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Ascension of Jesus – Wikipedia

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:32 pm

The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God. The well-known narrative in Acts 1 it takes place 40 days after the Resurrection: Jesus, in the company of the disciples, is taken up in their sight after warning them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit; as he ascends a cloud hides him from their view, and two men in white appear to tell them that he will return “in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”

Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying divine approval or the deification of an exceptional man. In the Christian tradition, reflected in the major Christian creeds and confessional statements, the ascension is connected with the exultation of Jesus, meaning that through his ascension Jesus took his seat at the right hand of God: “He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.” The Feast of the Ascension is celebrated on the 40th day of Easter, always a Thursday; the Orthodox tradition has a different calendar up to a month later than in the Western tradition, and while the Anglican communion continues to observe the feast, most Protestant churches have abandoned it. The Ascension of Jesus is an important theme in Christian art, the ascending Jesus often shown blessing an earthly group below him to signify his blessing the entire Church.

The world of the Ascension is a three-part universe with the heavens above, a flat earth centered on Jerusalem in the middle, and the underworld below. Heaven was separated from the earth by the firmament, the visible sky, a solid inverted bowl where God’s throne sat “on the vaulted roof of earth.”(Isaiah 40:22). Humans looking up from earth saw the floor of heaven, made of clear blue lapis-lazuli (Exodus 24:9-10), as was God’s throne (Ezekiel 1:26).

Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying the means whereby a prophet could attain access to divine secrets, or divine approval granted to an exceptionally righteous individual, or the deification of an exceptional man. Figures familiar to Jews would have included Enoch (from the Book of Genesis and a popular non-Biblical work called 1 Enoch), the 5th century sage Ezra, Baruch the companion of the prophet Jeremiah (from a work called 2 Baruch, in which Baruch is promised he will ascend to heaven after 40 days)), Levi the ancestor of priests, the Teacher of Righteousness from the Qumran community, as well as Elijah and Moses, who was deified on entering heaven, and the children of Job, who according to the Testament of Job ascended heaven following their resurrection from the dead. Non-Jewish readers would have been familiar with the case of the emperor Augustus, whose ascent was witnessed by Senators, Romulus the founder of Rome, who, like Jesus, was taken to heaven in a cloud, the Greek hero Heracles (Hercules), and many others.

There is a broad consensus among scholars that the brief Ascension account in the Gospel of Mark is a later addition to the original version of that gospel.Luke-Acts, a single work from the same anonymous author, provides the only detailed account of the Ascension.Luke 24 tells how Jesus leads the eleven disciples to Bethany, a village on the Mount of Olives not far from Jerusalem, where he instructs them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit and blesses them. “And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven. And they worshiped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.”

Acts 1 describes a meal on the Mount of Olives, where Jesus commands the disciples to await the coming of the Holy Spirit, a cloud takes him upward from sight, and two men in white appear to tell them (the disciples) that he will return “in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.” Luke and Acts appear to describe the same event, but present quite different chronologies, Luke placing it on the same day as the Resurrection and Acts forty days afterwards;[20] various proposals have been put forward to resolve the contradiction, but the question remains open.

The Gospel of John has three references to ascension in Jesus’ own words: “No one has ascended into heaven but he who descended from heaven, the son of man” (John 3:13); “What if you (the disciples) were to to see the son of man ascending where he was before?” (John 6:62); and to Mary Magdalene after his Resurrection, “Do not hold me, for I not yet ascended to my father…” (John20:17). In the first and second Jesus is claiming to be the apocalyptic “one like a son of man” of Daniel 7; the last has mystified commentators what should Mary be prohibited from touching the risen but not yet ascended Christ, while Thomas is later invited to do so?

Various epistles (Romans 8:34, Ephesians 1:19-20, Colossians 3:1, Philippians 2:9-11, 1 Timothy 3:16, and 1 Peter 3:21-22) also refer to an Ascension, seeming, like Luke-Acts and John, to equate it with the post-resurrection “exultation” of Jesus to the right hand of God.

The common thread linking all the New Testament Ascension references, reflected in the major Christian creeds and confessional statements, is the exultation of Jesus, meaning that through his ascension Jesus took his seat at the right hand of God in Heaven: “He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.” It is interpreted more broadly as the culmination of the Mystery of the Incarnation, marking the completion of Jesus’ physical presence among his apostles and consummating the union of God and man, as expressed in the Second Helvetic Confession:

Despite this, the Ascension itself has become an embarrassment. As expressed in a famous statement by theologian Rudolf Bultmann in his essay The New Testament and Mythology: “We no longer believe in the three-storied universe which the creeds take for granted… No one who is old enough to think for himself supposes that God lives in a local heaven … And if this is so, the story of Christ’s … ascension into heaven is done with.” Modern theologians have therefore de-mythologised their theology, abandoning a God who sits enthroned above Jerusalem for a heaven which is “the endless, self-sustaining life of God” and the Ascension “an emblem in space and time of God’s eternal life.”

The Feast of the Ascension is one of the ecumenical (i.e., universally celebrated) feasts of the Christian liturgical year, along with the Passion, Easter, and Pentecost. Ascension Day is traditionally celebrated on the sixth Thursday after Easter Sunday, the fortieth day from Easter day, although some Roman Catholic provinces have moved the observance to the following Sunday to facilitate the obligation to take Mass. Saint Jerome held that it was of Apostolic origin, but in fact the Ascension was originally part of Pentecost (the coming of the Holy Spirit, and developed as a separate celebration only slowly from the late 4th century onward. In the Catholic tradition it begins with a three-day “rogation” to ask for God’s mercy, and the feast itself includes a procession of torches and banners symbolising Christ’s journey to the Mount of Olives and entry into heaven, the extinguishing of the Paschal candle, and an all-night vigil; white is the liturgical colour. The orthodox tradition has a slightly different calendar up to a month later than in the Western tradition; the Anglican communion continues to observe the feast, but most Protestant churches have abandoned the traditional Christian calendar of feasts.

The Ascension has been a frequent subject in Christian art. By the 6th century the iconography of the Ascension had been established and by the 9th century Ascension scenes were being depicted on domes of churches. The Rabbula Gospels (c. 586) include some of the earliest images of the Ascension. Many ascension scenes have two parts, an upper (Heavenly) part and a lower (earthly) part. The ascending Christ may be carrying a resurrection banner or make a sign of benediction with his right hand. The blessing gesture by Christ with his right hand is directed towards the earthly group below him and signifies that he is blessing the entire Church. In the left hand, he may be holding a Gospel or a scroll, signifying teaching and preaching.

The Eastern Orthodox portrayal of the Ascension is a major metaphor for the mystical nature of the Church. In many Eastern icons the Virgin Mary is placed at the center of the scene in the earthly part of the depiction, with her hands raised towards Heaven, often accompanied by various Apostles. The upwards-looking depiction of the earthly group matches the Eastern liturgy on the Feast of the Ascension: “Come, let us rise and turn our eyes and thoughts high…”

The traditional site of the Ascension is Mount Olivet (the “Mount of Olives”, on which the village of Bethany sits. Before the conversion of Constantine in 312 AD, early Christians honored the Ascension of Christ in a cave on the Mount, and by 384 the Ascension was venerated on the present site, uphill from the cave.[33]

Around the year 390 a wealthy Roman woman named Poimenia financed construction of the original church called “Eleona Basilica” (elaion in Greek means “olive garden”, from elaia “olive tree,” and has an oft-mentioned similarity to eleos meaning “mercy”). This church was destroyed by Sassanid Persians in 614. It was subsequently rebuilt, destroyed, and rebuilt again by the Crusaders. This final church was later destroyed by Muslims, leaving only a 12×12 meter octagonal structure (called a martyrium”memorial”or “Edicule”) that remains to this day.[34] The site was ultimately acquired by two emissaries of Saladin in the year 1198 and has remained in the possession of the Islamic Waqf of Jerusalem ever since.

The Chapel of the Ascension today is a Christian and Muslim holy site now believed to mark the place where Jesus ascended into heaven; in the small round church/mosque is a stone imprinted with the footprints of Jesus.[33] The Russian Orthodox Church also maintains a Convent of the Ascension on the top of the Mount of Olives.

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Ascension of Jesus – Wikipedia

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Ron Paul presidential campaign, 2012 – Wikipedia

Posted: at 12:20 pm


On May 13, 2011, in Exeter, New Hampshire, Paul announced his decision to seek the Republican nomination in the 2012 election. The announcement was broadcast live nationally on ABC’s Good Morning America.[4]

On May 14, 2012, Paul made a statement on the campaign’s website that he would no longer be actively campaigning in remaining state primaries, but would instead continue his presidential bid by seeking to collect delegates at caucuses and state conventions for the Republican National Convention in August 2012.[23]

He participated in a debate on June 13, 2011 at Saint Anselm College in Goffstown, New Hampshire.[24] On June 18, 2011, Paul won the Southern Republican Leadership Conference straw poll with 41%, winning by a large margin on Jon Huntsman, who trailed second with 25% and Michele Bachmann with 13% (Mitt Romney came in fifth with 5%).[25] On June 19 he again won the Clay County Iowa StrawPoll with 25%, while Michele Bachmann trailed second with 12%.

Paul also participated in another debate on August 11, 2011, in Ames, Iowa, and overwhelmingly won the post-debate polls.[26] He then came in second in the Ames Straw Poll with 4,671 votes, narrowly losing to Michele Bachmann by 152 votes or 0.9%, a statistical first-place tie finish according to some in the news media.[27][28][29][30] He received the fourth most votes for a candidate in the history of the Ames Straw Poll.

On August 20, in the New Hampshire Young Republicans Straw Poll Paul came again first, again overwhelmingly, with 45%, Mitt Romney trailing second with 10%.[31] On August 27, in the Georgia State GOP Straw Poll Paul came in a close second place behind Georgia resident Herman Cain, who had 26% of the vote, with Paul receiving 25.7%.[32]

On September 5, Paul attended the Palmetto Freedom Forum in South Carolina along with fellow candidates Herman Cain, Mitt Romney, Michele Bachmann and Newt Gingrich. The forum was paneled by congressmen Steve King of Iowa, senator Jim DeMint of South Carolina and Dr. Robert P. George, the founder of the American Principles Project which hosted the event.[33]

On September 12, Paul attended the Tea Party Republican Presidential debate broadcast by CNN. During the event, Paul received both unexpected “cheers” and “boos” for his responses to the questions posed by the debate moderators and fellow debate participants.[34][35] When Rick Santorum questioned Paul about his position regarding the motivation behind the September 11 attacks, some of the audience jeered his response that U.S. foreign occupation was the “real motivation behind the September 11 attacks and the vast majority of other instances of suicide terrorism”.[34]

When one of the moderators posed a hypothetical scenario of a healthy 30-year-old man requiring intensive care but neglected to be insured pressing Paul with “Are you saying that society should just let him die?”, several audience members cheered “yeah!” Paul disagreed with the audience reaction stating that while he practiced as a doctor in a Catholic hospital before the Medicaid era, “We never turned anybody away from the hospital.”[35] Paul elaborated further a few days later that he believed the audience was cheering self-reliance and that “the media took it and twisted it”.[36]

Jack Burkman, a Republican Party (GOP) strategist, was asked of Paul’s performance in the debate. While Burkman stated that his national radio program’s polling suggested Rick Perry won the debate (156 Perry votes to 151 Paul votes), he believed Paul’s support is extremely deep like Democrat support for Bobby Kennedy decades before and predicted “he could come from behind as the horses turn for home and win the nomination.”[37]

On September 18, Paul won the California state GOP straw poll with 44.9% of the vote, held at the JW Marriott in downtown Los Angeles. Out of 833 ballots cast, Paul garnered the greatest number of votes with 374, beating his nearest competitor Texas Gov. Rick Perry by a wide margin.[38]

On September 24, Paul finished fifth in the GOP’s Florida Presidency 5 straw poll with 10.4% of the vote.[39] Paul won with 37% of the vote at the Values Voter Summit on October 8;[40] the highest ever recorded at the event.

On October 22, Paul won the Ohio Republican straw poll with the support of 53% of the participants, more than double the support of the second-place candidate, Herman Cain (26%).[41]

Paul won the National Federation of Republican Assemblies Presidential Straw Poll of Iowa voters on October 29 with 82% of the vote.[42]

On November 19, Paul won the North Carolina Republican Straw Poll with 52% of the vote, finishing well ahead of the second-place candidate, Newt Gingrich, who received 22% of the vote.[43]

In an August Rasmussen Reports poll of likely voters across the political spectrum asking if they would vote for Paul or Barack Obama, the response narrowly favored Obama (39%) over Paul (38%), but by a smaller margin than the same question asked a month ago (41% 37%).[44] Paul finished 3rd in a late-August poll of likely Republican primary voters, trailing Rick Perry and Mitt Romney and ahead of Michele Bachmann,[45] climbing from 4th position which, according to another poll, he occupied only a few days earlier.[46]

In a September Harris Poll, respondents chose Paul (51%) over Obama (49%).[47]

In the Illinois Republican Straw Poll held in the beginning of November, Paul took 52% of the votes of those polled with Herman Cain coming in second with 18%.[48]

In a November 1012 Bloomberg News poll of Iowans likely to participate in the January 3, 2012 Republican caucuses, Paul was in a four-way tie at 19 percent with Cain, Romney and Gingrich at 20, 18 and 17 percent respectively.[49]

A Bloomberg News poll released on November 16, 2011 showed Paul at 17% in New Hampshire, in second place to Romney’s 40%.[50]

A Public Policy Polling poll released on December 13, 2011 put Paul in a statistical tie for first in Iowa with Newt Gingrich, polling 21% and 22%, respectively.[51] The RealClearPolitics.com average shows Paul in second place in New Hampshire at 18.3% on December 28, 2011.[52] Public Policy Polling results from December 18 show that Paul is now leading in Iowa with 23%, followed by Romney at 20% and Gingrich at 14%.[53]

A January 2012 Rasmussen Reports poll of likely voters across the political spectrum found that in a hypothetical two-candidate race between Paul and Barack Obama, respondents preferred Obama (43%) over Paul (37%).[54] The RealClearPolitics.com average of polls also found Obama (47%) favored over Paul (42%), in a two-candidate race.[55]

A January Pew Research Center poll of registered voters across the political spectrum on the eve of the South Carolina primary found that in a hypothetical three-way race between Obama, Romney, and Paul, with Paul running as a third-party candidate, respondents would choose Obama (44%) over Romney (32%) and Paul (18%). (Paul had repeatedly stated he had no plans for a third-party run.)[56][57]

In polls of likely Republican primary voters on the eve of the South Carolina Republican primary, Paul placed third both in South Carolina (15%)[58] and nationally (14%),[59] trailing Romney and Gingrich.

A Rasmussen poll in April 2012 showed Paul as the only Republican candidate able to defeat Obama in a head-to-head match-up. Paul beat Obama by one point in the poll with 44% of the vote.[60]

Paul’s second moneybomb (the first being before his official announcement) was scheduled for June 5, 2011, the anniversary of the 1933 joint resolution which abolished the gold standard. The June 5 moneybomb, which was themed as “The Revolution vs. RomneyCare: Round One”, raised approximately $1.1 million.[61] A third moneybomb themed “Ready, Ames, Fire!” was executed on July 19, 2011 to provide support leading up to the Ames Straw Poll on August 13, 2011, raising over $550,000.[62]

In the second quarter of 2011, Paul’s campaign ranked second, behind Mitt Romney, in total dollars raised with $4.5 million.[63] This was $1.5 million more than his original goal of $3 million.[64] During that quarter, the Paul campaign had raised more money from military personnel than all other GOP candidates combined, and even more money than Barack Obama, a trend that has continued from Paul’s 2008 presidential campaign.[65]

A fourth moneybomb took place on Paul’s 76th birthday on August 20, 2011. It raised more than $1.8 million despite a cyber-attack against the site that took it down for several hours, after which the donation drive was extended for another twelve hours.[66]

A fifth moneybomb began on September 17, the date of the 224th anniversary of the creation of the United States Constitution. Continuing throughout the following day, it raised more than $1 million.[67] Shortly after the Constitution Day moneybomb, a sixth moneybomb, entitled “End of Quarter Push”, began on September 22 in an attempt to generate $1.5 million before the 3rd Quarter fundraising deadline.[68]

In the third quarter of 2011, Paul raised over $8 million.[8] A three-day moneybomb entitled “Black This Out” brought in more than $2.75 million in mid-October.[69][70]

On December 16, a moneybomb titled the “Tea Party MoneyBomb” took place and raised upwards of $4 million over a period of two days.[71]

Paul was also supported by a Super PAC, Endorse Liberty. By January 16, 2012, the PAC had spent $2.83 million promoting Paul’s campaign.[72]

In June 2011, online publisher Robin Koerner coined the term “Blue Republican” to refer to U.S. voters who consider themselves to be liberal or progressiveor who generally vote Democraticbut plan to register as Republicans and vote in the U.S. 2012 Republican presidential primaries for Paul. The phrase “Blue Republican” quickly spread after Koerner’s article “If You Love Peace, Become a ‘Blue Republican’ (Just for a Year)” was published in The Huffington Post on June 7. Social media entrepreneur Israel Anderson then promoted the term on Facebook, later teaming with Koerner to expand the movement.[73]

Five days after his original article coining the term, Koerner published a follow-up article on the term’s popularity: “‘Blue Republicans’: an Idea Whose Time Has Come.”[74] The article was shared on the social networking site Facebook more than 11,000 times by the time the second article was published.[75]

On June 21, 2011, Paul was the first 2012 Republican presidential candidate to sign the Cut, Cap, and Balance Pledge.[76] This pledge seeks commitments from politicians for changes of the debt limit, spending decreases, and taxation. The pledge also implores signers to endorse passage of a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution.

During his previous presidential campaign, it was alleged by many supporters that there was a media blackout and suppression of coverage of Paul.[77] Similar allegations have arisen in the 2012 campaign and received some media coverage.[78]Politico columnist Roger Simon noted on CNN’s Reliable Sources that Paul has received considerably less coverage than Michele Bachmann, despite earning a close second to her at the Ames Straw Poll.[79] Simon later opined in Politico that the media was treating Paul unfairly.[80]

Comedian Jon Stewart similarly complained about the lack of coverage, despite Paul polling much better than candidates who received coverage. Stewart presented a montage of mainstream media clips that showed commentators ignoring, and two CNN correspondents admitting to suppressing, coverage of Paul.[81]Will Wilkinson opined in The Economist that “Ron Paul remains as willfully overlooked as an American war crime”, arguing that if Paul had won the Ames straw poll, it would have been written off as irrelevant, but since Bachmann had won, it was claimed to boost her campaign.[82] Other commentators noted that Paul has had success at past straw polls but has not turned that into broader success as a reason for the relative lack of media attention.[83]

Paul was asked in a Fox News interview “What are they [the media] afraid of?”[84] He answered “They don’t want to discuss my views, because I think they’re frightened by me challenging the status quo and the establishment.” Later, he continued on Piers Morgan Tonight: “They don’t want my views out therethey’re too dangerous … We want freedom, and we’re challenging the status quo. We want to end the war, we want a gold standard, and their view is that people just can’t handle all this freedom.”[85]

During the November 12 CBS/National Journal Debate, Paul was allocated 90 seconds speaking time. Paul’s campaign responded, saying, “Congressman Paul was only allocated 90 seconds of speaking in one televised hour. If we are to have an authentic national conversation on issues such as security and defense, we can and must do better to ensure that all voices are heard. CBS News, in their arrogance, may think they can choose the next president. Fortunately, the people of Iowa, New Hampshire, and across America get to vote and not the media elites.”[86]

Paul Mulshine a columnist with The Star-Ledger noted that the New York Times admitted to suppressing coverage of Paul. He quoted a column by Times editor Arthur Brisbane that said: “Early in the campaign, The Times decided to remain low key in its coverage of Ron Paul, the libertarian Texas congressman.”[87][88]

The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism found in August 2011 that Paul received substantially less coverage than other candidates in the 2012 race.[89][90][91][92] Pew released another study in October 2011 confirming that Paul has been receiving disproportionately low coverage in the media. Paul polled 6.09.8% during the study period, but only received 2% of media coverage, the lowest of all candidates. It also noted that Paul’s coverage among blogs was the most favorable of all candidates.[93] In January 2012, The Atlantic cited the weekly Pew study. They noted that despite steadily rising in the polls, Paul has been losing his share of press coverage, going from 34% in late-December 2011 to about 3% in mid-January 2012. They also noted a sharp drop in positive coverage and a small rise in negative.[94]

In June, a group of lawyers and legal experts filed a lawsuit[95][96] in the US District Court against the Republican National Committee and 55 state and territorial Republican party organizations for depriving Paul delegates of voice in the nominating process as required by law, and illegally coercing them to choose Mitt Romney as the party’s presidential nominee.[97] Supporters of the effort say there is “evidence that the voting rights of Ron Paul Republican delegates and voters have been violated by nearly every state GOP party and the RNC during the 2012 primary election phase.”

The plaintiffs claim that the party violated federal law by forcing delegates to sign loyalty affidavits, under threat of perjury, to vote for Mitt Romney, before an official nominee is selected. The suit alleged that there had been “a systematic campaign of election fraud at state conventions,” employing rigging of voting machines, ballot stuffing, and falsification of ballot totals. The suit further pointed to incidents at state conventions, including acts of violence and changes in procedural rules, allegedly intended to deny participation of Paul supporters in the party decision-making and to prevent votes from being cast for Paul. An attorney representing the complainants said that Paul campaign advisor Doug Wead had voiced support for the legal action.[97] Paul himself told CNN that although the lawsuit was not a part of his campaign’s strategy and that he had not been advising his supporters to sue, he was not going to tell his supporters not to sue, if they had a legitimate argument. “If they’re not following the rules, you have a right to stand up for the rules. I think for the most part these winning caucuses that we’ve been involved in we have followed the rules. And the other side has at times not followed the rules.”[98]

In August 2012, the lawsuit was dismissed by U.S. District Judge David Carter, who described most of the plaintiffs’ claims as vague and largely unintelligible. The judge said that the one intelligible claim they had lodgedthat the Massachusetts Republican Party had illegally excluded 17 elected state delegates from participating in the national convention because they had refused to commit to a particular nomineefailed because political parties have a right to exclude people from membership and leadership roles. The judge left the plaintiffs “a third and final opportunity” to amend their complaint.[99] The plaintiffs filed an amended complaint just days before the scheduled start of the convention.[100]

Despite ceasing most campaign activities, the Paul campaign did some fundraising in July 2012, in an attempt to fund the transportation expenses of Paul delegates traveling to the Republican National Convention in Tampa, Florida.[101] Paul said one of his goals at the convention was to “plant our flag and show that our Liberty movement is the future of the GOP”.[101] He also said he was expecting a conflict over “credentials” and the party’s platform.[101] As of late August, Paul’s pet issue of auditing the Federal Reserve is on the draft version of the Republican Party’s national platform.[102] Presumptive candidate Romney is calling for the plank’s final inclusion.[103]

Paul finished third in the Iowa Republican caucuses, held on January 3, 2012. While all of the votes have not yet been counted, he is behind leader Rick Santorum (24.56%, 29,839 votes), and second-place Mitt Romney (24.54%, 29,805 votes), with 21.43% of the vote (26,036 votes).[104][105] Paul has been projected to receive 7 delegates out of 28, as many as Mitt Romney and one less than Rick Santorum, making him tied for second place in the delegate count at the time.[106][107]

Paul placed second in the New Hampshire Republican primary, held on January 10, with 22.9% of the vote, behind Mitt Romney with 39.4%. He gained 3 delegates from this contest. In the South Carolina Republican primary on January 21, Paul placed fourth and gained no delegates. Paul also gained no delegates in the Florida Republican primary on January 31, after he did little campaigning in the state because of its “winner-take-all” delegate apportionment.

The Nevada Republican caucuses were held on February 4. Paul finished third behind Newt Gingrich and Mitt Romney with 18.73% of the votes and 5 of the delegates, behind the winner Romney’s 50.02% and Gingrich’s 21.10%.[108] The Colorado and Minnesota Republican caucuses were held on February 7. In Colorado, Paul finished fourth with 11.77% behind Santorum (winner with 40.24%), Romney, and Gingrich. In Minnesota, Paul finished 2nd (27.1%) behind winner Rick Santorum (44.9%), with Romney (16.9%) and Gingrich (10.8%) placing 3rd and 4th.[109] A non-binding vote in the Missouri Republican primary was held on February 7 as well, and Paul got 12.2% of the vote. The primary did not apportion any delegates; that will be done at the Missouri caucuses, scheduled to begin on March 17.[citation needed]

On February 17, with 95% of precincts in the Maine Republican caucuses reporting, Paul was running second to Mitt Romney with 34.9% of the vote to Romney’s 39%.[110] Neither of the frontrunners have pressed for a recount, and the Maine Republican Party’s chairman has stated that recounts are impossible due to the votes being physically thrown away.[111]

The Michigan and Arizona Republican primaries were held on February 28. Paul came in third place in Michigan, with 11.9%; and fourth in Arizona, with 8.45%.

A large portion of the delegates for the Republican National Convention were awarded in March, which includes the Washington Republican caucuses on March 3, Super Tuesday on March 6, and several other states later in the month. Paul came in second in the Washington caucuses, with 24.81%. On March 10, he picked up one delegate in the U.S Virgin Islands Caucuses while Romney added four delegates to the three super-delegates previously known to support him.[112]

Paul received 1.23% of the vote in the Puerto Rico primary, coming in sixth, his lowest polling of any territory during the campaign.[113][114][115]

On The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Paul said he forewent Secret Service protection because he considered it “a form of welfare” and that he believed he should pay for his own protection.[116]

The Paul campaign pursued a strategy of gathering support from state delegates as opposed to outright winning states.[117] For example, Paul had a strong showing in Romney’s home state, Massachusetts, with supporters getting the majority of delegates there (though they are compelled to vote for Romney in the first round), causing a battle between the Paul delegates, the Massachusetts Republican Party, and the Republican National Convention Committee.[118] A similar situation played out in Louisiana, with the Paul campaign initially winning 17 of 30 available delegates before procedural and legal challenges changed the allocation.[119] Paul also managed a delegate win in Nevada, with 88% of delegates supporting him.[120] Paul won 21 of 25 delegates in Iowa.[121]

On May 14, 2012, Paul announced that he would no longer actively campaign in states that have not held primaries, but rather focus on a strategy to secure delegates before the convention.[122] Paul remained active in the race through the 2012 Republican National Convention.[123] Leading up to the convention, he won bound-pluralities of the official delegations from the states of Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, and Oregon (but not the Virgin Islandsdespite winning the popular vote there). During the credentials committee meetings the week prior to the official opening of the convention, the Paul members of the delegations from Louisiana, Maine, and Oregon were disputed (as well as the Paul delegates from Massachusetts), and many of his delegates from those states were unseated. At the same time, Paul delegates from Oklahoma disputed the credentials of the official Oklahoma delegation, but they did not succeed. In the end, he had bound-pluralities from Iowa, Minnesota, and Nevada; however, he additionally had nomination-from-the-floor-pluralities in the states of Oregon and Alaska, plus the territory of the Virgin Islands. Under the 2012 rules, this total of 6 from-the-floor pluralities was sufficient to earn a fifteen-minute speech on national television; the rules were changed at the last minute to require 8 from-the-floor pluralities, and thus he did not speak at the convention.[124] Although he wasn’t named the 2012 Republican nominee, he did not officially end his campaign or endorse nominee Mitt Romney for president.[125][126] At the convention, he received second place with 8% of the delegates; Gingrich and Santorum had released their bound delegates to Romney the week before the official opening of the convention. Paul’s state-by-state delegates tallies were not verbally acknowledged by the RNC.

Paul would end the campaign with 118 delegates, coming in fourth behind Gingrich, Santorum, and Romney.”2012 Republican Delegates”.

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Ron Paul presidential campaign, 2012 – Wikipedia

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Communes: the pros & cons of intentional community …

Posted: November 29, 2016 at 1:31 am

My fianc and I are curious about commune living, community co-ops, or intentional living communities for our future living arrangements but we need advice. What should we know before we decide whether to take the dive into this world?

Oh, do I ever have the inside scoop on this one. See, my mom runs an intentional community called Sacred Groves on the property where I grew up. For those who have read my book, our wedding reception happened at Sacred Groves, so all the shenanigans that took place that night were hosted by the Groves.

That in mind, I decided to bring in my mom to answer this question. Take it away, Ma!

By Therese Charvet, of Sacred Groves Living in community is as old as the human race. Our modern lifestyle with singles, couples and single-families living in isolated housing units is relatively modern, and uncommon in much of the world. Conventional houses and apartments offer much privacy and reduce the hassles of sharing, but they can also breed isolation, loneliness and can put a strain on marriages. Intentional Communities, Communes and Co-housing situations offer an alternative to this model, one more akin to our traditional roots. Andreas doing a community yoga class at Sacred Groves Every community is different but the basic premise is that you live in proximity with a group of people with whom you share the use of certain common facilities, and things are set up in such a way as to promote connection and familiarity amongst the residents. Generally speaking, this is the definition of “Intentional Community.” Dozens of models of intentional communities exist, some with only a few people, some with hundreds, some with a charismatic leader, others with a commitment to consensus.

There is quite a movement afoot in the U.S. toward community living. In fact, a national organization exists and a national directory of intentional communities is available for people looking for housing. For more description and definition of Intentional Communities, see Wikipedia and/or the website for The Fellowship of Intentional Communities.

In late 2005, my current partner Tere and I decided it was time to make the land where we live, Sacred Groves, an “intentional community.” We transformed the downstairs of the log cabin (with kitchen, bathroom and dining area) into “common space” and used the upstairs rooms plus three nearby cabins as private space for residents’ bedrooms. A couple women friends who happened to be looking for housing at that time decided to join our experiment and the four of us formed the first rendition of a Sacred Groves Intentional Community.

It is nearly always heart-warming and sometimes very challenging to live in this way with people. Some of the challenges include getting enough quiet/private time, figuring out chores, working out disagreements in a functional way, staying out of each other’s business. Each of us has to deal with our personal control issues regularly; community living does not make it easy to be a control freak. It flushes out what you are attached to, that’s for sure! But the rewards are worth the effort! These rewards include spiritual and personal development and participating in the evolution of human consciousness toward a more cooperative society. That’s big work, work the world really needs right now.

In closing let me say that I love this lifestyle and hope to live in community until old age. I don’t understand those 90 year olds who want to live alone in their own house until they die. I love living around children and young adults, it keeps me flexible and up to date, it gives me a place to share my stories, my skills, my time and my gifts. It makes me smile to hear the children laughing uproariously as they jump on the trampoline. Life is good!

If you’re interested in learning more about my mom’s community, you can see photos of Sacred Groves on their website or on Flickr. Oh and my mom tells me they miiiiight have openings for new Grovesmates in the coming months. Click here if you’re interested in that sort of thing.

I’d also love to hear from Homies who may have had experience living in community. I know from my times out at Sacred Groves, that it can be a challenging and rewarding experience for folks who are suited to that kind of living. Anybody got any stories to share?

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Food Research; 100% Whole Food Supplements for Healthcare …

Posted: at 1:27 am

Food Research; 100% Whole Food Supplements for Healthcare Professionals

Food Research International is Caribbean company dedicated to providing the highest quality nutritional supplements, in a form that is as close as possible to those naturally found in foods. It is well understood by nutrition researchers that we, as humans, should derive nutrition from food. It is our goal at Food Research to provide the best, scientifically researched, natural food supplements which meet the needs of those who live in our “modern” society. Food Research products are environmentally friendly. They are natural food complexes which have been shown to be better for the internal human environment.

Why are Food Research International products the best?

At least 98.97% of vitamins consumed are synthetic isolates, though they are often labeled as natural. Yet, there are no isolated USP nutrients that exist naturally. So, nearly all companies combine synthetic isolates with industrially-processed minerals in order to produce their vitamin-mineral formulas.

Food Research International is different.

None of our products contain any synthetic/isolated USP nutrients.

In order to obtain potencies that members of modern societies need, many of the nutrients in our products are hydroponically-grown to improve the concentration of nutrients in the specific raw foods that we use.

We essentially take advantage of a law of nature that a plant will absorb more of a nutrient when that nutrient in more available. Essentially, the plant is fed an enzyme-containing liquid that will be higher in one particular mineral. The plant will absorb more of that mineral, since more of it is present. The nutrient foods are grown in an FDA registered facility.

In reality we are duplicating the process of nature when we create food nutrients. Nature’s process takes inorganic, non-food substances from the soil and delivers them to the cells of the plant. This natural process is the merging of different elements into a union creating one. Creating a whole from different elements is nature in action. The best method of creating a union, like those created by nature, between inorganic fractions and the whole food matrix seems to be utilizing hydroponic technologies.

We wanted to supply the best possible form of nutrients so we looked into modern technologies that would be compatible with the natural life processes that nature uses to improve the nutrients in natural plants.

This led to the acquisition of foods combined with a natural cold fusion process. The definition of fusion is the merging of different elements into a union, creating an enhanced whole from different elements. A natural cold fusion process is used to produce superior nutrients that are always 100% food. Enhanced nutrients occur from the merging of specific elements through a living plant into a whole food matrix through low temperature hydroponic farming. The reason that the process is “cold” is in order to preserve the naturally-occurring enzymes and other beneficial substances in the foods. Many of the processes and equipment had to be custom-made or altered to accommodate our need to maintain the fresh frozen raw foods used to create the usable raw materials. Cold fusion processing was not an after thought. No expense was spared to create these cold fusion processes and the state of the art manufacturing plant needed to keep Food Research International products the best available on the planet.

Furthermore, this form of “cold fusion-hydroponic” farming is pesticide free, and hence the quality of the food nutrients produced this way can be considered superior to conventionally grown foods. After growing, the plant is then harvested and dried.

No Genetically-Modified Organisms (GMO) have ever been found in our nutrient foods upon average analysis (which means none have ever been detected any time that they have been tested for).

These superior foods are also free of artificial colors, preservatives, and similar chemicals. The grown nutrients are also HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) validated. And the nutrient content of each batch is tested for potency.

Food Research International represents the best of all worlds: Real food nutrients, in real foods, with naturally occurring substances (such as enzymes, amino acids, lipids, and/or bioflavonoids) bottled and tested for potency.

100% food nutrients, 100% of the time.

Food Research International your best choice for 100% food nutrients. Additionally, you may view some of the specialized equioment from which Food Research International food nutrients are grown and processed.

We also have the best known refractive drying process of any food nutrients. You may also view information about the drying process.

Who heads up the Food Research? Food Research International Ltd. was intitially headed up by Clyde Skeete, of Barbados. Financial affairs handled by Canadian Barbara Gibbs.

The research group at Food Research consists of a variety of independent research scientists.

One researcher is Robert Thiel, Naturopath who also holds a Ph.D. in nutrition science. He has conducted, and had published, many scientific health studies. Thiel received the Leadership Award from the Orthomolecular Health Medicine Society. Thiel has been named Research Scientist of the Year, Physician of the Year, and Disability Researcher of the Year by the largest American naturopathic association. Doc. Thiel has had the only comprehensive paper published in a medical peer-reviewed journal (Medical Hypotheses) on the advantages of natural food vitamins over synthetic ‘nutrients’. He also specializes in nutritional interventions for fatigue, sports performance, and various genetic and non-genetic disabilities.

Another is Steve Xue Ph.D., who runs Natural Medicine Without Borders. Dr. Xue also teaches Alternative Medicine to senior students at Portland State University and aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine at top TCM universities in China. Dr. Xue received the Best Teaching Award by the Center for Teaching Excellence of Ohio University and the Award for Excellence of Research by the College of Education of Arkansas State University. He has authored various papers and books. He also specializes in alternative interventions for communications disorders.

Another researcher is Dr. James Schutz who has a doctorate in nutrition. He works with Kay Minders who holds a B.S. in nutrition. Both Dr. Schutz and Ms. Minders are also a board certified holistic health practitioners. Dr. Schutz has been registered internationally as a specialist in fibromylagia, immune disorders, and nutrition. Ms. Minders also has been registered as a therapeutic specialist in nutrition and immune disorders. Both also work with genetic and non-genetic disabilities.

Input is also provided by health professionals throughout the world.

Why are Food Research nutrients better than isolated USP nutrients? Human beings should get their nutrition from foods. “The body is designed to handle foods” [1]. It is important to realize “that in nature vitamins are never isolated. They are always present in the form of vitamin-complexes” [2-5]. Vitamins are natural complexes which produce a variety of actions in the body whereas some isolated USP vitamins are analogues of vitamins which appear to have at least some of these activities [5]. Food nutrients are complexed just as nutrients found in all foods, because they are food. USP vitamins are synthesized (according to strict federal standards), standardized chemical isolates (as listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia or the USAN and USP Dictionary of Drug Names) [6]; they are not food.

It is well known among nutrition researchers that most essential minerals are not well absorbed (some are less than 1%) [7]. “Bioavailability of orally administered vitamins, minerals, and trace elements is subject to a complex set of influences…In nutrition science the term ‘bioavailability’ encompasses the sum of impacts that may reduce or foster the metabolic utilization of a nutrient” [8]. Studies show that natural food complex nutrients are better than isolated USP vitamins or inorganic mineral salts or mineral chelates [e.g. 9-25].

Compared to USP/Mineral Salt

Up to 25 times more bioavailable [20]

Numerous university studies have concluded that supplements containing food nutrients are better than USP isolates. Food nutrients are better because they contain important enzymes, peptides, and phytonutrients CRITICAL to the UTILIZATION of vitamins and minerals which are not present in isolated USP nutrients. Published research has concluded that food vitamins are superior synthetic/USP vitamins.

References: [1] Whitney EN, Hamilton EMN. Understanding Nutrition, 4th ed. West Publishing, New York, 1987 [2] Airola P. How to Get Well. Health Plus, Sherwood (OR), 1989 [3] Olson JA. Vitamin A, retinoids, and carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil.,1994:287-307 [4] Farrell PA, Roberts RJ. Vitamin E. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil.,1994:326-358 [5] DeCava JA. The Real Truth about Vitamins & Antioxidants. A Printery, Centerfield (MA), 1997 [6] The United States Pharmacopeial Convention. USAN and USP Dictionary of Drug Names. Mack Printing, Easton (PA),1986 [7] Turnland JR. Bioavailability of dietary minerals to humans: the stable isotope approach. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr,1991;30(4);387-396 [8] Schumann K, et al. Bioavailability of oral vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals in perspective. Arzneimittelforshcung,1997;47(4):369-380 [9] Ha SW. Rabbit study comparing yeast and isolated B vitamins (as described in Murray RP. Natural vs. Synthetic. Mark R. Anderson, 1995, p:A3). Ann Rev Physiol,1941; 3:259-282 [10] Thiel R. Natural vitamins may be superior to synthetic ones. Med Hypo.2000;55(6):461-469 [11] Thiel R.J, Fowkes S.W. Can cognitive deterioration associated with Down syndrome be reduced? Medical Hypotheses, 2005; 64(3):524-532 [12] Traber MG, Elsner A, Brigelius-Flohe R. Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopherol acetates. FEBS Letters, 1998;437:145-148 [13] Ross A.C. Vitamin A and Carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 351-375 [14] Lucock M. Is folic acid the ultimate functional food component for disease prevention? BMJ, 2004;328:211-214 [15] Williams D. ORAC values for fruits and vegetables. Alternatives, 1999;7(22):171 [16] Thiel R. Vitamin D, rickets, and mainstream experts. Int J Naturopathy, 2003; 2(1) [17] Traber MG. Vitamin E. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1999:347-362 [18] Olson R.E. Vitamin K. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Nutrition, 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Balt., 1999: 363-380 [19] Hamet P, et al. The evaluation of the scientific evidence for a relationship between calcium and hypertension. J Nutr, 1995;125:311S-400S [20] Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlade JE, Robson JRK. Food & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. CRC Press, New York, 1993 [21] Wood R.J., Ronnenberg A.G. Iron. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 248-270 [22] Rude R.K., Shils M.E. Magnesium. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 223-247 [23] Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Nottingham Press, UK, 1995: 257-267 [24] Andlid TA, Veide J, Sandberg AS. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J. Food Microbiology. 2004;97(2):157-169 [25] King JC, Cousins RJ. Zinc. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10 th ed. Lipponcott Williams & Wilkins, Phil., 2005:271-285

Some of these studies (citations) may not conform to peer review standards. Therefore the results are not conclusive. Professionals can, and often do, come to different conclusions when reviewing scientific data (peer-reviewed or not).

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Ted (Comparison: Theatrical Version – Movie-Censorship.com

Posted: November 27, 2016 at 9:44 am

Compared are the Theatrical Version and the Extended Version (Unrated Version) (both represented by the Universal UK-Blu-ray)

– 23 differences, including 9x alternate footage – difference: 371.9 sec (= 6:12 min)

MacFarlane’s voice is an essential part of the success of Family Guy. So it doesn’t take a genius to figure out that his voice can’t be missing in it and the story of a talking teddy bear does the trick just fine. For Family Guy and American Dad fans, this movie is kind of a reunion because there are many familiar people involved. The narrator of the movie is Patrick Stewart who’s playing Stan’s boss in American Dad. Then there’s Alex Borstein (voice of Lois, Tricia Takanawa and more) as John’s mom, Mila “Shut up, Meg!” Kunis as leading actress, Mike Henry (voice of Cleveland, Herbert the Pervert and more) as Southern newscaster, John Viener as Alix, Danny Smith as waiter and Alec Sulkin as screenplay writer. Furthermore, the movie contains loads of popcultural references. There are also many ansurd scenes isolated from the actual storyline. Sound familiar? Well, that’s because Family Guy does the exact same thing. Unfortunately, the movie becomes pretty conventional in the end; just like other Hollywood comedies do. But in this case, it’s acceptable. The audience has to have thought the same thing because the movie made $500 million worldwide at the box office. With that amazing result, it’s the most successful Original R-rated movie ever (Hangover 2 was more successful but that’s “just” a sequel). No surprise that a sequel is already in the pipeline.

As expected, the new footage doesn’t reinvent the wheel, that’s for sure. And there are no scenes that were censored in the Theatrical Version either (like the F-word in the TV Version of Family Guy). Refering to the rampage at Virginia Tech University might be borderline but then again gags like that are on MacFarlane’s shows all the time. Probably a highlight is the scene in the beginning when Donny (as a kid) takes notice of Ted for the very first time. Apart from that, the longer version contains some nice gags that enhance the quality of it. Due to the use of alternate footage for some scenes, the Theatrical Version is still worth being watched because some gags from the Theatrical Version have been removed in the process of editing the longer version. Finally, fans don’t get around watching both versions anyway.

Time index refers to Theatrical Version Blu-ray / Extended Version Blu-ray

When the kids approach the little ginger (Greenbaum), the scene is longer in the Extended Version; including alternate footage.

The Theatrical Version only shows Greenbaum saying “Oh-oh…”.

In the Extended Version, he says that from a different angle while the head of the bullies is approaching. Then the bully says: “It’s Jesus’ birthday tomorrow and you know what I’m gonna get him?” Greenbaum: “What?” Bully: “My fist in your fucking face?” Greenbaum: “Why would Jesus want that?”

Extended Version 9.3 sec longer

05:12 / 05:22-05:46

Before John enters the kitchen, the Extended Version contains an additional scene with the parents. After some implications, they get straight to the fact that the mom (Helen) gave the dad (Steve) a BJ the previous evening.

Helen: “Well, I think we’ve had a wonderful Christmas this year.” Steve: “One of the best. And I particularly enjoyed the gift you gave me last night.” Helen: “Well, my big strong husband works so hard all year. I figured you deserved a little Christmas treat.” Steve: “I think those veneers just make it a smoother ride for me.” Helen: “Mmm. Well, that’s how much I love you.” Steve: “Seriously though, that was an outstanding blowjob!”

24.6 sec

06:23 / 06:57-07:08

A further news report, this time from Japan. The female news anchor speaks Japanese before she’s getting slapped by the male anchor.

10.9 sec

06:50 / 07:35-08:13

Additional scene. Little Donny is watching the talkshow with Ted which is why he wants a teddy bear in the first place. In the background, his dad is doing some chick, so he just states Donny already got a rake to clean the yard for his birthday.

Donny: “Dad, I want a teddy bear!” Dad: “Hey! What did daddy just get you for your birthday, huh?” Donny: “A rake.” Dad: “That’s right. An excellent rake. A birthday rake. So when you clean the yard you don’t have to pick up the leaves with your hands.” Donny: “But, Dad, I want the bear on TV?” Dad: “Donny, shut up, will ya! Daddy’s making love to New Mommy.” Donny: “But, Daddy…” Dad: “Go to your hammock!” Donny gets up, takes another look at the TV, then he leaves.

38.4 sec

Alternate 13:31-13:32 / 14:54-15:25

The Tom Skerritt dialog is longer. The Extended Version gives Murphy the opportunity to show off with his previleges.

Murphy: “I don’t think of him as an actor anymore. He’s just, like, a guy. Like, we work… we worked at my garage two months ago. Helped me hang a garage door. You ever hang a garage door with Tom Skerritt?” John: “No…” Murphy: “No! You ever, uh, go miniature golfing with Tom Skerritt’s wife and her kid? No. You haven’t. Do you ever watch a Bulls game, a Chicago Bulls game, in Chicago with Tom Skerritt? No, you haven’t. All right? Liberty, fast track, Skerritt – John.”

15:35 / 17:28-17:46

Ted comments John’s “So bad, but so good” commentary regarding Flash Gordon with the following words: “Yes, a study in contrast.” John replies: “Whoa, whoa, I love this part right here.” Now both of them start singing: “He’s for every one of us! Stands for everyone of us! He’ll save with a mighty hand every man, every woman, every child with a mighty flash!” Ted finally says: “Fuck yeah, Flash!”

17.2 sec

Alternate 18:22-18:25 / 20:32-20:36

A very similar, but still alternate take. In the Extended Version, John expresses himself more direct: “I’m a fucking classy broad.”

Extended Version 0.5 sec longer

Alternate 18:40-18:45 / 20:51-21:00

In both versions, John says “I’m taking you to the best place in town.” but an alternate take has been used here (recognizable by the arm position). Then he remains still for a moment in the Theatrical Version. The Extended Version on the other hand switches to another shot of him in which he adds: “I’ve been crapping out room for it for two days. I mean, I know exactly what I’m gonna order.” Lori: “You’re so disgusting.” Then, John’s comment “You know I love you” follows. And again, the Extended Version contains an alternate take of his comment.

Extended Version 4.2 sec longer

Alternate 18:55-19:00 / 21:10-21:16

In the Extended Version, the distance shot is a few frames longer. Then an alternate take of John turning around in bed. But he only swears in the Extended Version “Ah, fucking cocksucker motherfucker!” while he’s doing so. The Extended Version then just sticks to this shot when Lori addresses him while the Theatrical Version contains footage of from a different with the very same comment of Lori’s. Not until its ending, the Theatrical Version goes to the distance shot from the Extended Version.

Extended Version 1 sec longer

21:11 / 23:27-23:31

First a shot of Lori. then Rex who reaches for magnifying glass and says about the photo: “Now, if you look close, you can see the outline of my root.”

3.9 sec

Alternate 21:38-21:40 / 23:58-24:13

In the Theatrical Version, Lori says “Goodbye, Rex” from a closer angle. Then she gets up.

25:32 / 28:05-28:15

More dialog. John is being tactless by mentioning the rampage at Virginia Tech University. In the same shot, he adds: “I could have wound up like that Asian kid at Virginia Tech but I didn’t because of him. So I’m not that psyched to just, like, kick him out.” Lori: “What? It’s good to know that a talking teddy bear is the only thing that prevented you from gunning down your classmates.”

Subsequently Lori’s comment “But you’re no longer eight.” which ia also in the Theatrical Version.

10.6 sec

Alternate 27:17-27:21 / 30:00-30:09

Ted has an alternate explanation for the excrements on the appartment floor. At first, the Extended Version contains an alternate take, followed by two additional ones.

In the Theatrical Version, Ted says: “Oh, yeah. Yeah, we were playing truth or dare and Cherene’s pretty ballsy.” In the Extended Version, he says: “Oh, my God! You know what, that’s probably what Dierdre was doing over there. Remember she was crouched over in the corner for a really long time? I thought she was just making a phone call or something.”

Extended Version 4.2 sec longer

Alternate 27:23-27:28 / 30:11-30:20

After Lori repeated “There is a shit on my floor!”, the version continue differently.

In the Theatrical Version, Ted says: “‘Or is the floor on the shit?’ is what Kierkegaard would say.” In the Extended Version, he says: “Yeah, yeah. She’s passed out in the bathroom now. She seemed like she was hopped up on something but, you know, mystery solved, I guess, right? She was taking a shit.” Lori yells “What the fuck?” one more time.

Extended Version 4.3 sec longer

30:14 / 33:06-33:26

John reacts to the attorney’s proposal: “As I said, you would need a law degree for a law school.” Ted: “No, no… I’m a special case. I’m a talking teddy bear for Christ’s sake. They might make an exception because they’d be all like, ‘Oh, my God, this bear’s so cool. He can talk and do stuff. Let’s give him a job. Maybe he’ll give us a few laughs around the office.’ And then they’re like, ‘Oh, my God! He can deliver. He’s actually quite a litigator.’ And then they’ll practically have to give me the Anderson case.”

20.5 sec

39:10 / 42:22-43:04

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UK teenager wins battle to have body cryogenically frozen – CNN

Posted: November 25, 2016 at 10:13 am

The girl — who can’t be identified and is referred to only as “JS” — suffered from a rare form of cancer and expressed a hope to be brought back to life and cured in the future.

She died on October 17 but details of the case at London’s High Court were not allowed to be made public until now.

In his judgment, obtained by CNN, Mr. Justice Peter Jackson said the girl had expressed her desire to be cryogenically frozen.

She wrote: “I have been asked to explain why I want this unusual thing done. I’m only 14 years old and I don’t want to die, but I know I am going to. I think being cryo-preserved gives me a chance to be cured and woken up, even in hundreds of years’ time. I don’t want to be buried underground.

“I want to live and live longer and I think that in the future they might find a cure for my cancer and wake me up. I want to have this chance. This is my wish.”

According to the judgment, the girl’s parents are divorced and their relationship is “very bad.” Her mother was supportive of her wish, but her father — who had not seen his daughter face-to-face since 2008 — initially was not.

At the start of proceedings, the teenager’s father, who also has cancer, wrote: “Even if the treatment is successful and [JS] is brought back to life in let’s say 200 years, she may not find any relative and she might not remember things and she may be left in a desperate situation given that she is only 14 years old and will be in the United States of America.”

However, he subsequently changed his position, saying he “respected the decisions” his daughter was making.

The judge said this fluctuation in his views was understandable, adding, “No other parent has ever been put in his position.”

But he emphasized he was not ruling on the science of cryonics, but rather on the dispute between her parents over who was responsible for the arrangements after her death.

The judge also said there was no doubt the girl — described as “a bright, intelligent young person who is able to articulate strongly held views on her current situation” — had the capacity to start legal action.

“Over recent months, JS has used the internet to investigate cryonics: the freezing of a dead body in the hope that resuscitation and a cure may be possible in the distant future,” he said.

“The scientific theory underlying cryonics is speculative and controversial, and there is considerable debate about its ethical implications.

“On the other hand, cryopreservation, the preservation of cells and tissues by freezing, is now a well-known process in certain branches of medicine, for example the preservation of sperm and embryos as part of fertility treatment.

“Cryonics is cryopreservation taken to its extreme.”

The judge ruled in favor of her mother and said the girl had died peacefully, knowing her wishes had been met.

But he cautioned that hospital officials had had “real misgivings” about the way the process was handled on the day she died.

The girl’s mother was said to have been preoccupied with the arrangements after her death, rather than being fully available to her child, he said, and the voluntary organization which helped get her body ready for preservation was disorganized.

The case was said by the judge to be the only one of its kind to have come before the courts in England and Wales, and probably anywhere else. “It is an example of the new questions that science poses to the law, perhaps most of all to family law,” he added.

The cost of the procedure in the United States — which the judge said was about 37,000 ($46,000) — is being met by her maternal grandparents, he said, although the family is not well off. They chose the most basic arrangement, he said, which “simply involves the freezing of the body in perpetuity.”

The Cryonics Institute, which is based in Michigan, said the body of a 14-year-old girl from London arrived at its facility, packed in dry ice, on October 25, about eight days after her death.

“The patient was then placed in the computer controlled cooling chamber to cool to liquid nitrogen temperature,” a statement posted on its website said.

“The human cooling program from dry ice was selected and the time needed to cool the patient to liquid nitrogen temperature was 24 hours. The patient was then placed in a cryostat for longterm cryonic storage.”

The Cryonics Institute said the girl was its 143rd patient.

Its website explains the process as “a technique intended to hopefully save lives and greatly extend lifespan. It involves cooling legally-dead people to liquid nitrogen temperature where physical decay essentially stops, in the hope that future scientific procedures will someday revive them and restore them to youth and good health.

“A person held in such a state is said to be a ‘cryopreserved patient’, because we do not regard the cryopreserved person as being inevitably ‘dead’.”

However, some skepticism remains about the science of cryogenics.

Barry Fuller, professor in Surgical Science and Low Temperature Medicine at University College London, said that cryopreservation “has many useful applications in day to day medicine, such as cryopreserving blood cells, sperm and embryos.”

But, he said, “cryopreservation has not yet been successfully applied to large structures, such as human kidneys for transplantation, because we have not yet adequately been able to produce suitable equipment to optimize all the steps.

“This is why we have to say that at the moment we have no objective evidence that a whole human body can survive cryopreservation with cells which will function after rearming.”

CNN’s Simon Cullen and Meera Senthilingam contributed to this report.

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10 Steps to Prepare for Americas Economic Collapse

Posted: November 23, 2016 at 10:05 pm

By Raymond Drake*

A frenetic intemperanceis destabilizing our economy. It is a restless, explosive and relentless drive inside man. It seeks to throw off all legitimate restraints and gratify all disordered passions.

The Troubles We Now Face

Because of frenetic intemperance, our economy is coming apart under crushing debt obligations: personal, corporate, state and local government, out-of-control federal spending and debt, runaway trade deficits, a manufacturing base that has largely moved off-shore, and a wobbly dollar whose currency reserve status is increasingly challenged around the world. Crippling socialist regulations, laws, and taxes stifle businesses and individuals alike, squashing initiative and removing incentives to work and invest.

Free Book:Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian SocietyWhere Weve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go

No one expects a house without a foundation to survive a hurricane. Likewise, it is unreasonable to expect that, as the winds resulting from decades of profligate, irresponsible behavior reach gale strength, our society will withstand their destructive power.

Will America Survive? The crumbling of the American way of life does not necessarily mean the end of America. We must pray, work and trust in God that from the debris of our crumbling society, a new America will arise an America of faith and family, service and honor.

It all hinges on how we confront the coming economic collapse.

This collapse may come suddenly, or in stages, like the steps of a staircase. In either case, we must be prepared.

Drawn from John Horvats ground-breaking book Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian SocietyWhere Weve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go,here are 10Steps that will help you and your family.

1. Stand Your Ground In face of the crisis, some suggest we flee to Americas remote recesses or move abroad. This is wrong, for the world is so interconnected and interdependent today that the crisis will reach us, one way or another. More importantly, now is the time to fight for America, not abandon her.

Wherever you live and whatever your occupation, you must stand your ground, fighting for the common good of the nation legally and peacefully.

2. Reject False Solutions False solutions abound. Know them and reject them. False solutions from the Left include: the push for more socialism, the surrender of our sovereignty to international courts, the move toward global government, and sub-consumerist, neo-tribal, and ecological ideologies. False solutions from the Right include a quasi-anarchical aversion to government, the nullification movement, secessionism, and off-the-grid survivalism. 3. Prepare with Prudence Prudence is the virtue whereby we choose the adequate means to achieve our goal.In confronting a crisis, we often find it easier to focus on the practical measures. Certainly these are not to be neglected, but assembling the spiritual means that will help tackle troubles ahead is more important.

For this, you must strengthen your faith, fortify your principles, and reinforce your convictions. Start this prudent preparation with prayer and calm, reasoned reflection. It will make your principles solid and your attachment to our institutions firm. Only profound and solid reasons will sustain you in the hard, long struggle.

4. Examine Lifestyles and Personal Habits The movement to turn America around starts within each of us, on the individual plane. Since frenetic intemperance and selfish individualism are at the root of our socio-economic troubles, we must resolutely oppose them in our personal lives.

This means eliminating certain habits and lifestyles, for example: spending beyond your means or on fads and fashions; making unwise, even reckless investments; being swept away by stress-filled schedules; allowing the frenzy of technological gadgetry to dominate your life; puttingmoneyabove family, community or religion; preferring quantityoverquality; and having an aversion to leisure and reflection.

5. Ponder the Moral Dimension Frenetic intemperance is rooted in selfish unrestraint. It fosters individualism, whereby God and neighbor are shut out from the imagined universe we create for ourselves. But Saint John teaches: [H]e that loveth not his brother, whom he seeth, how can he love God, whom he seeth not? (1John 4:20). How very different is the guiding principle preached and lived by Our Divine Savior: Greater love than this no man hath, that a man lay down his life for his friends (John 15:13). Through the generous giving of self we eradicate frenetic intemperance and selfish individualism from our lives.

Whatever Americas economic collapse entails for you and your family, developing the habit of self-sacrifice is excellent spiritual preparation. Indeed, this dedication to others and to the common good, this true charity, has sustained every Christian society for 2,000 years.

6. It Takes a Family Parents correctly see their children as extensions of themselves and sacrifice for them. In turn, children feel compelled by the ties of nature to love, honor, and sacrifice for their parents who collaborated with God to give them their existence. These bonds of affection and service tend naturally to expand, moving beyond the nuclear to the extended family: grandparents, cousins, uncles, and so on.

Former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum correctly noted that, It takes a family. The family is a powerful and affectionate social safety net, and can provide many of the services usurped by the cold modern State. As an economic entity, the family tends to create patterns of production and consumption different from the flawed individualist model of today.

From the economic standpoint, the temperate structures of family tradition protect men from cut-throat competition. The predatory influence of usury is lessened since many have recourse to the family in times of need.

Your familys loving ambience is the easiest place for you to practice Christian charity.

7. It Takes a Village From her perch on the Left, Hillary Clinton wrote that, It takes a village. This is perhaps the one point where we agree with her, though the underlying spirit is different. Hers is a socialist outlook, ours must be Christian.

We see the spirit of the family mirrored in associations and communities, towns and cities. These intermediate bodies between the family and the State are open to the temperate spirit of the family, which radiates its benevolent influence outwards.

This same family spirit has such a capacity to absorb and integrate that everyone in a region, even outside elements, eventually share a common family-like mentality, temperament and affection. A person from the South, for example, participates in the great Southern family or, to extend the analogy further, in our great American family.

Love your community. Be involved. Be proud of the good traits, traditions, products and cultural achievements of your region and do whatever you can to develop them further. Help others see the blessings God placed in your region.

8. It Takes a Christian State This sentiment of affection is in fact the most important element of union for the State. Constitutions, laws, and institutions may be indispensable unifying elements, but the most vital of all is family-like affection, without which the State is doomed to be divided against itself. So many modern states glory in their divisions! They are divided by political parties, factions, or intense economic competition. They should rather seek glory in uniting social groups, factions, and parties. Marriages should unite families, industries, regions, and nations. True patriotism is nothing but this family sentiment and common love of native land writ large and applied to all those in the same country.

The Christian State gives unity, direction, and purpose to society embracing, never absorbing; delegating, never concentrating; encouraging, never stifling.

Remain engaged in the Cultural War. Find ways to network with others and do everything you can so that our State and laws conform to the Divine and natural moral laws.

9. It Takes Fidelity Without fidelity to our Christian Baptism, competition and power struggles will inevitably occur. As a result, the family ends up being devoured by society, and society by the State.

A Christian family spirit must permeate society and State. Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports, wrote George Washington in his Farewell Address. And, though he spoke some 1,600 years ago, Saint Augustines teaching remains true today:

Let those who say that the teachings of Christ are harmful to the State find armies with soldiers who live up to the standards of the teachings of Jesus. Let them provide governors, husbands and wives, parents and children, masters and servants, kings, judges, taxpayers and tax collectors who can compare to those who take Christian teachings to heart. Then let them dare to say that such teaching is contrary to the welfare of the State! Indeed, under no circumstances can they fail to realize that this teaching is the greatest safeguard of the State when faithfully observed. (Epis.138 ad Marcellinum, in Opera Omnia, vol.2, in J.P.Migne, Patrologia Latina, col.532.)

Become an apostle of this Christian spirit, helping others take it to heart in their daily lives.

10. It Takes Leadership In face of the present economic crisis, we have two groups. Those with leadership qualities who succeed fabulously in what they do. And those who seek help and direction. What is missing is a way to unite the two groups. Therefore, weneed to regenerate a culture that encourages representative figures to unify the nation and confront the crisis.

We must encourage all types of leadership that express ties of mutual trust. We should think of concrete ways how we dress, speak, and lead to become truly representative figures for those who look up to us (be they in our family, business, parish, community, region or state). This would lead us to discover ways to embrace duty, responsibility, and sacrifice and reject a misguided and selfish individualism.

With many such dedicated leaders at all levels of society, laboring for the common good, we can restore America.

You will lead in some areas (great or small) and follow in others. Honor your leadership. Show your gratitude and honor everyone in leadership.

What Is a Representative Character?

A representative character is a person who perceives the ideals, principles, and qualities that are desired and admired by a family, community or nation, and translates them into concrete programs of life and culture.

We might point to famous figures like General George Patton or those lesser known people such as self-sacrificing clergy, devoted teachers, or selfless community leaders who draw and fuse society together and set the tone for their communities. Modern culture discourages the idea of representative characters and proposes false and unrepresentative characters that correspond to our mass society.

These 10Steps to Prepare for Americas Economic Collapse give a quick insight into John Horvats 400-page book Return to Order: From a Frenzied Economy to an Organic Christian SocietyWhere Weve Been, How We Got Here, and Where We Need to Go (York, Penn.: York Press, 2013), ISBN: 978-0-9882148-0-4. Hardbound. Illustrated. $21.95 (shipping free).

Order Your Copy Today

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Golden Rule – Wikipedia

Posted: at 10:04 pm

The Golden Rule or law of reciprocity is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated oneself. It is a maxim of altruism seen in many human religions and human cultures.[1][2] The maxim may appear as either a positive or negative injunction governing conduct:

The Golden Rule differs from the maxim of reciprocity captured in do ut des”I give so that you will give in return”and is rather a unilateral moral commitment to the well-being of the other without the expectation of anything in return.[3]

The concept occurs in some form in nearly every religion[4][5] and ethical tradition.[6] It can also be explained from the perspectives of psychology, philosophy, sociology, and economics. Psychologically, it involves a person empathizing with others. Philosophically, it involves a person perceiving their neighbor also as “I” or “self”.[7] Sociologically, ‘love your neighbor as yourself’ is applicable between individuals, between groups, and also between individuals and groups. In economics, Richard Swift, referring to ideas from David Graeber, suggests that “without some kind of reciprocity society would no longer be able to exist.”[8]

The term “Golden Rule”, or “Golden law” began to be used widely in the early 17th century in Britain; the earliest known usage is that of Charles Gibbon in 1604.[1][9]

Possibly the earliest affirmation of the maxim of reciprocity, reflecting the ancient Egyptian goddess Ma’at, appears in the story of The Eloquent Peasant, which dates to the Middle Kingdom (c. 2040 c. 1650 BC): “Now this is the command: Do to the doer to make him do.”[10][11] This proverb embodies the do ut des principle.[12] A Late Period (c. 664 BC 323 BC) papyrus contains an early negative affirmation of the Golden Rule: “That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another.”[13]

The Golden Rule appears in the following Biblical verse: “You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.” (Leviticus 19:18)

The Golden Rule existed among all the major philosophical schools of ancient China: Mohism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Examples of the concept include:

In Mahbhrata, the ancient epic of India, comes a discourse where the wise minister Vidura advises the King Yuddhihhira thus, “Listening to wise scriptures, austerity, sacrifice, respectful faith, social welfare, forgiveness, purity of intent, compassion, truth and self-control are the ten wealth of character (self). O king aim for these, may you be steadfast in these qualities. These are the basis of prosperity and rightful living. These are highest attainable things. All worlds are balanced on dharma, dharma encompasses ways to prosperity as well. O King, dharma is the best quality to have, wealth the medium and desire (kma) the lowest. Hence, (keeping these in mind), by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself.”

tasmd_dharma-pradhnna bhavitavyam yattman | tath cha sarva-bhthu vartitavyam yathtmani || ( || Mahbhrata Shnti-Parva 167:9)

In the Section on Virtue, and Chapter 32 of the Tirukkua (c. 200 BC c. 500 AD), Tiruvalluvar says: Why does a man inflict upon other creatures those sufferings, which he has found by experience are sufferings to himself? (K. 318) Let not a man consent to do those things to another which, he knows, will cause sorrow. (K. 316) He furthermore opined that it is the determination of the spotless (virtuous) not to do evil, even in return, to those who have cherished enmity and done them evil. (K. 312) The (proper) punishment to those who have done evil (to you), is to put them to shame by showing them kindness, in return and to forget both the evil and the good done on both sides. (K. 314)

The Golden Rule in its prohibitive (negative) form was a common principle in ancient Greek philosophy. Examples of the general concept include:

The Pahlavi Texts of Zoroastrianism (c. 300 BC1000 AD) were an early source for the Golden Rule: “That nature alone is good which refrains from doing to another whatsoever is not good for itself.” Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5, and “Whatever is disagreeable to yourself do not do unto others.” Shayast-na-Shayast 13:29[20]

Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC65 AD), a practitioner of Stoicism (c. 300 BC200 AD) expressed the Golden Rule in his essay regarding the treatment of slaves: “Treat your inferior as you would wish your superior to treat you.” The Stoic Philosophy of Seneca.[21]

A rule of altruistic reciprocity was first stated positively in a well-known Torah verse (Hebrew: ” “):

You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against your kinsfolk. Love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.

Hillel the Elder (c. 110 BCE 10 CE),[22] used this verse as a most important message of the Torah for his teachings. Once, he was challenged by a gentile who asked to be converted under the condition that the Torah be explained to him while he stood on one foot. Hillel accepted him as a candidate for conversion to Judaism but, drawing on Leviticus 19:18, briefed the man:

What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: this is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.

Hillel recognized brotherly love as the fundamental principle of Jewish ethics. Rabbi Akiva agreed and suggested that the principle of love must have its foundation in Genesis chapter 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of Adam who was made in the image of God (Sifra, edoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Genesis Rabba 24).[23] According to Jewish rabbinic literature, the first man Adam represents the unity of mankind. This is echoed in the modern preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[24][25] And it is also taught, that Adam is last in order according to the evolutionary character of God’s creation:[23]

Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, so no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, ‘Our father was born first’; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation.[23]

The Jewish Publication Society’s edition of Leviticus:

This Torah verse represents one of several versions of the Golden Rule, which itself appears in various forms, positive and negative. It is the earliest written version of that concept in a positive form.[27]

At the turn of the eras, the Jewish rabbis were discussing the scope of the meaning of Leviticus 19:18 and 19:34 extensively:

The stranger who resides with you shall be to you as one of your citizens; you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I the LORD am your God.

Commentators summed up foreigners (= Samaritans), proselytes (= ‘strangers who resides with you’) (Rabbi Akiva, bQuid 75b) or Jews (Rabbi Gamaliel, yKet 3,1; 27a) to the scope of the meaning.

The Sage Hillel formulated an alternative form of the golden rule. When asked to sum up the entire Torah concisely, he explained, and taught the proselyte:[28]

That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn it.

On the verse, “Love your fellow as yourself,” the classic commentator Rashi quotes from Torat Kohanim, an early Midrashic text regarding the famous dictum of Rabbi Akiva: “Love your fellow as yourself Rabbi Akiva says this is a great principle of the Torah.”[29]

Israel’s postal service quoted from the previous Leviticus verse when it commemorated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on a 1958 postage stamp.[30]

According to Simon Blackburn, although the Golden Rule “can be found in some form in almost every ethical tradition”, the rule is “sometimes claimed by Christianity as its own”.[31] The “Golden Rule” has been attributed to Jesus of Nazareth, who used it to summarize the Torah: “Do to others what you want them to do to you. This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets”[32] (Matthew 7:12 NCV, see also Luke 6:31). The common English phrasing is “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”. A similar form appeared in a Catholic catechism around 1567 (certainly in the reprint of 1583).[33] The Golden Rule is stated positively numerous times in the Hebrew Pentateuch as well as the Prophets and Writings. Leviticus 19:18 (“Forget about the wrong things people do to you, and do not try to get even. Love your neighbor as you love yourself.”; see also Great Commandment) and Leviticus 19:34 (“But treat them just as you treat your own citizens. Love foreigners as you love yourselves, because you were foreigners one time in Egypt. I am the Lord your God.”).

The Old Testament Deuterocanonical books of Tobit and Sirach, accepted as part of the Scriptural canon by Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and the Non-Chalcedonian Churches, express a negative form of the golden rule:

“Do to no one what you yourself dislike.”

Tobit 4:15

“Recognize that your neighbor feels as you do, and keep in mind your own dislikes.”

Sirach 31:15

At the time of Hillel, an elder contemporary of Jesus of Nazareth, the negative form of the golden rule was already proverbial among Second Temple Jews. When asked to sum up the entire Torah concisely, he answered:

“That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.”

Talmud, Shabbat 31a

Two passages in the New Testament quote Jesus of Nazareth espousing the positive form of the rule:

Matthew 7:12

Do to others what you want them to do to you. This is the meaning of the law of Moses and the teaching of the prophets.

Luke 6:31

Do to others what you would want them to do to you.

A similar passage, a parallel to the Great Commandment, is Luke 10:25-28

25And one day an authority on the law stood up to put Jesus to the test. “Teacher,” he asked, “what must I do to receive eternal life?”

26What is written in the Law?” Jesus replied. “How do you understand it?” 27He answered, ” Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. Love him with all your strength and with all your mind.(Deuteronomy 6:5) And, Love your neighbor as you love yourself. ” 28″You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do that, and you will live.”.

The passage in the book of Luke then continues with Jesus answering the question, “Who is my neighbor?”, by telling the parable of the Good Samaritan, indicating that “your neighbor” is anyone in need.[34] This extends to all, including those who are generally considered hostile.

Jesus’ teaching goes beyond the negative formulation of not doing what one would not like done to themselves, to the positive formulation of actively doing good to another that, if the situations were reversed, one would desire that the other would do for them. This formulation, as indicated in the parable of the Good Samaritan, emphasizes the needs for positive action that brings benefit to another, not simply restraining oneself from negative activities that hurt another. Taken as a rule of judgment, both formulations of the golden rule, the negative and positive, are equally applicable.[35]

In one passage of the New Testament Paul the Apostle refers to the golden rule:

Galatians 5:14

14For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

The Golden Rule is implicitly expressed in some verses of the Quran, and is explicitly declared in the sayings of Muhammad. A common transliteration is: Aheb li akheek ma tuhibu li nafsik. This can be translated as “Wish for your brother, what you wish for yourself” or “Love for your brother what you love for yourself”.

From the Quran: the first verse recommends the positive form of the rule, and the subsequent verses condemn not abiding the negative form of the Golden Rule:

“…and you should forgive And overlook: Do you not like God to forgive you? And Allah is The Merciful Forgiving.”

“Woe to those… who, when they have to receive by measure from men, they demand exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due”

“…orphans and the needy, give them something and speak kindly to them. And those who are concerned about the welfare of their own children after their death, should have fear of God [Treat other people’s Orphans justly] and guide them properly.”

“O you who believe! Spend [benevolently] of the good things that you have earned… and do not even think of spending [in alms] worthless things that you yourselves would be reluctant to accept.”

From the hadith, the collected oral and written accounts of Muhammad and his teachings during his lifetime:

A Bedouin came to the prophet, grabbed the stirrup of his camel and said: O the messenger of God! Teach me something to go to heaven with it. Prophet said: “As you would have people do to you, do to them; and what you dislike to be done to you, don’t do to them. Now let the stirrup go! [This maxim is enough for you; go and act in accordance with it!]”

“None of you [truly] believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.”

“Seek for mankind that of which you are desirous for yourself, that you may be a believer.”

“That which you want for yourself, seek for mankind.”[37]

“The most righteous person is the one who consents for other people what he consents for himself, and who dislikes for them what he dislikes for himself.”[37]

Ali ibn Abi Talib (4th Caliph in Sunni Islam, and first Imam in Shia Islam) says:

“O’ my child, make yourself the measure (for dealings) between you and others. Thus, you should desire for others what you desire for yourself and hate for others what you hate for yourself. Do not oppress as you do not like to be oppressed. Do good to others as you would like good to be done to you. Regard bad for yourself whatever you regard bad for others. Accept that (treatment) from others which you would like others to accept from you… Do not say to others what you do not like to be said to you.”

Other hadiths containing the golden rule are:

The Writings of the Bah’ Faith while encouraging everyone to treat others as they would treat themselves, go further by introducing the concept of preferring others before oneself:

O SON OF MAN! Deny not My servant should he ask anything from thee, for his face is My face; be then abashed before Me.

Blessed is he who preferreth his brother before himself.

And if thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour that which thou choosest for thyself.

Ascribe not to any soul that which thou wouldst not have ascribed to thee, and say not that which thou doest not.

One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to ones own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behavior is due to selfish desires.

By making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself[48]


Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama, c. 623 c. 543 BC)[49][50] made this principle one of the cornerstones of his ethics in the 6th century BC. It occurs in many places and in many forms throughout the Tripitaka.

Comparing oneself to others in such terms as “Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I,” he should neither kill nor cause others to kill.

One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter.

Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.

Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.[51]

The Golden Rule is paramount in the Jainist philosophy and can be seen in the doctrines of Ahimsa and Karma. As part of the prohibition of causing any living beings to suffer, Jainism forbids inflicting upon others what is harmful to oneself.

The following quotation from the Acaranga Sutra sums up the philosophy of Jainism:

Nothing which breathes, which exists, which lives, or which has essence or potential of life, should be destroyed or ruled over, or subjugated, or harmed, or denied of its essence or potential.

In support of this Truth, I ask you a question “Is sorrow or pain desirable to you?” If you say “yes it is”, it would be a lie. If you say, “No, It is not” you will be expressing the truth. Just as sorrow or pain is not desirable to you, so it is to all which breathe, exist, live or have any essence of life. To you and all, it is undesirable, and painful, and repugnant.[52]

A man should wander about treating all creatures as he himself would be treated.

Sutrakritanga, 1.11.33

In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.

Lord Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara

Saman Suttam of Jinendra Varni[53] gives further insight into this precept:-

Just as pain is not agreeable to you, it is so with others. Knowing this principle of equality treat other with respect and compassion.

Suman Suttam, verse 150

Killing a living being is killing one’s own self; showing compassion to a living being is showing compassion to oneself. He who desires his own good, should avoid causing any harm to a living being.

Suman Suttam, verse 151

Precious like jewels are the minds of all. To hurt them is not at all good. If thou desirest thy Beloved, then hurt thou not anyone’s heart.

Guru Arjan Dev Ji 259, Guru Granth Sahib

The same idea is also presented in V.12 and VI.30 of the Analects (c. 500 BC), which can be found in the online Chinese Text Project. It should be noted, however, that the phraseology differs from the Christian version of the Golden Rule. It does not presume to do anything unto others, but merely to avoid doing what would be harmful. It does not preclude doing good deeds and taking moral positions, but there is slim possibility for a Confucian missionary outlook, such as one can justify with the Christian Golden Rule.

The sage has no interest of his own, but takes the interests of the people as his own. He is kind to the kind; he is also kind to the unkind: for Virtue is kind. He is faithful to the faithful; he is also faithful to the unfaithful: for Virtue is faithful.

Regard your neighbor’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.

If people regarded other peoples states in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own state to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. If people regarded other peoples cities in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own city to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. If people regarded other peoples families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself. And so if states and cities do not attack one another and families do not wreak havoc upon and steal from one another, would this be a harm to the world or a benefit? Of course one must say it is a benefit to the world.


Mozi regarded the golden rule as a corollary to the cardinal virtue of impartiality, and encouraged egalitarianism and selflessness in relationships.

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Current Issue | Asimov’s Science Fiction

Posted: at 10:03 pm

October/November is our traditional slightly spooky issue, and the 2016 edition is no exception. The magazine is jam-packed with stories about ghosts, angels, demons, souls, curses, and a couple of aliens. Alexander Jablokovs bold new novella brings us a tale of death and danger, a woman with a rather unusual occupation, and The Forgotten Taste of Honey.

Sandra McDonalds cheerful tone belies the horror that lurks for The People in the Building; the souls of the damned are captured in Susan Palwicks poignant Lucite; death and another odd job play a part in Michael Liblings amusing and irreverent tale of Wretched the Romantic; Project Extropy uncovers new mysteries in Dominica Phetteplaces ongoing series; S. N. Dyer draws on history and folklore to explain what happens When Grandfather Returns; seeds of hurt and mistrust are sewn in Rich Larsons Water Scorpions; new author Octavia Cade invites us to spend some time Eating Science With Ghosts; Will Ludwigsen examines the curse of The Leaning Lincoln; and Michael Blumleins heartfelt novella asks us to Choose Poison, Choose Life.

Robert Silverbergs Reflections column dabbles in some Magical Thinking; James Patrick Kellys On the Net prepares to Welcome Our Robot Overlords!; Norman Spinrads On Books takes on Short Stories in a column that features the Nebula Awards Showcase anthologies as well as The Fredric Brown Megapack and Harlan Ellisons Can & Cantankerous; plus well have an array of poetry and other features youre sure to enjoy. Get your copy now!

by Alexander Jablokov

Tromvi trudged up the hill from the harbor, where she had just packed the last of her trade goods into the hull of a ship heading to the east. What she had received in return already weighed on her horses backs. She smiled to herself as she remembered the sea captain, caught between a reluctance to say goodbye and the need to be ready for the receding tide, being uncharacteristically sharp with his crew. READ MORE

by Sandra McDonald

At an office building on Tanner Boulevard, two intelligent elevators whisk workers up from the lobby toward their employment destinations. The people headed for the fifth floor greet each other every morning with nods. The people from the fourth floor sip from their brown coffee cups and read their smartphones.READ MORE

by Lisa Bellamy

Today they jostle among us until sundown, listen to our chatter, nudge each other, read the news over our shoulders; they window-shop READ MORE

by Sheila Williams

Welcome to our annual slightly spooky issue. The fall double issue is always long in the making. Throughout the year, we see stories that land a little outside Asimovs, admittedly rather soft, parameters. While we do publish one or two stories in each issue that could be called fantasy, surreal fiction, or slipstream, our focus is primarily on science fiction. Of course I get a lot of traditional science fiction story submissions, but I see a lot of uncanny submissions, too. READ MORE

by Robert Silverberg

Isaac Asimov, for whom this magazine was named and who was my predecessor as writer of this column, was a totally rational man with no belief whatever in matters supernatural. That didnt stop him from writing the occasional fantasy story or from editing a long series of anthologies with such titles as Devils, Ghosts, Spells, and Magical Wishes.READ MORE

by James Patrick Kelly

My friend John Kessel and I have had a longstanding disagreement about the future of artificial intelligence. Even though we have co-edited a couple of anthologies examining post-cyberpunk…READ MORE

by Norman Spinrad

I have been writing this column for close to four decades now, and, yet, to the best of my recollection, I have never reviewed a book of short stories. During my writing career, I have written and published something like twenty-five novels, but I have also probably written something close to one hundred short stories, if by short stories one means fiction of less than novel length, which is my definition here. READ MORE

by Erwin S. Strauss

October is a busy month. My picks range from coast to coast this time: CONtraflow, Archon, EerieCon, VCon, CapClave (where Ill be), ConClave, ConStellation, ValleyCon, MileHiCon, ICon and NecronomiCon. Whew! Plan now for social weekends with your favorite SF authors, editors, artists, and fellow fans.READ MORE


Current Issue | Asimov’s Science Fiction

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Neurotechnology Market Research and Data

Posted: at 10:02 pm

The market for neurotechnolgy products is poised to become one of the most dramatic growth areas of the 21st Century. Spurred on by medical developments and discoveries that cure disease, alleviate suffering, and generally improve the quality of life, many leading research institutions and health care firms have gained the world’s attention and respect in recent years. Within the biomedical technology industries, there is one field that stands out not only for its promise of restoring function to human patients, but also for carrying over biomedical concepts and processes to the industrial and information processing sectors. That field is what we call neurotechnology.

Unlike the field of biotechnology, which concerns itself with pharmacological and genetic engineering efforts to understand and control DNA, genetic material, and other complex biological molecules, neurotechnology is concerned with electronic and engineering methods of understanding and controlling nervous system function.

Some of the very early firms in the neurotechnology field have scored great success building devices that restore hearing to deaf people, restore arm and hand function to quadriplegics, and accomplish a host of other feats using techniques of functional electrical stimulation of the human body. We believe that government and private research funding in this area will lead to one of the great spinoffs of our time as biomedical engineers apply their knowledge and experience building devices that sense and stimulate the human nervous system and interface with non-human systems such as computers, training systems, and virtual reality.

We also believe that the field of neurotechnology offers the promise of generating significant venture capital interest and funding. After the disappointing results shown by many venture-funded Internet, e-commerce, and dotcom firms that lacked a proven revenue base, technology-oriented venture capitalists will be looking for new opportunities in markets where the opportunities are relatively salient. Neurotechnology, with its promise and proven record at such tasks as restoring hearing to deaf patients and hand function to quadriplegics, offers such a clear opportunity. Moreover, much of the risk in financing technology development in this field will be borne by government and private medical institutions who do not necessarily have the same ROI expectations as the venture capital community.

Neurotech Reports editors have prepared in-depth whitepapers on a number of business and technology issues confronting the neurotechnology industry. These short reports, ranging from 16 to 40 pages in length, cover technology areas such as deep-brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, and visual prostheses, as well as business issues such as venture capital funding, government funding, and management issues. For a list of available whitepapers, click this link:


Neurotech Reports has developed a market research report entitled “The Market for Neurotechnology: 2016-2020.”

This newly updated study offers detailed information about the market potential of each application segment of the industry, profiles of each of the current players, and projections on the size and growth rates of the market over the next five years. For more information on the contents of the report, click here:

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Neurotechnology Market Research and Data

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