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The Pro-Slavery Lobby: The Abolition of Slavery Project

Posted: December 7, 2016 at 8:02 am

What was the Pro-Slavery or West India Lobby?

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the production of sugar in Britain’s West Indian colonies saw money pouring into Britain. The sugar production came to be controlled by a small circle of wealthy planters and merchants.

By the 1670’s, London had became the centre of colonial decision-making and the West Indian planters, living in England, formed an association with the London merchants and agents responsible for colonial legislation. By 1733, the West India Lobby had grown to included associations from all the principle trade cities (Bristol, Liverpool, Glasgow, and London). Together, theynurtured ties with members of both houses of Parliament and eventually a number became MPs.

Once the planters became part of the government, they had the opportunity to influence policies that affected the colonies. The rise ofthe sugar industryalso saw therise of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and, with it, attempts by individuals to create a similar influence on the governmental economic policy, in line with slave trader interests.

Those involved in the industry eventually controlled a considerable proportion of Britain’s wealth. The money from the plantations also generated commerce and shaped the British economy, as new banks and financial institutions developed. The planters and merchants invested in industry and the profits they made allowed them to build stately homes in the countryside and have enough wealth to acquire immense political power.

Many absentee’ plantation owners and merchants involved in the Slave Trade, rose to high office as mayors or served in Parliament.William Beckford, for example, the owner of a 22,000 acre estate in Jamaica, was twice Lord Mayor of London and, in the mid to late 1700’s, over 50 MPs in parliament represented the slave plantations.

For 200 years, supporters of the Slave Trade were successful in opposing any opposition. The lobby won major concessions from the British government and proved tough opposition to the abolitionists.

What tactics did they use?

The West India Lobbyused very similar tactics to the anti-slavery lobby (see Campaign Section). They wrote pamphlets and other literature arguing that the Slave Trade was necessary and, in fact, beneficial to the Africans. They lobbied parliament and produced witnesses to testify to parliament. They had the power and wealth to buy votes and exert pressure on others.

They also used delaying tactics, for example, suggesting the need for further time or investigation, before consideration of the issue by the House, or supporting compromise solutions. On April 2nd 1792, when Wilberforce again brought a bill calling for abolition, Henry Dundas, as home secretary, proposed a compromise solution of gradual abolition’ over a number of years. Although this was passed by 230to 85 votes, the compromise was seen as little more than a clever ploy by the pro-slavery lobby. Gradual, in their view, meant never.

Another response to attacks by the anti slavery lobby was to show themselves as reformers, by revising slave codes and offering improvements to conditions. In 1823, for example, pressure for total abolition saw the Government outline a reform programme, drawn up in close consultation with the committee of West Indian Planters and Merchants, known as the amelioration programme’. The committee was chaired by an influential absentee plantation owner, Charles Ellis.

The programme involved revising the laws which regulated the number of hoursenslaved peoplecould work and the food they were provided with. It gaveenslaved peoplebasic legal rights, including the right to own property, and also provided for religious instruction. The idea was for a legally-regulated abolition of slave status, over an unspecified time period. Although the programme led to some improvements in conditions, by the early 1830’s, many had still not implemented these changes.

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The Pro-Slavery Lobby: The Abolition of Slavery Project

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Pray for the First Amendment. Now. – The Washington Post

Posted: at 7:58 am

At a seminar at Harvards Institute of Politics this past week, Corey Lewandowski issued a defense of the several months that he spent as a paid political commentator at CNN while also receiving severance payments from the network campaign. I had the privilege of serving with CNN for about three or four months and providing insight to the Trump campaign, which I think I probably have a comparative advantage over anybody else in the audience other than Kellyanne [Conway], Lewandowski said at the event. I think bringing a perspective of serving 18 months inside a campaign to the viewership of CNN is something thats worthy of the viewership to understand the thought process of how Donald Trump makes decisions. And if you dont think thats service to the viewership of CNN, I think maybe you havent done your homework.

So, there it is on the record Lewandowski holds himself out as a guy who channels the thinking inside Trumps meeting rooms.

At the same conference, this clued-in Trumpite asserted that the executive editor of the New York Times, Dean Baquet, belonged in jail. Baquets offense? A New York Times story that contained key parts of Donald Trumps income-tax returns from 1995. The documents showed that Trump could have sidestepped taxes for 18 years. Confronted later about his taxes, Trump bragged that not paying them qualifies him as smart.

Weeks before signing off on the tax story, Baquet himself told attendees at (another) Harvard conference that hed risk jail time to publish Trumps tax returns. That sentiment carried over into this weeks Harvard session, in which Lewandowski said: We had one of the top people at the New York Times come to Harvard University and say, Im willing to go to jail to get a copy of Donald Trumps taxes so I can publish them. Dean Baquet came here and offered to go to jail. Youre telling me hes willing to commit a felony on a private citizen to post his taxes, and there isnt enough scrutiny on the Trump campaign and his business dealings and his taxes?

Its egregious, Lewandowski continued. He should be in jail.

That statement arose from a typical Trumpite melange disrespect for the Constitution combined with a failure to grasp the facts. Theres no felony that attaches to publishing true facts that are in the public interest, as the New York Times did with the tax story. The reference to law-breaking in Lewandowskis outburst may relate to a federal statute on disclosing another persons tax information, but as many have noted, that doesnt apply to the situation at hand. Presumably like his boss, Lewandowski just wants to punish a critic.

Asked about Lewandowskis remark, Baquet emailed the Erik Wemple Blog, Im actually on vacation. But happy to recommend a good book on the first amendment since he clearly needs to understand the role of the independent press.

Would that Lewandowski had set the weeks only three-alarm First Amendment fire. But the president-elect may have outdone him with his tweet from earlier in the week:

As this blog noted, CNN spilled about 20,000 words of punditry straightening out the constitutional and factual lapses in that small and extraordinarily ignorant assemblage of words. The most telling stretch of coverage took place when CNN host Chris Cuomo asked Jason Miller, the spokesman for Trumps transition team, whether hed concede that flag-burning was legal. But Chris, its completely ridiculous its terrible and its despicable, replied Miller. Pressed again on the question, Miller said, No, we can completely disagree that this issue. absolutely should be illegal.

Here’s what you should know about President-elect Donald Trump’s Nov. 29 tweet calling for a ban on burning the U.S. flag. (Sarah Parnass/The Washington Post)

With his pushback, Miller was failing Free Speech 101, which holds that the First Amendment protects expression that others and perhaps most members of society find repulsive. Or, as Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes more memorably put it, If there is any principle of the Constitution that more imperatively calls for attachment than any other it is the principle of free thought not free thought for those who agree with us but freedom for the thought that we hate. The case that yielded those words bears some relevance to the public-square discussions of the Trump era. It concerned whether the courts could deny U.S. citizenship to one Rosika Schwimmer, a Hungarian-born woman, because of her pacifist views. The majority in the 1929 case U.S. v. Schwimmer argued that it could do so, but Holmes dissented.

Have a look at how Justice Pierce Butler framed the issue in his majority opinion: Taken as a whole, [the record] shows that [Rosika Schwimmers] objection to military service rests on reasons other than mere inability because of her sex and age personally to bear arms. The fact that she is an uncompromising pacifist, with no sense of nationalism, but only a cosmic sense of belonging to the human family, justifies belief that she may be opposed to the use of military force as contemplated by our Constitution and laws. And her testimony clearly suggests that she is disposed to exert her power to influence others to such opposition. We cannot have dissent in this country!

Its no wonder that Holmess thoughts won the history contest. Anyone who knows anything about the First Amendment knows that its not there to protect people singing the national anthem with their hands on their heart or professing their reverence for the Founding Fathers.

Thus far the Trump people havent proven themselves among that lot. The reigning view of free expression continues to be that of a business mogul. As head of a sprawling profit-seeking organization, Trump hasnt been an agent of the First Amendment, which applies to government-led abridgment of free expression. Business owners are free to shoehorn their employees into non-disclosure agreements; use libel law to stifle opponents; and otherwise strong-arm their way toward good PR.

Trump has done all those things and more, as the Erik Wemple Blog and many others have documented. Even as he campaigned for president, Trump has threatened legal action against the Associated Press and the New York Times. He has stiff-armed media organizations on credentials, vowed to loosen libel law to make it easier for guys like him to sue media outlets, ridiculed media outlets and individual reporters at rallies, and much more.

Asked in a recent New York Times interview whether hed make good on his threat on libel laws, Trump answered, I think youll be happy.

On the one hand, we have a passel of documented affronts to the First Amendment; on the other, we have (another) vague assurance that alls well. Time to pray for the First Amendment.

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Pray for the First Amendment. Now. – The Washington Post

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Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:36 pm

Its not uncommon to hear that free will is an illusion that belief in free will is incompatible with science.

Yet, the existence of free will lies at the heart of every important issue in your life. Understanding precisely what is and is not within the power of your free choice is crucial to your pursuit of knowledge, values, personal relationships and happiness.

Join us November 4 to 6 in Atlanta, GA, at the Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016 (#AynRandCon) for an in-depth exploration of the concept of free will from the perspective of Ayn Rands philosophy of Objectivism. Rand the novelist, philosopher and cultural icon famous for her bestselling novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged developed a new account of free will, one that underpins the distinctive view of good and evil and of heroism that runs through her novels.

Rejecting the false alternative of nature vs. nurture, Rand advanced a radical view of man, which holds that you are a being of self-made soul, capable of exercising fundamental control over your own thinking, actions and character. Far from viewing belief in free will as a superstition incompatible with science, Rand argued that the facts support the existence of free will and that its unscientific as well as disastrous personally and culturally to dismiss free will as illusory.

At #AynRandCon youll hear leading experts on Rands philosophy discuss the nature of free will and its implications for your life and for a range of current controversies, from inequality to free speech to U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Youll hear from practitioners inspired by Rands message to take control of their fates and build the kind of career and life they wanted. Youll meet other students who love Rands novels and are learning how to apply her ideas to their own lives. And youll have the chance to network with speakers, professionals and students.

The conference is brought to you by the Ayn Rand Institute in collaboration with STRIVE (STudents for Reason, Individualism, Value pursuit, and Enterprise) and is made possible by the generous support of the Michael and Andrea Leven Family Foundation, as well as by the support of the Charles Koch Foundation, Ellen and Harris Kenner, Chris J. Rufer, and Loren and Kathy Corle, RELCO LLC.

Thanks to these donors, students are able to attend this conference at little or no cost. All students will receive a scholarship covering their travel, lodging and registration expenses.

Apply to attend by October 10, 2016!

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Ayn Rand Student Conference 2016

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The Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Ice – TMS

Posted: at 12:31 pm

Since icebergs were first proposed as potential aircraft carriers in World War II, research has led to a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of ice. While work remains, especially in relating fracture on the small scale to that on the larger scale and to the appropriate structural features, the groundwork in materials science has been laid. This paper presents an overview of the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice.

Since then ice research has flourished. Nucleation and growth from both vapor and liquid states has been studied and placed within the context of classical thermodynamics and kinetics. The structure of ice and natural ice formations has been examined and then related to the thermal-mechanical history of the material. Electrical properties have been measured and explained in terms of the number density and mobility of protonic charge carriers. Optical and thermal behaviors have been explored. Mechanical behavior has been thoroughly studied, from the flow and fracture of single crystals to the creep of glaciers and the fracturing of Arctic sea-ice covers. Indeed, over the past ten years alone more than 10,000 papers on ice have appeared in the scientific and engineering literature.

Why the interest? Ice, it turns out, is a factor in activities as diverse as skiing and skating, rainmaking, polar marine transportation, and cold ocean oil exploration. It is an element in the degradation of cold concrete and other porous materials. It forms as “icing” on airplanes and electrical transmission lines. Ice is also a factor in global climate, evident perhaps from the facts that the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets cover about 10% of the earth’s land area and sea ice covers about 10% of the ocean surface either seasonally or perennially. In addition, the ice sheets and the air bubbles entrapped therein are the storehouses of the pa-leoclimate record. Ice is also a major constituent of the moons of Jupiter and of other extraterrestrial bodies.

This article reviews the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice. Fuller accounts are given in the literature cited and in the following references: ice physics by Hobbs2 and by Petrenko and Whitworth;3 ice-structure interactions by Sanderson;4 sea ice by Weeks;5 ice mechanics by Michel;6 and plastic flow and fracture in the Johannes Weertman Symposium.7 Curtin8 offers a historical perspective through the eyes of the U.S. Navy, and Levi9 describes the role of ice in the global heat budget. Durham et al.10 discuss the creep of planetary ice.

The relationship to Ic lies in a common tetrahedral arrangement of H2O molecules. Ic, however, has the diamond cubic crystal structure, in which the stacking sequence relative to the {111} plane is . . . AABBCCAABBCC . . . ; its lattice parameter (at -130C) is 0.635 nm.

The hydrogen atoms are arranged randomly11 according to the Bernal-Fowler rules.12 First, two protons must be located near each oxygen. Second, only one proton must lie on each O-O bond. The random arrangement persists at low temperatures, owing to the extraordinarily slow reorientation of the H2O molecule (greater than 100 years at liquid nitrogen temperature), and this leads to a large amount (3.41 J/mol.) of zero-point entropy. Ice does not violate the third law of thermodynamics.

Point Defects

Violations of the Bernal-Fowler rules create ionic and Bjerrum defects.15 If the proton moves along the O-O bond, then the first rule is violated: one proton near an oxygen atom creates an OH- ion; three create an H3O+ ion. If the proton moves around the oxygen atom, then the second rule is violatedno hydrogen atom on an O-O bond creates L-type Bjerrum defects (L stands for leer, which means empty in German); two protons create a D-type Bjerrum defect (D means doublet). Both kinds of defects contribute to electrical conductivity (the migration of ions allows protons to move from one end of a bond to the other), and the movement of Bjerrum defects allows protons to move from one side of an oxygen atom to another. Without the migration of both defects, long-range protonic conduction could not occur.

Despite the fact that water is a universal solvent, the solubility of substances in ice Ih is very low. The solubility of HCl, for instance, is 3 X 10-6 at -10C. Exceptions are HF and NH3. These molecules are assumed to dissolve substitutionally, creating L-defects in HF and D-defects in NH3, as well as additional ionic defects. The impurities increase electrical conductivity.

Dislocations

Figure 2 shows a composite x-ray topograph illustrating slip bands in two adjacent grains in a polycrystal. In both crystals slip occurred by dislocation glide on basal or {0001} planes.16 The Burgers’ vectors were parallel to the direction and of a magnitude defined by the shortest distance between oxygen atoms in the same basal plane (i.e., by the distance not between nearest neighbors, but between next-nearest neighbors, as in Figure 1). Basal slip,17 in principle, can take place on both a more widely spaced set of planes, termed shuffle planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 8 and 11 in Figure 1), and a less widely spaced set, termed glide planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 1 and 8 in Figure 1). It is not clear which set is dominant. The distinction is significant, however, because adjacent planes of oxygen atoms of the glide set relate to each other in a manner similar to that in face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, leading to the possibility of dislocation dissociation into partials. To date, however, partial dislocations have not been observed.

A unique feature is worth noting. Because the protons in ice Ih are arranged randomly, the translation of part of the crystal relative to the rest by the Burgers’ vector will not exactly reproduce the atomic arrangement.18 Instead, the translation introduces Bjerrum defects. The stress needed to create them (of formation energy 0.68 eV) is orders of magnitude greater than can be accounted for by the actual flow stress.18 This implies that some kind of protonic rearrangement must occur. However, the precise way in which dislocations overcome the obstacle presented by proton disorder is not yet known.

Planar Defects

Stacking faults have been observed in as-grown crystals using x-ray topography.19 They can be eliminated by annealing and so are considered to be unstable defects. Twins have not been observed, in material either well annealed or plastically deformed. Barring free surfaces, grain boundaries are the most prominent planar defect. They exhibit ledges, some as large as 1 mm (Figure 2), and close to the melting point they contain liquid water in submillimeter-sized veins that lie along lines of intersection.20 Within warm sea ice they also contain millimeter-sized brine pockets. Grain boundaries are sites of sliding and crack nucleation and are thus important microstructural features.

Arctic sea ice5 forms directly upon the unidirectional solidification of salt water. Floating covers form and consist primarily of columnar-shaped grains elongated in the growth direction, reminiscent of metallic ingots. Once thickened to a few centimeters, the covers develop a strong growth texture in which the crystallographic c-axes are confined more or less to the horizontal plane, but are either randomly oriented within this plane or aligned22 with the ocean current. Sea ice is characterized also by an intragranular porous substructure that consists of submillimeter diameter air bubbles and brine pockets, totaling 4-5 vol.%, arrayed in a plate-like manner parallel to basal planes. Also, cold sea ice may contain precipitates of sea salts (mainly NaCl). Both deformation and growth textures lead to macroscopically anisotropic inelastic behavior.

Inelastic behavior is markedly anisotropic. The critical resolved shear stress for non-basal slip is 60 times or more greater than that for basal slip,24 and this presents a problem for polycrystals. Basal slip allows only two independent deformation modes. When coupled with the facts that twinning does not occur and four independent deformation modes are required25 (from self-consistent calculations) for extensive, crack-free flow, the plastic anisotropy leads to the build-up of internal stresses on the scale of the grain size. The stresses arise because grains favorably oriented for slip shed load to those less well oriented. The implication is that unless time is allowed for the internal stresses to relax, plastic flow will initiate cracks.26,27 If the cracks are tolerated, the ice will exhibit macroscopically ductile behavior. If not, then the material will exhibit macroscopically brittle behavior.

That ice can be brittle at temperatures right up to its melting point is perhaps surprising. The reason is related to the fact that its melting point diffusivity is around 10-15-10-14 m2/s, compared to higher values of 10-11-10-12 m2/s for elemental metals. Diffusion-assisted stress relaxation thus occurs relatively slowly.

Plastic flow and quasisteady-state creep of coarsely grained ice has been explained24,29 and then modeled quantitatively in terms of dislocation or power-law creep (i.e., by glide and climb of basal dislocations). Supporting this view is the fact that the activation energies for self-diffusion (0.65 eV = 62 kJ/mol.) and creep are essentially the same. Also, the creep rate is independent of grain size, and the dependence of the creep rate on stress (the inverse of the strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress) is of the correct magnitude. The flow of very finely grained ice of micrometer dimensions can be rationalized in terms of grain-boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation creep. The effect of brine inclusions has been explained by a reduction in internal back stress.

Brittle failure under compression (regime CIII, Figures 3 and 4) is marked by sudden material collapse after shortening less than about 0.5%. The failure mode is generally shear faulting on planes inclined by about 30 to the direction of maximum principal stress, although axial splitting can also occur under unconfined loading. The material now exhibits strain-rate softening, but is still thermally softened. The brittle compressive strength rises sharply under a small amount of confinement in a Coulombic manner.42-47 This implies that the deviatoric stress at failure increases with increasing hydrostatic stress and means that frictional crack sliding is an important element in the failure process. Again, the strength decreases with increasing grain size in a Hall-Petch manner.48 Brine inclusions, however, have no effect at all.47

where v is the velocity of the ice relative to the structure, and L is the width of the structure. Typical values are v = 0.1- 1 m/s and L = 10-100 m, giving strain rates that lead to brittle behavior.

Consider the most recent observations.51 Figure 5a shows a typical terminal shear fault; Figure 5b shows a thin section of the same fault, and Figure 5c shows the corresponding stress-strain curve. The fault was created by loading coarsely grained (10 mm) columnar fresh-water ice biaxially across the columns under a moderate degree of confinement (minor stress/major stress = 22/11 = 0.1) at -10C at 5 X 10-3 s-1. In Figure 5, the long axis of the grains is perpendicular to the page.

Experiments and analyses have shown that the parent cracks nucleate through grain-boundary sliding.56-59 The wing cracks initiate as a result of frictional sliding of the parent cracks.50 The splay cracks, it is thought, initiate from Hertzian contact stresses across the parent-crack faces and then propagate within a tensile field created most likely by nonuniform displacements across the sliding crack.

Schulson et al.51 propose that splay cracks are critical features in initiating the fault. Upon forming, they create sets of closely spaced microcolumns fixed on one end and free on the other. The free end contacts the sliding crack, which induces a moment that causes the columns to bend and break, rather like the breaking of teeth in a comb under a sliding thumb (Figure 6). It is the failure of these microcolumns under frictional shear loading, they suggest, that initiates the fault. Near-surface microcolumns probably break first, owing to less constraint there. It is imagined that growth then follows along a band of reduced shear strength that is composed of splay cracks formed prior to fault initiation plus fresh splay cracks created within a kind of process zone just ahead of the advancing fault front (Figure 7). The front moves rapidly across the section, creating “gouge” in its wake.

An estimate of the stress to initiate the fault may be obtained as follows. Assume that the fault is initiated when a microcolumn breaks. Assume also the scenario sketched in Figure 6, where M and P, respectively, are the induced moment and axial load per unit depth of the microcolumn; and n are the shear stress and normal stresses, respectively, acting on the microcolumn; and is the inclination of the parent crack. Then, by invoking the analysis of Thouless et al.60 for the propagation of an edge crack in a brittle plate, one can show that for = 45 the initiation stress, f, under uniaxial loading is approximated by the relationship51

It is not a new idea that failure of deformation-induced microcolumns is the micromechanical event accounting for the initiation of a shear fault. Others have advanced a similar view.63-65 Previously, however, failure was imagined to occur by elastic buckling of columns fixed on both ends, created, for instance, by echelon arrays of wing cracks. Given the dimensions of the splay-induced microcolumns created in ice, the Euler buckling stress is estimated to be 630 MPa to 3,000 MPa, and this is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the strength of the material. Hence, it is our opinion that elastic buckling is not the event that triggers the fault.

The transition can be understood in terms of the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up at crack tips. At intermediate rates of deformation crack-tip stresses relax through creep deformation, and so the mode-I stress intensity factor KI, at either the tips of wing cracks or splay cracks, never reaches the critical level. At high rates, on the other hand, stress build-up dominates, and KI quickly reaches the critical level Kic. The transition occurs when the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up is in balance.

Schulson34,48 modeled the process by invoking Ashby-Hallam63 frictional sliding-crack mechanics and Riedel-Rice66 crack-tip creep. By assuming that cracks propagate when the crack-tip creep zone size falls below a small fraction f of the crack length, he obtained the transition strain rate in terms of the independently measurable parameters of fracture resistance (KIc,), creep constant B, (B1/m) friction (), and crack length (D); f must be calculated from the Riedel-Rice model. The transition strain rate may then be expressed by the relationship

where R is the ratio of the confining stress to the most compressive stress. A comparison with experiment34,35,67 shows that the model correctly captures the effects of crack size (set by grain size68 in virgin material), confinement, and brine pores and that it predicts for the conditions of Figure 4 a transition strain rate of 10-3 s-1, which is close to that observed. The model also holds that through the effects of temperature on friction and creep, the transition strain rate is only slightly dependent upon temperature, at least over the range -40C to -3C, again in accord with experiment. Moreover, by including the crack size, the model accounts for the fact that sheets of first-year sea ice, which are laced with meter-sized (and larger) cracks and wind loaded under compression, exhibit macroscopic brittle behavior69 even though they are deformed at rates as low as 10-7 s-1.

Moreover, there is new evidence72 that fracturing and fragmentation of ice exhibit fractal organization in the lab and in the field. Within faulted rock, both splay cracks (as noted above) and zigs and zags denoting wing cracks73,74 have been seen on small and large scales. While the physics may not change with size, the terminal compressive failure stresses will probably be lower in larger features, possibly scaling as (crack size)-0.5. Consistent with this notion, at least for ice, is Sanderson’s4 observation that large fractures fail at lower stresses than small ones. Also consistent are recent measurements of stresses within floating covers,71,75 which are usually within the kPa range as compared with the MPa range of lab measurements. The ductile flow of glaciers, on the other hand, reflects the power-law creep relationship of small test specimens, implying that dislocation-based processes are scale-independent.

Failure under tension is size-dependent, owing in part to the larger flaws within the larger features. Dempsey76,77 has discussed this aspect of the subject, from the perspective of applied mech-anics.

References 1. M.F. Perutz, J. Glaciol., 1 (1948), p. 95. 2. P.V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (London: Oxford University Press, 1974). 3. V.F. Petrenko and R.W. Whitworth, Physics of Ice (London: Oxford University Press, in press). 4. T.J.O. Sanderson, Ice Mechanics Risks to Offshore Structures (London: Graham & Trotman, 1988). 5. W.F. Weeks, Physics of Ice-Covered Seas, ed. M. Leppranta (Helsinki: Helsinki University Printing House, 1998), pp. 1-24 and 25-104. 6. B. Michel, Ice Mechanics (Quebec, Canada: Les Presses de l’Universit Laval, 1978). 7. R.J. Arsenault et al., eds., Johannes Weertman Symposium (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996). 8. T.B. Curtin, Naval Research Reviews L, Arctic Studies (1998), p. 6. 9. B.G. Levi, Physics Today (November 1998), p. 17. 10. W.B. Durham, S. Kirby, and L.A. Stern, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 16293. 11. L. Pauling, J. American Chemical Society, 57 (1935), p. 2680. 12. J.D. Bernal and R.H. Fowler, J. Chem. Physics, 1 (1933), p. 515. 13. J.W. Glen, Cold Regions Science and Technology, Monograph II-C2a (Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Corps. of Engineers, 1974). 14. T. Hondoh et al., J. Chem. Physics, 87 (1983), p. 4044. 15. N. Bjerrum, Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Matematisk-fysiske Meddeleiser, 27 (1951), p. 56. 16. F. Liu, I. Baker, and M. Dudley, Phil. Mag. A, 71 (1995), p. 15. 17. R.W. Whitworth, Phil. Mag. A, 41 (1980), p. 521. 18. J.W. Glen, Phys. Kondens. Mater., 7 (1968), p. 43. 19. M. Oguro and A. Higashi, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. E. Whalley, S.J. Jones, and L.W. Gold (Ottawa, Canada: Royal Society of Canada, 1973), p. 33. 20. J.F. Nye, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. N. Maeno and T. Hondoh (Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press, 1992), pp. 200-205. 21. S. de la Chapelle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 5091. 22. W.F. Weeks and A.J. Gow, J. Geophys. Res., 84 (1978), p. 5105. 23. N.H. Fletcher, The Chemical Physics of Ice (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 271. 24. P. Duval, M.F. Ashby, and I. Anderman, J. Phys. Chem., 87 (1983), p. 4066. 25. J.W. Hutchinson, Metall. Trans. A, 8 (1977), p. 1465. 26. L.W. Gold, Canadian J. of Physics, 44 (1966), p. 2757. 27. L.W. Gold, Phil. Mag., 26 (1972), p. 311. 28. N.K. Sinha, J. Materials Sci., 23 (1988), p. 4415. 29. J. Weertman, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 11 (1983), p. 215. 30. S.J. Jones, J. Glaciol., 28 (1982), p. 171. 31. J.-P. Nadreau and B. Michel, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 13 (1986), p. 75. 32. R. Frederking, J. Glaciol., 18 (1977), p. 505. 33. J.A. Richter-Menge, J. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 113 (1991), p. 344. 34. E.M. Schulson and S.E. Buck, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3661. 35. E.M. Schulson and O.Y. Nickolayev, J. Geophys. Res., 100 (1995), p. 22383. 36. J.S. Melton and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 21759. 37. D.L. Goldsby and D.L. Kohlstedt, Scripta Materialia, 37 (1997), p. 1399. 38. E.M. Schulson et al., J. Materials Sci. Ltrs. 8 (1989), p. 1193. 39. E.M. Schulson, P.N. Lim, and R.W. Lee, Phil. Mag. A, 49 (1984), p. 353. 40. J.A. Richter-Menge and K.F. Jones, J. Glaciol., 39 (1993), p. 609. 41. E.M. Schulson, S.G. Hoxie, and W.A. Nixon, Phil. Mag. A, 59 (1989), p. 303. 42. T.R. Smith and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 153. 43. R.E. Gagnon and P.H. Gammon, J. Glaciol., 41 (1995), p. 528. 44. M.A. Rist and S.A.F. Murrell, J. Glaciol., 40 (1994), p. 305. 45. J. Weiss and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 2303. 46. E.T. Gratz and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 5091. 47. E.M. Schulson and E.T. Gratz, Acta Metall. (in press). 48. E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 38 (1990), p. 1963. 49. S.K. Singh and I.J. Jordaan, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 153. 50. B. Zou, J. Xiao, and I.J. Jordann, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 213. 51. E.M. Schulson, D. Iliescu, and C.E. Renshaw, J. Geophys. Res. (in press). 52. T.-F. Wong, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 19 (1982), p. 49. 53. R.R. Gottschalk et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95 (1990), p. 21613. 54. S.J. Martel and D.D. Pollard, J. Geophys. Res., 94 (1989), p. 9417. 55. K.M. Cruikshank et al., J. Struct. Geol., 13 (1991), p. 865. 56. H.J. Frost, Proc. in Joint Applied Mechanics and Materials Summer Conference, ed. J.P. Dempsey and Y.D.S. Rajapakse (Los Angeles, CA: University of California, 1995), pp. 1-8. 57. R.C. Picu, V. Gupta, and H.J. Frost, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (1994), p. 11775. 58. R.C. Picu and V.J. Gupta, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3791. 59. J. Weiss, E.M. Schulson, and H.J. Frost, Phil. Mag. A, 73 (1996), p. 1385. 60. M.D. Thouless et al., Acta Metall., 35 (1987), p. 1333. 61. J.P. Dempsey, Ice Structure Interactions, ed. S.J. Jones (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991), p. 109. 62. D.E. Jones, F.E. Kennedy, and E.M. Schulson, Ann. Glaciol., 15 (1991), p. 242. 63. M.F. Ashby and S.D. Hallam, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 497. 64. C.G. Sammis and M.F. Ashby, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 511. 65. Z.P. Bazant and Y. Xiang, J. Eng. Mech., 2 (1997), p. 162. 66. H. Riedel and J.R. Rice, ASTM-STP-7700, (1980), p. 112. 67. R.A. Batto and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 2219. 68. D.M. Cole, Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. on Offshore Mech. Arctic Engng. (New York: ASME, 1985), p. 220. 69. J.R. Marko and R.E. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res., 82 (1977), p. 979. 70. E.M. Schulson and W.D. Hibler, III, J. Glaciol., 37 (1991), p. 319. 71. J.A. Richter-Menge et al., Proc. of the ASYS Conference on the Dynamics of the Arctic Climate System, ed. P. Lemke (Gotteborg, Sweden: World Meterological Org., 1996), pp. 327-331. 72. J. Weiss and M. Gay, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 24005. 73. D.E. Moore and D.A. Lockner, J. Struct. Geol., 17 (1995), p. 95. 74. R. Bilham and P. Williams, Geophys. Res. Lett., 12 (1985), p. 557. 75. W.B. Tucker, III and D.K. Perovich, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 20 (1992), p. 119. 76. J.P. Dempsey, contribution to Research Trends in Solid Mechanics, a report from U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (in press). 77. J.P. Dempsey, Johannes Weertman Symposium, ed. R.J. Arsenault et al. (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996), p. 351. 78. R.W. Lee (M.S. thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 1985). 79. E.M. Schulson and N.P. Cannon, Proc. IAHR Ice Symp. (Hamburg, Germany: Hamburgische, Schiffbau-Versuchanstahlt GmbH, 1984), p. 24. 80. I. Hawkes and M. Mellor, J. Glaciol., 11 (1972), p. 103.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

E.M. Schulson is currently a professor of engineering at Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College.

For more information, contact E.M. Schulson, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755; (603) 646-2888; fax (603) 646-3856; e-mail erland.schulson@dartmouth.edu.

Direct questions about this or any other JOM page to jom@tms.org.

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Trance (muziek) – Wikipedia

Posted: November 30, 2016 at 6:40 pm

Trance (Engelse uitspraak: trns) is een ondersoort van dance waarin de nadruk op de melodie en de euforische sfeer ligt. Een tranceplaat begint vaak met een eentonige beat, en na verloop van tijd komt er steeds meer percussie en melodie bij. In het midden van de plaat is vaak een break, die toewerkt naar een climax. Het aantal beats per minuut ligt vaak tussen de 125 en 150. De melodie wordt net als bij andere dancesoorten vaak herhaald, maar het stuk dat herhaald wordt is meestal langer (meestal 32 of 64 beats) dan bij andere dancesoorten. In een tranceplaat zou de luisteraar het gevoel krijgen alsof hij ‘in trance’ is, vandaar de naam.

Trance was vooral populair in de tweede helft van de jaren 90 en de eerste helft van de jaren 2000.

Trance ontstond begin jaren 90 nadat dj’s steeds vaker house met synthesizer- en newagemuziek waren gaan combineren. De eerste tranceplaat dateert van 1989 en is “Time’s Up (Remix)” van Age of Chance. In datzelfde jaar maakte Age of Love het gelijknamige nummer dat pas 1990 werd uitgebracht. In 1990 waren nummers als “Higher in the Sky” van Mackenzie en “We came in peace” van Dance 2 Trance relevant. De remix van “Age of Love” door Jam & Spoon (1992) zette de trance in een stroomversnelling. Aanvankelijk werd trance nog duidelijk benvloed door rave en techno, waaruit uiteindelijk de hardtrance is ontstaan. Later kwamen meer toegankelijke en populaire tranceplaten uit. Een daarvan die bij het grote publiek doorbrak, was Power of American Natives van Dance 2 Trance, die in 1993 op nummer 2 stond in de Nederlandse top 40. Maar rond deze tijd werd trance nog niet gezien als een aparte stroming binnen de dance. Vooral de Frankfurter scene oefende een grote invloed uit, met trendsettende labels als Eye Q, MFS, Planet Love en Le Petit Prince. Bekende Duitse producers van die tijd waren DJ Dag, Jam El Mar, Mark Spoon, Sven Vth, Talla 2XLC en Cosmic Baby. Ook in het Verenigd Koninkrijk stonden enkele producers op zoals Salt Tank en Art of Trance.

Rond 1994 kwamen er vanuit house en techno een aantal nieuwe stromingen, waaronder trance, maar deze stroming werd in Nederland bij het grote publiek overschaduwd door Mellow en (happy) Hardcore. Na de happy hardcore-hype midden jaren 90 in Nederland, Belgi en Duitsland trok ook de langzamere trance de belangstelling van het grote publiek door hits als Robert Miles – Children, BBE – Seven Days & One Week, en Energy 52 – Caf Del Mar. Maar trance werd pas echt enorm populair toen het genre in 1999 een gezicht kreeg in de vorm van bekende dj’s als Tisto, Paul van Dyk, Armin van Buuren en Ferry Corsten. Ook werden er steeds vaker festivals met tienduizenden bezoekers georganiseerd die trance op het programma hadden staan. 1999 wordt door liefhebbers ook wel “the year of trance” genoemd.

Na 2000 verspreidde de muziekstroming zich snel. Het genre breidde zich vanuit Nederland, Duitsland, Belgi en Groot-Brittanni uit naar de rest van Europa. Met name in Scandinavi sloeg het genre erg aan. In de loop van de jaren 2000 kreeg de trance voet aan grond in Oost-Europa en Zuid-Europa. In de toonaangevende dj-top-100 van het Engelse DJ Magazine domineerden in deze jaren ook trance-dj’s de top 10. Naarmate het eerste decennium van deze eeuw eindigde en de dancescene verder globaliseerde, namen een aantal oude en nieuwe populaire stromingen binnen de dance het roer langzaam over. Dit neemt niet weg dat trance nog steeds een van de grootste stromingen binnen de elektronische muziek is, met een zeer toegewijde en wereldwijde aanhang.

De huidige trance bevat nog wel de basiselementen die het had begin jaren 90, maar heeft wel een ontwikkeling doorgemaakt. De trance van nu is toegankelijker, eenvoudiger, bevat meer vocalen en de platen zijn meer op elkaar gaan lijken. Zoals bij elk genre dat populair wordt onder het grote publiek, is er vanuit de vooruitstrevende geluiden in de beginperiode een standaard ontstaan. De toonaangevende dj’s als Tisto, Armin van Buuren en Paul van Dyk bepalen gezamenlijk de trend, waar vrijwel alle nieuwe artiesten zich aan conformeren. Een aantal tranceproducenten van het eerste uur (zoals Sven Vth en Oliver Lieb) keerden zich af van de commercile trance en sloegen hun eigen weg in.

In deze periode was de dance sterk in ontwikkeling en was trance nog geen apart subgenre. Deze platen kunnen als voorlopers van de trance gezien worden.

In deze periode werd trance geleidelijk een apart genre. De volgende platen zijn onvervalste trance klassiekers:

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How Psychedelics Saved My Life – Reset.me

Posted: November 27, 2016 at 9:49 am

by Amber Lyon

on May 28, 2014

Amber Lyon is an Emmy Award-winning former CNN investigative news correspondent.

I invite you to take a step back and clear your mind of decades of falsepropaganda. Governments worldwide lied to us about the medicinal benefits of marijuana. The public has also been misled about psychedelics.

These non-addictive substances- MDMA, ayahuasca, ibogaine, psilocybin mushrooms, peyote, and many more- are proven to rapidly and effectively help people heal from trauma, PTSD, anxiety, addiction and depression.

Psychedelicssaved my life.

I was drawn to journalism at a young age by the desire to provide a voice for the little guy. For nearly a decade working as a CNN investigative correspondent and independent journalist, I became a mouthpiece for the oppressed, victimized and marginalized. My path of submersion journalism brought me closest to the plight of my sources, by living the story to get a true understanding of what was happening.

Speaking ata press conference in Lebanon onthehuman rights abuses Iwitnessed while reporting in Bahrain.

After several years of reporting, I realized an unfortunate consequence of my style- I had immersed myself too deeply in the trauma and suffering of the people Id interviewed. I began to have trouble sleeping as their faces appeared in my darkest dreams. I spent too long absorbed in a world of despair and my inability to deflect it allowed the trauma of others to settle inside my mind and being. Combine that with several violent experienceswhile working in the field and I was at my worst. A life reporting on the edge had led me to the brinkof my own sanity.

Because I could not find a way to process my anguish, it grew into a monster, manifesting itself into a constant state of anxiety, short-term memory loss, sleeplessness, and hyper arousal. The heart palpitations made me feel like I was knocking on deaths door.

While at CNN, Iinvestigated human rights and environmental issues.

Prescription medications and antidepressants serve a purpose, butI knew they were not on mypath tohealing after my investigations exposed their sinister side effectsincluding infants being born dependent on the medicinesafter their mothers couldnt kick their addictions. Masking the symptoms of a deeper condition with a pill felt like putting a Band-Aid on bullet wound.

I was made aware of the potential healing powers of psychedelics as a guest on the Joe Rogan Experience podcast in October 2012. Joe told me psychedelicmushrooms transformed his life and had the potential to changethe course of humanity for the better. My initial reaction was one of amusement and somewhat disbelief, but the seed was planted.

Psychedelics were an odd choice for someone like me. I grew up in the Midwest and was fed 30 years of propaganda explaining how horrible these substances were for my health. You can imagine my jaw-dropping surprise when, after the Rogan podcast, I found articles on the prodigious effects of these substances that behave more like medicines than drugs. Articles like this one, this, this , this, and this. And studies such as this, this, this,this, this and this all gut-wrenching examples of how weve been misled by authorities who classify psychedelics as schedule 1 narcoticsthat have no medicinal value despite dozens of scientific studies proving otherwise.

Having only ever smoked the odd marijuana joint in college, in March 2013 I found myself boarding a plane to Iquitos, Peru to try one of the most powerful psychedelics on earth. I ditched my car at the airport, hastily packed my belongings in a backpack and headed down to the Amazon jungle placing my blind faith in a substance that a week ago I could hardly pronounce: ayahuasca.

Theayahuasca brew is prepared by combining chacruna leaves, that contain the powerful psychedelic DMT, with the ayahuasca vine.

Ayahuasca is a medicinal tea that contains the psychedeliccompound dimethyltryptamine, or DMT. The brewis rapidly spreading around the world after numerous anecdotes have shownthe brew has the power to cureanxiety, PTSD, depression, unexplained pain, and numerous physical and mental health ailments. Studies of long-term ayahuasca drinkersshow they are less likely to face addictions and have elevated levels of serotonin, the neurotransmitterresponsible for happiness.

If I had any reservations, doubts, or disbeliefs, they were quickly expelled shortly after my first ayahuasca experience. The foul-tasting tea vibrated throughmy veins and into my brainas the medicine scanned my body. My field of vision becameengulfed with fiercecolors and geometric patterns. Almost instantly, I saw a vision of a brick wall. The word anxiety was spray painted in large letters on the wall. You must heal your anxiety, the medicine whispered. I entereda dream-like state where traumatic memories were finally dislodged from my subconscious.

It was as if I was viewing a film ofmy entire life, not as the emotional me, but as an objective observer. The vividlyintrospective movie played in my mind asI relived my most painful scenes- my parents divorce when I was just 4 years-old, past relationships, being shot at by policewhile photographing a protest in Anaheim and crushed underneath a crowd while photographing a protest in Chicago. The ayahuasca enabled me to reprocess these events, detaching the fear and emotion from the memories. Theexperience was akin to ten years of therapy in one eight-hour ayahuasca session.

But theexperience, and many psychedelic experiences for that matter, was terrifying at times. Ayahuasca is not for everyone- you have to be willing to revisit some very dark places and surrender to the uncontrollable, fierceflow of the medicine. Ayahuascaalso causesviolent vomiting and diarrhea, which shamans call getting well because youare purging trauma from your body.

After seven ayahuasca sessions in the jungles of Peru, the fog that engulfed my mind lifted. I was able to sleep again and noticedimprovements in my memory and less anxiety. I yearned to absorb as much knowledge as possible about these medicines and spent the next year travelling the world in search of more healers, teachers and experiences through submersion journalism.

I was drawn totry psilocybin mushrooms after reading how they reduced anxiety in terminal cancer patients. The ayahuasca showed me my main ailmentwas anxiety, and I knew I still had work to do to fix it. Psilocybinmushroomsare not neurotoxic, nonaddictive, and studies show they reduce anxiety, depression, and even lead to neurogenesis, or the regrowth of brain cells. Why would governments worldwide keep such a profound fungiout of the reach of their people?

The curandera blesses me as Iconsume a leaf full of psilocybin mushrooms for the healing ceremony.

After Peru, I visited curanderas, or healers, in Oaxaca, Mexico. The Mazatecs have used psilocybinmushrooms as a sacrament and medicinally for hundreds of years. Curandera Dona Augustine served me a leaf full of mushrooms during a beautiful ceremony before a Catholic alter. As she sang thousand year-old songs, I watched the sunset over the mountainous landscape in Oaxaca and a deep sense of connectivity washed over my whole being. The innate beauty had me at a loss for words; a sudden outpouring of emotion had me in tears. I cried through the night and with each tear a small part of my trauma trickled down my cheek and dissolved onto the forest floor, freeing me from its toxic energy.

Psilocybin mushrooms are not neurotoxic, non-addictive, and a study from University of Southern Florida shows they can repair brain damage from trauma.

Perhaps most astounding, the mushrooms silenced the self-critical part of my mind long enough for me to reprocess memories without fear or emotion. The mushrooms enabled me to remember one of the most terrifying moments of my career: when I wasdetained at gunpoint in Bahrain while filming a documentary for CNN. I had lost any detailedrecollection of that daywhen masked men pointed guns at our heads andforced my crew and I onto the ground. Fora good half an hour, I did not know whether we were going to survive.

I spent many sleepless nights desperately searching for memories of that day, but they were locked inmy subconscious. Iknew the memoriesstill haunted me becauseanytime I would see PTSD triggers, such as loud noises, helicopters, soldiers, or guns, a rush of anxiety and panic would flood my body.

The psilocybin was the key to unlock the trauma, enabling me to relive the detainmentmoment to moment, from outside of my body, as an emotionless, objective observer. I peered into the CNNvan and saw my former selfsitting in the backseat, loud helicopters overhead. My producer Taryn was sitting to theright of me frantically trying to close the van door as we tried to make an escape. I heardTaryn screamguns! as armedmasked men jumpedout of the security vehicles surroundingthe van. I watched as Ifrantically dug through a backpack on the floor, grabbing my CNN ID card and jumpingout of thevan. I saw myself land on the groundin childs pose, dust covering mybody and face. Iwatched as I threw myhand with the CNN badge in the air above myhead yelling CNN, CNN, dont shoot!!

I saw the pain in my face as the security forces threw human rights activist and dear friend Nabeel Rajab against a security car and began to harass him. I saw the terror in my faceas I glanced down at my shirt, arms in the air, prayingthe video cardsconcealed on my body wouldnt fall onto the ground.

During the ceremony the psilocybin unlocks traumatic memories stored deep in my subconscious so I can process them and heal. The experience is intensely introspective.

As I relived each moment of the detainment, I reprocessed each memory moving it from the fear folder to its new permanent home in the safe folder in my brains hard drive.

Five ceremonies with psilocybin mushrooms cured my anxiety and PTSD symptoms. The butterflies that had a constant home in my stomach have flown away.

Psychedelics are not the be-all and end-all. For me, theywere the key that openedthe door to healing. I still have to work to maintain the healing with the use of floatationtanks, meditation, and yoga. For psychedelics to be effective, its essential they are taken with the right mindset in a quiet, relaxed setting conducive to healing, and that all potential prescription drug interactions are carefully researched. Itcan be fatalif Ayahuasca is mixed with prescription antidepressants.

I was blessed with an inquisitive nature and a stubbornness to always question authority. Had I opted for a doctors script and resigned myself in the hope that things would just get better, I never would have discovered the outer reaches of my mind and heart. Had I drunk the Kool-Aid and believed that all drugs are evil and have no healing value, I may still be in the midst of a battle with PTSD.

This very world that glamorizes war, violence, commercialism, environmental destruction, and suffering has outlawed some of the most profound keys to inner peace. The War on Drugs is not based on science. If it was, two of the most deadly drugs on earth-alcohol and tobacco- would be illegal. Those suffering from trauma have become victims of this failed war and have lost one of the most effective ways to heal.

Humanity has gone mad as a result.

Lyon and a scientist cut open a fish stomach to inspect for plastic litter while filming a documentary on excessive ocean plastic pollution.

I spent ten years witnessing the collective insanity as a journalist on the frontlines- wars, bloodshed, environmental destruction, sex slavery, lies, addiction, anger, fear.

But I had it all wrong journalistically. I had beenfocusing on the symptoms of an ill society, rather than attacking the root cause: unprocessed trauma.

We all have trauma. Trauma rests in the violent criminal, the cheating spouse, the corrupt politician, those suffering from mental illness, addictions, inside those too fearful to take risks and reach their full potential.

If its not adequately processed and purged, trauma becomes cemented onto the hard drive of the mind, growing into a dark parasite that rears its ugly head throughout a persons entire life. The wounds keep us locked in a grid of fear, trapped behind a personality not true to the soul, working a mundane job rather than following a passion, repeating a cycle of abuse, destroying the environment, harming one another. The most common and severe suffering is inflicted during childhood and hijacks the drivers seat into adulthood, steering an individual down a road deprived ofhappiness. Renowned addiction expertGabor Mate says, The major cause of severe substance addiction is always childhood trauma.

We live in a world full of wounds and when left untreated, theyre unceremoniously handed from one generation to the next, so the cycle of trauma continues in all its destructive brutality.

But theres hope. We can transform the course of humanity by collectively purging our grief and healing at the individual level, with the help of psychedelic medicines. Once we collectively heal atthe individual level, we will see dramatic positive transformation in society as a whole.

I founded the websitereset.me, to produce and aggregate journalism on consciousness, natural medicines, and therapies. Psychedelic explorer Terrence McKenna compared taking psychedelics to hitting the reset button on your internal hard drive, clearing out the junk, and starting over. I created reset.me to help connect those who need to hit the reset button in life with journalism covering thetools that enableus to heal.

Its a human rights crisis psychedelics are not accessible to the general population. Its insane that governments worldwide have outlawedthe very medicines that can emancipate our souls from suffering.

Its time westop the madness.

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What is transhumanism, or, what does it mean to be human? | ExtremeTech

Posted: at 9:47 am

What does it mean to be human? Biology has a simple answer: If your DNA is consistent with Homo sapiens, you are human but we all know that humanity is a lot more complex and nuanced than that. Other schools of science might classify humans by their sociological or psychological behavior, but again we know that actually being human is more than just the sum of our thoughts and actions.You can also look at being human as a sliding scale. If you were to build a human from scratch, from the bottom up, at some point you cross the threshold into humanity if you believe in evolution, at some point we ceased being a great ape and became human. Likewise, if you slowly remove parts from a human, you cross the threshold into inhumanity. Again, though, we run into the same problem: How do we codify, classify, and ratify what actually makes us human?

Does adding empathy make us human? Does removing the desire to procreate make us inhuman? If I physically alter my brain to behave in a different, non-standard way, am I still human? If I have all my limbs removed and my head spliced onto a robot, am I still human? (See: Upgrade your ears: Elective auditory implants give you cyborg hearing.)At first glance these questions might sound inflammatory and hyperbolic, or perhaps surreal and sci-fi, but dont be fooled: In the next decade, given the continued acceleration of computer technology and biomedicine, we will be forced to confront these questions and attempt to find some answers.

Transhumanism is a cultural and intellectual movement that believes we can, and should, improve the human condition through the use of advanced technologies. One of the core concepts in transhumanist thinking is life extension: Through genetic engineering, nanotech, cloning, and other emerging technologies, eternal life may soon be possible. Likewise, transhumanists are interested in the ever-increasing number of technologies that can boost our physical, intellectual, and psychological capabilities beyond what humans are naturally capable of (thus the term transhuman). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for example, which speeds up reaction times and learning speed by running a very weak electric current through your brain, has already been used by the US military to train snipers. On the more extreme side, transhumanism deals with the concepts of mind uploading (to a computer), and what happens when we finally craft a computer with greater-than-human intelligence (the technological singularity). (See: How to create a mind, or die trying.)

Beyond the obvious benefits of eternal life or superhuman strength, transhumanism also investigates the potential dangers and ethical pitfalls of human enhancement. In the case of life extension, if every human on Earth suddenly stopped dying, overpopulation would trigger a very rapid and very dramatic socioeconomic disaster. Unless we stopped giving birth to babies, of course, but that merely rips open another can of worms: Without birth and death, would society and humanity continue to grow and evolve, or would it stagnate, suffocated by the accumulated ego of intellectuals and demagogues who just will not die? Likewise, if only the rich have access to intelligence- and strength-boosting drugs and technologies, what would happen to society? Should everyone have the right to boost their intellect? Would society still operate smoothly if everyone had an IQ of 300 and five doctorate degrees?

As you can see, things get complicated quickly when discussing transhumanist ideas and life extension and augmented intelligence and strength are just the tip of the iceberg! This philosophical and ethical complexity stems from the fact that transhumanism is all about fusing humans with technology and technology is advancing, improving, and breaking new ground very, very quickly. Humans have always used technology, of course our ability to use tools and grasp concepts such as science and physics are what set us apart from other animals but never has society been so intrinsically linked and underpinned by it. As we have seen in just the last few years, with the advent of the smartphone and ubiquitous high-speed mobile networks, just a handful of new technologies now have the power to completely change how we interact with the the world and people around us.

Humans, on the other hand, and the civilizations that they build, move relatively slowly. It took us millions of years to discover language, and thousands more to discover medicine and the scientific method. In the few thousand years since, up until the last century or so, we doubled the human life span, but neurology and physiology were impenetrable black boxes.In just the last 100 years, weve doubled our life span again, created bionic eyes and powered exoskeletons, begun to understand how the human brain actually works, and started to make serious headway with boosting intellectual and physical prowess. Weve already mentioned how tDCS is being used to boost cranial capacity, and as weve seen in recent years, sportspeople have definitely shown the efficacy of physical doping.

It is due to this jarring juxtaposition the historical slowness of human and societal evolution vs. the breakneck pace of modern technology that many find transhumanism to be unpalatable. After all, as Ive described it here, transhumanism is almost the very definition of unnatural. Youre quite within your rights to find transhumanism a bit, well, weird. And it is weird, dont get me wrong but so are most emerging technologies. Do you think that your great grandparents werent wigged out by the first television sets? Before it garnered the name television, one of its inventors gave it the rather spooky name of distant electric vision. Can you imagine the wariness in which passengers approached the first steam trains? Vast mechanical beasts that could pull hundreds of tons and moved far faster than the humble but state-of-the-art horse and carriage.

The uneasiness that surround new, paradigm-shifting technologies isnt new, and it has only been amplified by the exponential acceleration of technology that has occurred during our lifetime. If you were born 500 years ago, odds are that you wouldnt experience a single societal-shifting technology in your lifetime today, a 40 year old will have lived through the creation of the PC, the internet, the smartphone, and brain implants, to name just a few life-changing technologies. It is unsettling, to say the least, to have the rug repeatedly pulled out from under you, especially when its your livelihood at stake. Just think about how many industries and jobs have been obliterated or subsumed by the arrival of the digital computer, and its easy to see why were wary of transhumanist technologies that will change the very fabric of human civilization.

The good news, though, is that humans are almost infinitely adaptable. While you or I might balk at the idea of a brain-computer interface that allows us to download our memories to a PC, and perhaps upload new memories a la The Matrix, our children who can use smartphones at the age of 24 months, and communicate chiefly through digital means will probably think nothing of it. For the children of tomorrow, living through a series of disruptive technologies that completely change their lives will be the norm. There might still be some resistance when I opt to have my head spliced onto a robotic exoskeleton, but within a generation children will be used to seeing Iron Seb saving people from car crashes and flying alongside airplanes.

The fact of the matter is that transhumanism is just a modern term for an age-old phenomenon. We have been augmenting our humanity our strength, our wisdom, our empathy with tools since prehistory. We have always been spooked by technologies that seem unnatural or that cause us to act in inhuman ways its simply human nature. That all changes with the children of today, however. To them, anything that isnt computerized, digital, and touch-enabled seems unnatural. To them, the smartphone is already an extension of the brain; to them, mind uploading, bionic implants and augmentations, and powered exoskeletons will just be par for the course. To them, transhumanism will just seem like natural evolution and anyone who doesnt follow suit, just like those fuddy-duddies who still dont have a smartphone, will seem thoroughly inhuman.

Now read: The Geek shall inherit the Earth

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Ayn Rand Predicted an American Slide toward Fascism …

Posted: November 25, 2016 at 10:19 am

In a letter written on March 19, 1944, Ayn Rand remarked: Fascism, Nazism, Communism and Socialism are only superficial variations of the same monstrous themecollectivism. Rand would later expand on this insight in various articles, most notably in two of her lectures at the Ford Hall Forum in Boston: The Fascist New Frontier (Dec. 16, 1962, published as a booklet by the Nathaniel Branden Institute in 1963); and The New Fascism: Rule by Consensus (April 18, 1965, published as Chapter 20 in Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal [CUI] by New American Library in 1967).

The world conflict of today is the conflict of the individual against the state.

Rand knew better than to accept the traditional left-right dichotomy between socialism (or communism) and fascism, according to which socialism is the extreme version of left-ideology and fascism is the extreme version of right-ideology (i.e., capitalism). Indeed, in The Ayn Rand Letter (Nov. 8, 1971) she characterized fascism as socialism for big business. Both are variants of statism, in contrast to a free country based on individual rights and laissez-faire capitalism. As Rand put it in Conservativism: An Obituary (CUI, Chapter 19):

The world conflict of today is the conflict of the individual against the state, the same conflict that has been fought throughout mankinds history. The names change, but the essenceand the resultsremain the same, whether it is the individual against feudalism, or against absolute monarchy, or against communism or fascism or Nazism or socialism or the welfare state.

The placement of socialism and fascism at opposite ends of a political spectrum serves a nefarious purpose, according to Rand. It serves to buttress the case that we must avoid extremism and choose the sensible middle course of a mixed economy. Quoting from Extremism, Or The Art of Smearing (CUI, Chapter 17):

If it were true that dictatorship is inevitable and that fascism and communism are the two extremes at the opposite ends of our course, then what is the safest place to choose? Why, the middle of the road. The safely undefined, indeterminate, mixed-economy, moderate middlewith a moderate amount of government favors and special privileges to the rich and a moderate amount of government handouts to the poorwith a moderate respect for rights and a moderate degree of brute forcewith a moderate amount of freedom and a moderate amount of slaverywith a moderate degree of justice and a moderate degree of injusticewith a moderate amount of security and a moderate amount of terrorand with a moderate degree of tolerance for all, except those extremists who uphold principles, consistency, objectivity, morality and who refuse to compromise.

In both of her major articles on fascism (cited above) Rand distinguished between fascism and socialism by noting a rather technical (and ultimately inconsequential) difference in their approaches to private property. Here is the relevant passage from The New Fascism: Rule by Consensus:

Observe that both socialism and fascism involve the issue of property rights. The right to property is the right of use and disposal. Observe the difference in those two theories: socialism negates private property rights altogether, and advocates the vesting of ownership and control in the community as a whole, i.e., in the state; fascism leaves ownership in the hands of private individuals, but transfers control of the property to the government.

Ownership without control is a contradiction in terms: it means property, without the right to use it or to dispose of it. It means that the citizens retain the responsibility of holding property, without any of its advantages, while the government acquires all the advantages without any of the responsibility.

In this respect, socialism is the more honest of the two theories. I say more honest, not betterbecause, in practice, there is no difference between them: both come from the same collectivist-statist principle, both negate individual rights and subordinate the individual to the collective, both deliver the livelihood and the lives of the citizens into the power of an omnipotent government and the differences between them are only a matter of time, degree, and superficial detail, such as the choice of slogans by which the rulers delude their enslaved subjects.

Contrary to many conservative commentators during the 1960s, Rand maintained that America was drifting toward fascism, not socialism, and that this descent was virtually inevitable in a mixed economy. A mixed economy is an explosive, untenable mixture of two opposite elements, freedom and statism, which cannot remain stable, but must ultimately go one way or the other (Extremism, or The Art of Smearing). Economic controls generate their own problems, and with these problems come demands for additional controlsso either those controls must be abolished or a mixed economy will eventually degenerate into a form of economic dictatorship. Rand conceded that most American advocates of the welfare state are not socialists, that they never advocated or intended the socialization of private property. These welfare-statists want to preserve private property while calling for greater government control over such property. But that is the fundamental characteristic of fascism.

A mixed economy is ruled by pressure groups. It is an amoral, institutionalized civil war of special interests and lobbies.

Rand gave us some of the finest analyses of a mixed economyits premises, implications, and long-range consequencesever penned by a free-market advocate. In The New Fascism, for example, she compared a mixed economy to a system that operates by the law of the jungle, a system in which no ones interests are safe, everyones interests are on a public auction block, and anything goes for anyone who can get away with it. A mixed economy divides a country into an ever-growing number of enemy camps, into economic groups fighting one another for self preservation in an indeterminate mixture of defense and offense. Although Rand did not invoke Thomas Hobbes in this context, it is safe to say that the economic chaos of a mixed economy resembles the Hobbesian war of all against all in a state of nature, a system in which interest groups feel the need to screw others before they get screwed themselves.

A mixed economy is ruled by pressure groups. It is an amoral, institutionalized civil war of special interests and lobbies, all fighting to seize a momentary control of the legislative machinery, to extort some special privilege at one anothers expense by an act of governmenti.e., by force.

Of course, Rand never claimed that America had degenerated into full-blown fascism (she held that freedom of speech was a bright line in this respect), but she did believe that the fundamental premise of the altruist-collectivist moralitythe foundation of all collectivist regimes, including fascismwas accepted and preached by modern liberals and conservatives alike. (Those who mistakenly dub Rand a conservative should read Conservatism: An Obituary [CUI, Chapter 19], a scathing critique in which she accused conservative leaders of moral treason. In some respects Rand detested modern conservatives more than she did modern liberals. She was especially contemptuous of those conservatives who attempted to justify capitalism by appealing to religion or to tradition.) Rand illustrated her point in The Fascist New Frontier, a polemical tour de force aimed at President Kennedy and his administration.

There is no such thing as the public interest except as the sum of the interests of individual men.

Rand began this 1962 lecture by quoting passages from the 1920 political platform of the German Nazi Party, including demands for an end to the power of the financial interests, profit sharing in big business, a broad extension of care for the aged, the improvement of public health by government, an all-around enlargement of our entire system of public education, and so forth. All such welfare-state measures, this platform concluded, can only proceed from within on the foundation of The Common Good Before the Individual Good.

Rand had no problem quoting similar proposals and sentiments from President Kennedy and members of his administration, such as Kennedys celebrated remark, And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what America will do for youask what you can do for your country. The particulars of Rands speech will come as no surprise to those familiar with her ideas, but I wish to call attention to her final remarks about the meaning of the public interest. As used by Kennedy and other politicians, both Democratic and Republican, this fuzzy phrase has little if any meaning, except to indicate that individuals have a duty to sacrifice their interests for the sake of a greater, undefined good, as determined by those who wield the brute force of political power. Rand then stated what she regarded as the only coherent meaning of the public interest.

[T]here is no such thing as the public interest except as the sum of the interests of individual men. And the basic, common interest of all menall rational menis freedom. Freedom is the first requirement of the public interestnot what men do when they are free, but that they are free. All their achievements rest on that foundationand cannot exist without them.

The principles of a free, non-coercive social system are the only form of the public interest.

I shall conclude this essay on a personal note. Before I began preparing for this essay, I had not read some of the articles quoted above for many, many years. In fact, I had not read some of the material since my college days 45 years ago. I therefore approached my new readings with a certain amount of trepidation. I liked the articles when I first read them, but would they stand the test of time? Would Rands insights and arguments appear commonplace, even hackneyed, with the passage of so much time? Well, I was pleasantly surprised. Rand was exactly on point on many issues. Indeed, if we substitute President Obama, for President Kennedy or President Johnson many of her points would be even more pertinent today than they were during the 1960s. Unfortunately, the ideological sewer of American politics has become even more foul today than it was in Rands day, but Rand did what she could to reverse the trend, and one person can only do so much. And no one can say that she didnt warn us.

Republished from Libertarianism.org.

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An Introduction to LaVeyan Satanism and the Church of Satan

Posted: November 23, 2016 at 9:58 pm

By Catherine Beyer

Updated January 16, 2016.

LaVeyan Satanism is one of several distinct religions identifying itself as Satanic. Followers are atheists who stress dependence on the self rather than reliance on any outside power. It encourages individualism, hedonism, materialism, ego, personal initiative, self-worth and self-determinism.

To the LaVeyan Satanist, Satan is a myth, just like God and other deities. Satan is also, however, incredibly symbolic, representing all of those things within our natures that outsiders might tell us is dirty and unacceptable. The chant of Hail Satan! is really saying Hail me! It exults the self and rejects the self-denying lessons of society. Finally, Satan represents rebellion, just as Satan rebelled against God in Christianity. Identifying oneself as a Satanist is to go against expectations, cultural norms, and religious creeds.

Anton LaVey officially formed the church of Satan on the night of April 30-May 1, 1966 and published the Satanic Bible in 1969.

The Church of Satan admits that early rituals were mostly mockeries of Christian ritual and reenactments of Christian folklore concerning the supposed behavior of Satanists: upside down crosses, reading the Lords Prayer backward, using a nude woman as an altar, etc. However, as the Church of Satan evolved it solidified its own specific messages and tailored its rituals around those messages.

Because Satanism celebrates the self, ones own birthday in held as the most important holiday. Satanists also sometimes celebrate the nights of Walpurgisnacht (April 30-May 1) and Halloween (October 31-November 1), because these days have been traditionally associated with Satanists through witchcraft lore.

Satanism has been routinely accused of numerous onerous practices, generally without evidence. There is a common mistaken belief that because Satanists believe in serving themselves first that they become antisocial or even psychopathic. In truth, responsibility is a major tenet of Satanism. Humans have the right to do as they choose and should feel free to pursue their own happiness. However, this does not render them immune from consequences. Taking control of ones life includes being responsible about it. Among the things LaVey explicitly condemned:

In the 1980s, rumors and accusations abounded about supposedly Satanic individuals ritually abusing children. Many of those suspected worked as teachers or day care workers. After lengthy investigations, it was concluded that not only were the accused innocent, but that the abuses never even happened. In addition, suspects were not even associated with Satanic practice. The Satanic Panic is a modern day example of the power of mass hysteria.

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Libertarianism (metaphysics) – Wikipedia

Posted: at 9:55 pm

Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics.[1] In particular, libertarianism, which is an incompatibilist position,[2][3] argues that free will is logically incompatible with a deterministic universe and that agents have free will, and that, therefore, determinism is false.[4] Although compatibilism, the view that determinism and free will are in fact compatible, is the most popular position on free will amongst professional philosophers,[5] metaphysical libertarianism is discussed, though not necessarily endorsed, by several philosophers, such as Peter van Inwagen, Robert Kane, Robert Nozick,[6]Carl Ginet, Harry Frankfurt, E.J. Lowe, Alfred Mele, Roderick Chisholm, Daniel Dennett,[7] and Galen Strawson.[8]

The first recorded use of the term “libertarianism” was in 1789 by William Belsham in a discussion of free will and in opposition to “necessitarian” (or determinist) views.[9][10]

Metaphysical libertarianism is one philosophical view point under that of incompatibilism. Libertarianism holds onto a concept of free will that requires the agent to be able to take more than one possible course of action under a given set of circumstances.

Accounts of libertarianism subdivide into non-physical theories and physical or naturalistic theories. Non-physical theories hold that the events in the brain that lead to the performance of actions do not have an entirely physical explanation, and consequently the world is not closed under physics. Such interactionist dualists believe that some non-physical mind, will, or soul overrides physical causality.

Explanations of libertarianism that do not involve dispensing with physicalism require physical indeterminism, such as probabilistic subatomic particle behavior a theory unknown to many of the early writers on free will. Physical determinism, under the assumption of physicalism, implies there is only one possible future and is therefore not compatible with libertarian free will. Some libertarian explanations involve invoking panpsychism, the theory that a quality of mind is associated with all particles, and pervades the entire universe, in both animate and inanimate entities. Other approaches do not require free will to be a fundamental constituent of the universe; ordinary randomness is appealed to as supplying the “elbow room” believed to be necessary by libertarians.

Free volition is regarded as a particular kind of complex, high-level process with an element of indeterminism. An example of this kind of approach has been developed by Robert Kane,[11] where he hypothesises that,

In each case, the indeterminism is functioning as a hindrance or obstacle to her realizing one of her purposesa hindrance or obstacle in the form of resistance within her will which has to be overcome by effort.

At the time C. S. Lewis wrote Miracles,[12]quantum mechanics (and physical indeterminism) was only in the initial stages of acceptance, but still Lewis stated the logical possibility that, if the physical world was proved to be indeterministic, this would provide an entry (interaction) point into the traditionally viewed closed system, where a scientifically described physically probable/improbable event could be philosophically described as an action of a non-physical entity on physical reality. He states, however, that none of the arguments in his book will rely on this.[citation needed]

Nozick puts forward an indeterministic theory of free will in Philosophical Explanations.[6]

When human beings become agents through reflexive self-awareness, they express their agency by having reasons for acting, to which they assign weights. Choosing the dimensions of one’s identity is a special case, in which the assigning of weight to a dimension is partly self-constitutive. But all acting for reasons is constitutive of the self in a broader sense, namely, by its shaping one’s character and personality in a manner analogous to the shaping that law undergoes through the precedent set by earlier court decisions. Just as a judge does not merely apply the law but to some degree makes it through judicial discretion, so too a person does not merely discover weights but assigns them; one not only weighs reasons but also weights them. Set in train is a process of building a framework for future decisions that we are tentatively committed to.

The lifelong process of self-definition in this broader sense is construed indeterministically by Nozick. The weighting is “up to us” in the sense that it is undetermined by antecedent causal factors, even though subsequent action is fully caused by the reasons one has accepted. He compares assigning weights in this deterministic sense to “the currently orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics”, following von Neumann in understanding a quantum mechanical system as in a superposition or probability mixture of states, which changes continuously in accordance with quantum mechanical equations of motion and discontinuously via measurement or observation that “collapses the wave packet” from a superposition to a particular state. Analogously, a person before decision has reasons without fixed weights: he is in a superposition of weights. The process of decision reduces the superposition to a particular state that causes action.

Kane is one of the leading contemporary philosophers on free will.[13][14][verification needed] Advocating what is termed within philosophical circles “libertarian freedom”, Kane argues that “(1) the existence of alternative possibilities (or the agent’s power to do otherwise) is a necessary condition for acting freely, and that (2) determinism is not compatible with alternative possibilities (it precludes the power to do otherwise)”.[15] It is important to note that the crux of Kane’s position is grounded not in a defense of alternative possibilities (AP) but in the notion of what Kane refers to as ultimate responsibility (UR). Thus, AP is a necessary but insufficient criterion for free will.[citation needed] It is necessary that there be (metaphysically) real alternatives for our actions, but that is not enough; our actions could be random without being in our control. The control is found in “ultimate responsibility”.

Ultimate responsibility entails that agents must be the ultimate creators (or originators) and sustainers of their own ends and purposes. There must be more than one way for a person’s life to turn out (AP). More importantly, whichever way it turns out must be based in the person’s willing actions. As Kane defines it,

UR: An agent is ultimately responsible for some (event or state) E’s occurring only if (R) the agent is personally responsible for E’s occurring in a sense which entails that something the agent voluntarily (or willingly) did or omitted either was, or causally contributed to, E’s occurrence and made a difference to whether or not E occurred; and (U) for every X and Y (where X and Y represent occurrences of events and/or states) if the agent is personally responsible for X and if Y is an arche (sufficient condition, cause or motive) for X, then the agent must also be personally responsible for Y.

In short, “an agent must be responsible for anything that is a sufficient reason (condition, cause or motive) for the action’s occurring.”[16]

What allows for ultimacy of creation in Kane’s picture are what he refers to as “self-forming actions” or SFAs those moments of indecision during which people experience conflicting wills. These SFAs are the undetermined, regress-stopping voluntary actions or refraining in the life histories of agents that are required for UR. UR does not require that every act done of our own free will be undetermined and thus that, for every act or choice, we could have done otherwise; it requires only that certain of our choices and actions be undetermined (and thus that we could have done otherwise), namely SFAs. These form our character or nature; they inform our future choices, reasons and motivations in action. If a person has had the opportunity to make a character-forming decision (SFA), they are responsible for the actions that are a result of their character.

Randolph Clarke objects that Kane’s depiction of free will is not truly libertarian but rather a form of compatibilism.[citation needed] The objection asserts that although the outcome of an SFA is not determined, one’s history up to the event is; so the fact that an SFA will occur is also determined. The outcome of the SFA is based on chance,[citation needed] and from that point on one’s life is determined. This kind of freedom, says Clarke, is no different than the kind of freedom argued for by compatibilists, who assert that even though our actions are determined, they are free because they are in accordance with our own wills, much like the outcome of an SFA.[citation needed]

Kane responds that the difference between causal indeterminism and compatibilism is “ultimate control the originative control exercised by agents when it is ‘up to them’ which of a set of possible choices or actions will now occur, and up to no one and nothing else over which the agents themselves do not also have control”.[17] UR assures that the sufficient conditions for one’s actions do not lie before one’s own birth.

Galen Strawson holds that there is a fundamental sense in which free will is impossible, whether determinism is true or not. He argues for this position with what he calls his “basic argument”, which aims to show that no-one is ever ultimately morally responsible for their actions, and hence that no one has free will in the sense that usually concerns us.

In his book defending compatibilism, Freedom Evolves, Daniel Dennett spends a chapter criticising Kane’s theory.[7] Kane believes freedom is based on certain rare and exceptional events, which he calls self-forming actions or SFA’s. Dennett notes that there is no guarantee such an event will occur in an individual’s life. If it does not, the individual does not in fact have free will at all, according to Kane. Yet they will seem the same as anyone else. Dennett finds an essentially indetectable notion of free will to be incredible.

Frankfurt counterexamples[18] (also known as Frankfurt cases or Frankfurt-style cases) were presented by philosopher Harry Frankfurt in 1969 as counterexamples to the “principle of alternative possibilities” or PAP, which holds that an agent is morally responsible for an action only if they have the option of free will (i.e. they could have done otherwise).

The principle of alternate possibilities forms part of an influential argument for the incompatibility of responsibility and causal determinism, as detailed below:

Traditionally, compatibilists (defenders of the compatibility of moral responsibility and determinism, like Alfred Ayer and Walter Terence Stace) try to reject premise two, arguing that, properly understood, free will is not incompatible with determinism. According to the traditional analysis of free will, an agent is free to do otherwise when they would have done otherwise had they wanted to do otherwise.[19] Agents may possess free will, according to the conditional analysis, even if determinism is true.

From the PAP definition “a person is morally responsible for what they have done only if they could have done otherwise”,[20] Frankfurt infers that a person is not morally responsible for what they have done if they could not have done otherwise a point with which he takes issue: our theoretical ability to do otherwise, he says, does not necessarily make it possible for us to do otherwise.

Frankfurt’s examples are significant because they suggest an alternative way to defend compatibilism, in particular by rejecting the first premise of the argument. According to this view, responsibility is compatible with determinism because responsibility does not require the freedom to do otherwise.

Frankfurt’s examples involve agents who are intuitively responsible for their behavior even though they lack the freedom to act otherwise. Here is a typical case:

Donald is a Democrat and is likely to vote for the Democrats; in fact, only in one particular circumstance will he not: that is, if he thinks about the prospects of immediate American defeat in Iraq just prior to voting. Ms. White, a representative of the Democratic Party, wants to ensure that Donald votes Democratic, so she secretly plants a device in Donald’s head that, if activated, will force him to vote Democratic. Not wishing to reveal her presence unnecessarily, Ms White plans to activate the device only if Donald thinks about the Iraq War prior to voting. As things happen, Donald does not think about the Democrats’ promise to ensure defeat in Iraq prior to voting, so Ms White thus sees no reason to activate the device, and Donald votes Democratic of his own accord. Apparently, Donald is responsible for voting Democratic in spite of the fact that, owing to Ms. White’s device, he lacks freedom to do otherwise.

If Frankfurt is correct in suggesting both that Donald is morally responsible for voting Democratic and that he is not free to do otherwise, moral responsibility, in general, does not require that an agent have the freedom to do otherwise (that is, the principle of alternate possibilities is false). Thus, even if causal determinism is true, and even if determinism removes the freedom to do otherwise, there is no reason to doubt that people can still be morally responsible for their behavior.

Having rebutted the principle of alternate possibilities, Frankfurt suggests that it be revised to take into account the fallacy of the notion that coercion precludes an agent from moral responsibility. It must be only because of coercion that the agent acts as they do. The best definition, by his reckoning, is this: “[A] person is not morally responsible for what they have done if they did it only because they could not have done otherwise.”[21]

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