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Micronation Wikipdia

Posted: November 21, 2016 at 11:12 am

Une micronation[1], se dit d’une entit cre par un petit nombre de personnes, qui prtend au statut de nation indpendante ou qui en prsente des caractristiques, mais n’est en aucune faon reconnue comme telle par les nations officielles ou par les organismes transnationaux.

Certaines micronations ont de vritables prtentions l’indpendance (Hutt River enclave en Australie, Sealand au large du Royaume-Uni, par exemple)[2], alors que d’autres sont plus fantaisistes ou folkloriques (la Rpublique du Saugeais en France par exemple)[3].

Certains critres rcurrents caractrisent la micronation comme, par exemple:

Gnralement de petite taille (gographiquement et dmographiquement), les micronations se caractrisent le plus souvent par une volont de reconnaissance de leur souverainet, par l’intermdiaire d’mission de passeports, de timbres, de monnaie et de titres de noblesse. Pour la plupart, faute de reconnaissance extrieure, elles n’existent que sur papier ou sur internet. Elles sont la plupart du temps soit le fruit d’une rflexion sur la politique, l’conomie, la diplomatie (et sont dans ce cas-l des jeux ou des crations personnelles), soit des assises pour des activits illicites ou indpendantistes.

La plupart des royaumes africains traditionnels encore existants, aujourd’hui inclus dans les tats africains modernes issus de la colonisation, se retrouvent de facto dans la situation de micronations, alors que leur existence historique est atteste et ancienne. Le royaume Xhosa de Thembu, en Afrique du Sud, qui abrite prs de 2 millions d’habitants, est un exemple. Cette nation, qui n’a plus aucune existence lgale depuis 1885, a eu comme roi Rolihlahla Mand’ela, plus connu sous le nom de Nelson Mandela[5].

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Micronation Wikipdia

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Transtopian Symbolism and Terminology | Transhuman Cosmic …

Posted: November 6, 2016 at 7:08 pm


The Ouroboros (pronounced as Or-O-bOr-Os) is a snake, worm (‘wyrm’), serpent, or dragon biting its own tail and/or devouring itself. Indeed, the name roughly translates as “devouring its tail” or “tail devourer”. Alternate spellings include: oroborus, uroboros, and oureboros. [1] Ouroboros is associated with Alchemy, Gnosticism, and the ancient Greeks (who gave it its current name), though it appears in many other contexts and cultures as well. It is one of the archetypal symbols, and may be as old as human civilization itself. It symbolizes many things — time, the continuity of life, immortality, infinity, eternity, perfection, completion, the cyclic nature of the universe, the self-sufficiency of nature, and the rebirth of the earth, to name but a few. The Ouroboros is the Universal Serpent which passes through all things — “the One, the All.” [2]

Jung described the Ouroboros as the “dragon that devours, fertilizes, begets, slays, and brings itself to life again. Being hermaphroditic, it is compounded of opposites and is at the same time their uniting symbol” (Ibid., p. 372). [3]

There are two primary types of Ouroboros: one which merely holds the tip of its tail between its jaws, and one which swallows it(self). The former is static. It describes a circle, and partakes of the symbolic meaning of the circle, which is perfect, eternal, and divides the universe into inside and outside. It is a magic barrier or circle of protection, and represents eternal life and perfection. The Ouroboros that swallows its tail is dynamic. It describes a spiral force, and partakes of the symbolic meaning of the spiral, which is cyclical, moving, changing, evolving. If we follow mentally the consequences of a serpent swallowing its tail, we see that in a magical sense it will reduce itself to a single point and vanish from the universe utterly. Hence the Ouroboros swallowing its tail represents the gateway between our universe and the absolute, or to put it more poetically, the Eye of God. [3]

The primary (Type I) Transtopian Ouroboros is of the latter, self-devouring kind. It represents a philosophy that is dynamic, evolving, and which will hopefully lead to a higher level of existence, perhaps even a state of eternal perfection (the domain of God, so to speak). Of course, if things go wrong we could also end up being erased from the universe, and vanish into the dark void of nothingness forever. Thus, the self-devouring Ouroboros represents our two most likely, diametrically opposed destinies.

The ‘static’, tail-biting (Type II) Ouroboros is the symbolic guardian of the preserved dead. For those in biostasis, the struggle is (temporarily) over. Like a magic circle, the cryogenic container they rest in shields them from the relentless onslaught of entropy. It is an island in the river of time. If and when the frozen will awaken, it will be into a state of perfection — at least compared to the world they knew.


Originally an American sign, now international, that warns against biologically dangerous substances. Also associated with danger and death in general.


Combined, the Biohazard and the Ouroboros symbolize the fact that those who want to achieve true immortality and godhood must sooner or later transcend their doomed biological shells, and become inorganic beings. Flesh is simply too fragile and limited for our purposes. In this context, the Biohazard symbolizes the difficult but necessary ‘shedding of the flesh’, and the Ouroboros the potentially infinite existence, knowledge, and power that will be our reward. The Ourohazard as portal to Transtopia, our future technological paradise.

The Ourohazard is also a warning, however; apart from being a path towards ascension, the technological Singularity could also be the end of the road for us, both as individuals and as a species. The ominous shape of the Biohazard, symbol of death and danger, looms large behind the Ouroboros, symbol of eternal life. Alternatively, one could say that combining the self-devouring, self-annihilating Ouroboros with the dreaded Biohazard has a strong synergistic effect, which makes the Ourohazard a somewhat cynical, nihilistic symbol. A harbinger of impending doom and the final triumph of chaos, entropy, and death. In this respect it is comparable to the symbolism of the skull. This is the dark side of Transhumanism; the Ourohazard as gateway to hell and oblivion.

The Ourohazard, with its inherent dualism, is the Singularity incarnate.

The biomechanical Ourohazard also represents the hybrid nature of Transtopianism. Just like the philosophy itself, it is made up out of seemingly unrelated or even contradictory elements, which, when put together, suddenly form a unique and logical whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. The pieces of the puzzle fall into place, and reveal the big(ger) picture.

Last but certainly not least, the Ourohazard is the fierce symbol of supreme self-liberation and enlightenment. Those who display it essentially say “Fuck you and the horse you rode in on!” to deathists, religious fanatics, bourgeois conformists, Luddites, conservatives, PC leftists, and all those other enemies of freedom, reason, and progress. From Truth to Transcendence — one symbol says it all.


The Fleur-de-Lys, which is French for ‘Flower of the Lily’, depicts a stylized lily or lotus flower (or, alternatively, an iris). The Fleur-de-lys is thought by many authorities to be a conventionalized form of the Annunciation Lily, symbolizing the Annunciation of the Savior. Due to its three ‘petals’, the Fleur-de-Lys has also been used to represent the Holy Trinity. In a secular sense, the symbol is linked to nobility in general, and French nobility in particular. Also, due to its aggressive spearhead / dagger-like shape, it is sometimes used by, and associated with, the military. Finally, the Fleur is said to signify perfection, light, and life. [4]


The Wyrm-de-Lys, a composition of 3 Fleurs overlaid by an Ouroboros, represents the aristocratic side of Transtopianism. It symbolizes the fact that this a thinking man’s ideology, neither meant for nor appreciated by the ignorant, conformist masses. Those who understand and live according to the Principles are the world’s true ‘nobility’, and worthy of godhood.


The Tomoye is a symbol from the Japanese Samurai heraldry and the ancient Japanese Shinto religion. The name translates into ‘revolution of the universe’. The Tomoye somewhat resembles a stylized Triskelion, a Greek sign that’s associated with progress and competition, and this Celtic symbol, which is associated with migrations (to the stars!) and independent movements.


The Tomoyeserpent, a fusion of the Ouroboros and the Tomoye, represents the radical nature of Transtopianism. This is a philosophia militans; a fighting philosophy. We are the tip of the sword, the shocktroops of the Singularity. The revolution of the universe begins with a revolution of the mind.


Trans: 1.Across; on the other side; beyond (2.Through. 3.Change; transfer ). Topia: from the Greek word ‘topos’, meaning ‘place’. [6] Hence, Transtopia is the ‘place beyond’ (or ‘beyondplace’). Beyond the tyranny of entropy; beyond the dictate of nature; beyond this plane of existence. It is the transhumanist utopia or heaven; the perfect, ideal place or state on the other side of the Singularity, where we can live forever under optimal conditions. The Singularity, in the symbolical sense, is a transdimensional portal between the mundane and the divine; between the realm of men and the realm of gods. All who want to reach Transtopia must pass through it.

Transtopians: those who embrace and (try to) live in accordance with the Transtopian Principles.

Transtopianism: the philosophy and movement that promotes transcendent self-actualization by means of reason, science, and technology.


Michael Grosso, PhD, a professor of philosophy at Jersey City State College, coined the term “technocalypse” in his 1995 book The Millennium Myth, and defined it as the convergence of technology and the apocalyptic imagination. “Science and technology have begun to utterly transform human existence with such things as the atom bomb, space travel, cryonics, bioengineering, nanotechnology, virtual reality, and so on, developments full of apocalyptic overtones” (1995:261). He quotes from the book of Revelation stating that the promise of a “new heaven and new earth” (Rev.21:1) is the motivation of the millennial myth. Grosso points out that the millennium myth has both positive and negative aspects in that the old earth and heaven must be destroyed before the new ones can be built in its ashes. Technology offers the promise to remake all creation, including the human bodies that dwell within it. [8]

“[The Technocalypse is] cyberspace, nanotechnology, cryonics, futurism, the eschaton encoded in the now malleable protein chains of DNA, as well as the eventual transcendence of death.” [9]

Note: more (general) Transhumanism-related terminology can be found at the Transhuman Terminology Sub-Page, in the Accelerating Future Lexicon, and the Virian Lexicon.

TRUTH, TECHNOLOGY, TRANSCENDENCE The first 3 Principles, and the very essence of Transtopianism.

EX MACHINA LIBERTAS (Technology will set you free) Only rationally applied technology can fundamentally improve the human condition. Without it, we would be pathetic animals. With it, there is no limit to what we can do, and become.

ERITIS SICUT DII (You shall be as gods) Transhumanism’s tantalizing promise. The phrase is taken from Genesis 3:5, and is part of the fateful conversation between the Serpent and Eve. [And the Serpent spake:] “Scit enim Deus quod in quocumque die comederitis ex eo aperientur oculi vestri et eritis sicut dii scientes bonum et malum.” (For God doth know, that in the day ye eat of [the forbidden fruit], then your eyes shall be opened: and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil).

NULLI CARNI PARCETUR (No flesh shall be spared) Soon we’ll either be gods or extinct; either way, the flesh is finished. To quote Bart Kosko: “Biology is not destiny. It was never more than tendency. It was just nature’s first quick and dirty way to compute with meat. Chips are destiny.” The phrase is based upon a passage in the Gospel of Mark, Chapter 13, which describes the Apocalypse. Mar 13:20 And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days. [12]

POST NOS DILUVIUM (After us, the Deluge, or Aprs nous, le dluge in French) The popularity of the [French] phrase stems from its use by Madame de Pompadour, celebrated beauty and intimate of King Louis XV of France. The French Court at the time was famed for its lavish and wasteful extravagances. When Pompadour, whose philosophy was “Live for the minute – who cares what happens when we’re gone?” was reproved for these excesses, she replied, “Apres nous, le deluge.” [13] In the Transtopian context, the phrase urges people to seize the day, for there may be no tomorrow. After us…the technocalypse.


Hail Satan!

‘Lucifer’ is the Latin term originally used by the Romans to refer to the planet Venus when that planet was west of the sun and hence rose before the sun in the morning, thereby being the morning star. The word appears to have entered the religious lexicon when the Hebrew expression in Isaiah 14:12, ‘HeYLeL BeN-ShaCHaR’. (meaning ‘bright son of the morning/dawn’, ‘bright [and] morning star’, ‘glowing morning star’, or ‘shining one, son of the dawn’.) 2. was translated to ‘Phosphorus’ (the Greek word for Venus as the morning star) in the Septuagint, and then translated into ‘Lucifer’ in the Vulgate (from the Greek Septuagint).

Origenes Adamantius (185 CE – 254 CE), an important Christian scholar of the early Greek Church, and Augustine of Canterbury (d. May 26 604/605 CE), founder of the Christian Church in southern England, both interpreted the use of the term Lucifer as a reference to the Devil. The name Lucifer was applied to Satan by St. Jerome and then to the demon of sinful pride by Milton in Paradise Lost. Lucifer is the title and principal character of the epic poem by the Dutch playwrite, Vondel (who uses Lucifer in lieu of Satan), and a principal character in the mystery play by Imre Madach, The Tragedy of Man. Blake pictured Lucifer in his Illustrations to Dante. George Meredith’s sonnet Lucifer in Starlight addresses the ‘fiend’ as Prince Lucifer. To Spenser in An Hymne of Heavenly Love, Lucifer is ‘the brightest angel, even the Child of Light’. [10]

According to Extropian philosopher Max More, “Lucifer is the embodiment of reason, of intelligence, of critical thought. He stands against the dogma of God and all other dogmas. He stands for the exploration of new ideas and new perspectives in the pursuit of truth.” [11] He is also the archetypal iconoclast, rebel, and adversary (the word ‘Satan’ is from a Hebrew word, ‘Sathane’, meaning adversary or culminiator; in original Jewish usage [see the book of Job], Satan is the adversary, not of God, but of mankind; i.e., the angel charged by God with the task of proving that mankind is an unworthy creation). [10] In the transtopian context, Lucifer represents ambition, rebellion, rational enlightenment, and the dark side of Transhumanism.


The Chimaera – or Chimera – was said to be made out of three different creatures: lion, goat and serpent. A savage beast, sprouting fire from its mouth, it devastated the land until it was killed by the hero Bellerophon, who flew over it riding his winged horse Pegasus. According to Homer, the Chimaera was “in the fore part a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the middle a goat”. Hesiod says almost identical words, although he specifies that the creature had three heads. Both also say that it was capable of breathing fire. All authors describe the Chimaera as female, and that may be something related to her name, that in ancient Greek means ‘young she-goat’. Despite this rather humble name, she was of divine origin. Her father was the giant Typhon and her mother the half-serpent Echidna. She had as brothers Cerberus (the hound of Hell), Hydra (the nine-headed water snake) and Orthrus (another multi-headed dog). [5]

In a more general and contemporary sense, the Chimaera represents the hybrid (a. An organism, organ, or part consisting of two or more tissues of different genetic composition, produced as a result of organ transplant, grafting, or genetic engineering. b. A substance, such as an antibody, created from the proteins or genes or two different species). [6] Also, the term is used to indicate that something (supposedly) is a “fanciful mental illusion or fabrication; a grotesque product of the imagination.” [6] Transtopianism too can be seen as a hybrid (memetic complex, composite philosophy), fire-breathing (fierce, iconoclastic), and fanciful (our dreams of godhood and immortality may remain just that) ‘monster’, the grotesque product of someone’s warped imagination. Hence, the Chimaera is one of its Patron Saints.


Apart from (literally) being the binding factor in transtopian symbolism, the Ouroboros is also a Patron Saint. It this context it represents, among other things, (the quest for) immortality through self-renewal, and universal perfection. [For a more detailed description, see the Symbolism section]

[2] Source: Ouroboros @ Ellie Crystal’s Metaphysical and Science Website

[3] Source: The Truth About Ouroboros, by Donald Tyson.

[4] Source: The Fleur-de-lis, from Heraldica.

[5] Source: Chimaera: The Origins of the Myth, by Ugo Bardi.

[6] Source: Dictionary.com

[7] Source: Communitopia: The Positive Triumph of Negative Entropy, by Richard P. Marsh, Ph.D.

[8] Source: Y2K: Apocalyptic Opportunism, by Andrea Hoplight Tapia. Enculturation, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2000.

[9] Source: The Millennium Myth, book review by Jaye C. Beldo.

[10] Source: Lucifer and Satan, from The Grand [Masonic] Lodge of BC and Yukon’s website.

[11] Source: In Praise of the Devil — How Lucifer.com Got Its Name, by Max More.

[12] Source: The Blue Letter Bible

[13] Source: Origins of Expressions

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Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four – Wikipedia, the free …

Posted: August 30, 2016 at 11:08 pm

Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia are the three fictional superstates in George Orwell’s futuristic dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.

The history of how the world evolved into these three states is vague. They appear to have emerged from nuclear warfare and civil dissolution over 20 years between 1945 (the end of the Second World War) and 1965. Eurasia was likely formed first, followed closely afterwards by Oceania, with Eastasia emerging a decade later, possibly in the 1960s.

Oceania is the superstate where protagonist Winston Smith dwells. It is believed to be composed of the Americas, the British Isles (called “Airstrip One” in the novel), Iceland, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa below the River Congo. It also controlsto different degrees and at various times during the course of its perpetual war with either Eurasia or Eastasiathe polar regions, India, Indonesia and the islands of the Pacific. Oceania lacks a single capital city, although London and apparently New York City may be regional capitals. In the novel, Emmanuel Goldstein, Oceania’s declared public enemy number one, describes it in the fictional book The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism as a result of the United States having absorbed the British Empire. Goldstein’s book also states that Oceania’s primary natural defense is the sea surrounding it.

The ruling doctrine of Oceania is Ingsoc, the Newspeak euphemism for English Socialism. Its nominal leader is Big Brother, believed by the masses to have been the leader of the revolution and still used as an icon by the party. The personality cult is maintained through Big Brother’s function as a focal point for love, fear, and reverence, more easily felt towards an individual than towards an organization.

The unofficial language of Oceania is English (officially called Oldspeak), and the official language is Newspeak. The restructuring of the language is intended to eliminate unorthodox political and social thought, by eliminating the words needed to express it.

The society of Oceania is sharply stratified into three groups: the small ruling Inner Party, the more numerous and highly indoctrinated Outer Party, and the large body of politically meaningless Proles. Except for certain rare exceptions like Hate Week, the proles remain essentially outside Oceania’s political control and are placated by trivial sports and other entertainment; the Thought Police easily manage any Prole socially aware enough to be a problem.

Oceania’s national anthem is Oceania, Tis For Thee which, in one of the three film versions of the book, takes the form of a crescendo of organ music along with operatic lyrics. The lyrics are sung in English, and the song is reminiscent of God Save the Queen and My Country ‘Tis of Thee.

Even the names of countries, and their shapes on the map, had been different. Airstrip One, for instance, had not been so called in those days: it had been called England, or Britain, though London, he felt fairly certain, had always been called London.[1]

Like Europe as a whole, Britain was hit by atomic weapons in the conflicts before the revolutions in Oceania and then elsewhere. One British town, Colchester, is referenced specifically as having been destroyed; flashbacks to Smith’s childhood also include scenes of Londoners taking refuge in the city’s underground transit tunnels in the midst of the bombing.

It is stated that Eurasia was formed when the Soviet Union annexed the rest of continental Europe, creating a single polity stretching from Portugal to the Bering Strait. Orwell frequently describes the face of the standard Eurasian as “mongolic” in the novel. The only soldiers other than Oceanians that appear in the novel are the Eurasians. When a large number of captured soldiers are executed in Victory Square, some Slavs are mentioned, but the stereotype of the Eurasian maintained by the Party is Mongoloid, like O’Brien’s servant, Martin. This implies that the Party uses racism to avert sympathy toward an enemy.

According to Goldstein’s book, Eurasia’s main natural defense is its vast territorial extent, while the ruling ideology of Eurasia is identified as “Neo-Bolshevism”, a variation of the Oceanian “Ingsoc”.

Eastasia’s borders are not as clearly defined as those of the other two superstates, but it is known that they encompass most of modern-day China, Japan, Taiwan and Korea. Eastasia repeatedly captures and loses Indonesia, New Guinea, and the various Pacific archipelagos. Its political ideology is, according to the novel, “called by a Chinese name usually translated as Death-worship, but perhaps better rendered as ‘Obliteration of the Self'”. Orwell does not appear to have based this on any existing Chinese word or phrase.[2]

Not much information about Eastasia is given in the book. It is known that it is the newest and smallest of the three superstates. According to Goldstein’s book, it emerged a decade after the establishment of the other two superstates, placing it somewhere in the 1960s, after years of “confused fighting” among its predecessor nations. (At the time of writing, the victory of Mao Zedong’s Communists in the Chinese Civil War was not yet taken as a foregone conclusion. The Korean War had also not yet occurred, but Korea was already being administered by two competing governments. Japan was still under military occupation and, at least until shortly before Orwell completed the book, by several different powers. Power in the real life nations that make up the fictional Eastasia was, therefore, very much in flux.) It is also said in the book that the industriousness and fecundity of the people of Eastasia allows them to overcome their territorial inadequacy in comparison to the other two powers. At the time Orwell wrote the book, East Asians, including the Japanese, all had birth rates higher than those of Europeans.[citation needed]

The “disputed area”, which lies “between the frontiers of the super-states”, is “a rough quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier, Brazzaville, Darwin, and Hong Kong”.[3] This area is fought over during the perpetual war among the three great powers, with one power sometimes exerting control over vast swathes of the disputed territory, only to lose it again. The reason three super-countries seek to control this area is to harness the large population and vast resources within the region. Control of the islands in the Pacific and the polar regions is also constantly shifting, though none of the three superpowers ever gains a lasting hold on these regions. The inhabitants of the area, having no allegiance to any nation, live in constant slavery under whichever power controls them at that time.

Eastasia and Eurasia fight over “a large but fluctuating portion of Manchuria, Mongolia, and Tibet”.

At one point during the novel, Julia procures tea to share with Winston, and remarks that she thinks Oceania recently captured India (or perhaps parts of India) but such “control” is usually transient.

The world of Nineteen Eighty-Four exists in a state of perpetual war among the three major powers. At any given time, two of the three states are aligned against the third; for example Oceania and Eurasia against Eastasia or Eurasia and Eastasia against Oceania. However, as Goldstein’s book points out, each Superstate is so powerful that even an alliance of the other two cannot destroy it, resulting in a continuing stalemate. From time to time, one of the states betrays its ally and sides with its former enemy. In Oceania, when this occurs, the Ministry of Truth rewrites history to make it appear that the current state of affairs is the way it has always been, and documents with contradictory information are destroyed in the memory hole.

Goldstein’s book states that the war is not a war in the traditional sense, but simply exists to use up resources and keep the population in line. Victory for any side is not attainable or even desirable, but the Inner Party, through an act of doublethink, believes that such victory is in fact possible. Although the war began with the limited use of atomic weapons in a limited atomic war in the 1950s, none of the combatants use them any longer for fear of upsetting the balance of power. Relatively few technological advances have been made (the only two mentioned are the replacement of bombers with “rocket bombs” and of traditional capital ships with the immense “floating fortresses”).

Almost all of the information about the world beyond London is given to the reader through government or Party sources, which by the very premise of the novel are unreliable. Specifically, in one page Julia brings up the idea that the war is fictional and that the rocket bombs falling from time to time on London are fired by the government of Oceania itself, in order to maintain the war atmosphere among the population (better known as a false flag operation). The protagonists have no means of proving or disproving this theory. However, during preparations for Hate Week, rocket bombs fell at an increasing rate, hitting places such as playgrounds and crowded theatres, causing mass casualties and increased hysteria and hatred for the party’s enemies. War is also a convenient pretext for maintaining a huge militaryindustrial complex in which the state is committed to developing and acquiring large and expensive weapons systems which almost immediately become obsolete and require replacement. Finally, according to Goldstein’s book, war makes handing over power to a small caste easier, and gives pretext to do so.

Because of this ambiguity, it is entirely possible that the geopolitical situation described in Goldstein’s book is entirely fictitious; perhaps The Party controls the whole world, or possibly its power is limited to just Great Britain as a lone and desperate rogue nation using fanaticism and hatred of the outside world to compensate for political impotence. It’s also possible that a genuine and large-scale resistance movement exists, or that Oceania is indeed under a large-scale attack by outside forces.

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Micronation – MicroWiki – Wikia

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 9:30 am

A micronation sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project is a political entity that intends to replace, resemble, mock, or exist on equal footing with a recognised and/or sovereign state.

Some micronations are created with serious intent, while others exist as a hobby or stunt.

The term micronation, which literally means small nation, is a neologism. The first reference in English to the word micronation in a popular book appears in the 1978 edition of The People’s Almanac #2, where David Wallechinsky and Irving Wallace write:

“Established in 1972 by a declaration of sovereignty by a group of Californians, the Republic of Minerva has more claim to authenticity than most micronations because it actually has some land, although it disappears at high tide. The republic consists of two coral reefs 17 miles apart in the South Pacific Ocean some 3,400 miles southwest of Honolulu and 915 miles northeast of Auckland, New Zealand.”

The term has since come to be used also retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognised entities, some of which date to as far back as the 17th century. Micronations should not be confused with internationally recognised but geographically tiny nations such as Fiji, Monaco, and San Marino, for which the term microstate is more commonly used.

Micronations generally have a number of common features:

A criterion which distinguishes micronations from imaginary countries, eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations, is that these latter entities do not usually seek to be recognised as sovereign.

The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not. The academic study of micronations and microstates is termed ‘micropatrology’, and the hobby or activity of establishing and operating micronations is known as micronationalism.

The Principality of Sealand is one of the more recognised micronations in the world.

The 17th century saw the rise to prominence of a world order dominated by the existing concept of the nation-state, following the Treaty of Westphalia. However, the earliest recognisable micronations can be dated to the 18th Century. Most were founded by eccentric adventurers or business speculators, and several were remarkably successful. These include the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, ruled by the Clunies-Ross family, and Sarawak, ruled by the “White Rajas” of the Brooke family. Both were independent personal fiefdoms in all but name, and survived until well into the 20th Century.

Less successful were the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (1860-1862) in southern Chile and Argentina, and the Kingdom of Sedang (1888-1890) in French Indochina. The oldest extant micronation to arise in modern times is the Kingdom of Redonda, founded in 1865 in the Caribbean. It failed to establish itself as a sovereign nation-state, but has nonetheless managed to survive into the present day as a unique literary foundation with its own king and aristocracy although it is not without its controversies; there are presently at least four competing claimants to the Redondan throne.

M. C. Harman, owner of the UK island of Lundy in the early decades of the 20th century, issued private coinage and postage stamps for local use. Although the island was ruled as a virtual fiefdom, its owner never claimed to be independent of the United Kingdom. Thus, Lundy can at best be described as a precursor to later territorial micronations.

The 1960s and 1970s saw a ‘micronational renaissance’, with the foundation of a number of territorial micronations, some of which still persist to this day. The first of these, the Principality of Sealand, was founded in 1967 on an abandoned World War II gun platform in the North Sea, and has endured a military coup, court rulings and rough weather throughout its existence. Others were based on schemes requiring the construction of artificial islands, but only two are known to have risen above sea level.

The Republic of Rose Island was a 400 square metre platform built in international waters off the Italian town of Rimini, in the Adriatic Sea in 1968. It is reported to have issued stamps, minted currency, and declared Esperanto to be its official language. Shortly after completion, however, it was destroyed by the Italian Navy.

The Republic of Minerva was set up in 1972 as a libertarian new country project by Nevada businessman Michael Oliver. Oliver’s group conducted dredging operations at the Minerva Reefs, a shoal located in the Pacific Ocean south of Fiji. They succeeded in creating a small artificial island, but their efforts at securing international recognition met with little success, and near-neighbour Tonga sent a military force to the area and annexed it.

On April 1, 1977, bibliophile Richard Booth, declared the UK town of Hay-on-Wye an “independent republic” with himself as its king. The town has subsequently developed a healthy tourism industry based literary interests, and “King Richard” (whose sceptre consists of a recycled toilet plunger) continues to dole out Hay-on-Wye peerages and honours to anyone prepared to pay for them. The official website for Hay-on-Wye, however, admits that the declaration of independence, along with the later claim to have annexed the USA and renaming it the “US of Hay” were all merely publicity stunts.

Micronationalism has since evolved mainly into hobbies, and with younger participants. Although no all-compassing authority on micronations exists, nor any comprehensive listing, it is known that a number of widely diverse communities and sectors persist throughout the micronational world, often on the internet.

The internet provided micronationalism with a new outlet, and the number of entities able to be termed as ‘micronations’ skyrocketed from around 2000 onwards as a result. Exact figures may never be known, but it is thought that many thousands of micronations now exist throughout the world. However, with this new outlet of the internet came a large anomaly between micronationalists and micronations. Before the advent of micronationalism on the internet, micronations were few and far between, and were able to coax many hundreds of people in their citizenry. At present, many micronations are ‘One-man micronations’ or ‘Egostans’, with only one or two people being citizens of the micronation. The majority are based in English-speaking countries, but a significant minority arose elsewhere in other countries as well.

Micronational activities were disproportionately common throughout Australia in the final three decades of the 20th century. The Principality of Hutt River started the ball rolling in 1970, when Prince Leonard (born Leonard George Casley) declared his farming property independent after a dispute over wheat quotas. 1976 witnessed the creation of the Province of Bumbunga on a rural property near Snowtown, South Australia, by an eccentric British monarchist named Alex Brackstone, and a dispute over flood damage to farm properties led to the creation of the Independent State of Rainbow Creek in northeastern Victoria by Tom Barnes in 1979. In New South Wales, a political protest by a group of Sydney teenagers led to the 1981 creation of the Empire of Atlantium, and a mortgage foreclosure dispute led George and Stephanie Muirhead of Rockhampton, Queensland to secede as the Principality of Marlborough in 1993. Although some newer micronations, like Ding Dong, were created purely for the experience of forming and running a micronation.

Yet another Australian secessionist state came into existence on May 1, 2003, when Peter Gillies declared the independence of his 66 hectare northern New South Wales farm as the Principality of United Oceania after an unresolved year-long dispute with Port Stephens Council over Gillies’ plans to construct a private residence on the property.

In the present day, the following categories are generally accepted as being standard:

Micronations of the first type tend to be fairly serious in outlook, involve sometimes significant numbers of relatively mature participants, and often engage in highly sophisticated, structured activities that emulate the operations of real-world nations. A few examples of these include:

These micronations also tend to be fairly serious, and involve significant numbers of people interested in recreating the past, especially the Roman or Mediaeval past, and living it in a vicarious way. Examples of these include:

With literally thousands in existence, micronations of this type are by far the most common. They are ephemeral, and tend to be Internet-based, rarely surviving more than a few months, although there are notable exceptions. They generally involve a handful of people, and are concerned primarily with arrogating to their founders the outward symbols of statehood. The use of grand-sounding titles, awards, honours, and heraldic symbols derived from European feudal traditions, and the conduct of ‘wars’ with other micronations, are common manifestations of their activities. Examples include:

Micronations of this type include stand-alone artistic projects, deliberate exercises in creative online and offline fiction, artistic creations, and even popular films. Examples include:

These types of micronations are typically associated with a political or social reform agenda. Some are maintained as media and public relations exercises. Examples of this type include:

A number of micronations have been established for fraudulent purposes, by seeking to link questionable or illegal financial actions with seemingly legitimate nations. Some examples of these are:

A small number of micronations are founded with genuine aspirations to be sovereign states. Many are based on historical anomalies or eccentric interpretations of law, and tend to be easily confused with established states. These types of micronations are usually located in small (usually disputed) territorial enclaves, generate limited economic activity founded on tourism, philatelic and numismatic sales, and are at best tolerated or at worst ignored by other nations. This category includes:

New-country projects are attempts to found completely new nation-states. They typically involve plans to construct artificial islands (few of which are ever realised), and a large percentage have embraced or purported to embrace libertarian or democratic principles. Examples include:

Seasteading is a lifestyle of making the oceans, or at least water-borne craft, one’s home. Most seasteads historically have been sailing craft, whether perhaps demonstrated by the the Chinese Junk, modified canoes of Oceania, or even the famous Pirates of Libertaria. In modern times in the west the cruising sailboat has begun to be used in the same manner. The term seasteading is of uncertain origin, used at least as early as the turn of the century by Uffa Fox, and others; many feel that catamaran designer and historian James Wharram and his designs represent ideal seasteads. More recently, American sailor and ecological philosopher Jerome FitzGerald has been a leading and effective proponent of seasteading, mostly teaching the concept through the environmental/sailing organisation “The Oar Club”. The Seasteader’s Institute in Hilo, Hawaii offers classes, boat-building opportunities, education in forage foods, diving, and other aspects of a Seasteading lifestyle.

Some theoretical seasteads are floating platforms which could be used to create sovereign micronations, or otherwise serve the ends of ocean colonisation. The concept is introduced in a paper by Wayne Gramlich, and later in a book by Gramlich, Patri Friedman and Andy House, which is available for free online. Their research aims at a more practical approach to developing micronations, based on currently available technology and a pragmatic approach to financial aspects.

The authors argue that seasteading has the potential to drastically lower the barrier to entry to the governing industry. This allows for more experimentation and innovation with varying social, political, and economic systems. Potential business opportunities include data havens, offshore aquaculture, and casinos, as well as the gamut of typical business endeavours.

There has been a small but growing amount of attention paid to the micronation phenomenon in recent years. Most interest in academic circles has been concerned with studying the apparently anomalous legal situations affecting such entities as Sealand and the Hutt River Province, in exploring how some micronations represent grassroots political ideas, and in the creation of role-playing entities for instructional purposes.

In 2000, Professor Fabrice O’Driscoll, of the University Aix-Marseille University, published a book about micronations: Ils ne sigent pas l’ONU (“They are not in the United Nations”), with more than 300 pages dedicated to the subject.

Several recent publications have dealt with the subject of particular historic micronations, including Republic of Indian Stream (University Press), by Dartmouth College geographer Daniel Doan, The Land that Never Was, about Gregor MacGregor, and the Principality of Poyais, by David Sinclair (ISBN 0-7553-1080-2).

In May 2000, an article in the New York Times entitled “Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online” brought the phenomenon to a wider audience for the first time. Similar articles were published by newspapers such as the French Liberation, the Italian La Repubblica, the Greek “Ta Nea”, by O Estado de So Paulo in Brazil, and Portugal’s Viso at around the same time.

The Democratic Empire of Sunda, which claims to be the Government of the Kingdom of Sunda (an ancient kingdom, in present-day Indonesia) in exile in Switzerland, made media headlines when two so-called princesses, Lamia Roro Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misri, 21, and Fathia Reza Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misiri, 23, were detained by Malaysian authorities at the border with Brunei, on 13 July 2007, and are charged for entering the country without a valid pass.

In August 2003 a Summit of Micronations took place in Helsinki at Finlandia Hall, the site of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). The summit was attended by delegations such as the Principality of Sealand, Neue Slowenische Kunst|NSK, Ladonia, the Transnational Republic, and by scholars from various academic institutions.

From November 7 through December 17, 2004, the Reg Vardy Gallery at the University of Sunderland (UK) hosted an exhibition on the subject of micronational group identity and symbolism. The exhibition focused on numismatic, philatelic and vexillological artefacts, as well as other symbols and instruments created and used by a number of micronations from the 1950s through to the present day. A summit of micronations conducted as part of this exhibition was attended by representatives of Sealand, Elgaland-Vargaland, New Utopia, Atlantium, Frestonia and Fusa. The exhibition was reprised at the Andrew Kreps Gallery in New York City from 24 June29 July of the following year. Another exhibition about micronations opened at Paris’ Palais de Tokyo in early 2007.

The Sunderland summit was later featured in a 5-part BBC light entertainment television series called “How to Start Your Own Country” presented by Danny Wallace. The series told the story of Wallace’s experience of founding a micronation, Lovely, located in his London flat. It screened in the UK in August 2005. Similar programs have also aired on television networks in other parts of Europe.

On 9 September 2006, The Guardian newspaper reported that the travel guide company Lonely Planet had published the world’s first travel guide devoted to micronations, the Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations (ISBN 1741047307).

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Hello, you may ask yourself “what is that micronation? Never heard of it”. Well it’s because I established it (for fun). Though I still … 2015-12-22T17:31:30Z

Hi. Welcome to MicroWiki. Only administrators are allowed to create threads in the announcement board. 2015-12-24T15:11:00Z

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Ah, I understand the confusion. Yes, to users on this site, this is MicroWiki. However, from a .org user’s perspective, this site has the nickn… 2014-06-21T13:03:01Z

Well, I understand you, the only reason for my post on this forum is that WUS is almost not active and I love myself that moves a little and t… 2014-06-21T14:29:31Z

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Korea: The Transhumanist capital of the world | Recharge …

Posted: August 14, 2016 at 7:06 pm

This week, it is my honor to be in Seoul Korea as the keynote speaker at a meeting of the Korean Association of Anti-Aging Medicine. Yesterday, I visited my host who runs a longevity clinic in the center of the worlds capital of plastic surgery, Gang Nam, or the tony section south of the Han River where people travel from all over Asia to have their appearances altered, Gangnam style, if you will.

This is just my fourth trip to Korea. As a 10-year-old my parents enrolled me into a first grade class into a summer school session. My classmates must have thought me a gentle simpleton, like Lenny Small from Of Mice and Men, because I didnt speak any Korean and I certainly felt like a mentally-challenged giant among those 6-year-old peers of mine.

In college, I came to Seoul to attend a 12-week course in Korean language studies only to find that I was again the tallest kid in my class. I recall during the 1987 riots for democracy that I felt like one of the tallest people in the country at 510 and could easily see over the lines of student protesters and riot police that clashed frequently in front of Yonsei University.

But eight years ago, when I visited with my family and found that I was just above average height as the post-IMF boom economy of South Korea had brought access to growth drugs and more meat consumption for children. Height may confer competitive advantage so many elected to enhance it and there are countless men over six feet now.

Here is the proof that something related to nutrition and growth-enhancing supplement which are commonly used, are working:

The average height for men living in Seoul reached 173.9 centimeters in 2013, up 10.2 cm from 163.7 cm in 1965, according to data released by the Seoul Institute. Their average weight rose by 15.3 kilograms, from 54.3 kg to 69.6 kg.

This trip, I am most struck by the women. You may know that South Korea has the highest rate of plastic surgery in the world and as you walk the streets, it is exceedingly rare to see any woman who has NOT undergone alterations. Just take a look at the faces of Ms. Korea in recent years (yes, these are all different people):

It is quite eerie to look into the faces of Korean women and not recognize the phenotypes present when I was here in 1987. Those women of matched age simply cant be seen in a relatively affluent urban center.

So what happened? Transhumanism. People using technology to alter their humanity. In terms of game theory, you can talk platitudes of beauty being only skin deep but here it is de rigeure if you want to have self-respect and the acceptance of your culture.

There are a lot of Americans who misunderstand Korean plastic surgery as an attempt to look more Occidental. Others might overlay a moralistic sense and decry the dehumanizing nature of it. But the fact is that for South Korean women and many of the men now, there is no more consideration of the morality of body modification than there would be to wearing clothes or makeup.

Anthropologically speaking, from an emic perspecitive, to NOT have the alterations in Korea would be akin to not wearing makeup, not shaving your legs and armpits, and wearing tank tops and sweatpants around as a young American woman. It is done, but is it really approved of?

Mark Twain said, Modesty died when clothes were born. In Korea, genetically-dictated faces died when plastic surgery was born. Enjoy this gif of different Ms. Koreas and while you shake your head, dont for get that a lot of the statues of antiquity such as David and Aphrodite, look alike; different media, same idea

Think that beauty is only skin deep? Then you may remember this scene from The Eye of the Beholder, The Twilight Zone, which raises an interesting point, albeit one that refutes what we know about symmetry, the golden ratio, and human nature


Some would consider taking telomerase activators and potentially lengthening my lifespan as a form of transhuman modification. That is fair. Even if taking them becomes illegal tomorrow, I believe that my current median telomere length of 14,100 base pairs indicates that I could have added decades to my life expectancy even if I resume aging at the normal rate now.

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World War III – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: June 19, 2016 at 3:44 am

World War III (WWIII or WW3), also known as the Third World War, is a hypothetical worldwide military conflict subsequent to World Wars I and II. Because of the development and use of nuclear weapons near the end of World War II and their subsequent acquisition and deployment by many countries, it is feared that a Third World War could lead to a nuclear holocaust causing the end of human civilization and most or all human life on Earth. A common hypothesis is that a small number of people could survive such an Armageddon, possibly in deep underground blast shelters or away from Earth, such as on the Moon or Mars or in space vehicles. Another major concern is that biological warfare could cause a very large number of casualties, either intentionally or inadvertently by an accidental release of a biological agent, the unexpected mutation of an agent, or its adaptation to other species after use.

One of the first imagined scenarios, hypothesized shortly after World War II, was a nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union, which emerged as superpowers following World War II. This has been widely used as a premise or plot device in books, films, television productions, and video games. A few writers have instead applied the term “World War III” to the Cold War, arguing that it met the definition of a world war even though there was no direct armed conflict between the superpowers.

World War I (19141918) was regarded at the time as the “war to end all wars,” as it was believed there could never again be another global conflict of such magnitude. World War II (19391945) proved that to be false, and with the advent of the Cold War in 1947 and the adoption of nuclear weapons, the possibility of a third global conflict became more plausible. The perceived threat then decreased with the end of the Cold War in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed, leaving the United States as the sole global superpower. A Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities in many countries. Scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare, even leading to the destruction of civilization and extinction of the mankind.

Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, since the early days of the Cold War. Some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, with the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of WWII and the unreliability of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, there was a serious threat to Western Europe. In AprilMay 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War.[1] Its primary goal was “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire”.[2] The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

“Operation Dropshot” was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters.

At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, and depended on bombers for delivery. Dropshot included mission profiles that would have used 300 nuclear bombs and 29,000 high-explosive bombs on 200 targets in 100 cities and towns to wipe out 85% of the Soviet Union’s industrial potential at a single stroke. Between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground.

The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before Robert McNamara and President Kennedy changed the US Nuclear War plan from the ‘city killing’ countervalue strike plan to “counterforce” (targeted more at military forces). Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.

In January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATO’s military strategy of containment.[3] NATO military planning took on a renewed urgency following the outbreak of the Korean War in mid-1950, prompting NATO to establish a “force under a centralised command, adequate to deter aggression and to ensure the defence of Western Europe”. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, on 2 April 1951.[4][5] The Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks.

Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in 1952. It was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, and Supreme Allied Commander Europe General Matthew B. Ridgeway, US Army, during the Fall of 1952.

The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, and Belgium all participated.

Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: “We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit.”[citation needed]

The USSR called the exercises “war-like acts” by NATO, with particular reference to the participation of Norway and Denmark, and prepared for its own military maneuvers in the Soviet Zone.[6][7]

This was a major NATO naval exercise held in 1957, simulating a response to an all-out Soviet attack on NATO. The exercise involved over 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 personnel from the United States Navy, the United Kingdom’s Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, the French Navy, the Royal Netherlands Navy, and the Royal Norwegian Navy. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. Baldwin of The New York Times as “constituting the strongest striking fleet assembled since World War II”.[8]

Exercise Reforger (from return of forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact outnumbered NATO throughout the Cold War in conventional forces, especially armor. Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.

Reforger was not merely a show of forcein the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

Seven Days to the River Rhine was a top secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact. It started with the assumption that NATO would launch a nuclear attack on the Vistula river valley in a first-strike scenario, which would result in as many as two million Polish civilian casualties.[9] In response, a Soviet counter-strike would be carried out against West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark, with Warsaw Pact forces invading West Germany and aiming to stop at the River Rhine by the seventh day. Other USSR plans stopped only upon reaching the French border on day nine. Individual Warsaw Pact states were only assigned their own subpart of the strategic picture; in this case, the Polish forces were only expected to go as far as Germany. The Seven Days to the Rhine plan envisioned that Poland and Germany would be largely destroyed by nuclear exchanges, and that large numbers of troops would die of radiation sickness. It was estimated that NATO would fire nuclear weapons behind the advancing Soviet lines to cut off their supply lines and thus blunt their advance. While this plan assumed that NATO would use nuclear weapons to push back any Warsaw Pact invasion, it did not include nuclear strikes on France or the United Kingdom. Newspapers speculated when this plan was declassified, that France and the UK were not to be hit in an effort to get them to withhold use of their own nuclear weapons.

Exercise Able Archer was an annual exercise by the United States military in Europe that practiced command and control procedures, with emphasis on transition from solely conventional operations to chemical, nuclear, and conventional operations during a time of war.

“Able Archer 83” was a five-day North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) command post exercise starting on 7 November 1983, that spanned Western Europe, centered on the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Headquarters in Casteau, north of the city of Mons. Able Archer exercises simulated a period of conflict escalation, culminating in a coordinated nuclear attack.[10]

The realistic nature of the 1983 exercise, coupled with deteriorating relations between the United States and the Soviet Union and the anticipated arrival of strategic Pershing II nuclear missiles in Europe, led some members of the Soviet Politburo and military to believe that Able Archer 83 was a ruse of war, obscuring preparations for a genuine nuclear first strike.[10][11][12][13] In response, the Soviets readied their nuclear forces and placed air units in East Germany and Poland on alert.[14][15] This “1983 war scare” is considered by many historians to be the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[16] The threat of nuclear war ended with the conclusion of the exercise on 11 November.[17][18]

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by US President Ronald Reagan on 23 March 1983.[19] In the later part of his Presidency, numerous factors (which included watching the 1983 movie The Day After and hearing through a Soviet defector that Able Archer 83 almost triggered a Russian first strike) had turned Ronald Reagan against the concept of winnable nuclear war, and he began to see nuclear weapons as more of a “wild card” than a strategic deterrent. Although he later believed in disarmament treaties slowly blunting the danger of nuclear weaponry by reducing their number and alert status, he also believed a technological solution might allow incoming ICBMs to be shot down, thus making the US invulnerable to a first strike. However the USSR saw the SDI concept as a major threat, since unilateral deployment of the system would allow the US to launch a massive first strike on the Soviet Union without any fear of retaliation.

The SDI concept was to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD). The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative.

NATO operational plans for a Third World War have involved NATO allies who do not have their own nuclear weapons, using nuclear weapons supplied by the United States as part of a general NATO war plan, under the direction of NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander.

Of the three nuclear powers in NATO (France, the United Kingdom and the United States), only the United States has provided weapons for nuclear sharing. As of November 2009[update], Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey are still hosting US nuclear weapons as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing policy.[20][21]Canada hosted weapons until 1984,[22] and Greece until 2001.[20][23] The United Kingdom also received US tactical nuclear weapons such as nuclear artillery and Lance missiles until 1992, despite the UK being a nuclear weapons state in its own right; these were mainly deployed in Germany.

In peace time, the nuclear weapons stored in non-nuclear countries are guarded by US airmen though previously some artillery and missile systems were guarded by US Army soldiers; the codes required for detonating them are under American control. In case of war, the weapons are to be mounted on the participating countries’ warplanes. The weapons are under custody and control of USAF Munitions Support Squadrons co-located on NATO main operating bases who work together with the host nation forces.[20]

As of 2005[update], 180 tactical B61 nuclear bombs of the 480 US nuclear weapons believed to be deployed in Europe fall under the nuclear sharing arrangement.[24] The weapons are stored within a vault in hardened aircraft shelters, using the USAF WS3 Weapon Storage and Security System. The delivery warplanes used are F-16s and Panavia Tornados.[25]

With the development of the arms race in the 1950s, an apocalyptic war between the United States and the Soviet Union was considered possible, and a number of events have been described as potential triggers for a nuclear conflict.

Norman Podhoretz has suggested that the Cold War can be identified as World War III[37] because it was fought, although by proxy, on a global scale, involving the United States, NATO, the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries.[citation needed] Similarly, Eliot Cohen, the director of strategic studies at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, declared, in The Wall Street Journal, that he considers World War III to be history, writing: “The Cold War was World War III, which reminds us that not all global conflicts entail the movement of multi-million-man armies, or conventional front lines on a map.”[38] On the 24 May 2011 edition of CNBC’s Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, accepted the view of the Cold War as World War III, adding, “World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V.”[39]

On 1 February 2015, Iraq’s Prime Minister declared that the War on ISIS was effectively “World War III”, due to ISIS’ declaration of a Worldwide Caliphate, its aims to conquer the world, and its success in spreading the conflict to multiple countries outside of the Levant region.[40] In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, King of Jordan Abdullah II and Pope Francis of Vatican City stated that World War III was happening.[41][42]

In his State of the Union Address on 12 January 2016, president Obama of the US countered: “as we focus on destroying ISIS, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks and twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages pose an enormous danger to civilians and must be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence.”[43]

In February 2016 Russian prime minister Dmitry Medvedev stated that sending foreign ground troops into Syria could result in a world war.[44]

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Freedom Boat Club Chicago Illinois Freedom Boat Club

Posted: May 1, 2016 at 8:44 am

Welcome to Freedom Boat Club Chicago. We are the perfect alternative to boat ownership, or renting a boat on Lake Michigan. In fact, your monthly membership fee can be less than renting a boat for just one day in Chicago. The best part of being a member in Freedom Boat Club Chicago is that you dont have any of the hassles that come with owning a boat. You dont pay for insurance, docking fees, depreciation, maintenance, or storage. If you are looking to buy a boat to store in San Diego, or you like to rent boats multiple times per year, this is a new alternative without all the hassles that come with owning a boat. And, were adding new boats to our fleets all the time!

Your membership gives you access to our entire fleet in your membership class. New members also receive free basic training.

Membership in Freedom Boat Club Chicago is easy. You pay a one-time initiation fee, and then low monthly dues.

Whether you want to spend more time with your friends and family, want to dive Lake Michigan wrecks, love to fish, or just want to hang out in the Playpen, Freedom Boat Club Chicago has the boat in our fleet thats right for every occasion. The boat is waiting. Why are you? Join Freedom Boat Club Chicago and experience the smart alternative to boat ownership or renting! Start the process by emailing Michael Johnston today.

We are conveniently located on L Dock at Montrose Harbor, minutes from River North and many suburbs. Stop by the dock for a tour, or schedule an appointment to learn more by clicking here.

Get Pre-Approved for membership by clicking here.

Check us out on social media, too!

*we hate SPAM too, so we don’t do it, period.

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Canyon Lake, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: January 31, 2016 at 12:43 am

Canyon Lake is a city and gated community on Canyon Lake reservoir, located in western Riverside County, California, United States.

It is one of five gated incorporated cities currently in California,[4]

Canyon Lake began as a master-planned community developed by Corona Land Company in 1968. The City of Canyon Lake was incorporated on December 1, 1990. Railroad Canyon Dam was built in 1927, and impounds the San Jacinto River to fill the reservoir, which covers 383 acres (1.55km2) and has 14.9 miles (24.0km) of shoreline.

The affluent[5] city of Canyon Lake is located east of Lake Elsinore and Interstate 15, in the southern foothills of the Temescal Mountains. The mountain range is on the western edge of the Perris Block and east of the Elsinore Fault Zone.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles (12km2) or 2,017 acres (816ha), of which, 3.9 square miles (10km2) of it is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8km2) of it (15.92%) is water. The lake has 14.9 miles (24.0km) of shoreline.

The 2010 United States Census[8] reported that Canyon Lake had a population of 10,561. The population density was 2,260.8 people per square mile (872.9/km). The racial makeup of Canyon Lake was 9,495 (89.9%) White (81.7% Non-Hispanic White),[9] 128 (1.2%) Black or African American, 61 (0.6%) Native American, 190 (1.8%) Asian American, 36 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 316 (3.0%) from other races, and 335 (3.2%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,303 persons (12.3%).

The Census reported that 10,552 people (99.9% of the population) lived in households, 9 (0.1%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.

There were 3,935 households, out of which 1,298 (33.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,510 (63.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 341 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 202 (5.1%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 214 (5.4%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 27 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 658 households (16.7%) were made up of individuals and 311 (7.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68. There were 3,053 families (77.6% of all households); the average family size was 2.99.

The population was spread out with 2,287 people (21.7%) under the age of 18, 835 people (7.9%) aged 18 to 24, 2,304 people (21.8%) aged 25 to 44, 3,332 people (31.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 1,803 people (17.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.0 years. For every 100 females there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males.

There were 4,532 housing units at an average density of 970.2 per square mile (374.6/km), of which 3,245 (82.5%) were owner-occupied, and 690 (17.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 8,443 people (79.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,109 people (20.0%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Canyon Lake had a median household income of $74,133, with 5.4% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[9]

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 9,952 people, 3,643 households, and 2,939 families residing in this city. The population density was 2,485.9 people per square mile (960.6/km). There were 4,047 housing units at an average density of 1,010.9 per square mile (390.6/km). The racial makeup of the city was 92.9% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. 8.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 3,643 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.5% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.3% were non-families. 14.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $70,106, and the median income for a family was $72,317. Males had a median income of $57,413 versus $36,016 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,646. About 3.0% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over.

The City of Canyon Lake was incorporated on December 1, 1990.[11]

In the state legislature Canyon Lake is located in the 37th Senate District, represented by Republican John J. Benoit, and in the 64th Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Nestande.

In the United States House of Representatives, Canyon Lake is in California’s 42nd congressional district, represented by Republican Ken Calvert.[12]

The private areas behind the gates are secured by a private service (Allied Barton Community Patrol), with the assistance of the Riverside County Sheriff’s Department’s Perris Valley Station. The Community Patrol enforces community rules and regulations (CC&Rs) which includes noise ordinances, speed limits, and community access, while the Riverside County Sheriff provides for law enforcement and public safety.[13]

In 2005, there were 12 violent crimes and 136 property crimes reported;[14] in 2006, 18 and 165,[15] in 2007, 23 and 170,[16] in 2008, 6 and 167,[17] in 2009, 12 and 132,[18] in 2010, 10 and 223.[19] Per capita, these are below the national average.

Students attend school in the Lake Elsinore Unified School District. Students typically attend Tuscany Hills Elementary or Cottonwood Canyon Elementary Schools, Canyon Lake Middle School, and Temescal Canyon High School.

Mt. San Jacinto College maintains a campus in nearby Menifee. The nearest University of California campus is University of California, Riverside. Canyon Lake is nearly equidistant from four California State University campuses located at San Bernardino, Fullerton, and San Marcos, as well as Cal Poly Pomona.

The community is named for Canyon Lake reservoir, also known as the Railroad Canyon Reservoir, which it surrounds. The reservoir, created in 1928 with the construction of the Railroad Canyon Dam, covers approximately 525 acres (212ha), has 14.9 miles (24.0km) of shoreline, and has a storage capacity of 11,586acreft (14,291,000m3).[11] It is owned and operated by the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District.[20]

The reservoir is supplied by storm water runoff from the San Jacinto River and Salt Creek. Water from the reservoir feeds the Canyon Lake Water Treatment Plant, which provides approximately 10% of the domestic water supply in the Lake Elsinore/Canyon Lake area.[21]

In 1882 the California Southern Railroad built a line from Perris to Elsinore along the east side of the San Jacinto River. The Santa Fe Railroad bought the line and joined it with their line in San Bernardino. Floods in 1884, 1916, and 1927 washed out the tracks and the Santa Fe Railroad decided to abandon the line. Soon after the last flood the Temescal Water Company bought the railroad right-of-way, as well as 1,000 acres (4.0km2) from Henry Evans, a rancher, and other land from B.T. Kuert. Those were the two parcels that make up most of Canyon Lake today.

Construction started in 1927 to build a dam across the river to store water. It was finished in 1929. Railroad Canyon Reservoir, when built, was one of the largest fresh water lakes for fishing, hunting and camping in Southern California. The reservoir and the surrounding area was leased as a concession from Temescal Water Company as a recreational area under the operation of the George D. Evans family from 1937 until after World War II. After the war Ray and Alpha Schekel, along with John and Darleen Kirkland, operated the resort until 1949 when the lake was drained for repairs to the floodgates. Elinor and Donald Martin operated the resort from its reopening in 1953 until 1968.

In 1968 the Corona Land Development Company developed the new community.[22][23]

In 2006, the community was the subject of United Gates of America, a BBC television documentary directed by Alex Cooke, featuring journalist Charlie LeDuff. He lived for a month within the community, to explore why people wanted to lock themselves behind gates and fences, and what effect it had on the residents. LeDuff also explored the issues of immigration from Mexico and Central America, and highlighted the issues of segregation and racism that exist in the United States.[24] The film was the subject of some controversy within the community,[25] but received positive reviews in the UK and US.[26][27][28]

One of only five gated cities in California, Canyon Lake began as a master-planned community developed by Corona Land Company in 1968.[11] Consisting of 4,801 community lots, all of the homes within the city are located within the Canyon Lake Property Owners Association (POA), and all but a few roads within the city are privately held and maintained. The entrances to the Canyon Lake POA are gated and guarded, accessible by residents and selected guests approved by the owners within the POA.

All gates are manned twenty-four hours a day by a community patrol contracted by Securitas, Inc.[citation needed] Access is granted to outsiders by sponsorship from a property owner or renter who calls in their guests to a 24-hour answer line. Since becoming an incorporated city in 1990, Canyon Lake has its own “Police Department” (through the contract with the Riverside County Sheriff’s Department, out of the Perris Valley Station), as well as the private security services. In recent years specialized “code enforcement” officers have also maintained patrols of the approximately 20-acre parcel of land administered by the Bureau of Land Management which encompasses the eastern shore of the lake in its upper reaches. The trail running north along the eastern shore of the lake has become an inviting activity for hikers and birdwatchers, particularly in the winter months when the hills are green and temperatures lower. Canyon Lake forbids all public use of any “two-wheeled motorized vehicle” (that is, all motorcycles, mopeds, and dirt bikes) on all private streets throughout the CLPOA, but excluding the two public roads (Railroad Canyon and Goetz Roads).[29]

All of the homeowners within the Canyon Lake POA have rights and access to the lake for recreational uses. Personal watercraft (jet skis, etc.) are banned for use on the reservoir. However, ski-boats (with a maximum length of 21 feet), fishing boats, row boats, paddle boats, sailboats and kayaks are allowed, as are wake-boarding and water-skiing. There is a 35mph (56km/h) speed limit on the main lake, which is patrolled by Canyon Lake’s Lake and Marine Patrol, as well the California Department of Fish and Game. The East Bay is limited to a “no wake” speed. Each year the association stocks the lake with catfish and bass, which join the crappie and bluegill. There are swimming areas, fishing holes, beaches, a slalom course and a jump lagoon, gas docks, and rental slips.

There are three business or shopping areas within the City of Canyon Lake. One is located at the west end of the city on Railroad Canyon Road, and another at the east end of the city on Goetz Road. The main shopping and business center of the city, Canyon Lake Towne Center, is located directly across Railroad Canyon Road from the Main (south) entrance gates. It provides Canyon Lake with many services, and is the location of Canyon Lake City Hall, a county sheriff’s satellite station, a Riverside County branch library, and the Property Owner’s Association offices, which are all located side by side in the same building. Another building in the Towne Center mall houses the Canyon Lake Chamber of Commerce.

The community is served directly by the Canyon Lake Community Church, [30] which is the only church with its own facilities within the City of Canyon Lake, but located outside the gated portion of the community. The Tides Church has facilities in the Canyon Lake Towne Center. [31]

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Canyon Lake, California – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Secaucus, New Jersey

Posted: January 14, 2016 at 10:45 pm

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Our Town

Residents, as well as visitors staying at the community’s many fine hotels and motels, can be in Manhattan in as little as 20 minutes via express bus. Or they quickly can be on their way to other points in via the New Jersey Turnpike or State Route 3, both of which pass through the town.

And just across the Hackensack River, a mile away, is the area’s sports and entertainment center, The Meadowlands, home of the Giants, the Jets, concerts, circuses, ice shows, weekly flea market; and the Meadowlands Race Track.

Location! Location! Location! What makes Secaucus great for residents and visitors also makes it great for business. Secaucus is the corporate home of many major businesses and a distribution center serving Manhattan and Northern New Jersey. Its proximity to New York offers quick delivery.

This distribution center, cleverly separated from most of the town’s residential areas, has spawned the other activity for which the community was once well known – outlet shopping. Outlets have greatly deminished in number. However, along with the manufacturers’ outlets, you’ll find the true warehouse outlets, where the store’s in the front and racks of clothes are behind. Periodically the storehouses themselves are opened for that shopper’s dream, a real warehouse sale!

The town has not neglected it’s traditional business center, which residents call The Plaza. Flowers are pridefully planted in park areas in the center of town, where a beautification program was undertaken a few year’s ago. There, businesses thrive, many in the hands of local families who have served their customers for generations.

Harmon Meadow, at the eastern side of Secaucus, has a pleasant town square atmosphere. There, you’ll find many restaurants, some shops, a number of the major hotels, an attactive multiplex cinema and the Meadowlands Exposition Center. Nearby are the convenient big box stores that draw thousands of shoppers.

Secaucus has also become a communications hub, home of NBA Entertainment (and NBA draft), Major League Baseball Network, MY Channel 9 and news bureaus for other networks.

Sports and recreation abound for town residents. There’s a swim center for summer and an ice rink for winter and a Recreation Center for year round activities. There’s a soccer field and a roller hockey rink. There’s a boat ramp into the Hackensack River. There are gyms and fields and organized teams for virtually all outdoor and indoor sports.

Nature is preserved in areas large and small; Snipes Beach Park, The Duck Pond, Schmidts Woods, and a major Meadowlands preserve, Mill Creek Marsh, in the northern sector of the town. The trailhead of the 1.5-mile long Mill Creek Marsh Trail is located adjacent to the big box stores, providing access for birding especially. With its patches of marsh grasses, mud flats and long winding brackish waterways, the Meadowlands is home to 260 bird species, including 15 state-endangered species.

Canoe and kayak trips through the meadows are available at Laurel Hill Hudson Country Park in Secaucus. The Hackensack Riverkeeper (201-920-4746) rents canoes and kayaks on weekends from April through October. The Hackensack Riverkeeper Cruise Program, (201-968-0808) offers two-hour guided naturalist trips on the river and through the marshes of the Meadowlands The park also boasts two floating docks and the only free, unrestricted public boat ramp on the River. The Meadowlands Enviornment Center is a short drive from Secaucus. More on eco-tourism.

While sports and recreation serve the young, the town has also remembered its older residents. Secaucus has led the State in Senior housing. Three major Senior Citizen residences and a Senior activity center serve the needs of those who have served the town.

Secaucus is community centered, with clubs and organizations – Kiwanis, Rotary, Lions, Masons, Unico. etc. One can become active with the Shade Tree Commission, or any number of other organizations. The Volunteer Fire Department is a focal point of activity and civic pride.

Secaucus offers fine schools for its children. There are two public elementary schools and a middle-high school. There, children get a caring education and are offered a range of extra curricular activities. The new Arthur F. Couch Performaning Arts Center was opened at the High Schoool/Middle School facility in 2005. There is a library preschool and day care centers for the town’s youngest. The public school system uniquely offers full day kindergarten and pre-kindergarten programs.

The Secaucus Public Library and Business Resource Center offers outstanding facilities for research and recreational reading, plus ample computer facilities with free wi-fi access, a small-business center and meeting rooms.

Eight churches and a Hindu temple serve the religious needs of the community. The Episcopal Church of Our Saviour, First Reformed, Immaculate Conception Roman Catholic, St. Matthew’s Evangelical Lutheran and Shree Swaminarayan Hindu Temple each maintain their own religious centers. Quimby Community Church meets at The Church of Our Saviour, and North Jersey United Pentecostal Church meets at the First Reformed Church.

All this and more in a town of 16,000 residents! It’s a great place to live, work, raise a family, and a great place to visit.

Secaucus Data: The following are external links. To return to this page use back button on your computer.

Click here for detailed community profile.

Click here for US Census profile

Click here for NY Times profile.

Click here for NJ Schools Report Cards for Secaucus Schools

Click here for map of Secaucus and vicinity.

Click here for detailed weather data from the Harmon Cove Weather Station in Secaucus.

Click here for detailed weather data from the Hudson County OEM Weather Station in Secaucus.

Click here for detailed weather data from the Park Drive Weather Station in Secaucus.

Click here for normal Secaucus tides (not adjusted for storms, etc.).

Click here for New Jersey property tax charts

Secaucus.org online shopping

Secaucus High School Secaucus Middle School Clarendon Elementary School Huber Street Elementary School

Bergen County Scholastic League

Secaucus Adult School

Arthur F. Couch Performaning Arts Center

New Jersey Schools Report Cards for Secaucus Schools

Immaculate Conception School Harmony Early Learning Center Secaucus Day Care Center High School Marching Band

Churches and Temples Directory of Churches and Temples

Town Government Town of Secaucus Construction Code Enforcement: Health and Fire Inspections Mayor and Council Town Clerk Municipal Court Public Works Recreation Social Services Senior Center Taxes and Assessments Town of Secaucus Municipal Phone Directory E-mail Links to Secaucus Town Officials Secaucus Fire Department Secaucus Fire Department – Clarendon Tower Two Secaucus Fire Department – Engine Company No. One Secaucus Fire Department – Washngton Hook and Ladder Public Library and Business Resource Center

Secaucus Northend Association

Secaucus Medical Services Directory MDs, Chiropractors, Dentists, Optometrists, Pharmacists, Veterinarians
, Hospitals, etc.

Banks in Secaucus List of secaucus Bank Branches

Secaucus Web Directory Classified and Alphabetical Listings

Map of Secaucus Link to map and driving directions

Secaucus in Poetry In a Prominent Bar in Secaucus

Meadowlands License Plate available!

The Motor Vehicles Commission offers a license plate to support land preservation and conservation in the Hackensack Meadowlands and River Watershed.

For details click here.

Other MVC information, and the location and operation hours of the Secaucus MVC Inspection Station.


Our Town | Residents’ Zone | TV | Movies | Lodgings | Transportation | Shopping | Tourism | Links | web directory | e-store affiliates

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Secaucus, New Jersey

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Arizona Senate committee approves firearms legislation

Posted: March 25, 2015 at 2:49 pm

Phoenix (AP) – Arizonas stand-your-ground and constitutional-carry laws already make the state a favorite for gun owners. On Tuesday, a Republican-dominated Senate committee passed firearms legislation to further broaden state residents Second Amendment rights.

The Senate Appropriations Committee passed a bill expanding gun owners rights to carry concealed weapons in public places and another creating an interstate compact to regulate the transfer of firearms. Both proposals passed on a 5-3 vote and now move to the Senate.

House Bill 2320 by Rep. Brenda Barton, R-Payson, would allow holders of concealed-carry permit to take their weapons into public buildings such as libraries. The bill says that if public institutions do not want to allow conceal-carry holders to come in with their guns, they must establish security guards and metal detectors at their facilities. The bill exempts some buildings, including those with liquor licenses, hospitals and schools.

The whole point of putting this legislation forward is to honor the people who have a CCW permit, Barton said. Its important that we honor that, and allow them to carry their desired weapon, concealed for self-defense.

Advocates from the Salt River Project, the Arizona State Retirement System and the state Supreme Court lobbied for exceptions for their public buildings. But Sen. Don Shooter, R-Yuma, who chairs the committee, refused to offer amendments in committee.

Instead, Sen. John Kavanagh, R-Fountain Hills, who supports the bill, said Republicans will offer floor amendment to prohibit concealed carriers from bringing weapons into public buildings where it is forbidden by federal law.

Sen. Steve Farley, D-Tucson, said cities and counties shouldnt have to pay for security so that concealed carriers can keep their guns in public buildings. This bill puts a literal gun to the heads of public bodies and says if you really want to keep your public buildings free from weapons youre going to have to pay for it, Farley said.

Maricopa County found that if it prohibited firearms from all 378 county buildings that dont have security, it would cost $47 million in ongoing costs and $9 million in setup costs, according to legislative analysts.

Brewer vetoed similar legislation three times in four years. In 2014, Brewer cited concerns about the fiscal impact on state and local governments. She called the bill an unnecessary diversion of limited resources.

More than 230,000 Arizona residents have concealed-carry permits, according to a Department of Public Safety report from March.

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Arizona Senate committee approves firearms legislation

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