King of the Gods, Zeus punished Prometheus to have is liver eaten for eternity by an eagle.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Weishaupt was aroused by Zoroastrianism and philosophies of the ancient Parsees. He planned to use fire allegories in the symbols and rituals of the higher degrees of the Illuminati. The color red is prominent in the higher degrees of Illuminati Priest and Illuminati Regent.

Links to Freemasonry: The Statue of Liberty was designed by Freemason Frederic Bartholdi.

The name Lucifer literally means bringer of light.

Statue of Liberty

Columbia Pictures logo

Olympic Torch

Rockefellers Standard Oil

Prometheus at Rockefeller Plaza

The Illuminati and the practice and promotion of black magic

The Pentagram with Baphomets head at its center

Aka: Sigil of Baphomet, (two points up)

The name Baphomet first appeared as a pagan idol in the trial transcripts of the Knights Templar by the Inquisition.

The
pentagram was originally a protection charm against demons. The inverted pentagram came to have its own distinctive meaning as a sign of evil especially after the publication of famed French occultist Lvi liphas publication of Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual in 1854:

A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates.

Links to the Illuminati: George Washington and Thomas Jefferson appointed French-born freemason Pierre Charles LEnfant to design Washington D.C. A pentagram is clearly visible in the street layout leading many to speculate whether or not LEnfant deliberately inserted Masonic symbols.

However, the pentagram is not complete. Rhode Island Avenue does not connect with Pennsylvania Avenue, leaving the pentagram incomplete. Freemasons often point to this as proof that the streets of Washington DC are not Masonic. If the masons are all powerful architects, why cant they get a pentagram right? The answer might be found in the wrings of Illuminatus Johann Goethe (nom de guerre: Abaris) and famous author of Faust:

Mephistopheles: I must confess, my stepping oer Thy threshold a slight hindrance doth impede; The wizard-foot doth me retain.

Faust: The pentagram thy peace doth mar? To me, thou son of hell, explain, How camest thou in, if this thine exit bar? Could such a spirit aught ensnare?

Mephistopheles: Observe it well, it is not drawn with care, One of the angles, that which points without, Is, as thou seest, not quite closed.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati did not use the pentagram in its ceremonies.

Links to Freemasonry: The Order of the Eastern Star a female Masonic organization for wives and family of Freemasons uses the pentagram with two points up as its emblem.

Order of the Eastern Star

Ke$ha Die Young

Streets of Washington, D.C.

Washington posing Baphomet-style (As above, so below)

The Illuminati, the number of the Beast and the Anti-Christ.

six hundred sixty-six

Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.

~ Revelation 13: 18 New King James Version (NKJV)

Links to the Illuminati: The number of the Beast is associated with the Anti-Christ who would eventually take helm of the Illuminati as he brings forth the New World Order. The music industry is a prime recruiting ground for the Illuminati. Illuminated musicians incorporate Illuminati symbolism in their work as a nudge to their Illuminati handlers.

The 666 numerals can also be found in corporate logos such as Taco Bell, Google Chrome and Vodafone. When AT&T changed the name of one of its subsidiaries to Lucent Technologies, Illuminati symbolism researcher Texe Marrs was quick to point out the new names similarity with Lucifer, and asked:

But, does AT&Ts new baby have horns? Does the name Lucent have any link to the name Lucifer? Could it be that, as one writer has suggested, Lucent stands for Lucifers Enterprise?

~ Texe Marrs, PROJECT L.U.C.I.D., 1996

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: Only deists and atheists could hope to reach the higher mystery degrees of the Illuminati. As such, they would have regarded Satan as a mythological figure.

Links to Freemasonry:

Lucifer, the Light-bearer! Strange and mysterious name to give to the Spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable, blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls? Doubt it not!

~ Albert Pike, Moral and Dogma

Note: Fear of the number 666 is called hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia. There will be a test.

Barcode/UPC 666

Monster Energy Drink 666

Vodafone 666 or KKK

Walt Disney 666

Google Chrome 666

A symbol of mortality and the Illuminatis mark on the Skulls and Bones

Skull reminds young initiates of their own mortality

Links to the Illuminati: The Skull and Bones is an elite fraternity at Yale University, a prestigious American university. Their headquarters is known as the Tomb. Theres a painting of skulls with the quote:

Who was the fool, who the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, alls the same in death.

Wer war der Thor, wer Weiser, Bettler oder Kaiser? Ob Arm, ob Reich, im Tode gleich.

Links to the Bavarian Illuminati: The Illuminati Regent or Illuminati Prince initiation rituals consisted of three rooms which the initiate had to visit in succession. In the first room the candidate would find a skeleton with a sword and a crown at its feet. The candidate would then be asked if the bones were the bones of a king, a nobleman or a beggar. As in the Order of the Skull and Bones, the scene intended to make the candidate reflect on his own mortality.

Links to Freemasonry: The Master Mason carpet features a skull to remind the initiate of his own mortality, just as in the Illuminati and in the Skull and Bones.

Fools and Kings

Skull and Bones, 1948 The grandfather clock is always set at 8 oclock

Master Mason Tracingboard

Snakes, Dragons and Serpents and the lure of forbidden knowledge

Serpent from the Book of Genesis

The snake or serpent one of the most ancient symbols used in myths and was widely used throughout the world. They often act as guardians, such as the statue of Draco guarding the entrance of The City of London.

Snakes are identified with forbidden wisdom or knowledge as in the serpent in the Garden of Eden from Genesis.

Being poisonous, and generally dangerous to humans, the snake symbol is commonly used in western culture as a representation of evil.

Continued here:
Top Ten Illuminati Symbols | Illuminati Rex

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