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Annotation 1 – First Amendment – FindLaw

Posted: September 22, 2016 at 7:46 pm

RELIGION

An Overview

Madison’s original proposal for a bill of rights provision concerning religion read: ”The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretence, infringed.” 1 The language was altered in the House to read: ”Congress shall make no law establishing religion, or to prevent the free exercise thereof, or to infringe the rights of conscience.” 2 In the Senate, the section adopted read: ”Congress shall make no law establishing articles of faith, or a mode of worship, or prohibiting the free exercise of religion, . . .” 3 It was in the conference committee of the two bodies, chaired by Madison, that the present language was written with its some what more indefinite ”respecting” phraseology. 4 Debate in Congress lends little assistance in interpreting the religion clauses; Madison’s position, as well as that of Jefferson who influenced him, is fairly clear, 5 but the intent, insofar as there was one, of the others in Congress who voted for the language and those in the States who voted to ratify is subject to speculation.

Scholarly Commentary .–The explication of the religion clauses by the scholars has followed a restrained sense of their meaning. Story, who thought that ”the right of a society or government to interfere in matters of religion will hardly be contested by any persons, who believe that piety, religion, and morality are intimately connected with the well being of the state, and indispensable to the administration of civil justice,” 6 looked upon the prohibition simply as an exclusion from the Federal Government of all power to act upon the subject. ”The situation . . . of the different states equally proclaimed the policy, as well as the necessity of such an exclusion. In some of the states, episcopalians constituted the predominant sect; in others presbyterians; in others, congregationalists; in others, quakers; and in others again, there was a close numerical rivalry among contending sects. It was impossible, that there should not arise perpetual strife and perpetual jealousy on the subject of ecclesiastical ascendancy, if the national government were left free to create a religious establishment. The only security was in extirpating the power. But this alone would have been an imperfect security, if it had not been followed up by a declaration of the right of the free exercise of religion, and a prohibition (as we have seen) of all religious tests. Thus, the whole power over the subject of religion is left exclusively to the state governments, to be acted upon according to their own sense of justice, and the state constitutions; and the Catholic and the Protestant, the Calvinist and the Arminian, the Jew and the Infidel, may sit down at the common table of the national councils, without any inquisition into their faith, or mode of worship.” 7

”Probably,” Story also wrote, ”at the time of the adoption of the constitution and of the amendment to it, now under consideration, the general, if not the universal, sentiment in America was, that Christianity ought to receive encouragement from the state, so far as was not incompatible with the private rights of conscience, and the freedom of religious worship. An attempt to level all religions, and to make it a matter of state policy to hold all in utter indifference, would have created universal disapprobation, if not universal indignation.” 8 The object, then, of the religion clauses in this view was not to prevent general governmental encouragement of religion, of Christianity, but to prevent religious persecution and to prevent a national establishment. 9

This interpretation has long since been abandoned by the Court, beginning, at least, with Everson v. Board of Education, 10 in which the Court, without dissent on this point, declared that the Establishment Clause forbids not only practices that ”aid one religion” or ”prefer one religion over another,” but as well those that ”aid all religions.” Recently, in reliance on published scholarly research and original sources, Court dissenters have recurred to the argument that what the religion clauses, principally the Establishment Clause, prevent is ”preferential” governmental promotion of some religions, allowing general governmental promotion of all religion in general. 11 The Court has not responded, though Justice Souter in a major concurring opinion did undertake to rebut the argument and to restate the Everson position. 12

Court Tests Applied to Legislation Affecting Religion .–Before considering the development of the two religion clauses by the Supreme Court, one should notice briefly the tests developed by which religion cases are adjudicated by the Court. While later cases rely on a series of rather well-defined, if difficult-to-apply, tests, the language of earlier cases ”may have [contained] too sweeping utterances on aspects of these clauses that seemed clear in relation to the particular cases but have limited meaning as general principles.” 13 It is well to recall that ”the purpose [of the religion clauses] was to state an objective, not to write a statute.” 14

In 1802, President Jefferson wrote a letter to a group of Baptists in Danbury, Connecticut, in which he declared that it was the purpose of the First Amendment to build ”a wall of separation between Church and State.” 15 In Reynolds v. United States, 16 Chief Justice Waite for the Court characterized the phrase as ”almost an authoritative declaration of the scope and effect of the amendment.” In its first encounters with religion-based challenges to state programs, the Court looked to Jefferson’s metaphor for substantial guidance. 17 But a metaphor may obscure as well as illuminate, and the Court soon began to emphasize neutrality and voluntarism as the standard of restraint on governmental action. 18 The concept of neutrality itself is ”a coat of many colors,” 19 and three standards that could be stated in objective fashion emerged as tests of Establishment Clause validity. The first two standards were part of the same formulation. ”The test may be stated as follows: what are the purpose and the primary effect of the enactment? If either is the advancement or inhibition of religion then the enactment exceeds the scope of legislative power as circumscribed by the Constitution. That is to say that to withstand the strictures of the Establishment Clause there must be a secular legislative purpose and a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion.” 20 The third test is whether the governmental program results in ”an excessive government entanglement with religion. The test is inescapably one of degree . . . [T]he questions are whether the involvement is excessive, and whether it is a continuing one calling for official and continuing surveillance leading to an impermissible degree of entanglement.” 21 In 1971 these three tests were combined and restated in Chief Justice Burger’s opinion for the Court in Lemon v. Kurtzman, 22 and are frequently referred to by reference to that case name.

Although at one time accepted in principle by all of the Justices, 23 the tests have sometimes been difficult to apply, 24 have recently come under direct attack by some Justices, 25 and with increasing frequency have not been applied at all by the Court. 26 While continued application is uncertain, the Lemon tests nonetheless have served for twenty years as the standard measure of Establishment Clause validity and explain most of the Court’s decisions in the area. 27 As of the end of the Court’s 1991-92 Term, there was not yet a consensus among Lemon critics as to what substitute test should be favored. 28 Reliance on ”coercion” for that purpose would eliminate a principal distinction between establishment cases and free exercise cases and render the Establishment Clause largely duplicative of the Free Exercise Clause. 29

Justice O’Connor has suggested that it is inappropriate to try to shoehorn all Establishment cases into one test, and has called instead for recognition that different contexts may call for different approaches. Supp.1 For example, the Justice proposes that cases involving government ”speech” on religious topics be judged by an endorsement test that would invalidate government actions only if a reasonable observer would perceive the action as an endorsement or disapproval of religious belief. Supp.2

Government Neutrality in Religious Disputes .–One value that both clauses of the religion section serve is to enforce governmental neutrality in deciding controversies arising out of religious disputes. Schism sometimes develops within churches or between a local church and the general church, resulting in secession or expulsion of one faction or of the local church. A dispute over which body is to have control of the property of the church will then often be taken into the courts. It is now established that both religion clauses prevent governmental inquiry into religious doctrine in settling such disputes, and instead require courts simply to look to the decision-making body or process in the church and to give effect to whatever decision is officially and properly made.

The first such case was Watson v. Jones, 30 which was decided on common-law grounds in a diversity action without explicit reliance on the First Amendment. A constitutionalization of the rule was made in Kedroff v. St. Nicholas Cathedral, 31 in which the Court held unconstitutional a state statute that recognized the autonomy and authority of those North American branches of the Russian Orthodox Church which had declared their independence from the general church. Recognizing that Watson v. Jones had been decided on nonconstitutional grounds, the Court thought nonetheless that the opinion ”radiates . . . a spirit of freedom for religious organizations, and independence from secular control or manipulation–in short, power to decide for themselves, free from state interference, matters of church government as well as those of faith and doctrine.” 32 The power of civil courts to resolve church property disputes was severely circumscribed, the Court held, because to permit resolution of doctrinal disputes in court was to jeopardize First Amendment values. What a court must do, it was held, is to look at the church rules: if the church is a hierarchical one which reposes determination of ecclesiastical issues in a certain body, the resolution by that body is determinative, while if the church is a congregational one prescribing action by a majority vote, that determination will prevail. 33 On the other hand, a court confronted with a church property dispute could apply ”neutral principles of law, developed for use in all property disputes,” when to do so would not require resolution of doctrinal issues. 34 In a later case the Court elaborated on the limits of proper inquiry, holding that an argument over a matter of internal church government, the power to reorganize the dioceses of a hierarchical church in this country, was ”at the core of ecclesiastical affairs” and a court could not interpret the church constitution to make an inde pendent determination of the power but must defer to the interpretation of the body authorized to decide. 35

In Jones v. Wolf, 36 however, a divided Court, while formally adhering to these principles, appeared to depart in substance from their application. A schism had developed in a local church which was a member of a hierarchical church, and the majority voted to withdraw from the general church. The proper authority of the general church determined that the minority constituted the ”true congregation” of the local church and awarded them authority over it. The Court approved the approach of the state court in applying neutral principles by examining the deeds to the church property, state statutes, and provisions of the general church’s constitution concerning ownership and control of church property in order to determine that no language of trust in favor of the general church was contained in any of them and that the property thus belonged to the local congregation. 37 Further, the Court held, the First Amendment did not prevent the state court from applying a presumption of majority rule to award control to the majority of the local congregation, provided that it permitted defeasance of the presumption upon a showing that the identity of the local church is to be determined by some other means as expressed perhaps in the general church charter. 38 The dissent argued that to permit a court narrowly to view only the church documents relating to property ownership permitted the ignoring of the fact that the dispute was over ecclesiastical matters and that the general church had decided which faction of the congregation was the local church. 39

Thus, it is unclear where the Court is on this issue. Jones v. Wolf restated the rule that it is improper to review an ecclesiastical dispute and that deference is required in those cases, but by approving a neutral principles inquiry which in effect can filter out the doctrinal issues underlying a church dispute, the Court seems to have approved at least an indirect limitation of the authority of hierarchical churches. 40

Footnotes

[Footnote 1] 1 Annals of Congress 434 (June 8, 1789).

[Footnote 2] The committee appointed to consider Madison’s proposals, and on which Madison served, with Vining as chairman, had rewritten the religion section to read: ”No religion shall be established by law, nor shall the equal rights of conscience be infringed.” After some debate during which Madison suggested that the word ”national” might be inserted before the word ”religion” as ”point[ing] the amendment directly to the object it was intended to prevent,” the House adopted a substitute reading: ”Congress shall make no laws touching religion, or infringing the rights of conscience.” 1 Annals of Congress 729-31 (August 15, 1789). On August 20, on motion of Fisher Ames, the language of the clause as quoted in the text was adopted. Id. at 766. According to Madison’s biographer, ”[t]here can be little doubt that this was written by Madison.” I. Brant, James Madison–Father of the Constitution 1787-1800 at 271 (1950).

[Footnote 3] This text, taken from the Senate Journal of September 9, 1789, appears in 2 B. Schwartz (ed.), The Bill of Rights: A Documentary History 1153 (1971). It was at this point that the religion clauses were joined with the freedom of expression clauses.

[Footnote 4] 1 Annals of Congress 913 (September 24, 1789). The Senate concurred the same day. See I. Brant, James Madison–Father of the Constitution 1787-1800, 271-72 (1950).

[Footnote 5] During House debate, Madison told his fellow Members that ”he apprehended the meaning of the words to be, that Congress should not establish a religion, and enforce the legal observation of it by law, nor compel men to worship God in any Manner contrary to their conscience.” 1 Annals of Congress 730 (August 15, 1789). That his conception of ”establishment” was quite broad is revealed in his veto as President in 1811 of a bill which in granting land reserved a parcel for a Baptist Church in Salem, Mississippi; the action, explained President Madison, ”comprises a principle and precedent for the appropriation of funds of the United States for the use and support of religious societies, contrary to the article of the Constitution which declares that ‘Congress shall make no law respecting a religious establishment.”’ 8 The Writings of James Madison (G. Hunt. ed.) 132-33 (1904). Madison’s views were no doubt influenced by the fight in the Virginia legislature in 1784-1785 in which he successfully led the opposition to a tax to support teachers of religion in Virginia and in the course of which he drafted his ”Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments” setting forth his thoughts. Id. at 183-91; I. Brant, James Madison–The Nationalist 1780-1787, 343-55 (1948). Acting on the momentum of this effort, Madison secured passage of Jefferson’s ”Bill for Religious Liberty”. Id. at 354; D. Malone, Jefferson the Virginian 274-280 (1948). The theme of the writings of both was that it was wrong to offer public support of any religion in particular or of religion in general.

[Footnote 6] 3 J. Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States 1865 (1833).

[Footnote 7] Id. at 1873.

[Footnote 8] Id. at 1868.

[Footnote 9] For a late expounding of this view, see T. Cooley, General Principles of Constitutional Law in the United States 224-25 (3d ed. 1898).

[Footnote 10] 330 U.S. 1, 15 (1947). Establishment Clause jurisprudence since, whatever its twists and turns, maintains this view.

[Footnote 11] Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38, 91 (1985) (then-Justice Rehnquist dissenting). More recently, dissenters, including now-Chief Justice Rehnquist, have appeared reconciled to a ”constitutional tradition” in which governmental endorsement of religion is out of bounds, even if it is not correct as a matter of history. See Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649, 2678, 2683-84 (1992) (Justice Scalia, joined by the Chief Justice and Justices White and Thomas, dissenting).

[Footnote 12] Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649, 2667 (1992) (Justice Souter, joined by Justices Stevens and O’Connor, concurring).

[Footnote 13] Walz v. Tax Comm’n, 397 U.S. 664, 668 (1970).

[Footnote 14] Id.

[Footnote 15] 16 The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 281 (A. Libscomb ed., 1904).

[Footnote 16] 98 U.S. 145, 164 (1879).

[Footnote 17] Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1, 16 (1947); Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education, 333 U.S. 203, 211 , 212 (1948); cf. Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, 317 (1952) (Justice Black dissenting). In Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602, 614 (1971), Chief Justice Burger remarked that ”the line of separation, far from being a ‘wall,’ is a blurred, indistinct and variable barrier depending on all the circumstances of a particular relationship.” Similar observations were repeated by the Chief Justice in his opinion for the Court in Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668, 673 (1984) (the metaphor is not ”wholly accurate”; the Constitution does not ”require complete separation of church and state [but] affirmatively mandates accommodation, not merely tolerance, of all religions, and forbids hostility toward any”).

[Footnote 18] Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306, 314 (1952); Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962); Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963); Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 305 (1963) (Justice Goldberg concurring); Walz v. Tax Comm’n, 397 U.S. 664, 694 -97 (1970) (Justice Harlan concurring). In the opinion of the Court in the latter case, Chief Justice Burger wrote: ”The course of constitutional neutrality in this area cannot be an absolutely straight line; rigidity could well defeat the basic purpose of these provisions, which is to insure that no religion be sponsored or favored, none commanded, and none inhibited. The general principle deducible from the First Amendment and all that has been said by the Court is this: that we will not tolerate either governmentally established religion or governmental interference with religion. Short of those expressly proscribed governmental acts there is room for play in the joints productive of a benevolent neutrality which will permit religious exercise to exist without sponsorship and without interference.” Id. at 669.

[Footnote 19] Board of Education v. Allen, 392 U.S. 236, 249 (1968) (Justice Harlan concurring).

[Footnote 20] Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 222 (1963).

[Footnote 21] Walz v. Tax Comm’n, 397 U.S. 664, 674 -75 (1970).

[Footnote 22] 403 U.S. 602, 612 -13 (1971).

[Footnote 23] E.g., Committee for Public Educ. & Religious Liberty v. Regan, 444 U.S. 646, 653 (1980), and id. at 665 (dissenting opinion); Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39, 40 (1980), and id. at 43 (dissenting opinion).

[Footnote 24] The tests provide ”helpful signposts,” Hunt v. McNair, 413 U.S. 734, 741 (1973), and are at best ”guidelines” rather than a ”constitutional caliper;” they must be used to consider ”the cumulative criteria developed over many years and applying to a wide range of governmental action.” Inevitably, ”no ‘bright line’ guidance is afforded.” Tilton v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 672, 677 -78 (1971). See also Committee for Public Educ. & Religious Liberty v. Nyquist, 413 U.S. 756, 761 & n.5, 773 n.31 (1973); Committee for Public Educ. & Religious Liberty v. Regan, 444 U.S. 646, 662 (1980), and id. at 663 (Justice Blackmun dissenting).

[Footnote 25] See, e.g., Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578, 636 -40 (1987) (Justice Scalia, joined by Chief Justice Rehnquist, dissenting) (advocating abandonment of the ”purpose” test); Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38, 108 -12 (1985) (Justice Rehnquist dissenting); Aguilar v. Felton, 473 U.S. 402, 426 -30 (1985) (Justice O’Connor, dissenting) (addressing difficulties in applying the entanglement prong); Roemer v. Maryland Bd. of Public Works, 426 U.S. 736, 768 -69 (Justice White concurring in judgment) (objecting to entanglement test). Justice Kennedy has also acknowledged criticisms of the Lemon tests, while at the samed time finding no need to reexamine them. See, e.g., Allegheny County v. Greater Pittsburgh ACLU, 492 U.S. 573, 655 -56 (1989). At least with respect to public aid to religious schools, Justice Stevens would abandon the tests and simply adopt a ”no-aid” position. Committee for Public Educ. & Religious Liberty v. Regan, 444 U.S. 646, 671 (1980).

[Footnote 26] See Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983) (upholding legislative prayers on the basis of historical practice); Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649, 2655 (1992) (rejecting a request to reconsider Lemon because the practice of invocations at public high school graduations was invalid under established school prayer precedents); Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School Dist., 509 U.S. 1 (1993) (upholding provision of sign-language interpreter to deaf student attending parochial school); Board of Educ. of Kiryas Joel Village v. Grumet, 114 S. Ct. 2481 (1994) (invalidating law creating special school district for village composed exclusively of members of one religious sect). The Court has also held that the tripartite test is not applicable when law grants a denominational preference, distinguishing between religions; rather, the distinction is to be subjected to the strict scrutiny of a suspect classification. Larson v. Valente, 456 U.S. 228, 244 -46 (1982).

[Footnote 27] Justice Blackmun, concurring in Lee, contended that Marsh was the only one of 31 Establishment cases between 1971 and 1992 not to be decided on the basis on the Lemon tests. 112 S. Ct. at 2663, n.4.

[Footnote 28] In 1990 Justice Kennedy, joined by Justice Scalia, proposed that ”neutral” accommodations of religion should be permissible so long as they do not establish a state religion, and so long as there is no ”coercion” to participate in religious exercises. Westside Community Bd. of Educ. v. Mergens, 496 U.S. 226, 260 -61. The two Justices parted company, however, over the permissiblity of invocations at public high school graduation ceremonies, Justice Scalia in dissent strongly criticizing Justice Kennedy’s approach in the opinion of the Court for its reliance on psychological coercion. Justice Scalia would not ”expand[ ] the concept of coercion beyond acts backed by threat of penalty.” Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649, 2684 (1992). Chief Justice Rehnquist has advocated limiting application to a prohibition on establishing a national (or state) church or favoring one religious group over another. Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38, 98 , 106 (1985) (dissenting).

[Footnote 29] Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203, 222 -23 (1963). See also Board of Education v. Allen, 392 U.S. 236, 248 -49 (1968); and Tilton v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 672, 689 (1971); Lee v. Weisman, 112 S. Ct. 2649, 2673 (Justice Souter concurring) (”a literal application of the coercion test would render the Establishment Clause a virtual nullity”).

[Footnote 1 (1996 Supplement)] Board of Educ. of Kiryas Joel Village v. Grumet,114 S. Ct. 2481, 2498-99 (1994).

[Footnote 2 (1996 Supplement)] Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668, 688 (1984) (concurring); Allegheny County v. Greater Pittsburgh ACLU, 492 U.S. 573, 625 (1989) (concurring); Board of Educ. of Kiryas Joel Village v. Grumet, 114 S. Ct. 2481, 2500 (1994) (concurring).

[Footnote 30] 80 U.S. (13 Wall.) 679 (1872).

[Footnote 31] 344 U.S. 94 (1952). Kedroff was grounded on the Free Exercise Clause. Id. at 116. But the subsequent cases used a collective ”First Amendment” designation.

[Footnote 32] Id. at 116. On remand, the state court adopted the same ruling on the merits but relied on a common-law rule rather than the statute. This too was struck down. Kreshik v. St. Nicholas Cathedral, 363 U.S. 190 (1960).

[Footnote 33] Presbyterian Church v. Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church, 393 U.S. 440, 447 , 450-51 (1969); Maryland and Virginia Eldership of the Churches of God v. Church of God at Sharpsburg, 396 U.S. 367 (1970). For a similar rule of neutrality in another context, see United States v. Ballard, 322 U.S. 78 (1944) (denying defendant charged with mail fraud through dissemination of purported religious literature the right to present to the jury evidence of the truthfulness of the religious views he urged).

[Footnote 34] Presbyterian Church v. Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church, 393 U.S. 440, 449 (1969); Maryland and Virginia Eldership of the Churches of God v. Church of God of Sharpsburg, 396 U.S. 367, 368 (1970). See also id. at 368-70 (Justice Brennan concurring).

[Footnote 35] The Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese v. Dionisije Milivojevich, 426 U.S. 697, 720 -25 (1976). In Gonzalez v. Archbishop, 280 U.S. 1 (1929), the Court had permitted limited inquiry into the legality of the actions taken under church rules. The Serbian Eastern Court disapproved of this inquiry with respect to concepts of ”arbitrariness,” although it reserved decision on the ”fraud” and ”collusion” exceptions. 426 U.S. at 708 -20.

[Footnote 36] 443 U.S. 595 (1979). In the majority were Justices Blackmun, Brennan, Marshall, Rehnquist, and Stevens. Dissenting were Justices Powell, Stewart, White, and Chief Justice Burger.

[Footnote 37] Id. at 602-06.

[Footnote 38] Id. at 606-10. Because it was unclear whether the state court had applied such a rule and applied it properly, the Court remanded.

[Footnote 39] Id. at 610.

[Footnote 40] The Court indicated that the general church could always expressly provide in its charter or in deeds to property the proper disposition of disputed property. But here the general church had decided which faction was the ”true congregation,” and this would appear to constitute as definitive a ruling as the Court’s suggested alternatives. Id. at 606.

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Annotation 1 – First Amendment – FindLaw

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National Space Society

Posted: at 7:44 pm

Our Vision: People living and working in thriving communities beyond the Earth, and the use of the vast resources of space for the dramatic betterment of humanity.

The Society publishes Ad Astra magazine and maintains an active global network of volunteers and local chapters. Membership and participation are open to all. Join the space movement, and help build a positive future for humanity!

Enterprise In Space: A Tutor for Every Child, video presentation for the MacArthur Foundation 100&Change Grant.

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Musk will discuss the long-term technical challenges that need to be solved to support the creation of a permanent, self-sustaining human presence on Mars. The technical presentation will focus on potential architectures for colonizing the Red Planet that industry, government and the scientific community can collaborate on in the years ahead.

The presentation is scheduled for one hour beginning at 2:30 PM Eastern Daylight Time, 1:30 PM Central Daylight Time (Guadalajara), 12:30 PM Mountain Daylight Time, and 11:30 AM Pacific Daylight Time.

This and other IAC plenary sessions will be webcast on thisdirect link to IAC webcasts on livestream.com. For a schedule of other sessionssee theIAC website plenaries and highlight lectures page.

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See full press release.

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See full press release.

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See full press release.

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(Washington, DC — May 11, 2016) Enterprise In Space (EIS), an international program of the National Space Society, is excited to announce the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding with the Smithsonian Science Education Center (SSEC). EIS and SSEC plan to collaborate on two projects dedicated to space education. The first is a mission patch design challenge in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Education to present at Space Day at the National Air and Space Museum, tentatively set to occur this summer. The second is the development of a space science summer course for the Smithsonian Science Education Academies for Teachers (SSEATs) that will enrich and enhance space education in the participating educators classrooms. See full press release.

NSS Applauds SpaceX for Successful Drone Ship Landing and Launch of CRS-8/BEAM

(Washington, DC — April 8, 2016) With a successful launch on April 8, SpaceX achieved several dramatic milestones. In this mission it is hard to know what to be the most excited about, said Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President. SpaceX continues to break new ground in lowering the cost of going into space, and the drone ship landing is key to maximizing the amount that can be lifted into space by a first stage that is flying back to Earth. BEAM will pave the way for more affordable future commercial and deep space stations. See full press release.

The Space Exploration, Development, and Settlement Act of 2016

(Washington, DC — March 25, 2016) The Space Exploration, Development, and Settlement Act of 2016 (H.R. 4752) has been introduced by Congressman DanaRohrabacher to require the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to investigateand promote the exploration and development of space leading to humansettlements beyond Earth, and for other purposes.

The National Space Societyurges you to call or write your Congressional Representative today and request that he or sheco-sponsor H.R. 4752 (the Space Exploration, Development, and Settlement Act of 2016). Youshould specifically ask that the space staffer for yourRepresentative should contact Tony DeTora in Congressman Rohrabachers office to become a co-sponsor.

The full text of the bill can be found here:nss.org/sedsact. More information on the NSS Blog.

Space Solar Power Team Breaks Through at D3 Innovation Summit

(Washington, DC — March 7, 2016) The National Space Society congratulates the Space Solar Power D3 (SSPD3) team on sweeping the awards in a March 2 multi-departmental competition to find promising new technology ideas that could simultaneously advance diplomacy, defense and development (D3). The SSPD3 team proposal was titled Carbon-Free Energy for Global Resilience and International Goodwill. See full press release and video of the 11-minute presentation below.

The Gravity of the National Space Societys Vision

(Washington, DC — February 15, 2016) We are very proud and honored to congratulate the amazing achievement of our NSS member Dr. Kip Thorne for his leading involvement in the creation of the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) project. LIGOs recent world-changing detection of the existence of gravitational waves predicted by Einstein a century ago in his General Relativity Theory.

Regarding the grand NSS vision, Dr. Thorne remarked, I think that its clear that it is attainable to colonize the solar system. Getting beyond the solar system is going to be exceedingly difficult. We are going to either require a lot of brute force over a period of several centuries or else a brilliant idea that none of us has grasped yet. The first thing is the solar system, but we have not been moving at anything like the pace that we could or we should. See full press release.

NSS Pays Tribute to Late NSS Governor Dr. Marvin Minsky, A Pioneer in Artificial Intelligence

(Washington, DC — February 11, 2016) The National Space Society pays tribute toDr. Marvin Minsky, who was very involved in early NSS activities and was part of many NSS space policy projects such as the 1981 Citizens Advisory Council on National Space Policy. He died on January 14 in Boston from a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 88. Hugh Downs, Chair of the NSS Board of Governors, said, Marvin Minskywas a bright light in the arena of accelerating knowledge in modern physics. Where many of us plodded along to keep up with these changes, he seemed to always manage tobe evenwith them. He will be sorely missed by those who worked with him and knew him well. See full press release.

Settling Space Is the Only Sustainable Reason for Humans to Be in Space

(Washington, DC — February 1, 2016) Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President, has published the following article in The Space Review:

As robotic and artificial intelligence technologies improve and enable increasingly robust exploration without a human presence, eventually there will be only one sustainable reason for humans to be in space: settlement. Research into the recycling technology required for long-term off-Earth settlements will directly benefit terrestrial sustainability. Actively working toward developing and settling space will make available mineral and energy resources for use on Earth on a vast scale. Finally, space settlement offers the hope of long-term species survival that remaining on Earth does not. SEE FULL ARTICLE.

National Space Society Congratulates Blue Origin on First Reflight of New Shepard Rocket

(Washington, DC — January 23, 2016) On January 22, 2016, two months after Blue Origins New Shepard rocket first successfully flew to the edge of space and returned to its launch site intact, Blue Origin again made history by re-flying the same vehicle. Jeff Bezos stated Though wings and parachutes have their adherents and their advantages, Im a huge fan of rocket-powered vertical landing. Why? Becauseto achieve our vision of millions of people living and working in spacewe will need to build very large rocket boosters. And the vertical landing architecture scales extraordinarily well.

Blue Origins successful re-use of the New Shepard booster after reaching the edge of space represents a major step toward a fully re-usable sub-orbital vehicle, said Bruce Pittman, NSS Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. SEE FULL PRESS RELEASE AND VIDEO on the NSS Blog.

National Space Society Applauds Selection of Dream Chaser, Dragon 2, and Cygnus for ISS Cargo Services

(Washington, DC — January 16, 2016) NSS congratulates Orbital ATK (Cygnus), Sierra Nevada (Dream Chaser), and SpaceX (Dragon 2) for being selected to provide cargo services to the International Space Station as part of the Commercial Resupply Service 2 (CRS-2) contract. The CRS contract covers the delivery of supplies to the ISS, disposal of ISS waste, and the return of scientific samples from the ISS. The new contract provides a minimum of six missions to each of the three winners during the period 2019-2024. A NASA spokesperson said, NASAs service contracts to resupply the space station have changed the way the agency does business in low-Earth orbit. With these contracts, NASA continues to advance commercial spaceflight and the American jobs it creates.

This announcement represents a major forward advance for NASA and the CRS program, said Dale Skran, NSS Executive Vice President. Both Orbital ATK and SpaceX added significant new capabilities over the first contract. In the new contract, the up-sized Cygnus with new solar panels will be used, and the Dragon 2 offers options for both berthing and docking, along with a rapid return to Earth capacity via propulsive landing. However, the selection of Sierra Nevada and the Dream Chaser means that for the first time since the retirement of the Space Shuttle reusable winged vehicles will be returning from space and landing at Kennedy Space Center.

NSS congratulates NASA on adding a third CRS provider, said Mark Hopkins, Chair of the NSS Executive Committee. The CRS-2 program now has triple redundancy in both orbital components and launch vehicles. NSS members look forward to the Dream Chasers first return from space. See full press release.

Interviews of NSS Chairman Mark Hopkins

Mark Hopkins, Chairman of the NSS Executive Committee, was interviewed on The Space Show on January 4 on the subject of space settlement in general and interstellar space settlement in particular. You can downloadthe 90-minute program here: thespaceshow.com/show/04-jan-2016/broadcast-2617.

You can hear other interviews of Mark conducted byDr. Karl Hricko on the show Contours on member-supported public radio station WNTIoperated by Centenary College in Hackettstown, NJ: Mark Hopkins interview August 23, 2015 (14 minutes) and Mark Hopkins interview May 28, 2015 (21 minutes).

Mark was also on a special edition of The Space Show in March 2007: thespaceshow.com/show/10-mar-2007/broadcast-683-special-edition.

National Space Society Partners with Voices From L5: A Space Settlement Podcast

(Washington, DC — January 6, 2016) The National Space Society is proud to announce its partnership withVoices From L5. This exciting new podcast will open new discussions on space settlement, focusing on the humanities and social sciences, and educate the public on the science of space settlement. Space settlement is the concept of humankind moving our economy into space, with people living and working in space.

NSS vice president for Public Affairs Lynne Zielinski said, We are thrilled to strengthen our online community and outreach by branching into the vibrant world of podcasts, and we are very excited to be working withVoices From L5. This podcast project will explore topics such as law, art, politics and sociology to generate excitement among a whole new generation of space settlement enthusiasts.

To learn more aboutVoices From L5visit: https://www.patreon.com/VoicesFromL5

For previous podcasts visit: http://www.podcastchart.com/podcasts/voices-from-l5

Made In Space Teams with Enterprise In Space to 3D Print First Space-Bound Airframe

(Washington, DC — December 18, 2015) Enterprise In Space (EIS), an international project of the non-profit National Space Society, is excited to announce a partnership with Made In Space, Inc. to extensively use 3D printed components in a spacecraft to be launched into Earth orbit. This educational spacecraft will be the first real spacecraft bearing the Enterprise name. Once in orbit, the NSS Enterprise will not only be the first 3D printed airframe in space, but it will also carry more than 100 passive and active student experiments into space and back to Earth.

See full press release.

The National Space Society Pays Tribute to Dr. Kalam One of Our Leading Lights Has Joined the Stars

(Washington, DC — July 31, 2015) On 27 July 2015, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, eleventh President of India and a friend and inspiration to the National Space Society (NSS), passed away. NSS would like to convey our condolences to the family and friends of Dr. Kalam, and to all of India. His death is a great loss not only to India, but to the whole of humanity, said Mark Hopkins, chair of the NSS Executive Committee. In his honor, a permanent part of the online NSS library will be dedicated to his visionary space legacy. He was a true friend to NSS giving his name to our shared Kalam-NSS Space-based Solar Power Initiative.

One of the true statesmen of our generation, Dr. Kalam was regarded as one of the greatest minds, visionaries, and peacemakers of the early 21stcentury. Dr. Kalam was a towering spacefaring advocate. His passing is a deep loss to NSS. Loved and admired by the masses of India, he was loved and admired by us as well. We were honored to work with him and to present him with our 2013 Wernher von Braun Memorial Award (photo) for leading India into space and for being a global leader in space development. He will be missed terribly by all around the world who share a common vision of humanitys future in space.

See full press release.

NASA-Funded Study Reduces Cost of Human Missions to Moon and Mars by Factor of Ten

(Washington, DC — July 20, 2015) The National Space Society (NSS) and Space Frontier Foundation (SFF) today announced their support for NASAs funding of the newly released NexGen Space study, illustrating how to cut the cost of human space exploration by a factor of 10. The study, Economic Assessment and Systems Analysis of an Evolvable Lunar Architecture that Leverages Commercial Space Capabilities and Public Private Partnerships, finds public-private partnerships are able to return humans to the Moon for approximately 90% less than the previously estimated $100 billion, allowing the United States to ensure national security in a new space age.

NSS congratulates NASA for funding the team at NexGen that discovered how such cost reductions are possible, said NSS Executive Committee Chair, Mark Hopkins. A factor of ten reduction in cost changes everything.

See full press release and video of press conference.

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Breitbart: Supreme Court Second Amendment Case Could …

Posted: September 20, 2016 at 7:08 pm

SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER WASHINGTONFor the first time in U.S. history, a federal appeals court on Friday struck down a federal gun-control law for violating the Second Amendment, meaning that next year the Supreme Court will hear a case that includes the opportunity to abolish citizens right to bear arms by overruling the Courts famous Heller precedent.

Clifford Tyler is a law-abiding and peaceful citizen living in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1985, his wife of 23 years was having an adulterous affair. She ran off with the other man and took all of Cliffords money with her. His daughters found him so upset and depressed, banging his head on the floor, that they called the authorities, fearing he might harm himself.

Tyler was taken before a Michigan judge, who ruled there was sufficient reason to be concerned about the distraught man to commit him to a facility for psychiatric evaluation. A couple weeks later the doctors released him with a clean bill of health, saying that he was a perfectly normal person who had a really horrible day. Tyler continued to be a good citizen, a good employee, got remarried, has been a good father, and eventually even repaired his relationship with his unfaithful ex-wife.

Hes now age 74, and wanted to buy a handgun to keep at home for self-defense. But the government told him that federal law bars him from ever owning a gun, so he went to court to assert his Second Amendment rights.

In 2008, the Supreme Court inDistrict of Columbia v. Hellerone of the most famous decisions ever written by Justice Antonin Scaliaheld that the Second Amendment is an individual right, and as such does not allow the federal government to bar law-abiding and peaceable American citizens from keeping a handgun in their home. Heller was a 5-4 decision, and left other gun-rights questions for future cases.

Heller specified that it was not weighing in on certain issues, including laws that prohibit certain people from owning guns. Federal law in 18 U.S.C. 922(g)(4) is one of these gun-control laws, providing that no one who has been committed to a mental institution can own firearms.

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed an NRA-supported law advancing Second Amendment rights, including 18 U.S.C. 925(c), which empowers the Justice Department to restore gun rights if the attorney general finds a particular person to be safe and sane. But Congress stopped funding that program in 1992, canceling out that Reagan-era protection for Americas 90 million gun owners.

So in 2007 Congress passed a new law empowering states to set up their own review process to restore gun rights. Most states have established such a program, but some statesincluding Michigan, where Tyler liveshave not.

The federal district court in Michigan ruled against Tyler, but a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed. The Obama administration petitioned the Sixth Circuit to rehear the case en banc, meaning all the judges on the courtin this case, 16 judgeswould reconsider the case.

The petition was granted, and on Sept. 15, by a 10-6 vote in Tyler v. Hillsdale County Sheriffs Department the full Sixth Circuit struck down 18 U.S.C. 922(g)(4) as a violation of the Second Amendment, and remanded the case back down to the district court for more hearings. The court noted that Heller said laws that kept mentally ill people from getting guns were allowed under the Second Amendment, but held that Section 922(g)(4) went too far by mandating that any person who has ever been involuntarily committed to a mental institutioneven for a single daycan never own a gun for the rest of his or her life.

Writing the lead opinion for six judges of the en banc court (which is less than a majority, but still the controlling opinion in this case), Judge Julia Gibbons explained that similar to several other appeals courts, the Sixth Circuit had recently adopted a two-step process for Second Amendment cases. The first step asks whether the challenged law burdens conduct that falls within the scope of the Second Amendment right, as historically understood, she wrote. If it does, then the government bears the burden of justifying the constitutionality of the law under a heightened form of scrutiny.

Specifically, these judges decided that intermediate scrutinya term invented decades ago by the Supreme Courtshould apply to this type of gun-control law. As Judge Gibbons wrote, intermediate scrutiny requires (1) the governments stated objective to be important and (2) a reasonable fit between the challenged regulation and the asserted objective. This standard is less stringent than strict scrutiny, which is another judge-made test.

The lead opinion noted that the Justice Department in this case failed to cite historical material or other evidence supporting Section 922(g)(4). In the absence of such evidence, it would be odd to rely solely on Heller to rubber stamp the legislatures power to permanently exclude individuals from a fundamental right based solely on a past involuntary commitment.

Judge Gibbons continued, Some sort of showing must be made to support Congresss adoption of prior involuntary commitments as a basis for a categorical, permanent limitation on the Second Amendment right to bear arms.

The judges thought this principle applied with special force in this case. Tylers [lawsuit and evidence] suggest that Tyler is thirty years removed from a brief depressive episode and that he has no intervening mental health or substance abuse problems since that time.

None of the governments evidence squarely answers the key question at the heart of this case: Is it necessary to forever bar all previously institutionalized persons from owning a firearm?, the court reasoned. Then noting Congresss own restoration program in Section925(c) and the 2007 law allowing for state restoration programs, added, But the biggest problem for the government is Congresss most recent answer to this very question: No, it is not.

Thus, the court concluded that since the Obama administration presented no evidence supporting this statute, There is no indication of the continued risk presented by people who were involuntarily committed many years ago and who have no history of intervening mental illness, criminal activity, or substance abuse.

The Sixth Circuit thereby invalidated this federal law, holding, As we see it, the government may justify 922(g)(4) in one of two ways: (1) with additional evidence explaining the necessity of 922(g)(4)s lifetime ban or (2) with evidence showing that 922(g)(4) is constitutional as applied to Tyler because he would be a risk to himself or others were he allowed to possess a firearm.

Judge Jeffrey Sutton wrote a separate opinion, joined by several judges, as to why this federal law must be struck down.

Keep in mind that Tyler is not demanding a gun today, he wrote. He is demanding only what Congress used to permit and what most States still permit: an opportunity to show that he is not a risk to himself or others.

After a lengthy discussion, Judge Sutton continued, If there is one thing clear in American law today, it is that the government may not deny an individual a benefit, least of all a constitutional right, based on a sky-high generalization and a skin-deep assumption stemming from a long-ago diagnosis or a long-ago institutionalization.

Tyler has presented plenty of evidence that he is just fine, Judge Sutton concluded.

Judge Karen Moorea Clinton-appointed liberal who is a perfect example of the sort of judge Hillary Clinton would be expected to nominate to the Supreme Courtwrote an energetic dissent, joined by several other liberal judges. In it, she argued that Tyler should never be allowed to own a gun, and that Congress has all the power it needs to ban gun ownership by many other types of Americans as well.

Judge Moore also argued for the dissenting judges that Heller should be interpreted as saying that the Second Amendment does nothing to block federal gun-control power here, a reading that is utterly incompatible with what Justice Scalia actually wrote.

Although the Cincinnati-based appeals court reached the right result, it did not do so for the right reasons.

In fact, the only judge who followed Justice Scalias famous originalist approach in Hellerthe method of interpreting the Constitution and all laws according to the original meaning of their words, a method always followed by Justice Clarence Thomas, and often followed by Justice Samuel Alito as wellwas Judge Alice Batchelder.

Judge Batchelder faulted both the lead opinion and the dissenting opinion for failing to give adequate attention to the Second Amendments original public meaning in defining the contours of the mental health exception. And it is that meaning, informed as it is by the history and tradition surrounding the right, that counts.

She continued that the other opinions debate over strict and intermediate scrutiny gives little more than a nod to the originalist inquiry. This shortchanging of the Supreme Courts approach in Heller (and many other cases) thereby radically marginalizes the role played by the text, history, and tradition of the Second Amendment, and it replaces them with a thoroughly modern (and judge empowering) regime of heightened-scrutiny review.

The appeals courts taking such a course here is a forbidden peregrination from the actual meaning of the Constitution into the realm of judicial policymaking. Instead of fixating on strict or intermediate scrutiny with only a glance at history, the Supreme Court in Heller and McDonald put the historical inquiry at the center of the analysis, not at the margin.

Judge Batchelder then explored sources from the time of the Constitutions writing, examining what they said about mental illness, including the relevant factor here of when a person is unable to distinguish good from evil, and could be deprived by the law of certain rights.

She then noted that such deprivations were not once-for-all, and cited numerous sources from the time the Second Amendment was adopted to show that if a person regained their reason and sense of morality, they were no longer regarded as mentally ill.

Judge Batchelder then concluded:

As has been mentioned many times today, the dangers presented by guns are real, frightening, and obvious. Those realities will continue to factor heavily in the scrutiny analysis. Less obvious to the contemporary judicial mind are the Founding-era fears of tyranny and defenselessness that provided the impetus behind the Second Amendment. Whether the Founding generation struck a wise balance in ratifying that amendment is perhaps debatable. What is not debatable is that we federal judgesare neither philosopher kings empowered to fix things according to the dictates of what we fancy is our superior insight, nor rubber stamps, approving whatever laws the legislatures of this country happen to pass. We are bound, rather, by our oath to uphold and defend the Constitution, and we must therefore show restraint when that document restrains us and be active when it commands action.

As important as the Sixth Circuits Tyler decision is, that is not the most newsworthy aspect of this case. Because now a federal appeals court has struck down an Act of Congress on constitutional grounds.

That means the Obama administrations solicitor general will now petition the U.S. Supreme Court to grant certiorari to review this case. Under these rare circumstances, it is virtually 100 percent certain that the justices will grant review and hear the case.

That means that the Second Amendment will be back before the Supreme Court in 2017, after a ninth justice has been confirmed to replace Scalia. The Second Amendment has survived twice at the Supreme Court over the past decade, both by only 5-4 votes.

One of the ways that the justices could rule in favor of the federal government would be to overrule Heller, and hold that the Second Amendment does not apply at all to private citizens. [The leftist view of the Second Amendment is that its only meaning is that the federal government cannot stop state governments from arming their National Guard (i.e., militia) units with guns.]

So declarations from Donald Trump and Mike Pence that gun rights are in danger is no longer hypothetical. It is now certain. If Hillary Clinton wins the presidency, the Second Amendment can be effectively erased from the U.S. Constitution.

Ken Klukowski is senior legal editor for Breitbart News. Follow him on Twitter @kenklukowski.

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Texas Casinos & Gambling in Texas – Texas Casino Directory

Posted: September 16, 2016 at 5:39 am

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Texas Casinos & Gambling in Texas – Texas Casino Directory

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Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution …

Posted: at 5:23 am

The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. It supersedes the ambiguous wording of Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution, which does not expressly state whether the Vice President becomes the President or Acting President if the President dies, resigns, is removed from office or is otherwise unable to discharge the powers of the presidency.[1] The Twenty-fifth Amendment was adopted on February 10, 1967.[2]

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.[3]

Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 of the Constitution states:

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

That clause was unclear regarding Presidential succession and inability; it did not state who had the power to declare a President incapacitated.[1] Also, it did not provide a mechanism for filling a Vice Presidential vacancy prior to the next Presidential election. The vagueness of this clause caused difficulties many times before the Twenty-fifth Amendment’s adoption:

President Dwight D. Eisenhower attempted to clarify procedures through a signed agreement with Vice President Richard Nixon, drafted by Attorney General Herbert Brownell Jr.. However, this agreement did not have the authority of a constitutional amendment.[9]

All of these incidents made it evident that clearer guidelines were needed.[1] There were two proposals for providing those guidelines.

In 1963, Senator Kenneth Keating of New York proposed a Constitutional amendment which would have enabled Congress to enact legislation providing for how to determine when a President is disabled, rather than, as the Twenty-fifth Amendment does, having the Constitution so provide.[10] This proposal was based upon a recommendation of the American Bar Association in 1960.[11]

The text of the proposal read:[12]

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the said office shall devolve on the Vice President. In case of the inability of the President to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the said powers and duties shall devolve on the Vice President, until the inability be removed. The Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then be President, or, in case of inability, act as President, and such officer shall be or act as President accordingly, until a President shall be elected or, in case of inability, until the inability shall be earlier removed. The commencement and termination of any inability shall be determined by such method as Congress shall by law provide.

Senators raised concerns that the Congress could either abuse such authority[13] or neglect to enact any such legislation after the adoption of this proposal.[14]Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver (the Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments), a long-time advocate for addressing the disability question, spearheaded the effort until he died of a heart attack on August 10, 1963.[15][16] Senator Keating was defeated in the 1964 election, but Senator Roman Hruska, a Republican from Nebraska, took up Keating’s objections as a new member of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments.[9]

The assassination of President John F. Kennedy showed the need for a clear way to determine presidential succession in the context of the Cold War.[17] The new President, Lyndon B. Johnson, had once suffered a heart attack,[18] and the next two people in line for the presidency were the 71 year old Speaker of the House John McCormack,[17][19] and the 86 year old Senate President pro tempore Carl Hayden.[17][19] Senator Birch Bayh succeeded Kefauver as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments and set about advocating for a detailed amendment dealing with presidential succession.[17]

On January 6, 1965, Senator Birch Bayh proposed S. J. Res. 1 in the Senate and Representative Emanuel Celler (Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee) proposed H. J. Res. 1 in the House of Representatives. Their proposal specified the process by which a President could be declared disabled, thereby making the Vice President an Acting President, and how the President could regain the powers of his office. Also, their proposal provided a way to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice President before the next presidential election. This was as opposed to the KeatingKefauver proposal, which neither provided for filling a vacancy in the office of Vice President prior to the next presidential election nor provided a process for determining presidential disability. In 1964, the American Bar Association endorsed the type of proposal which Bayh and Celler advocated.[20] On January 28, 1965, President Johnson endorsed S. J. Res. 1 in a statement to Congress.[9]

On February 19, the Senate passed the amendment, but the House passed a different version of the amendment on April 13. On April 22, it was returned to the Senate with revisions.[9] There were four areas of disagreement between the House and Senate versions:

On July 6, after a conference committee ironed out differences between the versions,[21] the final version of the amendment was passed by both Houses of the Congress and presented to the states for ratification.[22]

The Congress proposed the Twenty-fifth Amendment on July 6, 1965, and the amendment was ratified by the following states:[2]

The following states have not ratified the amendment:

Just six days after its submission, Nebraska and Wisconsin were the first states to ratify the amendment. On February 10, 1967, Minnesota and Nevada were the 37th and 38th states to ratify, respectively. On February 23, 1967, in a ceremony in the East Room of the White House, General Services Administrator Lawson Knott certified the amendment’s adoption.

Section 1 codified the “Tyler Precedent” regarding when a President is removed from office, dies, or resigns. In any of these situations, the Vice President immediately becomes President.

Prior to the Twenty-fifth Amendment’s adoption, a Vice Presidential vacancy remained until the start of the next presidential term. The Vice Presidency has been vacant several times due to death, resignation, or succession to the Presidency. Often these vacancies lasted for several years.

Under Section 2, whenever there is a vacancy in the office of Vice President, the President nominates a successor who becomes Vice President if confirmed by a majority vote of both Houses of the Congress.

Section 3 provides that when the President transmits a written declaration to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, stating that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the Presidency, and until the President sends another written declaration to the aforementioned officers declaring himself able to resume discharging those powers and duties, the Vice President serves as Acting President.

Section 4 is the only part of the amendment that has never been invoked.[23] It allows the Vice President, together with a majority of either “the principal officers of the executive departments” (i.e., the Cabinet) or of “such other body as Congress may by law provide”, to declare the President disabled by submitting a written declaration to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. As with Section 3, the Vice President would become Acting President.

Section 4 is meant to be invoked if the President’s incapacitation prevents him from discharging the duties of his office and he does not provide a written declaration to that effect. The President may resume exercising the Presidential duties by sending a written declaration to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House.

Should the Vice President and Cabinet believe the President is still disabled, they may within four days of the President’s declaration submit another declaration that the President is incapacitated. The Congress must then assemble within 48 hours if not in session. The Congress then has 21 days to decide the issue. If within the 21 days allotted two-thirds of each House of Congress vote that the President is incapacitated, Section 4 states that the Vice President would “continue” to be Acting President. Should the Congress resolve the issue in favor of the President, or if the Congress makes no decision within the 21 days allotted, then the President would “resume” discharging all of the powers and duties of his office. The use of the words “continue” and “resume” imply that the Vice President remains Acting President while Congress deliberates.

However, the President may again submit a written declaration of recovery to the President pro tempore and the Speaker of the House. That declaration could be responded to by the Acting President and the Cabinet in the same way as stated earlier. The allotted 21-day Congressional procedure would start again.

The Twenty-fifth Amendment has been invoked six times since its ratification. The first three times were applications of Sections 1 and 2 in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon Administration. The latter three were applications of Section 3 in connection to the President’s undergoing a medical procedure requiring general anesthesia.

On October 12, 1973, following Vice President Spiro Agnew’s resignation two days earlier, President Richard Nixon nominated Representative Gerald Ford of Michigan to succeed Agnew as Vice President.

The United States Senate voted 923 to confirm Ford on November 27 and, on December 6, the House of Representatives did the same by a vote of 38735. Ford was sworn in later that day before a joint session of the United States Congress.[24]

President Richard Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974, resulting in Vice President Gerald Ford succeeding to the office of President.[25] Gerald Ford is the only person ever to be Vice President, and later President, without being elected to either office.[26]

When Gerald Ford became President, the Vice Presidency became vacant. On August 20, 1974, after having previously considered Melvin Laird and George Bush, President Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him as Vice President.

On December 10, 1974, Rockefeller was confirmed 907 by the Senate. On December 19, 1974, Rockefeller was confirmed 287128 by the House and sworn into office later that day in the Senate chamber.[24]

On July 12, 1985, President Ronald Reagan underwent a colonoscopy, during which a pre-cancerous lesion called a villous adenoma was discovered. Upon being told by his physician (Dr. Edward Cattow) that he could undergo surgery immediately or in two to three weeks, Reagan elected to have it removed immediately.

That afternoon, Reagan consulted with White House counsel Fred Fielding by telephone, debating whether to invoke the amendment and, if so, whether such a transfer would set an undesirable precedent. Fielding and White House Chief of Staff Donald Regan recommended that Reagan transfer power and two letters doing so were drafted: the first letter specifically invoked Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment; the second only mentioned that Reagan was mindful of this provision. At 10:32a.m. on July 13, Reagan signed the second letter and ordered its delivery to the appropriate officers as required under the amendment.[27]

Books such as The President Has Been Shot: Confusion, Disability and the 25th Amendment, by Herbert Abrams, and Reagan’s autobiography, An American Life, argue President Reagan’s intent to transfer power to Vice President Bush was clear. Fielding himself adds:

I personally know he did intend to invoke the amendment, and he conveyed that to all of his staff and it was conveyed to the VP as well as the President of the Senate. He was also very firm in his wish not to create a precedent binding his successor.

On June 29, 2002, President George W. Bush underwent a colonoscopy and chose to invoke Section 3 of the amendment, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Dick Cheney. The medical procedure began at 7:09a.m. EDT and ended at 7:29a.m. EDT. Bush woke up twenty minutes later, but did not resume his presidential powers and duties until 9:24a.m. EDT after the president’s doctor, Richard Tubb, conducted an overall examination. Tubb said he recommended the additional time to make sure the sedative had no aftereffects. Unlike Reagan’s 1985 letter, Bush’s 2002 letter specifically cited Section 3 as the authority for the transfer of power.[27]

On July 21, 2007, President Bush again invoked the amendment in response to having to undergo a colonoscopy, temporarily transferring his powers to Vice President Cheney. President Bush invoked Section 3 at 7:16a.m. EDT. He reclaimed his powers at 9:21a.m. EDT. As happened in 2002, Bush specifically cited Section 3 when he transferred the Presidential powers to the Vice President and when he reclaimed those powers.[27]

There are two documented instances in which invocation of Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment was considered, both of which involved the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan.

Following the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan on March 30, 1981, Vice President George Bush did not assume the presidential powers and duties as Acting President. Reagan was unable to invoke Section 3, because he was in surgery. Bush did not invoke Section 4, because he was on a plane returning from Texas. Reagan was out of surgery by the time Bush arrived in Washington.[28] In 1995, Birch Bayh, the primary sponsor of the amendment in the Senate, wrote that Section 4 should have been invoked.[29]

Upon becoming the White House Chief of Staff in 1987, Howard Baker was advised by his predecessor’s staff to be prepared for a possible invocation of the Twenty-fifth Amendment[30] due to Reagan’s perceived laziness and ineptitude.[31]

According to the PBS program American Experience,

What Baker’s transition team was told by Donald Regan’s staff that weekend shocked them. Reagan was ‘inattentive, inept,’ and ‘lazy,’ and Baker should be prepared to invoke the 25th Amendment to relieve him of his duties.

Reagan biographer Edmund Morris stated in an interview aired on the program,

The incoming Baker people all decided to have a meeting with him on Monday, their first official meeting with the President, and to cluster around the table in the Cabinet room and watch him very, very closely to see how he behaved, to see if he was indeed losing his mental grip.

Morris went on to explain,

Reagan who was, of course, completely unaware that they were launching a death watch on him, came in stimulated by the press of all these new people and performed splendidly. At the end of the meeting, they figuratively threw up their hands realizing he was in perfect command of himself.[31]

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Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution …

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Stem Cell 100 Longevity Telomere Support Supplement SC100 …

Posted: September 8, 2016 at 6:31 am

Stem Cell 100 is designed to rejuvenate your body and slow the aging process to help you feel and function more like a young person. This can help you feel better, look younger and improve your health.

Most of the cells in your body lose function with age. Everyone has special cells called adult stem cells which are needed to repair damaged and old tissues, but adult stem cells themselves are also aging.

Until now there was not much you could do about it. Stem Cell 100 rejuvenates adult stem cells and their micro-environments with the proprietary SC100 formula. Stem Cell 100+ is a more powerful and faster acting version of the same nutraceutical.

Developed by experts in the anti-aging field, patent-pending Stem Cell 100 is the only supplement proven to double maximum lifespan of an animal model. No other product or therapy including caloric restriction even comes close.

Harness the Power of Your Own Stem Cells

Millions of people suffer from chronic conditions of aging and disease. Based on international scientific studies in many academic and industry laboratories, there is new hope that many of the conditions afflicting mankind can some day be cured or greatly improved using stem cell regenerative medicine.

Stem Cell 100 offers a way to receive some of the benefits of stem cell therapy today by improving the effectiveness of your own adult stem cells.

Stem Cell 100 Helps to Support:

The statements above have not been reviewed by the FDA. Stem Cell 100 is not a preventive or treatment for any disease.

Help Rejuvenate Your Body by Boosting Your Own Stem Cells

As a child, we are protected from the ravages of aging and can rapidly recover from injury or illness because of the ability of the young regenerative stem cells of children have a superior ability to repair and regenerate most damaged tissues.

As we age, our stem cell populations become depleted and/or slowly lose their capacity to repair. Moreover, the micro-environment (i.e. niches) around stem cells becomes less nurturing with age, so cell turnover and repair are further reduced. This natural progression occurs so slowly that we are barely aware of it, but we start to notice the body changes in our 20s, 30s, 40s, and especially after 50 years of age.

Stem Cell 100 helps adults regain their youthful regenerative potential by stabilizing stem cell function.

Stem Cell 100 works differently than other stem cell products on the market

You may have seen a number of products that are advertised as stimulating or enhancing the number of stem cells. Each person only has a limited number of stem cells so using them up faster may not be a good strategy. Stem Cell 100 is about improving the effectiveness and longevity of your stem cells as well as preserving the stem cell micro-environment. That should be the goal of any effective stem cell therapy and is what Stem Cell 100 is designed to do and what other stem cell products cannot do.

Stem Cell 100 Extends Drosophila (Fruit Fly) Lifespan

In extensive laboratory testing Stem Cell 100 greatly extended both the average and maximum lifespan of Drosophila fruit flies. The study (see Charts below) included three cages of Drosophila fruit flies that were treated with Stem Cell 100 (Cages T1 to T3) and three cages which were untreated controls (Cages C1 to C3). Each cage started with 500 fruit flies including 250 males and 250 females.

The experiment showed that median lifespan more than doubled with a 123% increase.

While fruit flies are not people they are more like us than you might think. Drosophila have a heart and circulatory system, and the most common cause of death is heart failure. Like humans and other mammals (e.g. mice), it is difficult to increase their lifespan significantly.

These observed results outperform every lifespan enhancing treatment ever tested including experiments using genetic modification and dietary restriction.

The longest living fruit fly receiving Stem Cell 100 lived 89 days compared to the longest living untreated control which lived 48 days. It is possible that the single longest living fruit fly lived longer for other reasons such as genetic mutation, however, there were many others that lived almost as long so it was not just an aberation.

The oldest 5% of the treated fruit flies lived 77% longer than the oldest 5% of the control group. It is also important that the study showed an improved ability of the fruit flies to survive stress and illness at all ages not just during old age. Even after the first few days of the study there were already more of the

Stem Cell 100 treated fruit flies alive that survived youth than the control group of untreated fruit flies. For additional information about the study please go to our Longevity page.

SK, Santa Fe, New Mexico

I have been using Stem Cell 100 for about one year. Initially I noticed a boost in energy level, which now remains steady-hence not noticed I have experienced no adverse effects from taking this product. I heartily recommend Stem Cell 100 and plan to continue on it.*

Leslie

Stem Cell 100 has made a noticeable difference in me, including turning my gray hair back to its original color, which supposedly is impossible. The reversal of the gray hair to original color began a couple of months after starting the pill. After about 10 months, the gray hair is mostly gone. At the current rate of improvement, I expect my hair to completely be back to its original color within 1 to 2 months. I think my beard will take longer, but it was the first to gray.

Also, my skin became smoother and younger looking. The skin and hair rely heavily on stem cells, and they seem to benefit strongly from this product. Im so excited about telling people my results because there is nothing that can reverse the graying of hair. It will give me evidence that this supplement thing is really powerful.

Unfortunately, I dont have before and after pictures because I didnt read any claims that the product would affect hair color. I would just say that Im a person who totally believes that it does me no good to imagine things or interpret tings in a way favorable to what I want to believe. When Im convinced enough to make a statement, you can count on it.*

Joey, California

I am a 48 year old working woman. A friend of mine introduced me to Stem Cell 100. After taking Stem Cell 100 for about 4 months my anxiety level has really been diminished. Its a great supplement and I would recommend it to everyone!*

Paul, California

I am an active 61 year old man in excellent health, but had experienced a serious drop in my energy level at the time I enrolled in a 4-month trial of Stem Cell 100. Within a month, my energy increased noticeably and I began to take to my physical activities (running, cycling) with a renewed enthusiasm and intensity level. My mood began to elevate steadily, and soon I had even lost those few stubborn pounds that had eluded me for years. I am very enthusiastic about Stem Cell 100. I look forward to continuing with the new, improved formulation, and would not hesitate to recommend it.*

Mike, Texas

After taking the Stem Cell 100 for the last month my sinuses have also cleared, unplugging my ears for the first time since mid September.*

Tom, Australia

Only after about 2-3 weeks of taking Stem Cell 100 my eye sight returned back to a level where I did not need glasses to work on my computer monitors. My eyes had always been good but had started to deteriorate about a year ago where 50% of the time I had to wear my glasses. I was shocked to find the improvement so quick. I found I was less stressed. No other changes to lifestyle yet a measureable difference.

My fingers would sometimes get stiff in the mornings after long days on the keyboard. This stiffness disappeared. Some of my hair is getting darker. I have a full body of hair that had virtually all turned grey but I noticed that some of my hair was starting regrow brown my original colour. I had some age spots in my left leg that are disappearing. Generally, I feel great.*

Willie, California

As I was sprinting this morning around 6:00am I noticed that I was not hurting anymore! I have been having sore knees, ankles, hamstrings and back for the last couple of years. I usually just ran through it, but I noticed since I have been taking the Stem Cell 100 capsules for about 45 days now, those nagging pains are gone away!*

*DIsclaimer: The testimonials reflect the real life experiences written and voluntarily submitted to us by individuals who used our products. Individual results may vary. We do not claim that any individual experience recounted is typical or representative of what any other consumer might experience.

View More Testimonials

Supplement Facts

Stem Cell 100 and Stem Cell 100+ are Patent-Pending Life Code Nutraceuticals.

All Life Code products arenutraceutical grade and provide the best of science along with the balance of nature. Stem Cell 100 is vegetarian.

Serving Size: One type O capsule

Servings Per Container: 60 Capsules

Recommended Use: Typical usage of Stem Cell 100 is two capsules per day, preferably at meal times. While both capsules can be taken at the same time, it is preferable to separate the two capsules by at least 4 hours. Since Stem Cell 100 is a potent formulation, do not take more than three capsules per day. One capsule per day may be sufficient for those below 110 pounds.

Recommended Users: Anyone from ages 22 and up could benefit from Stem Cell 100 or Stem Cell 100+. Those in their 20s and 30s will like the boost in endurance during sports or exercise, while older users will notice better energy and general health with the potential for some weight loss.

Stem Cell 100 was our first multi-pathway longevity nutraceutical. Stem Cell 100+ is a more advanced, faster acting and powerful version of Stem Cell 100.

Click label to enlarge

Active Stem Cell 100 Ingredients: There are ten herbal components that make up the patent-pending combination in Stem Cell 100. The herbal components are highly extracted natural herbs that are standardized for active components that promote adult stem cells and lower inflammation:

1) Polysaccharides, flavonoids, and astragalosides extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, which has many positive effects on stem cells and the cardiovascular and immune systems.

2) Proprietary natural bilberry flavonoids and other compounds from a stabilized nutraceutical grade medicinal Vaccinium extract. Activate metabolic PPARS and helps produce healthy levels of cholesterol and inflammation. Also has anti-fungal and anti-viral activity.

3) Flavonoids and oligo-proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from Pine Bark, which greatly reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation.

4) L-Theanine, which is a natural amino acid from Camellia sinesis that reduces mental stress and inflammation while improving cognition and protecting brain cells from ischemic or toxic injury.

5) Pterocarpus Marsupium, which contains two stable resveratrol analogs which promote stem cells, lower inflammation, and stabilized metabolism.

6) Polygonum Multiflorium stem stem is a popular Chinese herbal tonic that fights premature aging and promotes youthfulness. Polygonum is reported to enhance fertility by improving sperm count in men and egg vitality in women. Polygonum is also widely used in Asia to strengthen muscle and is thus used by many athletes as an essential tonic for providing strength and stamina to the body.

Modern research has supported Polygonum multiflorium stem in that animal studies have proven that it can extend lifespan and improve the quality of life. Polygonum appears to protect the liver and brain against damage, perhaps by improving immune and cardiovascular health. The stem sections of Polygonum multiflorium are also calming to the nervous system and promote sounder sleep. Life Code uses a proprietary Polygonum multiflorium stem extract.

7) Schisandra Berry is used by many Chinese women to preserve their youthful beauty. For thousands of years, Schisandra has been prized as an antiaging tonic that increases stamina and mental clarity, while fighting stress and fatigue. In Chinese traditional medicine, Schisandra berry has been used for liver disorders and to enhance resistance to infection and promote skin health and better sleep.

Schisandra berry is classified as an adaptogen, which can stimulate the central nervous system, increase brain efficiency, improve reflexes, and enhance endurance. Modern research indicates that Schisandra berry extracts have a protective effect on the liver and promote immunity. A double-blind human trial suggested that Schisandra berry may help patients with viral hepatitis, which is very prevalent in China.

Recent work indicates that the liver is protected by the enhanced production of glutathione peroxidase, which helps detoxify the liver. Life Code uses a proprietary Schisandra berry extract.

8) Fo-Ti Root (aka He-Shou-Wu) is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines to restore blood, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular health. Fo-Ti is claimed to have powerful rejuvenating effects on the brain, endocrine glands, the immune system, and sexual vigor.

Legend has it that Professor Li Chung Yun took daily doses of Fo-Ti to live to be 256 and is said to have outlived 23 wives and spawned 11 generations of descendents before his death in 1933. While it is unlikely that he really lived to such an old age there is scientific support for Fo-Ti as beneficial for health and longevity.

Like the Indian Keno bark, Fo-ti contains resveratrol analogs and likely acts by various mechanism, which includes liver detoxification and protection of skin from UVB radiation. Life Code uses a proprietary Fo-Ti root extract.

9) Camellia sinensis has many bioactive polyphenols including the potent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). A 2006 Japanese study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that adults aged 40 to 79 years of age who drank an average of 5 or more cups of tea per day had a significantly lower risk of dying from all causes (23% lower for females and 12% lower for males). The study tracked more than 40,000 adults for up to 11 years and found dramatically lower rates of cardiovascular disease and strokes in those drinking 5 or more cups of tea.

Many studies have found that adults drinking 3 or more cups of tea per day have significantly less cancer. Other studies have found that green tea helps protect against age-related cognitive decline, kidney disease, periodontal disease, and type 2 diabetes. Green tea also promotes visceral fat loss and higher endurance levels.

Summarizing all of the thousands of studies on tea and tea polyphenols that have been published, it can be concluded that tea polyphenols preserve health and youth. This conclusion is backed up by gene studies showing that tea polyphenols decrease insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has been strongly linked to aging in yeast, worms, mice, and humans. If everyone could drink 4 to 5 cups of green tea each day, they could enjoy these important health benefits, but for most people drinking that much green tea can disturb their sleep patterns.

Life Code uses a nutraceutical grade green tea extract that has 98% polyphenols and 50% ESCG that provides the polyphenol and ESCG equivalent of 4 to 5 cups of green tea with only 2% of the caffeine. Thus, most or all of the benefits of green tea are provided without concerns about disturbing sleep.

10) Drynaria Rhizome is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine as an effective herb for healing bones, ligaments, tendons, and lower back problems. Eastern martial art practitioners have used Drynaria for thousands of years to help in recovering from sprains, bruises, and stress fractures.

Drynaria has also helped in many cases of bleeding gums and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). The active components of Drynaria protect bone forming cells by enhancing calcium absorption and other mechanisms. Drynaria is also reported to act as a kidney tonic and to promote hair growth and wound healing. Life Code uses a proprietary Drynaria rhizome extract.

Safety: The extracts in both versions of Stem Cell 100 are pharmaceutical grade and have been individually tested in both animals and humans without significant safety issues. Those with pre-existing conditions of diabetes or hypertension should coordinate this product with your doctor, as lower blood glucose or reduced blood pressure can result from taking the recommended dose of this product.

Warnings: may lower glucose and/or blood pressure in some individuals. The supplement is not recommended for pregnant, lactating, or hypoglycemic individuals.

References

1. Yu, Q., Y.S. Bai, and J. Lin, [Effect of astragalus injection combined with mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for repairing the Spinal cord injury in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 2010. 30(4): p. 393-7.

2. Xu, C.J., et al., [Effect of astragalus polysaccharides on the proliferation and ultrastructure of dog bone marrow stem cells induced into osteoblasts in vitro]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007. 25(5): p. 432-6.

3. Xu, C.J., et al., [Effects of astragalus polysaccharides-chitosan/polylactic acid scaffolds and bone marrow stem cells on repairing supra-alveolar periodontal defects in dogs]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2006. 31(4): p. 512-7.

4. Zhu, X. and B. Zhu, [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on megakaryocyte hematopoiesis in anemic mice]. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2001. 32(4): p. 590-2.

5. Qiu, L.H., X.J. Xie, and B.Q. Zhang, Astragaloside IV improves homocysteine-induced acute phase endothelial dysfunction via antioxidation. Biol Pharm Bull, 2010. 33(4): p. 641-6.

6. Araghi-Niknam, M., et al., Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Integr Med, 2000. 2(2): p. 73-77.

7. Rohdewald, P., A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2002. 40(4): p. 158-68.

8. Koch, R., Comparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res, 2002. 16 Suppl 1: p. S1-5.

9. Rimando, A.M., et al., Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Agric Food Chem, 2005. 53(9): p. 3403-7.

10. Manickam, M., et al., Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod, 1997. 60(6): p. 609-10.

11. Grover, J.K., V. Vats, and S.S. Yadav, Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2005. 7(4): p. 414-20.

12. Mao, X.Q., et al., Astragalus polysaccharide reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and restores glucose homeostasis in a diabetic KKAy mouse model. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2007. 28(12): p. 1947-56.

13. Schafer, A. and P. Hogger, Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2007. 77(1): p. 41-6.

14. Kwak, C.J., et al., Antihypertensive effect of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol): possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation. J Hypertens, 2009. 27(1): p. 92-101.

15. Xue, B., et al., Effect of total flavonoid fraction of Astragalus complanatus R.Brown on angiotensin II-induced portal-vein contraction in hypertensive rats. Phytomedicine, 2008.

16. Mizuno, C.S., et al., Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies of pterostilbene analogs inside PPARalpha. Bioorg Med Chem, 2008. 16(7): p. 3800-8.

17. Sato, M., et al., Dietary pine bark extract reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in male ApoE-deficient mice by lowering the serum cholesterol level. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009. 73(6): p. 1314-7.

18. Kimura, Y. and M. Sumiyoshi, French Maritime Pine Bark (Pinus maritima Lam.) Extract (Flavangenol) Prevents Chronic UVB Radiation-induced Skin Damage and Carcinogenesis in Melanin-possessing Hairless Mice. Photochem Photobiol, 2010.

19. Pavlou, P., et al., In-vivo data on the influence of tobacco smoke and UV light on murine skin. Toxicol Ind Health, 2009. 25(4-5): p. 231-9.

20. Ni, Z., Y. Mu, and O. Gulati, Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res, 2002. 16(6): p. 567-71.

21. Bito, T., et al., Pine bark extract pycnogenol downregulates IFN-gamma-induced adhesion of T cells to human keratinocytes by inhibiting inducible ICAM-1 expression. Free Radic Biol Med, 2000. 28(2): p. 219-27.

See the rest here:
Stem Cell 100 Longevity Telomere Support Supplement SC100 …

Posted in Human Longevity | Comments Off on Stem Cell 100 Longevity Telomere Support Supplement SC100 …

Stem Cell 100 – Powerful Rejuvenation and Anti-Aging …

Posted: at 6:31 am

Stem Cell 100 is formulated to rejuvenate your body and slow the aging process to help you feel and function more like a young person. This can help you feel better, look younger and improve your health. Most of the cells in your body lose function with age. Everyone has special cells called adult stem cells which are needed to rejuvenate damaged and old tissues, but adult stem cells themselves are also aging. Until now there was not much you could do about it. Stem Cell 100 rejuvenates adult stem cells and their micro-environments. Stem Cell 100+ is a more advanced and faster acting version of Stem Cell 100.

Developed by experts in the anti-aging field, patent-pending Stem Cell 100 is the only supplement proven to double maximum lifespan of an animal model. No other product or therapy including caloric restriction even comes close.

SK of Santa Fe, NM

I have been using Stem Cell 100 for about one year. Initially I noticed a boost in energy level, which now remains steady-hence not noticed I have experienced no adverse effects from taking this product. I heartily recommend Stem Cell 100 and plan to continue on it.

Leslie

Stem Cell 100 has made a noticeable difference in me, including turning my gray hair back to its original color, which supposedly is impossible. The reversal of the gray hair to original color began a couple of months after starting the pill. After about 10 months, the gray hair is mostly gone. At the current rate of improvement, I expect my hair to completely be back to its original color within 1 to 2 months. I think my beard will take longer, but it was the first to gray. Also, my skin became smoother and younger looking. The skin and hair rely heavily on stem cells, and they seem to benefit strongly from this product. I’m so excited about telling people my results because there is nothing that can reverse the graying of hair. It will give me evidence that this supplement thing is really powerful. Unfortunately, I don’t have before and after pictures because I didn’t read any claims that the product would affect hair color. I would just say that I’m a person who totally believes that it does me no good to imagine things or interpret tings in a way favorable to what I want to believe. When I’m convinced enough to make a statement, you can count on it.

Joey of San Diego, CA

I am a 48 year old working woman. A friend of mine introduced me to Stem Cell 100. After taking Stem Cell 100 for about 4 months my anxiety level has really been diminished. Its a great supplement and I would recommend it to everyone!

Paul of San Diego, CA

I am an active 61 year old man in excellent health, but had experienced a serious drop in my energy level at the time I enrolled in a 4-month trial of Stem Cell 100. Within a month, my energy increased noticeably and I began to take to my physical activities (running, cycling) with a renewed enthusiasm and intensity level. My mood began to elevate steadily, and soon I had even lost those few stubborn pounds that had eluded me for years. I am very enthusiastic about Stem Cell 100. I look forward to continuing with the new, improved formulation, and would not hesitate to recommend it.

Mike, Texas

After taking the Stem Cell 100 for the last month my sinuses have also cleared, unplugging my ears for the first time since mid September.

Willie, California

As I was sprinting this morning around 6:00am I noticed that I was not hurting anymore! I have been having sore knees, ankles, hamstrings and back for the last couple of years. I usually just ran through it, but I noticed since I have been taking the Stem Cell 100 capsules for about 45 days now, those nagging pains are gone away!

Tom, Australia

Only after about 2-3 weeks of taking Stem Cell 100 my eye sight returned back to a level where I did not need glasses to work on my computer monitors. My eyes had always been good but had started to deteriorate about a year ago where 50% of the time I had to wear my glasses. I was shocked to find the improvement so quick. I found I was less stressed. No other changes to lifestyle yet a measureable difference. My fingers would sometimes get stiff in the mornings after long days on the keyboard. This stiffness disappeared. Some of my hair is getting darker. I have a full body of hair that had virtually all turned grey but I noticed that some of my hair was starting regrow brown – my original colour. I had some age spots in my left leg that are disappearing. Generally, I feel great.

View More Testimonials

Harness the Power of Your Own Stem Cells

Millions of people suffer from chronic conditions of aging and disease. Based on international scientific studies in many academic and industry laboratories, there is new hope that many of the conditions afflicting mankind can some day be cured or greatly improved using stem cell regenerative medicine. Stem Cell 100 offers a way to receive some of the benefits of stem cell therapy today by improving the activity and effectiveness of your own adult stem cells.

Stem Cell 100 Helps to Support:

The statements above have not been reviewed by the FDA. Stem Cell 100 is not a preventive or treatment for any disease.

Help Rejuvenate Your Body by Boosting Your Own Stem Cells

As a child, we are protected from the ravages of aging and can rapidly recover from injury or illness because of the ability of the young regenerative stem cells of children have a superior ability to repair and regenerate most damaged tissues. As we age, our stem cell populations become depleted and/or slowly lose their capacity to repair. Moreover, the micro-environment (i.e. niches) around stem cells becomes less nurturing with age, so cell turnover and repair are further reduced. This natural progression occurs so slowly that we are barely aware of it, but we start to notice the body changes in our 20s, 30s, 40s, and especially after 50 years of age. Stem Cell 100 helps adults regain their youthful regenerative potential by stabilizing stem cell function.

Stem Cell 100 works differently than other stem cell products on the market

You may have seen a number of products that are advertised as stimulating or enhancing the number of stem cells. Each person only has a limited number of stem cells so using them up faster may not be a good strategy. Stem Cell 100 is about improving the effectiveness and longevity of your stem cells as well as preserving the stem cell micro-environment. That should be the goal of any effective stem cell therapy and is what Stem Cell 100 is designed to do and what other stem cell products cannot do.

Stem Cell 100 Extends Drosophila (Fruit Fly) Lifespan

In extensive laboratory testing Stem Cell 100 greatly extended both the average and maximum lifespan of Drosophila fruit flies. The study (see Charts below) included three cages of Drosophila fruit flies that were treated with Stem Cell 100 (Cages T1 to T3) and three cages which were untreated controls (Cages C1 to C3). Each cage started with 500 fruit flies including 250 males and 250 females. The experiment showed that median lifespan more than doubled with a 123% increase. While fruit flies are not people they are more like us than you might think. Drosophila have a heart and circulatory system, and the most common cause of death is heart failure. Like humans and other mammals (e.g. mice), it is difficult to increase their lifespan significantly. These observed results outperform every lifespan enhancing treatment ever tested – including experiments using genetic modification and dietary restriction.

The longest living fruit fly receiving Stem Cell 100 lived 89 days compared to the longest living untreated control which lived 48 days. It is possible that the single longest living fruit fly lived longer for other reasons such as genetic mutation, however, there were many others that lived almost as long so it was not just an aberation. The oldest 5% of the treated fruit flies lived 77% longer than the oldest 5% of the control group. It is also important that the study showed an improved ability of the fruit flies to survive stress and illness at all ages not just during old age. Even after the first few days of the study there were already more of the Stem Cell 100 treated fruit flies alive that survived youth than the control group of untreated fruit flies. For additional information about the study please go to our Longevity page.

Supplement Facts

Stem Cell 100 is a Patent-Pending Life Code Nutraceutical. All Life Code products are nutraceutical grade and provide the best of science along with the balance of nature.

All Life Code products are nutraceutical grade and provide the best of science along with the balance of nature.

Click label to enlarge

Stem Cell 100 Plus+ is a more powerful and faster acting version of Stem Cell 100.

Click label to enlarge

Serving Size: One type O capsule

Servings Per Container: 60 Capsules

Recommended Use: Typical usage of Stem Cell 100 is two capsules per day, preferably at meal times. While both capsules can be taken at the same time, it is preferable to separate the two capsules by at least 4 hours. Since Stem Cell 100 is a potent formulation, do not take more than three capsules per day. One capsule per day may be sufficient for those below 110 pounds.

Recommended Users: Anyone from ages 22 and up could benefit from Stem Cell 100. Those in their 20s and 30s will like the boost in endurance during sports or exercise, while older users will notice better energy and general health with the potential for some weight loss.

Active Ingredients in Stem Cell 100: There are ten herbal components that make up the patent-pending combination in Stem Cell 100. The herbal components are highly extracted natural herbs that are standardized for active components that promote adult stem cells and lower inflammation:

1) Polysaccharides, flavonoids, and astragalosides extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, which has many positive effects on stem cells and the cardiovascular and immune systems.

2) Proprietary natural bilberry flavonoids and other compounds from a stabilized nutraceutical grade medicinal Vaccinium extract. Activate metabolic PPARS and helps produce healthy levels of cholesterol and silent inflammation. Also has anti-fungal and anti-viral activity.

3) Flavonoids and oligo-proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from Pine Bark, which greatly reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation.

4) L-Theanine, which is a natural amino acid from Camellia sinesis that reduces mental stress and inflammation while improving cognition and protecting brain cells from ischemic or toxic injury.

5) Pterocarpus Marsupium, which contains two stable resveratrol analogs which promote stem cells, lower inflammation, and stabilized metabolism.

6) Polygonum Multiflorium stem stem is a popular Chinese herbal tonic that fights premature aging and promotes youthfulness. Polygonum is reported to enhance fertility by improving sperm count in men and egg vitality in women. Polygonum is also widely used in Asia to strengthen muscle and is thus used by many athletes as an essential tonic for providing strength and stamina to the body. Modern research has supported Polygonum multiflorium stem in that animal studies have proven that it can extend lifespan and improve the quality of life. Polygonum appears to protect the liver and brain against damage, perhaps by improving immune and cardiovascular health. The stem sections of Polygonum multiflorium are also calming to the nervous system and promote sounder sleep. Life Code uses a proprietary Polygonum multiflorium stem extract.

7) Schisandra Berry is used by many Chinese women to preserve their youthful beauty. For thousands of years, Schisandra has been prized as an antiaging tonic that increases stamina and mental clarity, while fighting stress and fatigue. In Chinese traditional medicine, Schisandra berry has been used for liver disorders and to enhance resistance to infection and promote skin health and better sleep. Schisandra berry is classified as an adaptogen, which can stimulate the central nervous system, increase brain efficiency, improve reflexes, and enhance endurance. Modern research indicates that Schisandra berry extracts have a protective effect on the liver and promote immunity. A double-blind human trial suggested that Schisandra berry may help patients with viral hepatitis, which is very prevalent in China. Recent work indicates that the liver is protected by the enhanced production of glutathione peroxidase, which helps detoxify the liver. Life Code uses a proprietary Schisandra berry extract.

8) Fo-Ti Root (aka He-Shou-Wu) is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines to restore blood, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular health. Fo-Ti is claimed to have powerful rejuvenating effects on the brain, endocrine glands, the immune system, and sexual vigor. Legend has it that Professor Li Chung Yun took daily doses of Fo-Ti to live to be 256 and is said to have outlived 23 wives and spawned 11 generations of descendents before his death in 1933. While it is unlikely that he really lived to such an old age there is scientific support for Fo-Ti as beneficial for health and longevity. Like the Indian Keno bark, Fo-ti contains resveratrol analogs and likely acts by various mechanism, which includes liver detoxification and protection of skin from UVB radiation. Life CodeTM uses a proprietary Fo-Ti root extract.

9 ) Camellia sinensis has many bioactive polyphenols including the potent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). A 2006 Japanese study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that adults aged 40 to 79 years of age who drank an average of 5 or more cups of tea per day had a significantly lower risk of dying from all causes (23% lower for females and 12% lower for males). The study tracked more than 40,000 adults for up to 11 years and found dramatically lower rates of cardiovascular disease and strokes in those drinking 5 or more cups of tea. Many studies have found that adults drinking 3 or more cups of tea per day have significantly less cancer. Other studies have found that green tea helps protect against age-related cognitive decline, kidney disease, periodontal disease, and type 2 diabetes. Green tea also promotes visceral fat loss and higher endurance levels. Summarizing all of the thousands of studies on tea and tea polyphenols that have been published, it can be concluded that tea polyphenols preserve health and youth. This conclusion is backed up by gene studies showing that tea polyphenols decrease insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has been strongly linked to aging in yeast, worms, mice, and humans. If everyone could drink 4 to 5 cups of green tea each day, they could enjoy these important health benefits, but for most people drinking that much green tea can disturb their sleep patterns. Life Code uses a nutraceutical grade green tea extract that has 98% polyphenols and 50% ESCG that provides the polyphenol and ESCG equivalent of 4 to 5 cups of green tea with only 2% of the caffeine. Thus, most or all of the benefits of green tea are provided without concerns about disturbing sleep.

10) Drynaria Rhizome is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine as an effective herb for healing bones, ligaments, tendons, and lower back problems. Eastern martial art practitioners have used Drynaria for thousands of years to help in recovering from sprains, bruises, and stress fractures. Drynaria has also helped in many cases of bleeding gums and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). The active components of Drynaria protect bone forming cells by enhancing calcium absorption and other mechanisms. Drynaria is also reported to act as a kidney tonic and to promote hair growth and wound healing. Life Code uses a proprietary Drynaria rhizome extract.

Active Ingredients in Stem Cell 100+ There are 11 herbal extracts in Stem Cell 100+ along with two nutraceutical grade vitamins Methyl Folate (5-MTHF) and Methyl B12 that are bioavailable vitamin supplements that are highly potent but rarely found. The highly extracted natural herbs are standardized for active components that promote adult stem cells and lower inflammation and have been tested as a synergistic herbal formulation with the proper dosage of each component:

1) Polysaccharides, flavonoids, and astragalosides extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, which has many positive effects on stem cells and the cardiovascular and immune systems. Astragalus has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to promote cardiovascular and immune health. Astragalus is also known as a primary stimulator of Qi (Life Force). Life Code uses a high quality proprietary TCM extract that tested highest in our longevity experiments.

2) Proprietary natural bilberry flavonoids and other compounds from a stabilized nutraceutical grade medicinal Vaccinium extract. Activate metabolic PPARS and helps produce healthy levels of cholesterol and silent inflammation. Also has anti-fungal and anti-viral activity.

3) Flavonoids and oligo-proanthocyanidins (OPCs) extracted from Pine Bark, which promote the vascular system and reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation.

4) L-Theanine, which is a natural amino acid from Camellia sinesis that reduces mental stress and inflammation while improving cognition and protecting brain cells from ischemic or toxic injury. Life Code tested supplement with Mass Spec to verify high purity.

5) Genistein, which is an isoflavone phytoestrogen, activates telomerase, metabolic PPARs, autophagy (cell waste disposal), and smooth muscles. It also inhibits DNA methylation and the carbohydrate transporter GLUT1. Life Code tested supplement with Mass Spec to verify high purity.

6) Harataki Extract (aka Terminalia chebula) contains rejuvenating tannin flavonoids that have doubled human cell longevity in culture while maintaining telomere length. In Traditional Indian Medicine, Harataki has been used to treat skin disorders and heart disease, among many other uses.

7) Two stable resveratrol analogs from extracts of Pterocarpus Marsupium, which promote stem cells, less silent inflammation, and better metabolism. Life Code uses a highly purified proprietary source that is only available to Indian doctors. Life Code does not recommend taking resveratrol supplements or synthetic analogs, as these supplements are inherently unstable.

8) He-Shou-Wu is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines to restore blood, kidney, liver, and cardiovascular health. He-Shou-Wu is claimed to have powerful rejuvenating effects on the brain, endocrine glands, the immune system, and sexual vigor. Legend has it that Professor Li Chung Yun took daily doses to live to 256 years and is said to have outlived 23 wives and spawned 11 generations of descendants before his death in 1933. While it is unlikely that he really lived to such an old age, there is scientific support for He-Shou-Wu as beneficial for health and longevity. Life Code uses a proprietary TCM He-Shou-Wu root extract.

9) Schisandra Berry is used by many Chinese women to preserve their youthful beauty. For thousands of years, Schisandra has been prized as an antiaging tonic that increases stamina and mental clarity, while fighting stress and fatigue. In TCM, Schisandra berry has been used for liver disorders and to enhance resistance to infection and promote skin health and better sleep. Schisandra berry is classified as an adaptogen, which can stimulate the central nervous system, increase brain efficiency, improve reflexes, and enhance endurance. Life Code uses a proprietary TCM extract.

10) Drynaria Rhizome is used extensively in TCM as an effective herb for healing bones, ligaments, tendons, and lower back problems. Eastern martial art practitioners have used Drynaria for thousands of years to help in recovering from sprains, bruises, and stress fractures. The active components of Drynaria protect bone forming cells by enhancing calcium absorption and other mechanisms. Drynaria is also reported to act as a kidney tonic and to promote hair growth and wound healing. Life Code uses a proprietary TCM Drynaria rhizome extract.

11) BioPerine is a proprietary brand of peperine extracted from black pepper. BioPerine has been shown to enhance bioavailability of herbal extracts. Piperine has been shown in rats to have cognitive enhancing effects and to help control silent inflammation.

Safety: The extracts in Stem Cell 100 and Stem Cell 100+ are nutraceutical grade and have been individually tested in both animals and humans without significant safety issues. Those with pre-existing conditions of diabetes or hypertension should coordinate this product with your doctor, as lower blood glucose or reduced blood pressure can result from taking the recommended dose of this product.

Warnings: may lower glucose and/or blood pressure in some individuals. The supplement is not recommended for pregnant, lactating, or hypoglycemic individuals.

References

1. Yu, Q., Y.S. Bai, and J. Lin, [Effect of astragalus injection combined with mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for repairing the Spinal cord injury in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 2010. 30(4): p. 393-7.

2. Xu, C.J., et al., [Effect of astragalus polysaccharides on the proliferation and ultrastructure of dog bone marrow stem cells induced into osteoblasts in vitro]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007. 25(5): p. 432-6.

3. Xu, C.J., et al., [Effects of astragalus polysaccharides-chitosan/polylactic acid scaffolds and bone marrow stem cells on repairing supra-alveolar periodontal defects in dogs]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2006. 31(4): p. 512-7.

4. Zhu, X. and B. Zhu, [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on megakaryocyte hematopoiesis in anemic mice]. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2001. 32(4): p. 590-2.

5. Qiu, L.H., X.J. Xie, and B.Q. Zhang, Astragaloside IV improves homocysteine-induced acute phase endothelial dysfunction via antioxidation. Biol Pharm Bull, 2010. 33(4): p. 641-6.

6. Araghi-Niknam, M., et al., Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Integr Med, 2000. 2(2): p. 73-77.

7. Rohdewald, P., A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2002. 40(4): p. 158-68.

8. Koch, R., Comparative study of Venostasin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res, 2002. 16 Suppl 1: p. S1-5.

9. Rimando, A.M., et al., Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Agric Food Chem, 2005. 53(9): p. 3403-7.

10. Manickam, M., et al., Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod, 1997. 60(6): p. 609-10.

11. Grover, J.K., V. Vats, and S.S. Yadav, Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2005. 7(4): p. 414-20.

12. Mao, X.Q., et al., Astragalus polysaccharide reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and restores glucose homeostasis in a diabetic KKAy mouse model. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2007. 28(12): p. 1947-56.

13. Schafer, A. and P. Hogger, Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidase. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2007. 77(1): p. 41-6.

14. Kwak, C.J., et al., Antihypertensive effect of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol): possible involvement of endothelial nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation. J Hypertens, 2009. 27(1): p. 92-101.

15. Xue, B., et al., Effect of total flavonoid fraction of Astragalus complanatus R.Brown on angiotensin II-induced portal-vein contraction in hypertensive rats. Phytomedicine, 2008.

16. Mizuno, C.S., et al., Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies of pterostilbene analogs inside PPARalpha. Bioorg Med Chem, 2008. 16(7): p. 3800-8.

17. Sato, M., et al., Dietary pine bark extract reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in male ApoE-deficient mice by lowering the serum cholesterol level. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009. 73(6): p. 1314-7.

18. Kimura, Y. and M. Sumiyoshi, French Maritime Pine Bark (Pinus maritima Lam.) Extract (Flavangenol) Prevents Chronic UVB Radiation-induced Skin Damage and Carcinogenesis in Melanin-possessing Hairless Mice. Photochem Photobiol, 2010.

19. Pavlou, P., et al., In-vivo data on the influence of tobacco smoke and UV light on murine skin. Toxicol Ind Health, 2009. 25(4-5): p. 231-9.

20. Ni, Z., Y. Mu, and O. Gulati, Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res, 2002. 16(6): p. 567-71.

21. Bito, T., et al., Pine bark extract pycnogenol downregulates IFN-gamma-induced adhesion of T cells to human keratinocytes by inhibiting inducible ICAM-1 expression. Free Radic Biol Med, 2000. 28(2): p. 219-27.

22. Rihn, B., et al., From ancient remedies to modern therapeutics: pine bark uses in skin disorders revisited. Phytother Res, 2001. 15(1): p. 76-8.

23. Saliou, C., et al., Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med, 2001. 30(2): p. 154-60.

24. Van Wijk, E.P., R. Van Wijk, and S. Bosman, Using ultra-weak photon emission to determine the effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidins on oxidative stress of human skin. J Photochem Photobiol B, 2010. 98(3): p. 199-206.

25. Haskell, C.F., et al., The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol, 2008. 77(2): p. 113-22.

26. Owen, G.N., et al., The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutr Neurosci, 2008. 11(4): p. 193-8.

27. Yamada, T., et al., Effects of theanine, a unique amino acid in tea leaves, on memory in a rat behavioral test. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2008. 72(5): p. 1356-9.

28. Jia, R.Z., et al., [Neuroprotective effects of Astragulus membranaceus on hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in neonatal rat hippocampus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 2003. 28(12): p. 1174-7.

29. Nathan, P.J., et al., The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. J Herb Pharmacother, 2006. 6(2): p. 21-30.

30. Nobre, A.C., A. Rao, and G.N. Owen, L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008. 17 Suppl 1: p. 167-8.

31. Murakami, S., et al., Effects of oral supplementation with cystine and theanine on the immune function of athletes in endurance exercise: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009. 73(4): p. 817-21.

32. Kawada, S., et al., Cystine and theanine supplementation restores high-intensity resistance exercise-induced attenuation of natural killer cell activity in well-trained men. J Strength Cond Res, 2010. 24(3): p. 846-51.

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Stem Cell 100 – Powerful Rejuvenation and Anti-Aging …

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Virtual Reality | Technology | GeForce

Posted: August 29, 2016 at 7:38 am

Virtual Reality is finally here after years of anticipation, and it’s been well worth the wait. At NVIDIA we’ve been working from the beginning of VR’s resurgence to create technologies, tools and best practices that enhance the VR experience.

Now, with the new GeForce GTX 1080 and the new Pascal Architecture, we’re enabling a new level of presence in VR by introducing new technologies that will make your VR experiences more immersive and realistic.

With VR performance is key – Virtual Reality headsets render games and applications at a resolution equivalent to 3024×1680, and need to do so at a sustained 90 FPS. Failure to maintain a constant 90 FPS results in stuttering and hitching that ruin the experience.

With the new GeForce GTX 1080, Virtual Reality performance is up to 2X faster than with the GeForce GTX TITAN X. This remarkable improvement comes courtesy of the amazing graphics horsepower of Pascal, combined with our new Simultaneous Multi-Projection technology, which enables new VRWorks Lens Matched Shading and Single Pass Stereo rendering techniques.

For decades PC gamers enthusiastically enjoyed their games on flat 4:3, 16:9 and 16:10 monitors. Thankfully technology has advanced, and we can now play with three monitors in NVIDIA Surround, on curved monitors, and even in Virtual Reality.

With the new Pascal-architecture Simultaneous Multi-Projection technology we can implement several new techniques that improve your experience on these displays. And in Virtual Reality, improve performance, too.

The first of these new Virtual Reality techniques is Lens Matched Shading, which builds upon the Multi-Res Shading technology introduced alongside our previous-generation Maxwell architecture. Lens Matched Shading increases pixel shading performance by rendering more natively to the unique dimensions of VR display output. This avoids rendering many pixels that would otherwise be discarded before the image is output to the VR headset.

Single Pass Stereo turbocharges geometry performance by allowing the head-mounted display’s left and right displays to share a single geometry pass. We’re effectively halving the workload of traditional VR rendering, which requires the GPU to draw geometry twice once for the left eye and once for the right eye.

This improvement is especially important for geometry-heavy scenes, and those featuring significant levels of tessellation, which remains the most effective way of adding real detail to objects and surfaces in VR.

With tessellation, affected game elements can be accurately lit, shadowed and shaded, and can be examined up close in Virtual Reality. With other solutions, such as Bump Mapping or Parallax Occlusion Mapping, the simulation of geometric detail breaks down when the player approaches or examines affected objects from any angle, which harms immersion. By increasing geometry performance and tessellation by up to 2x, developers are able to add more detail that players can examine up close, significantly improving the look of the game and the player’s level of presence.

Together, Pascal’s improved performance, and new Single Pass Stereo and Lens Matched Shading significantly improve the Virtual Reality experience for GeForce GTX users.

NVIDIA has spent decades working to perfect 3D graphics, but with VR great graphics demand great audio to create a sense of presence. To this end, NVIDIA has created a game-changing advancement called VRWorks Audio.

Today’s VR applications provide positional audio, telling users where a sound comes from within an environment. However, sound in the real world reflects more than just location of the audio source — sound is a function of the physical environment. For example, a voice in a small room will sound different than the same voice outdoors because of the reflections and reverb caused by the sound bouncing off the walls of the room. Using NVIDIA’s OptiX ray tracing engine, VRWorks Audio is able to trace the path of sound in an environment in real-time, delivering physical audio that fully reflects the size, shape, and material properties of the virtual world.

Simply put, we’re able to simulate physically-accurate, super realistic real-time audio using the power of your graphics card.

If you’ve been a gamer for some time you’ve almost certainly played a game with CPU or GPU PhysX, or our new FleX effects. These technologies add more realistic physics effects, and enable interactions between the player’s character and the world they’re inhabiting. In Virtual Reality, more often than not you are the player in the center of the action, directly interacting with objects and the world itself. As such, the world needs to react realistically to maintain the user’s sense of presence in the virtual world.

Realistically modelling touch interactions and environmental behavior is critical for delivering full presence in VR. And by adding touch interactivity with haptics we can amplify the degree of immersion.

Existing VR experiences deliver these effects through a combination of positional tracking, hand controllers, and haptics. With NVIDIA’s new VR Touch PhysX Constraint Solver, we can instead detect when a hand controller interacts with a virtual object and enable the game engine to provide a physically-accurate visual and haptic response.

By providing this improved, ready-made, all-in-one solution to game developers we can save them time, effort and money, and improve the experiences of gamers.

As you might expect, we’re also bringing our PhysX and FleX visual effects to VR, so that interactions, events and actions involving the player or occurring around the player are realistic, physically accurate, and representative of what players would expect to see in the real world.

Over the years PhysX and FleX have created visual effects for just about anything you can imagine – explosions, cloth, water, snow, gore, volumetric weather effects, and on and on, and on. PhysX has done them all, and more, and now your own actions in the virtual world can influence the actions, reactions, and interactions of these effects.

The great news is that you won’t have to wait long to experience VRWorks Graphics, VRWorks Audio, and VR PhysX – all three are fully utilized in “NVIDIA VR Funhouse”, a NVIDIA-developed VR experience that’s coming soon. Learn more about this highly immersive, extremely entertaining experience here.

Combined, the technologies discussed in this story form VRWorks, a comprehensive suite of features that allow developers to create more detailed, more immersive, and faster-performing VR experiences that you won’t want to miss.

To benefit from these features, and those released previously, register your interest now to be notified when the GeForce GTX 1080 pre-order program begins.

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Virtual Reality | Technology | GeForce

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Singularity – Mass Effect Wiki – Wikia

Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:31 pm

Mass Effect Edit This gravitational power sucks multiple enemies within a radius to a single area, leaving them floating helplessly and vulnerable to attack. It can also attract objects from the environment, such as crates or pieces of furniture; enemies will take damage if they collide with other solid objects in the Singularity field. Talent Ranks Edit

These classes have access to the Singularity talent:

Note: This power travels in the direction of the cross-hair, arcing towards the target. Upon impact, it will create the Singularity. Liara’s Singularity travels in a straight line, instantly creating a singularity at the targeted location.

Rank 4

Choose to evolve the power into one of the following,

Create a sphere of dark energy that traps and dangles enemies caught in its field.

Increase recharge speed by 25%.

Increase Singularity’s hold duration by 20%. Increase impact radius by 20%.

Duration

Increase Singularity’s hold duration by 30%. Additional enemies can be lifted before Singularity fades.

Radius

Increase impact radius by 25%.

Lift Damage

Inflict 20 damage per second to lifted targets.

Recharge Speed

Increase recharge speed by 30%.

Expand

Expand the Singularity field by 35% for 10 seconds.

Detonate

Detonate Singularity when the field dies to inflict 300 damage across 5 meters.

Create a sphere of dark energy that traps and dangles enemies caught in its field.

Increase recharge speed by 25%.

Increase damage by 20%.

Duration

Increase Singularity’s hold duration by 150%.

Radius

Increase impact radius by 35%.

Lift Damage

Inflict 50 damage per second to lifted targets.

Recharge Speed

Increase recharge speed by 35%.

Damage

Increase damage by 50%.

Detonate

Detonate Singularity when the field dies to inflict 500 damage across 7 meters.

Link:

Singularity – Mass Effect Wiki – Wikia

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First Amendment – Watchdog.org

Posted: at 4:20 pm

By M.D. Kittle / August 14, 2016 / First Amendment, Free Speech, News, Power Abuse, Wisconsin / No Comments

There is a vital need for citizens to have an effective remedy against government officials who investigate them principally because of their partisan affiliation and political speech.

By M.D. Kittle / August 8, 2016 / Commentary, First Amendment, Free Speech, National, Wisconsin / No Comments

Thats precisely what I expected from a party whose platform includes rewriting the First Amendment

By M.D. Kittle / August 3, 2016 / First Amendment, Free Speech, News, Power Abuse, Wisconsin / No Comments

The question that arises is do conservatives have civil rights before Judge Lynn Adelman?

By M.D. Kittle / August 2, 2016 / First Amendment, News, Power Abuse, Wisconsin / No Comments

Now, years after defendants unlawfully seized and catalogued millions of our sensitive documents, we ask the court to vindicate our rights under federal law.

By M.D. Kittle / July 25, 2016 / First Amendment, National, News, Politics & Elections, Wisconsin / No Comments

Moore has uttered some of the more inflammatory, ill-informed statements in Congress.

By M.D. Kittle / July 14, 2016 / First Amendment, Judiciary, News, Power Abuse, Wisconsin / No Comments

The process continues to be the punishment for people who were found wholly innocent of any wrongdoing, she said.

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First Amendment – Watchdog.org

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