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Tag Archives: summer
Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:34 pm
Saltwater Fishing Charters by Lagooner Fishing Guides
Thursday August 25, 2016
Canaveral Florida host some of the best charter Captains in the world and Lagooner Fishing Guide Captain Richard Bradley is right in amongst them. If the weather’s nice and the seas are fair you’ll experience the Atlantic Ocean on Florida’s East Coast offering awesome King Mackerel action, seasonal mahi mahi or dorado, cobia, sailfish, grouper, snapper and tripletail like the ones displayed above this summer. There are days when the fish are biting so hard that you literally can’t cast a second rod because the first one’s already hooked up and running around the boat at breakneck speeds!
“Fishing offshore near Cape Canaveral between Daytona Beach and Fort Pierce, Florida has so much variety for anglers.” Explains Captain Richard Bradley “If you are vacationing in Orlando or near it’s theme parks Disney, Universal Studios, you’ll not want to miss a day of action on the water catching fish and soaking up Florida’s sunshine.”
Picking an offshore fishing destination is easy in Central Florida as Port Canaveral is absolutely the best bet with the large variety of fish and habitat. Choosing a Charter Fishing Captain is just as easy too… Captain Richard Bradley has over 40 years fishing experience out of Port Canaveral and Cocoa Beach area and is well qualified and full time. “If you’re choosing a Charter Captain, look for a full time, licensed and insured Captain” explains Captain Gina. “We see so many part time illegal fishing guides in our area that have no clue about how to take care of their customers and make a difference in a fishing day. Safety and success are our main concern and it’s not just about making a boat payment or extra money for us, it’s about making a lively hood and doing it RIGHT.” Our website reflects what we believe so take a look around and you’ll see quality in everything we do.
Offshore of Cocoa Beach and Port Canaveral’s beaches are countless reefs, rocks, ridges and wrecks for the fishing enthusiast to explore. Hiring an experienced and knowledgeable local fishing guide offers the best opportunity for anglers to hookup with many of the local species of saltwater fish like the powerful Jack Crevelle or aerobatic tarpon. Venturing further offshore offers anglers deeper water species like Snapper, Grouper, Sailfish and Dolphin. Simply ask your Charter Fishing Captain what’s biting and follow his lead to the best bite in Central Florida’s offshore waters.
Hello, I’m Captain Gina Bradley from East Central Florida in Cocoa Beach. My husband, Captain Richard takes me offshore fishing all summer long for hard fighting and reel striping action that really makes for a wonderful day for this outdoors girl.
You really can’t go wrong on Florida’s east coast during the summer. The temperatures on the ocean are cooler than inshore and the fishing is fabulous and fast paced on most days. Captain Richard is an expert and knows how to put his anglers on the fish and you’ll enjoy his enthusiasm and love for the outdoors.
Call me today and set up your offshore fishing trip in Central Florida Today!
Captain Gina Bradley Lagooner Booking Agent / 321-868-4953
It’s Summer….! Offshore fishing in the summer in this part of Florida can be the most fun a family or serious anglers can have. Whether you’re looking to sightfish for cobia or live bait for king mackerel and other offshore game fish, it’s usually calm and hot in the summer months out of Port Canaveral. Typically summer fishing tends to slow down in the mid summer in the lagoons and gets really good offshore so it’s a great time to change the scene and head out to the deep blue abyss for some hard fighting action.
Reviewed by Captain Richard Bradley on Last modified: January 19 2016 19:26:13.
Published by: Captain Richard Bradley of Lagooner Fishing Guides
Lagooner Fishing Guides Cocoa Beach’s premier saltwater fishing guide with over 25 years of charter fishing experience in his native waters. Telephone: 321-868-4953 Website: http://www.lagooner.com
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Posted: August 16, 2016 at 4:33 pm
Tuesday June 28, 2016, 7:00 pm 9:00pm
Kitsap Regional Library, Poulsbo Branch, 700 NE Lincoln Rd, Poulsbo, WA 98370
In 1958 a crew of Quaker peace activists attempted to sail the Golden Rule to the Marshall Islands to interfere with US nuclear bomb testing. This bold nonviolent direct action inspired a worldwide movement leading to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.
After five years of restoration by Veterans For Peace and many friends, the Golden Rule is once again sailing for a nuclear-free world and a peaceful, sustainable future!
Come hear the story of the Golden Rule, how she was rescued from a watery grave in Humboldt Bay in Northern California and lovingly restored by Veterans For Peace, Quakers and others, her voyage to San Diego in 2015 and her voyage around the Pacific Northwest this year.
Hank and Claire, folksingers in the Pete Seeger tradition will provide music, and Retired Navy Captain (and former nuclear submarine commander) Tom Rogers willintroduce the program on behalf of Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action.
Click here to view or download a printable poster/flier for the event.
NOTE: The Golden Rule will arrive at the Port of Poulsbo Marina on June 27th, and will be available to tour and take people sailing on both June 27th and 28th.
Event sponsored by:Ground Zero Center for Nonviolent Action
For more information, call 206-499-1220 or 206-992-6364
The Golden Rule will be visiting much of the Pacific Northwest throughout the Summer.Click here to learn more about The Golden Rule project. The Golden Rule is also on Facebook.
Posted: July 10, 2016 at 5:57 pm
Abstract: Psychological egoism, the view that people act solely in their own interest, is defined and shown not to be a meaningful ethical philosophy.
I. The distinction between psychological egoism and ethical egoism reflects the contrast of “is” verses “ought,” “fact” verses “value,” or “descriptive” verses “prescriptive.”
II. By way of clarification of relevant terms, James Rachels, among others, points out common confusion concerning selfishness and self-interest.
III. The Refutation of Psychological Egoism: arguments to the conclusion that the generalization everyone acts from the motive of self-interest is false.
IV.Interestingly enough, the same objections can be raised against the view termed, “psychological altruism”: all persons act from the motive of helping others, and all actions are done from other-regarding motives. (Psychological altruism is a view advanced only from the position of a “devil’s advocate.”)
V. As a final note, it should be mentioned that psychological egoism can’t be saved by psychoanalytic theory. I.e., Freud’s notion of the unconscious raises the possibility that we have unconscious desires and can act against our conscious inclinations. If it is argued that we always unconsciously seek our self-interest, then this view is untestable and circular as well.
Consider the following passage from Freud’s Interpretations of Dreams*:
“A contradiction to my theory of dream produced by another of my women patients (the cleverest of all my dreamers) was resolved more simply, but upon the same pattern: namely that the nonfulfillment of one wish meant the fulfillment of another. One day I had been explaining to her that dreams are fulfillments of wishes. Next day she brought me a dream in which she was traveling down with her mother-in-law to the place in the country where they were to spend their holidays together. Now I knew that she had violently rebelled against the idea of spending the summer near her mother-in-law and that a few days earlier she had successfully avoided the propinquity she dreaded by engaging rooms in a far distant resort. And now her dream had undone the solution she had wished for; was not this the sharpest contradiction of my theory that in dreams wishes are fulfilled? No doubt; and it was only necessary to follow the dreams logical consequence in order to arrive at its interpretation. The dream showed that I was wrong. Thus it was her wish that I might be wrong, and her dream showed that wish fulfilled (italics original)”
*Sigmund Freud, The Interpretations of Dreams (New York: Avon, 1966), 185.
“We Are Not Always Selfish”: (this site) A classic discussion of the many facets of ethical egoism in notes on James Rachel’s work.
Altruism “in-built” in humans: BBC report of discovery of altruistic behavior in infants summarized from the journal Science.
“Studies Show Chimps to Be Collaborative.”: A summary of an article from Science News describing research indicating that chimpanzees cooperate without the expectation of reward.
“Egoism”: Explanation of egoism and altruism with a brief summary of refutations and defenses excerpted from Richard Kraut’s “Egoism” in the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Ethical Egoism: (this site) The various forms of ethical egoism are defined. Standard objections to ethical egoism are evaluated, and the conclusion is drawn that ethical egoism is incomplete.
Posted: July 5, 2016 at 11:50 pm
by Sean Croxton
There is one particular day I look forward to each year and it went down yesterday.
I woke up, strolled to the kitchen, and found my jar of coconut oil smiling at me.
It was so beautiful, like a butterfly emerging from its cocoon to take its first flight. Like a wayward child coming home again.
The coconut oil was liquid.
Summer is here.
Not only is the oil of all oils heart-healthy. Not only does it make your skin look dead sexy. Not only does it fight the bugs that attack your body, as we will discuss today.
Coconut oil makes one heck of a weather forecaster, too.
Yesterday brought blue skies with a high of 81 degrees in San Diego. And I didnt need the weather girl to tell me that.
The coconut oil told me.
And best of all, I can drink it from the jar now. I take my coconut oil to the head! Spoons are for wussies.
Anyway, just thought Id share in my summer excitement before dropping some knowledge bombs on you about coconut oil and your immunity. If youre on the East Coast, youve got something to look forward to in the coming weeks. Leave your jar on the counter and tweet me when your butterfly hatches!
Tonight, its on like Donkey Kong. Bruce Fife, author of The Coconut Oil Miracle is on the UW Radio Show. Certain to be another hot one. My coconut oil told me so.
Dont miss it! 5pm PT/8pm ET
A major topic Bruce and I will be covering is the use of coconut oil as a means of fighting nasty bugs like bacteria, viruses, parasites, and yeast. One thing that dawned on me while reading his book is the well-known fact that traveling to tropical climates puts those of us from more moderate temperatures at risk of coming home with a bad case of the gut bugs.
Working with clients, one of the red flags I would see quite often was digestive dysfunction originating during or after a trip to some island paradise. For many, a stool test revealed a parasitic infection that likely lingered for years, even decades.
But what about the natives who have actually lived in these literal breeding grounds for microbes and critters for generations? Why dont they have an epidemic of digestive challenges and parasitic infection?
Its the coconut oil, baby.
When you really think about it, its quite the coincidence that God, Mother Nature, or the aliens (whoever you believe put us here) just so happened to supply one of the most antibacterial, antiviral, anti-parasitic foods on Earth to a people living in a place where such microbes flourish. Even Weston Price was amazed by the low incidence of malaria in tropical people.
Amazingly, science has yet to explain a genetic explanation for such resistance. Why not?
Because its the coconut oil, baby!
When we feel a cold coming on, most of us should be reaching for the kitchen cabinet before the medicine cabinet. Actually, we should be taking our coconut oil to the head every day or at least using it for cooking as a means of preventing all types of nasty infections.
In last weeks blog, I typed about the medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coconut oil consists of. These MCFAs, which include caprylic acid, capric acid, mystiric acid, and lauric acid, are quite sparse in our food supply. Not only are these fats burned immediately for fuel (as discussed last time), but they also possess incredible antimicrobial properties, with lauric acid having the greatest antiviral activity.
As you know, medical doctor are notorious for prescribing antibiotics for viral infections. This brings about two problems. The first problem is the ever-growing development of superbugs, which are antibiotic resistant (but maybe not MCFA-resistant). And of course, the second problem is the fact that antibiotics do not kill viruses!
But coconut oil and its MCFAs can.
Bacteria and viruses are typically coated with a lipid (fat) membrane (rhinovirus is an exception), which encloses their DNA and other cellular materials. This membrane is very fluid, flexible, and mobile, allowing it to squeeze its way in and out of tight spots.
Due to the fact that the fats making up this membrane are very similar to MCFAs, the medium-chain fatty acids from coconut can sneak past security and become absorbed into the membrane, where they weaken it, split it open, and kill it by pretty much ripping its insides out.
Coconut oil has a violent streak.
The most intriguing part of this germ warfare is that the MCFAs are selective. Friendly fire isnt a problem. In the case of bacteria, we possess both good and bad bacteria in our guts. The MCFAs actually single out the bad guys and leave the good guys alone.
Its really amazing stuff.
Published research shows that the MCFAs from coconut oil can kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that cause the following illnesses. This is just a short list. More can be found on page 77 of The Coconut Oil Miracle. Of course, MCFAs are no panacea. But they deserve far more attention in the prevention and treatment of many diseases and conditions. Then again, you cant patent coconut oil and sell if for outlandish prices. So dont expect Big Pharma to run any ads for it any time soon.
Bacterial Infections Throat and sinus infections Urinary tract infections Dental cavities and gum disease Helicobacter Pylori Gastric ulcers Ear infections Food poisoning
Viral Infections Influenza Measles Herpes Chronic fatigue syndrome AIDS and HIV
Fungal Infections Ringworm Athletes foot Candidiasis Toenail fungus
Parasite Infections Giardia
I can go on and on about the benefits of coconut oil. But Im out of time today. Gotta edit Episode 3 of the Underground Wellness Show (guest: Mark Sisson).
Dont forget to tune in to tonights UW Radio show and find out how much coconut oil you should be consuming and MORE!
Its at 5pm PT/8pm ET. Dial 347-237-5608 to ask Bruce your burning coconut questions. Or tweet me at @ugwellness.
UPDATE: Listen to the show with Dr. Fife below!
Sean Author, The Dark Side of Fat Loss
Posted: June 29, 2016 at 6:37 pm
Whether your drainpipes have become clogged, or your water heater is leaking water, make sure that you have a reliable Des Moines plumber at your beck and call. We offer comprehensive plumbing repair, installation, replacement, and maintenance services that can keep your home free of water damage and bountifully supplied with hot and cold water. We want you to have a reliable plumbing system, and we have the quality workmanship and technical expertise to make sure that this is the case. Thousands of customers in Des Moines choose Golden Rule for their plumbing needs, and wed love an opportunity to earn your business.
Staying warm during the winter is as simple as having a reliable heater in the home. At Golden Rule Plumbing, Heating & Cooling, we provide comprehensive heating service in the Des Moines area, including installation, replacement, repair, and maintenance. We service all brands of equipment, and we can make sure that your furnace, boiler, heat pump, radiant heat, hybrid heating system, geothermal, or ductless mini split is professionally installed and serviced.
At Golden Rule Plumbing, Heating & Cooling, we also offer excellent air conditioning service in Des Moines, IA. Our service technicians can help with everything frominstallation and replacement to repair and maintenance. We not only install and service central air conditioners, which are probably the most common, but also heat pumps, ductless mini splits and geothermal systems. Having a great cooling system is essential to the comfort of your home in the summer.
One of our specialties is geothermal. This type of heating and cooling system delivers yearround comfort to your home while cutting down on energy consumption significantly. It is a great way not only to be more selfsufficient, but also to reduce your energy bill and to utilize a renewable resource. It involves the installation of underground piping as well as conventional HVAC components such as the heat pump and ductwork. You can depend on us for professional geothermal service throughout Des Moines.
A leak or clog at home is often a minor inconvenience. But when it occurs at your place of business or at the commercial property that you manage, it directly affects your livelihood. We can take care of your commercial plumbing and commercial HVAC services in Des Moines, IA, whether its the installation of a comprehensive new rooftop heating and cooling unit or the replacement of your existing water heater with a new tankless model, Golden Rule Plumbing, Heating & Cooling can help. Call us today.
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Posted: June 21, 2016 at 6:34 am
Biography William Wilberforce is perhaps the best known of the abolitionists. He came from a prosperous merchant family of Kingston-upon-Hull, a North Sea port which saw little in the way of slave trading. (His birthplace is now preserved as the Wilberforce House Museum.) At twenty-one, the youngest age at which one could be so elected, he was returned to Parliament for his native town. Four years later he was again returned to Parliament, this time for the county seat of Yorkshire which was large and populous, and which therefore required an expensive election contest. The advantage was that the election, being genuinely democratic, conferred a greater legitimacy to the two Members which that county returned to Parliament. Wilberforce’s early years in Parliament were not untypical for a young back-bencher. He was noted for his eloquence and charm, attributes no doubt enhanced by his considerable wealth, but he did not involve himself at first with any great cause. A sudden conversion to evangelical Christianity in 1785 changed that and from then onwards he approached politics from a position of strict Christian morality. In 1786 he carried through the House of Commons a bill for amending criminal law which failed to pass the Lords, a pattern which was to be repeated during his abolitionist career. The following year he founded the Proclamation Society which had as its aim the suppression of vice and the reformation of public manners. Later in 1787 he became, at the suggestion of the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, the parliamentary leader of the abolition movement, although he did not officially join the Abolition Society until 1794.
The story of Pitt’s conversation with Wilberforce under an old tree near Croydon has passed into the mythology of the anti-slavery movement. The result was that Wilberforce returned to London having promised to look over the evidence which Thomas Clarkson had amassed against the trade. As he did so he clearly become genuinely horrified and resolved to give the abolition movement his support. Working closely with Clarkson, he presented evidence to a committee of the Privy Council during 1788. This episode did not go as planned. Some of the key witnesses against the trade, apparently bribed or intimidated, changed their story and testified in favour. In the country at large abolitionist sentiment was growing rapidly. While the king’s illness and the Regency Bill crisis no doubt supplanted the slave trade as the chief topic of political conversation in the winter of 1788-9, by the spring the king had recovered and abolition was once more at the top of the agenda. It was under these circumstances that Wilberforce prepared to present his Abolition Bill before the House of Commons. This speech, the most important of Wilberforce’s life to that point, was praised in the newspapers as being one of the most eloquent ever to have been heard in the house. Indeed, The Star reported that ‘the gallery of the House of Commons on Tuesday was crowded with Liverpool Merchants; who hung their heads in sorrow – for the African occupation of bolts and chains is no more’.
The newspaper was premature in sounding the death knell of the slave trade. After the 1789 speech parliamentary delaying tactics came into play. Further evidence was requested and heard over the summer months and then, on 23 June 1789, the matter was adjourned until the next session. Wilberforce left town, holidaying at Buxton with Hannah More, confident that the next session would see a resolution of the debate and abolition of the trade. It did not and by January 1790 the question was deemed to be taking up so much parliamentary time that consideration of the evidence was moved upstairs (as parliamentary jargon has it) to a Select Committee. Evidence in favour of the trade was heard until April, followed by evidence against. In June Pitt called an early general election. Wilberforce was safely returned as a Member for Yorkshire, but parliamentary business was disrupted. Despite being behind schedule, Wilberforce continued to work for an abolition which it appeared the country wanted. News of the slave rebellion in Dominica reached Britain in February 1791 and hardened attitudes against abolition, but Wilberforce pressed on. After almost two years of delay the debate finally resumed and Wilberforce again addressed the Commons on 18 April 1791.
When, on the following night, the House divided on the question of abolition fewer than half of its Members remained to vote. Because of this or not, the Abolition Bill fell with a majority of 75 against abolishing the slave trade. Wilberforce and the other members of the Abolition Committee returned to the task of drumming up support for abolition both from Members of Parliament and from ordinary people. More petitions were collected, further meetings held, extra pamphlets published, and a boycott of sugar was organised. The campaign was not helped by news of the revolutions in France and Haiti. Perhaps sensing that a hardening of attitudes was becoming increasingly likely Wilberforce again brought the question of abolition before the House and, almost a year after the previous defeat, on 2 April 1792, once more found himself addressing the House of Commons. Every account we have of this speech shows that it was an intense and lengthy emotional harangue. Public feeling was outraged and, on this occasion, so was the feeling of the House. But not quite enough. Henry Dundas suggested an amendment to the Abolition Bill: the introduction of the word ‘gradual’. The bill passed as amended, by 230 votes to 85, and gradual abolition became law, the final date for slave trading to remain legal being later fixed at 1796. But this gave the ‘West India Interest’ – the slave traders’ lobby – room to manoeuvre. Once again parliamentary delaying tactics came into play, further evidence was demanded, and it became clear that gradual abolition was to mean no abolition.
This event marked a turning point in the fortunes of the abolition camapign. Partly because of a hardening of attitudes caused by the outbreak of war with France, and partly because of determined resistance from the West-India Interest there was a collapse in public enthusiasm for the cause. Some abolitionists withdrew from the campaign entirely. Wilberforce did not, but his speeches fell on ever deafer ears. Although Wilberforce reintroduced the Abolition Bill almost every year in the 1790s, little progress was made even though Wilberforce remained optimistic for the long-term success of the cause. He directed some of his efforts into other arenas, largely evangelical or philanthropic, and was instrumental in setting up organisations such as The Bible Society and The Society for Bettering the Condition of the Poor. In 1797 he published a book, A Practical view of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, a work of popular theology with a strong evangelical hue which sold well on publication and throughout the nineteenth century. On 30 May 1797, after a short romance, he married Barbara Ann Spooner.
If the first two years of the new century were particularly bleak ones for the abolition movement, the situation was rapidly reversed in 1804. The association of abolitionism with Jacobinism dispersed as Napoleon’s hostility to emancipation became known. Members of Parliament, especially the many new Irish members, increasingly tended toward abolition. The Abolition Society reformed with a mixture of experienced older members and new blood. Wilberforce assumed his old role of parliamentary leader, and introduced the Abolition Bill before parliament. The Bill fell in 1804 and 1805, but gave the abolitionists an opportunity to sound out support. In 1806, Wilberforce published an influential tract advocating abolition and, in June that year, resolutions supporting abolition were passed in parliament. A public campaign once again promoted the cause, and the new Whig government was in favour as well. In January 1807, the Abolition Bill was once again introduced, this time attracting very considerable support, and, on 23 February 1807, almost fifteen years after Dundas had effectively wrecked abolition with his gradualist amendment, Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of abolition of the slave trade. During the debate the then Solicitor-General, Sir Samuel Romilly, spoke against the trade. His speech concluded with a long and emotional tribute to Wilberforce in which he contrasted the peaceful happiness of Wilberforce in his bed with the tortured sleeplessness of the guilty Napoleon Bonaparte. In the words of Romilly’s biographer;
The Abolition Act received the Royal Assent (became law) on 25 March 1807 but, although the trade in slaves had become illegal in British ships, slavery remained a reality in British colonies. Wilberforce himself was privately convinced that the institution of slavery should be entirely abolished, but understood that there was little political will for emancipation. Already recognised as an elder statesman in his 50s, Wilberforce received a steady throng of visitors and supplicants, and he became involved in many of the political questions of the day. He supported Catholic Emancipation and the Corn Laws. His health was poor, however, and in 1812 he resigned the large and arduous seat of Yorkshire for the pocket borough of Bramber. In the same year he started work on the Slave Registration Bill, which he saw as necessary to ensure compliance with the Abolition Act. If slaves were registered, he argued, it could be proved whether or not they had been recently transported from Africa. The Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, supported the Bill, but was assassinated shortly after. Thereafter, Wilberforce’s efforts met with increasing resistance from the government. In 1815, with the government again blocking progress, Wilberforce publically declared that as they would not support him, he felt himself no longer bound by their line on emancipation. From this time on, Wilberforce campaigned openly for an end to the institution of slavery.
Wilberforce’s health, never good, was deteriorating. Although now free to speak his mind on emancipation, he was never able to campaign with the same vigour that he had done for abolition of the trade. However, he continued to attack slavery both at public meetings and in the House of Commons. In 1823, he published another pamphlet attacking slavery. This pamphlet was connected with the foundation of The Anti-Slavery Society which led the campaign to emancipate all slaves in British colonies. Leadership of the parliamentary campaign, however, was passed from Wilberforce to Thomas Fowell Buxton. In 1825, Wilberforce resigned from the House of Commons. He enjoyed a quiet retirement at Mill Hill, just north of London, although he suffered some financial difficulties. His last public appearance was at a meeting of the Anti-Slavery Society in 1830, at which, at Thomas Clarkson’s suggestion, he took the chair. In parliament, the Emancipation Bill gathered support and received its final commons reading on 26 July 1833. Slavery would be abolished, but the planters would be heavily compensated. ‘Thank God’, said Wilberforce, ‘that I have lived to witness a day in which England is willing to give twenty millions sterling for the Abolition of Slavery’. Three days later, on 29 July 1833, he died. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Brycchan Carey 2000-2002
Posted: June 10, 2016 at 12:45 pm
Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Until 2012, through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.
Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.
Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.
The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term “nano-technology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.
Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.
Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.
First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope’s developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.
Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.
In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society’s report on nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.
Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.
Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.
By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size that phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device. These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.
To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man’s beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.
Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.
Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.
Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the quantum size effect where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.
Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.
Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.
These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.
Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.
Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.
When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.
It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler’s book Nanosystems.
In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno, is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.
This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003. Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator, and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.
An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.
The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.
These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.
These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.
These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.
These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.
Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.
There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.
The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode. However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.
Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.
Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.
The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques. At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.
In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.
However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.
As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week. The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of “first generation” passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings, and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.
Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home. Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.
Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water. Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts. Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst’s surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.
Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to the mimic the nanoscale features of a Cell’s microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage. For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.
Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.
An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.
Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash. These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.
Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.
Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law, but ultimately rejected it. Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies, the insurability of nanotechnology is contested. Without state regulation of nanotechnology, the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly.
Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis. Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.
A two-year study at UCLA’s School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree “linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging”.
A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the nanotechnology revolution could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said “We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully.” In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food. A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.
Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology. There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by bolting on nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes. Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.
Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food, nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Centers Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology. As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.
The Royal Society report identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure (p. xiii).
The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.
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Posted: April 23, 2016 at 2:45 pm
In December 2012 The Fifth Amendment happy hour was founded by myself, Michele Bamberg, and Jeffrey Gitto. The happy hour is a social and professional networkin…g event geared towards the legal community which featured food/drink specials, and weekly guest bartenders we dubbed “lawtenders”. The Fifth Amendment happy hour quickly became the place to be on Wednesday evenings, and was a favorite among many lawyers, judges, public defenders, prosecutors, paralegals, court reporters, etc. It also attracted many people outside the legal community as well which was great for meeting new people, and building relationships.
The Fifth Amendment has been a huge success. It was originally ran by the best in the business to include, but not limited to Nique Ryan, Aaron Round, Chelsea Sherman, Sammy Morgan, Rachel Valore, Gabrielle Mendez, Brandon Young, Erica Warner, Kj Pignatelli, Justin Sullivan, Amy Jeanine, and more. In just the first 10 months of its inception, The Fifth Amendment became the foundation for an incredible fundraiser in which we rallied the community and successfully raised over $20K in less than 3 weeks for a young boy suffering from Lyme Disease!
After a much needed break, The Fifth Amendment was on a new scene to start the summer of 2015. This time our goal was to raise $10K for Legal Aid Society of the Orange County Bar Association, Inc. This would be achieved through the hard work of Rob Bamberg, Michele Bamberg, Nique Ryan, and Donna Haynes; ran by Alex Coven, Trisha Sissons, and Jake Friend; with selflessness generosity from the following sponsors/donors: Amir Ladan of Ladan Law; Eric Boughman of Forster Boughman & Lefkowitz; David Bigney of Bigney Law Firm; Ryan Davis of Winderweedle, Haines, Ward & Woodman, P.A.; Amber Neilson Davis of Beusse Wolter Sanks & Maire, PLLC; Mario Ceballos of The Ceballos Law Firm, P.A.; Kirsty Irvin Schouweiler of First Choice Reporting & Video Services, Inc.; Tara Slocum of Legal Realtime Reporting; Kimberly Lorenz of Fisher Rushmer, P.A. Family Law; Rob Bamberg of ProServe USA; Michele Bamberg of Lady Esquire, Men’s Stylist; and last but certainly not least, tonight’s sponsors William Umansky & Zahra Iravani Umansky of The Umansky Law Firm.
This goes to show there’s power in numbers because people working together are greater than they can ever be working apart. And every single person listed past and present, is a huge reason The Fifth Amendment has been a success! On behalf of Jeffrey Gitto, Nique Ryan, Michele Bamberg, and myself, we hope to see you tonight at Side Bar 6 pm – 10 pm, and we thank you for your support!
God Bless America!
The Fifth Amendment – facebook.com
Posted: March 30, 2016 at 1:44 am
Date Location Tournament Name Jul 23-24 Merced The 18 Classic Jul 23-24 Hanford Hanford Turn Up the Heat Jul 30-31 Fresno The Fresno Invitational! Aug 6-7 Santa Maria Santa Maria “Catch the Spirit” Aug 6-7 Merced The 12 Classic Aug 13-14 Turlock The Wounded Warrior Tournament Aug 13-14 Castaic Rumble at the Grape Vine Aug 20-21 Tulare Tulare Hot Summer Days Aug 27-28 Merced Madness in Merced Aug 27-28 Bakersfield Kalie Boyer Memorial Scholarship Tournament Sep 3-4 Hanford The Hanford Softball Quest Sep 3-4 Modesto NSA’s Muscular Dystrophy Tournament Sep 10-11 Turlock Turlock End of Summer Shootout Sep 17-18 Hanford Hanford Sliding Out of Summer Sep 17-18 Lancaster Lancaster’s Battle in the Desert Sep 24-25 Tulare Tulare Fall Showdown Oct 1-2 Bakersfield Bakersfield Pretty in Pink Cancer Awareness Oct 1-2 Merced The 14 Classic Oct 8-9 Fresno Fresno Play for the Pride Cancer Awareness Oct 15-16 Modesto Modesto Think Pink Cancer Awareness Oct 15-16 Glendale Play for the Cure Cancer Awareness Oct 22-23 Hanford Tulare Ghost and Goblins Bash Oct 29-30 Turlock Turlock Halloween Classic Nov 5-6 Hanford Hanford Team Appreciation Scholarship Event Nov 12-13 Modesto West Pac Fall Championship Nov 19-20 Turlock Turlock Thanksgiving Turkey Trot Nov 19-20 Bakersfield Bakersfield Last Chance Tournament Nov 26-27 Merced Merced’s End of Year Blowout Dec 3 Merced The Reindeer Games Canned Food Drive
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Central California NSA – cencalnsa.com