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The Evolutionary Perspective
Tag Archives: summer
Posted: July 10, 2016 at 5:57 pm
Abstract: Psychological egoism, the view that people act solely in their own interest, is defined and shown not to be a meaningful ethical philosophy.
I. The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism reflects the contrast of “is” verses “ought,” “fact” verses “value,” or “descriptive” verses “prescriptive.”
II. By way of clarification of relevant terms, James Rachels, among others, points out common confusion concerning selfishness and self-interest.
III. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that the generalization everyone acts from the motive of self-interest is false.
IV.Interestingly enough, the same objections can be raised against the view termed, “psychological altruism”: all persons act from the motive of helping others, and all actions are done from other-regarding motives. (Psychological altruism is a view advanced only from the position of a “devil’s advocate.”)
V. As a final note, it should be mentioned that psychological egoism can’t be saved by psychoanalytic theory. I.e., Freud’s notion of the unconscious raises the possibility that we have unconscious desires and can act against our conscious inclinations. If it is argued that we always unconsciously seek our self-interest, then this view is untestable and circular as well.
Consider the following passage from Freud’s Interpretations of Dreams*:
“A contradiction to my theory of dream produced by another of my women patients (the cleverest of all my dreamers) was resolved more simply, but upon the same pattern: namely that the nonfulfillment of one wish meant the fulfillment of another. One day I had been explaining to her that dreams are fulfillments of wishes. Next day she brought me a dream in which she was traveling down with her mother-in-law to the place in the country where they were to spend their holidays together. Now I knew that she had violently rebelled against the idea of spending the summer near her mother-in-law and that a few days earlier she had successfully avoided the propinquity she dreaded by engaging rooms in a far distant resort. And now her dream had undone the solution she had wished for; was not this the sharpest contradiction of my theory that in dreams wishes are fulfilled? No doubt; and it was only necessary to follow the dreams logical consequence in order to arrive at its interpretation. The dream showed that I was wrong. Thus it was her wish that I might be wrong, and her dream showed that wish fulfilled (italics original)”
*Sigmund Freud, The Interpretations of Dreams (New York: Avon, 1966), 185.
“We Are Not Always Selfish”: (this site) A classic discussion of the many facets of ethical egoism in notes on James Rachel’s work.
Altruism “in-built” in humans: BBC report of discovery of altruistic behavior in infants summarized from the journal Science.
“Studies Show Chimps to Be Collaborative.”: A summary of an article from Science News describing research indicating that chimpanzees cooperate without the expectation of reward.
“Egoism”: Explanation of egoism and altruism with a brief summary of refutations and defenses excerpted from Richard Kraut’s “Egoism” in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Ethical Egoism: (this site) The various forms of ethical egoism are defined. Standard objections to ethical egoism are evaluated, and the conclusion is drawn that ethical egoism is incomplete.
Posted: July 5, 2016 at 11:50 pm
by Sean Croxton
There is one particular day I look forward to each year and it went down yesterday.
I woke up, strolled to the kitchen, and found my jar of coconut oil smiling at me.
It was so beautiful, like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon to take its first flight. Like a wayward child coming home again.
The coconut oil was liquid.
Summer is here.
Not only is the oil of all oils heart-healthy. Not only does it make your skin look dead sexy. Not only does it fight the bugs that attack your body, as we will discuss today.
Coconut oil makes one heck of a weather forecaster, too.
Yesterday brought blue skies with a high of 81 degrees in San Diego. And I didnt need the weather girl to tell me that.
The coconut oil told me.
And best of all, I can drink it from the jar now. I take my coconut oil to the head! Spoons are for wussies.
Anyway, just thought Id share in my summer excitement before dropping some knowledge bombs on you about coconut oil and your immunity. If youre on the East Coast, youve got something to look forward to in the coming weeks. Leave your jar on the counter and tweet me when your butterfly hatches!
Tonight, its on like Donkey Kong. Bruce Fife, author of The Coconut Oil Miracle is on the UW Radio Show. Certain to be another hot one. My coconut oil told me so.
Dont miss it! 5pm PT/8pm ET
A major topic Bruce and I will be covering is the use of coconut oil as a means of fighting nasty bugs like bacteria, viruses, parasites, and yeast. One thing that dawned on me while reading his book is the well-known fact that traveling to tropical climates puts those of us from more moderate temperatures at risk of coming home with a bad case of the gut bugs.
Working with clients, one of the red flags I would see quite often was digestive dysfunction originating during or after a trip to some island paradise. For many, a stool test revealed a parasitic infection that likely lingered for years, even decades.
But what about the natives who have actually lived in these literal breeding grounds for microbes and critters for generations? Why dont they have an epidemic of digestive challenges and parasitic infection?
Its the coconut oil, baby.
When you really think about it, its quite the coincidence that God, Mother Nature, or the aliens (whoever you believe put us here) just so happened to supply one of the most antibacterial, antiviral, anti-parasitic foods on Earth to a people living in a place where such microbes flourish. Even Weston Price was amazed by the low incidence of malaria in tropical people.
Amazingly, science has yet to explain a genetic explanation for such resistance. Why not?
Because its the coconut oil, baby!
When we feel a cold coming on, most of us should be reaching for the kitchen cabinet before the medicine cabinet. Actually, we should be taking our coconut oil to the head every day or at least using it for cooking as a means of preventing all types of nasty infections.
In last weeks blog, I typed about the medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coconut oil consists of. These MCFAs, which include caprylic acid, capric acid, mystiric acid, and lauric acid, are quite sparse in our food supply. Not only are these fats burned immediately for fuel (as discussed last time), but they also possess incredible antimicrobial properties, with lauric acid having the greatest antiviral activity.
As you know, medical doctor are notorious for prescribing antibiotics for viral infections. This brings about two problems. The first problem is the ever-growing development of superbugs, which are antibiotic resistant (but maybe not MCFA-resistant). And of course, the second problem is the fact that antibiotics do not kill viruses!
But coconut oil and its MCFAs can.
Bacteria and viruses are typically coated with a lipid (fat) membrane (rhinovirus is an exception), which encloses their DNA and other cellular materials. This membrane is very fluid, flexible, and mobile, allowing it to squeeze its way in and out of tight spots.
Due to the fact that the fats making up this membrane are very similar to MCFAs, the medium-chain fatty acids from coconut can sneak past security and become absorbed into the membrane, where they weaken it, split it open, and kill it by pretty much ripping its insides out.
Coconut oil has a violent streak.
The most intriguing part of this germ warfare is that the MCFAs are selective. Friendly fire isnt a problem. In the case of bacteria, we possess both good and bad bacteria in our guts. The MCFAs actually single out the bad guys and leave the good guys alone.
Its really amazing stuff.
Published research shows that the MCFAs from coconut oil can kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that cause the following illnesses. This is just a short list. More can be found on page 77 of The Coconut Oil Miracle. Of course, MCFAs are no panacea. But they deserve far more attention in the prevention and treatment of many diseases and conditions. Then again, you cant patent coconut oil and sell if for outlandish prices. So dont expect Big Pharma to run any ads for it any time soon.
Bacterial Infections Throat and sinus infections Urinary tract infections Dental cavities and gum disease Helicobacter Pylori Gastric ulcers Ear infections Food poisoning
Viral Infections Influenza Measles Herpes Chronic fatigue syndrome AIDS and HIV
Fungal Infections Ringworm Athletes foot Candidiasis Toenail fungus
Parasite Infections Giardia
I can go on and on about the benefits of coconut oil. But Im out of time today. Gotta edit Episode 3 of the Underground Wellness Show (guest: Mark Sisson).
Dont forget to tune in to tonights UW Radio show and find out how much coconut oil you should be consuming and MORE!
Its at 5pm PT/8pm ET. Dial 347-237-5608 to ask Bruce your burning coconut questions. Or tweet me at @ugwellness.
UPDATE: Listen to the show with Dr. Fife below!
Sean Author, The Dark Side of Fat Loss
Posted: June 29, 2016 at 6:37 pm
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At Golden Rule Plumbing, Heating & Cooling, we also offer excellent air conditioning service in Des Moines, IA. Our service technicians can help with everything frominstallation and replacement to repair and maintenance. We not only install and service central air conditioners, which are probably the most common, but also heat pumps, ductless mini splits and geothermal systems. Having a great cooling system is essential to the comfort of your home in the summer.
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Posted: June 21, 2016 at 6:34 am
Biography William Wilberforce is perhaps the best known of the abolitionists. He came from a prosperous merchant family of Kingston-upon-Hull, a North Sea port which saw little in the way of slave trading. (His birthplace is now preserved as the Wilberforce House Museum.) At twenty-one, the youngest age at which one could be so elected, he was returned to Parliament for his native town. Four years later he was again returned to Parliament, this time for the county seat of Yorkshire which was large and populous, and which therefore required an expensive election contest. The advantage was that the election, being genuinely democratic, conferred a greater legitimacy to the two Members which that county returned to Parliament. Wilberforce’s early years in Parliament were not untypical for a young back-bencher. He was noted for his eloquence and charm, attributes no doubt enhanced by his considerable wealth, but he did not involve himself at first with any great cause. A sudden conversion to evangelical Christianity in 1785 changed that and from then onwards he approached politics from a position of strict Christian morality. In 1786 he carried through the House of Commons a bill for amending criminal law which failed to pass the Lords, a pattern which was to be repeated during his abolitionist career. The following year he founded the Proclamation Society which had as its aim the suppression of vice and the reformation of public manners. Later in 1787 he became, at the suggestion of the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, the parliamentary leader of the abolition movement, although he did not officially join the Abolition Society until 1794.
The story of Pitt’s conversation with Wilberforce under an old tree near Croydon has passed into the mythology of the anti-slavery movement. The result was that Wilberforce returned to London having promised to look over the evidence which Thomas Clarkson had amassed against the trade. As he did so he clearly become genuinely horrified and resolved to give the abolition movement his support. Working closely with Clarkson, he presented evidence to a committee of the Privy Council during 1788. This episode did not go as planned. Some of the key witnesses against the trade, apparently bribed or intimidated, changed their story and testified in favour. In the country at large abolitionist sentiment was growing rapidly. While the king’s illness and the Regency Bill crisis no doubt supplanted the slave trade as the chief topic of political conversation in the winter of 1788-9, by the spring the king had recovered and abolition was once more at the top of the agenda. It was under these circumstances that Wilberforce prepared to present his Abolition Bill before the House of Commons. This speech, the most important of Wilberforce’s life to that point, was praised in the newspapers as being one of the most eloquent ever to have been heard in the house. Indeed, The Star reported that ‘the gallery of the House of Commons on Tuesday was crowded with Liverpool Merchants; who hung their heads in sorrow – for the African occupation of bolts and chains is no more’.
The newspaper was premature in sounding the death knell of the slave trade. After the 1789 speech parliamentary delaying tactics came into play. Further evidence was requested and heard over the summer months and then, on 23 June 1789, the matter was adjourned until the next session. Wilberforce left town, holidaying at Buxton with Hannah More, confident that the next session would see a resolution of the debate and abolition of the trade. It did not and by January 1790 the question was deemed to be taking up so much parliamentary time that consideration of the evidence was moved upstairs (as parliamentary jargon has it) to a Select Committee. Evidence in favour of the trade was heard until April, followed by evidence against. In June Pitt called an early general election. Wilberforce was safely returned as a Member for Yorkshire, but parliamentary business was disrupted. Despite being behind schedule, Wilberforce continued to work for an abolition which it appeared the country wanted. News of the slave rebellion in Dominica reached Britain in February 1791 and hardened attitudes against abolition, but Wilberforce pressed on. After almost two years of delay the debate finally resumed and Wilberforce again addressed the Commons on 18 April 1791.
When, on the following night, the House divided on the question of abolition fewer than half of its Members remained to vote. Because of this or not, the Abolition Bill fell with a majority of 75 against abolishing the slave trade. Wilberforce and the other members of the Abolition Committee returned to the task of drumming up support for abolition both from Members of Parliament and from ordinary people. More petitions were collected, further meetings held, extra pamphlets published, and a boycott of sugar was organised. The campaign was not helped by news of the revolutions in France and Haiti. Perhaps sensing that a hardening of attitudes was becoming increasingly likely Wilberforce again brought the question of abolition before the House and, almost a year after the previous defeat, on 2 April 1792, once more found himself addressing the House of Commons. Every account we have of this speech shows that it was an intense and lengthy emotional harangue. Public feeling was outraged and, on this occasion, so was the feeling of the House. But not quite enough. Henry Dundas suggested an amendment to the Abolition Bill: the introduction of the word ‘gradual’. The bill passed as amended, by 230 votes to 85, and gradual abolition became law, the final date for slave trading to remain legal being later fixed at 1796. But this gave the ‘West India Interest’ – the slave traders’ lobby – room to manoeuvre. Once again parliamentary delaying tactics came into play, further evidence was demanded, and it became clear that gradual abolition was to mean no abolition.
This event marked a turning point in the fortunes of the abolition camapign. Partly because of a hardening of attitudes caused by the outbreak of war with France, and partly because of determined resistance from the West-India Interest there was a collapse in public enthusiasm for the cause. Some abolitionists withdrew from the campaign entirely. Wilberforce did not, but his speeches fell on ever deafer ears. Although Wilberforce reintroduced the Abolition Bill almost every year in the 1790s, little progress was made even though Wilberforce remained optimistic for the long-term success of the cause. He directed some of his efforts into other arenas, largely evangelical or philanthropic, and was instrumental in setting up organisations such as The Bible Society and The Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor. In 1797 he published a book, A Practical view of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, a work of popular theology with a strong evangelical hue which sold well on publication and throughout the nineteenth century. On 30 May 1797, after a short romance, he married Barbara Ann Spooner.
If the first two years of the new century were particularly bleak ones for the abolition movement, the situation was rapidly reversed in 1804. The association of abolitionism with Jacobinism dispersed as Napoleon’s hostility to emancipation became known. Members of Parliament, especially the many new Irish members, increasingly tended toward abolition. The Abolition Society reformed with a mixture of experienced older members and new blood. Wilberforce assumed his old role of parliamentary leader, and introduced the Abolition Bill before parliament. The Bill fell in 1804 and 1805, but gave the abolitionists an opportunity to sound out support. In 1806, Wilberforce published an influential tract advocating abolition and, in June that year, resolutions supporting abolition were passed in parliament. A public campaign once again promoted the cause, and the new Whig government was in favour as well. In January 1807, the Abolition Bill was once again introduced, this time attracting very considerable support, and, on 23 February 1807, almost fifteen years after Dundas had effectively wrecked abolition with his gradualist amendment, Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of abolition of the slave trade. During the debate the then Solicitor-General, Sir Samuel Romilly, spoke against the trade. His speech concluded with a long and emotional tribute to Wilberforce in which he contrasted the peaceful happiness of Wilberforce in his bed with the tortured sleeplessness of the guilty Napoleon Bonaparte. In the words of Romilly’s biographer;
The Abolition Act received the Royal Assent (became law) on 25 March 1807 but, although the trade in slaves had become illegal in British ships, slavery remained a reality in British colonies. Wilberforce himself was privately convinced that the institution of slavery should be entirely abolished, but understood that there was little political will for emancipation. Already recognised as an elder statesman in his 50s, Wilberforce received a steady throng of visitors and supplicants, and he became involved in many of the political questions of the day. He supported Catholic Emancipation and the Corn Laws. His health was poor, however, and in 1812 he resigned the large and arduous seat of Yorkshire for the pocket borough of Bramber. In the same year he started work on the Slave Registration Bill, which he saw as necessary to ensure compliance with the Abolition Act. If slaves were registered, he argued, it could be proved whether or not they had been recently transported from Africa. The Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, supported the Bill, but was assassinated shortly after. Thereafter, Wilberforce’s efforts met with increasing resistance from the government. In 1815, with the government again blocking progress, Wilberforce publically declared that as they would not support him, he felt himself no longer bound by their line on emancipation. From this time on, Wilberforce campaigned openly for an end to the institution of slavery.
Wilberforce’s health, never good, was deteriorating. Although now free to speak his mind on emancipation, he was never able to campaign with the same vigour that he had done for abolition of the trade. However, he continued to attack slavery both at public meetings and in the House of Commons. In 1823, he published another pamphlet attacking slavery. This pamphlet was connected with the foundation of The Anti-Slavery Society which led the campaign to emancipate all slaves in British colonies. Leadership of the parliamentary campaign, however, was passed from Wilberforce to Thomas Fowell Buxton. In 1825, Wilberforce resigned from the House of Commons. He enjoyed a quiet retirement at Mill Hill, just north of London, although he suffered some financial difficulties. His last public appearance was at a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1830, at which, at Thomas Clarkson’s suggestion, he took the chair. In parliament, the Emancipation Bill gathered support and received its final commons reading on 26 July 1833. Slavery would be abolished, but the planters would be heavily compensated. ‘Thank God’, said Wilberforce, ‘that I have lived to witness a day in which England is willing to give twenty millions sterling for the Abolition of Slavery’. Three days later, on 29 July 1833, he died. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Brycchan Carey 2000-2002
Posted: June 10, 2016 at 12:45 pm
Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Until 2012, through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.
Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.
The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term “nano-technology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.
Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.
Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.
First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope’s developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.
Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.
In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society’s report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.
Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.
By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size that phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device. These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.
To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man’s beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.
Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.
Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.
Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the quantum size effect where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.
Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.
Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.
These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.
Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.
Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.
When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.
It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler’s book Nanosystems.
In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno, is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.
This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003. Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator, and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.
An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.
The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.
These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.
These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.
These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.
These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.
Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.
There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.
The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode. However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.
Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.
Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.
The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques. At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.
In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.
However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.
As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week. The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of “first generation” passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings, and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.
Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home. Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.
Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water. Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts. Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst’s surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.
Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to the mimic the nanoscale features of a Cell’s microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage. For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.
Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.
An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.
Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash. These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.
Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.
Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law, but ultimately rejected it. Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies, the insurability of nanotechnology is contested. Without state regulation of nanotechnology, the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly.
Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis. Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.
A two-year study at UCLA’s School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree “linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging”.
A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the nanotechnology revolution could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said “We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully.” In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food. A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.
Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology. There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by bolting on nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes. Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.
Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food, nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Centers Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology. As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.
The Royal Society report identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure (p. xiii).
The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.
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Posted: April 23, 2016 at 2:45 pm
In December 2012 The Fifth Amendment happy hour was founded by myself, Michele Bamberg, and Jeffrey Gitto. The happy hour is a social and professional networkin…g event geared towards the legal community which featured food/drink specials, and weekly guest bartenders we dubbed “lawtenders”. The Fifth Amendment happy hour quickly became the place to be on Wednesday evenings, and was a favorite among many lawyers, judges, public defenders, prosecutors, paralegals, court reporters, etc. It also attracted many people outside the legal community as well which was great for meeting new people, and building relationships.
The Fifth Amendment has been a huge success. It was originally ran by the best in the business to include, but not limited to Nique Ryan, Aaron Round, Chelsea Sherman, Sammy Morgan, Rachel Valore, Gabrielle Mendez, Brandon Young, Erica Warner, Kj Pignatelli, Justin Sullivan, Amy Jeanine, and more. In just the first 10 months of its inception, The Fifth Amendment became the foundation for an incredible fundraiser in which we rallied the community and successfully raised over $20K in less than 3 weeks for a young boy suffering from Lyme Disease!
After a much needed break, The Fifth Amendment was on a new scene to start the summer of 2015. This time our goal was to raise $10K for Legal Aid Society of the Orange County Bar Association, Inc. This would be achieved through the hard work of Rob Bamberg, Michele Bamberg, Nique Ryan, and Donna Haynes; ran by Alex Coven, Trisha Sissons, and Jake Friend; with selflessness generosity from the following sponsors/donors: Amir Ladan of Ladan Law; Eric Boughman of Forster Boughman & Lefkowitz; David Bigney of Bigney Law Firm; Ryan Davis of Winderweedle, Haines, Ward & Woodman, P.A.; Amber Neilson Davis of Beusse Wolter Sanks & Maire, PLLC; Mario Ceballos of The Ceballos Law Firm, P.A.; Kirsty Irvin Schouweiler of First Choice Reporting & Video Services, Inc.; Tara Slocum of Legal Realtime Reporting; Kimberly Lorenz of Fisher Rushmer, P.A. Family Law; Rob Bamberg of ProServe USA; Michele Bamberg of Lady Esquire, Men’s Stylist; and last but certainly not least, tonight’s sponsors William Umansky & Zahra Iravani Umansky of The Umansky Law Firm.
This goes to show there’s power in numbers because people working together are greater than they can ever be working apart. And every single person listed past and present, is a huge reason The Fifth Amendment has been a success! On behalf of Jeffrey Gitto, Nique Ryan, Michele Bamberg, and myself, we hope to see you tonight at Side Bar 6 pm – 10 pm, and we thank you for your support!
God Bless America!
The Fifth Amendment – facebook.com
Posted: March 30, 2016 at 1:44 am
Date Location Tournament Name Jul 23-24 Merced The 18 Classic Jul 23-24 Hanford Hanford Turn Up the Heat Jul 30-31 Fresno The Fresno Invitational! Aug 6-7 Santa Maria Santa Maria “Catch the Spirit” Aug 6-7 Merced The 12 Classic Aug 13-14 Turlock The Wounded Warrior Tournament Aug 13-14 Castaic Rumble at the Grape Vine Aug 20-21 Tulare Tulare Hot Summer Days Aug 27-28 Merced Madness in Merced Aug 27-28 Bakersfield Kalie Boyer Memorial Scholarship Tournament Sep 3-4 Hanford The Hanford Softball Quest Sep 3-4 Modesto NSA’s Muscular Dystrophy Tournament Sep 10-11 Turlock Turlock End of Summer Shootout Sep 17-18 Hanford Hanford Sliding Out of Summer Sep 17-18 Lancaster Lancaster’s Battle in the Desert Sep 24-25 Tulare Tulare Fall Showdown Oct 1-2 Bakersfield Bakersfield Pretty in Pink Cancer Awareness Oct 1-2 Merced The 14 Classic Oct 8-9 Fresno Fresno Play for the Pride Cancer Awareness Oct 15-16 Modesto Modesto Think Pink Cancer Awareness Oct 15-16 Glendale Play for the Cure Cancer Awareness Oct 22-23 Hanford Tulare Ghost and Goblins Bash Oct 29-30 Turlock Turlock Halloween Classic Nov 5-6 Hanford Hanford Team Appreciation Scholarship Event Nov 12-13 Modesto West Pac Fall Championship Nov 19-20 Turlock Turlock Thanksgiving Turkey Trot Nov 19-20 Bakersfield Bakersfield Last Chance Tournament Nov 26-27 Merced Merced’s End of Year Blowout Dec 3 Merced The Reindeer Games Canned Food Drive
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Central California NSA – cencalnsa.com
Posted: December 28, 2015 at 2:41 pm
Today we have a guest post from Christina, who suffered from eczema from childhood all the way through to her adult years. Christina only finally managed to control her eczema when she addressed the health of her digestive system.
The gut is a very important organ in your body, and much more complex than most people think. I never thought that something as seemingly unconnected as the gut could have an impact on my eczema or skin issues in general.
But before I go deeper, let me give you a little background about me
Christina as a child
Ive had eczema ever since I was a kid, about 8 years old. I remember it would just randomly appear on various places on my body, specifically my arms and legs and sometimes on my chest and neck. I was often brought in to see dermatologists and skin doctors, but the diagnosis was always the same thing: Its just eczema, its normal for kids to have. The doctors would prescribe some creams and ointments to relieve the itchiness and help dry it up, but it never got rid of it completely.
As a teenager it was rough. I wasnt able to do other normal things, like wear shorts or sleeveless shirts or go swimming in the summer. I was so embarrassed of my eczema that I even made up stories to the friends I did have, telling them it was bug bites or that it was a rash from something I ate. Most of the time I would try to just change the subject whenever my peers or adults would ask me what it was -because I didnt really know myself.
I remember hoping it was an age factor and that it would get better as I got older. I had read testimonies of people who had horrible breakouts that miraculously disappeared once they hit their 20s. Even my dad told me that he had really bad eczema when he was younger, and that it had gone away eventually. I desperately hoped this would apply to me! Unfortunately, the hope of it only being teenage eczema wasnt the case, and my eczema followed me through my 20s and after.
An adult with a crisis
As an adult I became so frustrated at this never-ending problem that I considered just giving up trying to find solutions. I had doctors tell me that since it seemed hereditary, there was a big possibility it would never go away. I was prescribed steroid creams, corticosteroid creams, antibiotics, and medicines that just didnt work! I was spending lots of money and not seeing any of the results I wanted.
Because I had to use the creams and medications regularly, I was at the point where if I DIDNT use them my eczema would get out of control. (The picture is how my eczema looked when I was using creams) When I would have a flare up, I hid it the best I could. Out came the creams, topical ointments, gauze, tape, and band aids. I would apply and re-apply until it went away, then repeat the process when it came back. At some point my eczema was returning as fast as it was clearing. It would flare, I would apply the cream for 2 or 3 weeks, and then it would go away-only to return 2 weeks later.
I was so frustrated and unhappy. Even having a physical relationship was uncomfortable, and some nights it was so bad I would cry out of frustration because I couldnt sleep. When I was on vacation or traveling I couldnt enjoy myself because I always had this very literal itch.
Just like many of you struggling with eczema, I spent a lot of time online. I would browse new medications and look on forums for peoples experiences with eczema, trying to find a new solution to an age old problem. It surprised me to see how many people were suffering from the same issue that I was, and getting near to no help from their doctors either.
It was one of these days that I stumbled across an article on gut healthrelated to adult skin problems. The article talked about how gut health could be critical in healing skin conditions like adult acne, psoriasis, and eczema. It talked about gut health as the key to revolutionizing the way dermatologists treat eczema.
Now from what I knew, eczema was an autoimmune and inflammatory disease, and so far the only reasonable way for me to treat it was to use medicines or creams to help my body fight against it. I would use antibiotics and medicines (to help my bodys immune system), anti-inflammatory creams (to lessen inflammation), and so on. I never considered that I could go natural and try to heal my body from the inside-out!
Consequences of an Unhealthy Gut
For years I had been addressing my eczema as just a surface problem, never realizing it went way beyond that. As I did more research,I realized that in order to heal your skin you had to go a lot deeper than just lotions and topical creams.
As I mentioned before, the human gut is something so overlooked, but very important as it is responsible for so many different functions in our body. It promotes normal gastrointestinal function, provides us protection from infections, regulates our metabolism and comprises more than 75 percent of our immune system. Most importantly, its home to over 100 trillion micro-organisms, (bacteria) both good and bad. Research has shownthat in order to maintain a healthy gut, there should be a ratio of around 80 percent good bacteria vs 20 percent bad bacteria.
This balance of bacteria in particular has a lot to do with skin and our overall health. Medical researchers and experts in mucosal biology have shown that that the gut was a key factor in autoimmune diseases, like coeliac, diabetes, obesity, and more. Their conclusion was that an unhealthy gut was the main cause for a wide range of autoimmune diseases, including eczema, psoriasis, and other chronic skin issues.
The gut-skin connection
I started to better understand that the link between the gut and overall health was in fact, very strong. In my case, the consequences of an unhealthy gut showed up through my skin. From research and studies, heres what I discovered:
The gut is a big part of the digestive system. What ever goes in, goes out or at least this is how its supposed to work. Now remember how in order to maintain a happy healthy gut, there has to be IDEALLY a 80-20 balance of good to bad bacteria? Well, studies have shown that if you continually consume certain inflammatory foods or toxins, these types of foods can cause the bad bacteria to grow at a rapid pace, outgrowing the percentage of good bacteria.
This is a problem because when the balance is thrown out of proportion, the overgrowth of bad bacteria starts to create toxins that are damaging to our gut lining. These toxins then hit the walls of the gut lining, creating spaces and holes between the cells.
These holes are dangerous because they allow the guts bacteria (remember theres a lot of bacteria in there!), toxins, as well as incompletely digested proteins and fats, to leak out of the gut and into the bloodstream.
This is what is commonly referred to as Leaky Gut Syndrome or increased intestinal permeability. Instead of going straight OUT (like it should), its going back INTO your body (where it shouldnt).
So how does eczema come into play?
Well, because the damaged gut is no longer up to the job of dispensing these bad bacterias and toxins, the body has to use another method of eliminationthe skin.
The skin is the bodys largest elimination organ, so its not surprising why a myriad of skin diseases come into play during this clean-up process. Because of this bacterial breach into our bloodstream via our leaky gut, the body now has no other choice but to react by pushing the toxins out through our skin. Our body is simply trying to eliminate the bacterial problem the best way it can and rid us of the escaped toxins in our blood.
Unfortunately for us, it essentially puts our skin under assault, resulting in multiple breakouts in skin rashes, acne, eczema, pimples, acne and psoriasis. Along with these effects, you may also experience gas, bloating, fatigue, sinus congestion, and foggy thinking.
How to heal your gut and help clearyour eczema
Now that I understood how the gut-skin connection worked, I wanted to do something about it. Looking into my diet was important in helping me clear my skin. I realized that using creams and taking medicines to heal my eczema wasnt the way to heal my bodyI needed to focus on gut health in order to heal my eczema.
Here a few things I did to start healing my gut:
1) Get rid of inflammatory foods. When I first started to heal my gut, I stopped eating inflammatory foods like wheat(gluten), dairy, soy, and high amounts of sugar. Many people think that just because they arent allergic to these types of foods that it means they can eat them all they like. The fact is, however, that these kinds of inflammatory foods can create problems in your gut that cause the bad bacteria to grow. Sugar, for example, actually feeds bad bacteria in your gut, causing them to grow at a really fast pace.
2) Increase the amounts of probiotics. Just getting rid of inflammatory foods isnt enough for your gut to fully heal. If youve been on medications, and especially antibiotics, youre going to need to grow good bacteria. The fastest way to grow good bacteria is to increase probiotic foods and even supplement if necessary. Foods that contain good probiotics are things like sauerkraut, kimchi (marinated cabbage), kombucha (fermented drink), and kefir.
3) Add Omega 3s to your diet. Another thing that greatly helps build gut-lining are healthy fats that contain high amounts of Omega 3s and essential fatty acids. Fish oil, extra virgin coconut oil, and avocado oil are all good sources of essential fatty acids that will help rebuild your leaky gut lining.
How I healed my eczema through healing my gut
Christina’s skin before and after she changed her diet.
In my experience, I had never tried anything more revolutionary than using gut-health to clear eczema. As I learned more about the gut-skin connection and went off the creams and antibiotics that were inflaming my gut, I began to see my eczema heal.
After over 12 years of suffering from eczema, trying creams, medications, fad diets, artificial methods, and spending hundreds of dollars and having none of them work, I was finally able to see new skin! Through gut health I found the REAL, inexpensive, natural way to heal my skin, clear my eczema and keep it off permanently.
Ever since I healed my gut, my eczema hasnt returned and Im no longer hiding or covering my body. Instead I feel healthier, more confident, and Ive even gotten rid of some other issues that I thought would never go awaylike my chronic canker sores and dandruff problem.
Doctors told me it was something I couldnt get rid of, and that I would have eczema and be reliant on creams and medications for the rest of my lifebut Im proud to say I proved them wrong..and you can too!
Creams, steroids, and medications are not long-term solutions. It all starts with the gut.
Christina Reeves is the Author and Creator of The Flawless Program: a program focusing on gut health as a way to permanently clear skin issues.
Her website http://www.flawlessprogram.com, gives insightful information for anyone looking to heal their gut and fix their skin, naturally and forever!
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Everything For Eczema | Prevent the itch stop the scratch
Posted: September 22, 2015 at 6:42 am
I love this park so much! I’ve been here multiple times and I still manage to discover something new every time. First off, this park is HUGE! It’s really hard to see everything this park has to offer in just one day, especially when you take into account the secret parts (I’m not even being facetious either, look up miniature castle at LSP). This park has a little something for everyone. It’s great for biking, walking, picnics, photography, fishing, anything that you’re into.
I’ll admit that the walk into LSP using the Morris Canal footbridge is a bit suspect, but once you get past that, it’ll infinitely get better. At the end of the tree lined path, you’ll hit the water where there’s the Ellis Island ferry, 9/11 monuments, historical railroads and terminals. Here you’ll get the best shots of NYC.
Moving forward!!! After you’re done with the north end, there’s 2 main walk/bike paths, one along the water and the other on Freedom Way. They both go in the same direction, more or less, but are vastly different. The path along the water is beautiful and I highly recommend this path if you are a first timer. The boardwalk is lined with benches and has a nice view of Ellis Island, NY and the Statue of Liberty. Often times you’ll see people fishing here or flying kites nearby. If you keep walking this path until the very end, and I mean, until the very end, past the BBQ/picnic tables, past the Liberation monument and US Flag Plaza, you’ll eventually hit National Golf Club which looks like a building straight out of the Jetsons. Just keep going!! Pretend you’re Siddhartha listening to the water, because if you keep following it, you’ll end up seeing a wooden bridge, marshes, a different view of the SOL and a lookout point (which is closed due to Sandy). It’s so wonderfully quiet and peaceful once you hit this point. But your journey ends there because you’ll reach a closed community and I’m not trying to get anyone arrested for trespassing.
The other path option on Freedom Way is not as scenic, but is still very cool. I’ve been to LSP over 50x and it’s on this particular path that I keep discovering new things. Walking along Freedom Way is a little like taking a red pill, you have no idea how deep the rabbit-hole goes. This path isn’t as crowded and is geared towards people who want to exercise. There’s a wide bike shoulder lane on the right and a par course on the left that has very basic exercise equipment. If you keep to the left, you’ll hit the Richard J. Sullivan Natural Area, which is home to many adorable ducks and geese in the summer time. Nearby is the Interpretive Center, which is an ecological and educational facility, and also your starting point if you were trying to find the miniature castle. Along Freedom Way, you’ll find a lot of worn paths, taking them is up you to, but I’ve taken many and I’ve always been pleasantly surprised where I ended up.
In short, this park is beautiful and I cannot say enough about it. LSP is definitely worth a visit and makes a wonderful day trip or getaway from the city.
Posted: at 6:42 am
Visiting the Statue of Liberty National Monument and limited access of Ellis Island featuring the Wall of Honor is a memorable experience for people from all over the world. Here are some tips to make your trip easy and more enjoyable.
All possible combinations with recommended time alotment and latest arrival time that allow for completion.
Its easy to use public transportation to visit the Statue of Liberty National Monument or limited access of Ellis Island featuring the Wall of Honor.
The ticket office is located inside historic Castle Clinton at Battery Park. We recommend using public transportation to get to Battery Park as parking is very limited in lower Manhattan. Visit http://www.mta.info for more information about public transportation in Manhattan. Battery Park is also accessible by taxi.
Take any of the following lines:
M1, M6 or M15 to South Ferry (last stop).
From the East Side take the FDR Drive South to Exit 1, South Ferry Battery Park. From the West Side take the Westside Highway South (Route 9A) to Battery Park.
The ticketing and departure areas at Liberty State Park are located by the historic Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal near the water. There is plenty of parking here for a modest fee. This is an ideal departure location for you if you are traveling by car, motorhome or private bus. Liberty State Park is also accessible by taxi, ferry and public transportation. More details are available at the Liberty State Park website.
New Jersey turnpike, exit 14-B follow signs to Liberty State Park.
Take the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) to the Liberty State Park Station, then walk or bike 1 mile on Audrey Zapp Drive to the ticket office area located by the CRRNJ Terminal. From the ticket office/security tent areas, walk 1/3 of a mile to the ferry gangway for departures.
At the entrance of Liberty State Park, the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail is accessible by PATH at the Hoboken Station or Newport (Jersey City) Station. More information about NJ Transit’s Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR)-Liberty State Park station.
Take the Liberty Landing Ferry Service from the World Financial Terminal in New York to Liberty Landing Marina within Liberty State Park, NJ.Visitors with ferry tickets to the Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island will receive a $2 discount on the fare to Liberty Landing Marina when purchasing tickets aboard the Liberty Landing Ferry.
For more trip planning information visit – Liberty Landing Ferry Service.
Dress for the season when you visit the Statue of Liberty National Monument and the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. During the summer months temperatures can rise to the high 90’s with high humidity. In the winter temperatures are chilly. Be sure to dress in layers in case conditions change suddenly.
Be sure to wear comfortable shoes as you will be walking a great deal during your visit.
There are concession stands on all the boats which sell healthy snacks and beverages, as well as merchandise. There are also concession stands and gift stores on both Liberty and Ellis Island.
Before accessing the Pedestal and Crown areas of the Statue, all visitors with backpacks, food and drinks must place these items in key-secured visitor lockers. Lockers are located and can be rented in the security tent area for a nominal fee.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island often have ongoing special exhibits, as well as special programs and tours, that may be offered on the day you visit. Please be sure to check with rangers on Liberty and Ellis Islands for the programs that are available on the day of your visit. For park program information online, please visit http://www.nps.gov/stli.
There are several nearby National and State parks in the area you should consider visiting after your experience at the Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island.
For more information please visit the National Parks of New York Harbor or National Parks of New York Harbor Conservancy.
For sights and events in New Jersey visit the Hudson County Tourism website.