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Unit 731 – Wikipedia

Posted: November 14, 2016 at 11:42 am

Unit 731 (Japanese: 731, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai?) was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (19371945) of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China).

It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (, Kantgun Beki Kysuibu Honbu?). Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shiro Ishii, an officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built between 1934 and 1939 and officially adopted the name “Unit 731” in 1941.

Some historians estimate that up to 250,000[1] men, women, and children[2][3]from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai[4]were subjected to experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites, such as Unit 100.[5]

Unit 731 veterans of Japan attest that most of the victims they experimented on were Chinese[6] while a small percentage were Russian, Mongolian, Korean, and Allied POW’s.[7] Almost 70% of the victims who died in the Pingfang camp were Chinese, including both civilian and military.[8] Close to 30% of the victims were Russian.[9] Some others were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of Allied prisoners of war.[10] The unit received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945.

Instead of being tried for war crimes, the researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U.S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation.[11] Others that Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949. Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U.S. biological warfare program, as had happened with Nazi researchers in Operation Paperclip.[12] On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that “additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as ‘War Crimes’ evidence.”[11] Victim accounts were then largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda.[13]

A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as “logs” (, maruta?), used in such contexts as “How many logs fell?”. This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill. However, in an account by a man who worked as a junior uniformed civilian employee of the Japanese Army in Unit 731, the project was internally called “Holzklotz”, which is the German word for log.[14]

The test subjects were selected to give a wide cross-section of the population and included common criminals, captured bandits and anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, and also people rounded up by the Kempeitai military police for alleged “suspicious activities”. They included infants, the elderly, and pregnant women.

Thousands of men, women and children interred at prisoner of war camps were subjected to vivisection, often without anesthesia and usually ending with the death of the victim.[15] Vivisections were performed on prisoners after infecting them with various diseases. Researchers performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was feared that the decomposition process would affect the results.[16] The infected and vivisected prisoners included men, women, children, and infants.[17]

Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study blood loss. Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners’ limbs were frozen and amputated, while others had limbs frozen, then thawed to study the effects of the resultant untreated gangrene and rotting.

Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines. Parts of the brain, lungs, liver, etc., were removed from some prisoners.[15]

Japanese army surgeon Ken Yuasa suggests that the practice of vivisection on human subjects (mostly Chinese communists) was widespread even outside Unit 731,[6] estimating that at least 1,000 Japanese personnel were involved in the practice in mainland China.[18]

Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, then studied. Prisoners were also repeatedly subject to rape by guards.[19]

Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around and possibly more than 400,000 Chinese civilians.[20]Tularemia was tested on Chinese civilians.[21]

Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644 and Unit 100 among others) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Plague-infested fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, coastal Ningbo in 1940, and Changde, Hunan Province, in 1941. This military aerial spraying killed thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics.[22]

It is possible that Unit 731’s methods and objectives were also followed in Indonesia, in a case of failed experiment designed to validate a conjured tetanus toxoid vaccine.[23]

Physiologist Yoshimura Hisato conducted experiments by taking captives outside, dipping various appendages into water, and allowing the limb to freeze. Once frozen, which testimony from a Japanese officer said “was determined after the ‘frozen arms, when struck with a short stick, emitted a sound resembling that which a board gives when it is struck'”,[24] ice was chipped away and the area doused in water. The effects of different water temperatures were tested by bludgeoning the victim to determine if any areas were still frozen. Variations of these tests in more gruesome forms were performed.

Doctors orchestrated forced sex acts between infected and non-infected prisoners to transmit the disease, as the testimony of a prison guard on the subject of devising a method for transmission of syphilis between patients shows:

“Infection of venereal disease by injection was abandoned, and the researchers started forcing the prisoners into sexual acts with each other. Four or five unit members, dressed in white laboratory clothing completely cover the body with only eyes and mouth visible, handled the tests. A male and female, one infected with syphilis, would be brought together in a cell and forced into sex with each other. It was made clear that anyone resisting would be shot.”[25]

After victims were infected, they were vivisected at different stages of infection, so that internal and external organs could be observed as the disease progressed. Testimony from multiple guards blames the female victims as being hosts of the diseases, even as they were forcibly infected. Genitals of female prisoners that were infected with syphilis were called “jam filled buns” by guards.[26]

Some children grew up inside the walls of Unit 731, infected with syphilis. A Youth Corps member deployed to train at Unit 731 recalled viewing a batch of subjects that would undergo syphilis testing: “one was a Chinese woman holding an infant, one was a White Russian woman with a daughter of four or five years of age, and the last was a White Russian woman with a boy of about six or seven.”[26] The children of these women were tested in ways similar to their parents, with specific emphasis on determining how longer infection periods affected the effectiveness of treatments.

Female prisoners were forced to become pregnant for use in experiments. The hypothetical possibility of vertical transmission (from mother to fetus or child) of diseases, particularly syphilis, was the stated reason for the torture. Fetal survival and damage to mother’s reproductive organs were objects of interest. Though “a large number of babies were born in captivity”, there has been no account of any survivors of Unit 731, children included. It is suspected that the children of female prisoners were killed or the pregnancies terminated.[26]

While male prisoners were often used in single studies, so that the results of the experimentation on them would not be clouded by other variables, women were sometimes used in bacteriological or physiological experiments, sex experiments, and the victims of sex crimes. The testimony of a unit member that served as guard graphically demonstrates this reality:

“One of the former researchers I located told me that one day he had a human experiment scheduled, but there was still time to kill. So he and another unit member took the keys to the cells and opened one that housed a Chinese woman. One of the unit members raped her; the other member took the keys and opened another cell. There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used in a frostbite experiment. She had several fingers missing and her bones were black, with gangrene set in. He was about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ was festering, with pus oozing to the surface. He gave up the idea, left, and locked the door, then later went on to his experimental work.”[26]

Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs.[27][28]

In other tests, subjects were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death; placed into high-pressure chambers until death; experimented upon to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival; placed into centrifuges and spun until death; injected with animal blood; exposed to lethal doses of x-rays; subjected to various chemical weapons inside gas chambers; injected with sea water; and burned or buried alive.[29]

Japanese researchers performed tests on prisoners with Bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism, and other diseases.[30] This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread bubonic plague.[31] Some of these bombs were designed with porcelain shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.

These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, and other areas with anthrax, plague-carrier fleas, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, and other deadly pathogens. During biological bomb experiments, researchers dressed in protective suits would examine the dying victims. Infected food supplies and clothing were dropped by airplane into areas of China not occupied by Japanese forces. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given out to unsuspecting victims, and the results examined.

In 2002, Changde, China, site of the flea spraying attack, held an “International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare” which estimated that at least 580,000 people died as a result of the attack.[32] The historian Sheldon Harris claims that 200,000 died.[33] In addition to Chinese casualties, 1,700 Japanese in Chekiang were killed by their own biological weapons while attempting to unleash the biological agent, which indicates serious issues with distribution.[2]

During the final months of World War II, Japan planned to use plague as a biological weapon against San Diego, California. The plan was scheduled to launch on September 22, 1945, but Japan surrendered five weeks earlier.[34][35][36][37]

Despite the facility’s location in Northern China, great pains were taken by organizers of the facility that its inmates represented a wide array of ethnicities. Most of the prisoners of war were American.[38]

Robert Peaty (19031988), a British Major in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, was the senior ranking allied officer. During this time, he kept a secret diary. A copy of his entire diary exists in the NARA archives.[39] An extract of the diary is available at the UK National Archives at Kew.[40] He was interviewed by the Imperial War Museum in 1981, and the audio recording tape reels are in the IWM’s archives.[41]

Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions:

The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometres (2.3 square miles) and consisted of more than 150 buildings. The design of the facilities made them hard to destroy by bombing. The complex contained various factories. It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kilograms (66 pounds) of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in a few days.

Some of Unit 731’s satellite facilities are in use by various Chinese industrial concerns. A portion has been preserved and is open to visitors as a War Crimes Museum.

A medical school and research facility belonging to Unit 731 operated in the Shinjuku District of Tokyo during World War II. In 2006, Toyo Ishiia nurse who worked at the school during the warrevealed that she had helped bury bodies and pieces of bodies on the school’s grounds shortly after Japan’s surrender in 1945. In response, in February 2011 the Ministry of Health began to excavate the site.[43]

China requested DNA samples from any human remains discovered at the site. The Japanese governmentwhich has never officially acknowledged the atrocities committed by Unit 731rejected the request.[44]

The related Unit 8604 was operated by the Japanese Southern China Area Army and stationed at Guangzhou (Canton). This installation conducted human experimentation in food and water deprivation as well as water-borne typhus. According to postwar testimony, this facility served as the main rat breeding farm for the medical units to provide them with bubonic plague vectors for experiments.[45]

Unit 731 was part of the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department which dealt with contagious disease and water supply generally.

Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific War since May 1944, but his attempts were repeatedly snubbed.

With the coming of the Red Army in August 1945, the unit had to abandon their work in haste. The members and their families fled to Japan.

Ishii ordered every member of the group “to take the secret to the grave”, threatening to find them if they failed, and prohibiting any of them from going into public work back in Japan. Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in the event that the remaining personnel were captured.

Skeleton crews of Ishii’s Japanese troops blew up the compound in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but most were so well constructed that they survived somewhat intact.

Among the individuals in Japan after their 1945 surrender was Lieutenant Colonel Murray Sanders, who arrived in Yokohama via the American ship Sturgess in September 1945. Sanders was a highly regarded microbiologist and a member of America’s military center for biological weapons. Sanders’ duty was to investigate Japanese biological warfare activity. At the time of his arrival in Japan he had no knowledge of what Unit 731 was.[26] Until Sanders finally threatened the Japanese with bringing communism into the picture, little information about biological warfare was being shared with the Americans. The Japanese wanted to avoid the Soviet legal system so the next morning after the threat Sanders received a manuscript describing Japan’s involvement in biological warfare.[46] Sanders took this information to General Douglas MacArthur, who was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers responsible for rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupations. MacArthur struck a deal with Japanese informants[47]he secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731, including their leader, in exchange for providing America, but not the other wartime allies, with their research on biological warfare and data from human experimentation.[11] American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including reading and censoring their mail.[48] The U.S. believed that the research data was valuable. The U.S. did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons.[49]

The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with “poisonous serums” on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was instigated by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. The Japanese defense counsel argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was probably unaware of Unit 731’s activities. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental.

Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo Trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes, including germ warfare, was General Otoz Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria.

The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949. A lengthy partial transcript of the trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by a Moscow foreign languages press, including an English language edition.[50] The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, who had been one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials. The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 experiments received sentences from the Khabarovsk court ranging from two to 25 years in a Siberian labor camp. The U.S. refused to acknowledge the trials, branding them communist propaganda.[51]

After World War II, the Soviet Union built a biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk using documentation captured from Unit 731 in Manchuria.[52]

As above, under the American occupation the members of Unit 731 and other experimental units were allowed to go free. One graduate of Unit 1644, Masami Kitaoka, continued to do experiments on unwilling Japanese subjects from 1947 to 1956 while working for Japan’s National Institute of Health Sciences. He infected prisoners with rickettsia and mental health patients with typhus.[53]

Japanese discussions of Unit 731’s activity began in the 1950s, after the end of the American occupation of Japan. In 1952, human experiments carried out in Nagoya City Pediatric Hospital, which resulted in one death, were publicly tied to former members of Unit 731.[54] Later in that decade, journalists suspected that the murders attributed by the government to Sadamichi Hirasawa were actually carried out by members of Unit 731. In 1958, Japanese author Shsaku End published the book The Sea and Poison about human experimentation, which is thought to have been based on a real incident.

The author Seiichi Morimura published The Devil’s Gluttony () in 1981, followed by The Devil’s Gluttony: A Sequel in 1983. These books purported to reveal the “true” operations of Unit 731, but actually confused them with that of Unit 100, and falsely used unrelated photos attributing them to Unit 731, which raised questions about its accuracy.[55][56]

Also in 1981 appeared the first direct testimony of human vivisection in China, by Ken Yuasa. Since then many more in-depth testimonies have appeared in Japanese. The 2001 documentary Japanese Devils was composed largely of interviews with 14 members of Unit 731 who had been taken as prisoners by China and later released.[57]

Since the end of the Allied occupation, the Japanese government has repeatedly apologized for its pre-war behavior in general, but specific apologies and indemnities are determined on the basis of bilateral determination that crimes occurred, which requires a high standard of evidence. Unit 731 presents a special problem, since unlike Nazi human experimentation which the U.S. publicly condemned, the activities of Unit 731 are known to the general public only from the testimonies of willing former unit members, and testimony cannot be employed to determine indemnity in this way.

Japanese history textbooks usually contain references to Unit 731, but do not go into detail about allegations, in accordance with this principle.[58][59]Saburo Ienaga’s New History of Japan included a detailed description, based on officers’ testimony. The Ministry for Education attempted to remove this passage from his textbook before it was taught in public schools, on the basis that the testimony was insufficient. The Supreme Court of Japan ruled in 1997 that the testimony was indeed sufficient and that requiring it to be removed was an illegal violation of freedom of speech.[60]

In 1997, the international lawyer Knen Tsuchiya filed a class action suit against the Japanese government, demanding reparations for the actions of Unit 731, using evidence filed by Professor Makoto Ueda of Rikkyo University. All Japanese court levels found that the suit was baseless. No findings of fact were made about the existence of human experimentation, but the decision of the court was that reparations are determined by international treaties and not by national court cases.

In October 2003, a member of the House of Representatives of Japan filed an inquiry. Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi responded that the Japanese government did not then possess any records related to Unit 731, but the government recognized the gravity of the matter and would publicize any records that were located in the future.[61]

There have been several films about the atrocities of Unit 731.

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Unit 731 – Wikipedia

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Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells – National Human Genome Research …

Posted: October 4, 2016 at 1:28 pm

Cloning/Embryonic Stem Cells

The term cloning is used by scientists to describe many different processes that involve making duplicates of biological material. In most cases, isolated genes or cells are duplicated for scientific study, and no new animal results. The experiment that led to the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997 was different: It used a cloning technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer and resulted in an animal that was a genetic twin — although delayed in time — of an adult sheep. This technique can also be used to produce an embryo from which cells called embryonic stem (ES) cells could be extracted to use in research into potential therapies for a wide variety of diseases.

Thus, in the past five years, much of the scientific and ethical debate about somatic cell nuclear transfer has focused on its two potential applications: 1) for reproductive purposes, i.e., to produce a child, or 2) for producing a source of ES cells for research.

The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. In the simplest terms, the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep – somatic cell nuclear transplantation cloning – involves removing the nucleus of an egg and replacing it with the diploid nucleus of a somatic cell. Unlike sexual reproduction, during which a new organism is formed when the genetic material of the egg and sperm fuse, in nuclear transplantation cloning there is a single genetic “parent.” This technique also differs from previous cloning techniques because it does not involve an existing embryo. Dolly is different because she is not genetically unique; when born she was genetically identical to an existing six-year-old ewe. Although the birth of Dolly was lauded as a success, in fact, the procedure has not been perfected and it is not yet clear whether Dolly will remain healthy or whether she is already experiencing subtle problems that might lead to serious diseases. Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations.

Several important concerns remain about the science and safety of nuclear transfer cloning using adult cells as the source of nuclei. To date, five mammalian species — sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, and mice — have been used extensively in reproductive cloning studies. Data from these experiments illustrate the problems involved. Typically, very few cloning attempts are successful. Many cloned animals die in utero, even at late stages or soon after birth, and those that survive frequently exhibit severe birth defects. In addition, female animals carrying cloned fetuses may face serious risks, including death from cloning-related complications.

An additional concern focuses on whether cellular aging will affect the ability of somatic cell nuclei to program normal development. As somatic cells divide they progressively age, and there is normally a defined number of cell divisions that can occur before senescence. Thus, the health effects for the resulting liveborn, having been created with an “aged” nucleus, are unknown. Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. And, scientists in Tokyo have shown that cloned mice die significantly earlier than those that are naturally conceived, raising an additional concern that the mutations that accumulate in somatic cells might affect nuclear transfer efficiency and lead to cancer and other diseases in offspring. Researchers working with clones of a Holstein cow say genetic programming errors may explain why so many cloned animals die, either as fetuses or newborns.

The announcement of Dolly sparked widespread speculation about a human child being created using somatic cell nuclear transfer. Much of the perceived fear that greeted this announcement centered on the misperception that a child or many children could be produced who would be identical to an already existing person. This fear is based on the idea of “genetic determinism” — that genes alone determine all aspects of an individual — and reflects the belief that a person’s genes bear a simple relationship to the physical and psychological traits that compose that individual. Although genes play an essential role in the formation of physical and behavioral characteristics, each individual is, in fact, the result of a complex interaction between his or her genes and the environment within which he or she develops. Nonetheless, many of the concerns about cloning have focused on issues related to “playing God,” interfering with the natural order of life, and somehow robbing a future individual of the right to a unique identity.

Several groups have concluded that reproductive cloning of human beings creates ethical and scientific risks that society should not tolerate. In 1997, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission recommended that it was morally unacceptable to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning and suggested that a moratorium be imposed until safety of this technique could be assessed. The commission also cautioned against preempting the use of cloning technology for purposes unrelated to producing a liveborn child.

Similarly, in 2001 the National Academy of Sciences issued a report stating that the United States should ban human reproductive cloning aimed at creating a child because experience with reproductive cloning in animals suggests that the process would be dangerous for the woman, the fetus, and the newborn, and would likely fail. The report recommended that the proposed ban on human cloning should be reviewed within five years, but that it should be reconsidered “only if a new scientific review indicates that the procedures are likely to be safe and effective, and if a broad national dialogue on societal, religious and ethical issues suggests that reconsideration is warranted.” The panel concluded that the scientific and medical considerations that justify a ban on human reproductive cloning at this time do not apply to nuclear transplantation to produce stem cells. Several other scientific and medical groups also have stated their opposition to the use of cloning for the purpose of producing a child.

The cloning debate was reopened with a new twist late in 1998, when two scientific reports were published regarding the successful isolation of human stem cells. Stem cells are unique and essential cells found in animals that are capable of continually reproducing themselves and renewing tissue throughout an individual organism’s life. ES cells are the most versatile of all stem cells because they are less differentiated, or committed, to a particular function than adult stem cells. These cells have offered hope of new cures to debilitating and even fatal illness. Recent studies in mice and other animals have shown that ES cells can reduce symptoms of Parkinson’s disease in mouse models, and work in other animal models and disease areas seems promising.

In the 1998 reports, ES cells were derived from in vitro embryos six to seven days old destined to be discarded by couples undergoing infertility treatments, and embryonic germ (EG) cells were obtained from cadaveric fetal tissue following elective abortion. A third report, appearing in the New York Times, claimed that a Massachusetts biotechnology company had fused a human cell with an enucleated cow egg, creating a hybrid clone that failed to progress beyond an early stage of development. This announcement served as a reminder that ES cells also could be derived from embryos created through somatic cell nuclear transfer, or cloning. In fact, several scientists believed that deriving ES cells in this manner is the most promising approach to developing treatments because the condition of in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos stored over time is questionable and this type of cloning could overcome graft-host responses if resulting therapies were developed from the recipient’s own DNA.

For those who believe that the embryo has the moral status of a person from the moment of conception, research or any other activity that would destroy it is wrong. For those who believe the human embryo deserves some measure of respect, but disagree that the respect due should equal that given to a fully formed human, it could be considered immoral not to use embryos that would otherwise be destroyed to develop potential cures for disease affecting millions of people. An additional concern related to public policy is whether federal funds should be used for research that some Americans find unethical.

Since 1996, Congress has prohibited researchers from using federal funds for human embryo research. In 1999, DHHS announced that it intended to fund research on human ES cells derived from embryos remaining after infertility treatments. This decision was based on an interpretation “that human embryonic stem cells are not a human embryo within the statutory definition” because “the cells do not have the capacity to develop into a human being even if transferred to the uterus, thus their destruction in the course of research would not constitute the destruction of an embryo.” DHHS did not intend to fund research using stem cells derived from embryos created through cloning, although such efforts would be legal in the private sector.

In July 2001, the House of Representatives voted 265 to 162 to make any human cloning a criminal offense, including cloning to create an embryo for derivation of stem cells rather than to produce a child. In August 2002, President Bush, contending with a DHHS decision made during the Clinton administration, stated in a prime-time television address that federal support would be provided for research using a limited number of stem cell colonies already in existence (derived from leftover IVF embryos). Current bills before Congress would ban all forms of cloning outright, prohibit cloning for reproductive purposes, and impose a moratorium on cloning to derive stem cells for research, or prohibit cloning for reproductive purposes while allowing cloning for therapeutic purposes to go forward. As of late June, the Senate has taken no action. President Bush’s Bioethics Council is expected to recommend the prohibition of reproductive cloning and a moratorium on therapeutic cloning later this summer.

Prepared by Kathi E. Hanna, M.S., Ph.D., Science and Health Policy Consultant

Last Reviewed: April 2006

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Sony says China’s censorship laws are stifling PS4 sales …

Posted: September 18, 2015 at 2:44 pm

Sarah Tew/CNET

Following dipping sales, Sony this week announced a price drop for the PS4 in Japan. But the company’s home turf isn’t the only Asian country giving it grief, with China presenting a unique set of challenges.

“We are still challenged somewhat with a censorship regime that we have to work with,” Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Andrew House told Reuters at the Tokyo Game Show on Thursday. “This can be time-consuming.”

The PS4 launched in China back in March, a little over a year after the country’s government revoked a ban on gaming consoles that had been in place for 14 years. However, China’s censorship minefield has proven difficult for Sony to traverse: Only six launch titles accompanied the PS4 upon its release.

“I don’t think it has been a kind of rocket launch start,” House admitted, but added that he thinks there’s “tremendous potential for gaming as an entertainment medium in China.” The numbers certainly agree — last year China’s gaming population exceeded the entire population of the USA.

Titles released alongside the console, which retails for 2,899 yuan ($455), include Rayman Legends, Knack, and Dynasty Warriors 8: Xtreme Legends Complete Edition. Noticeably absent are mega-popular western titles like Grand Theft Auto 5 or Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare.

The slim gaming portfolio officially available to Chinese gamers is not surprising given the country’s censorship regulations. Any game deemed to promote drug use, violence, gambling or obscenity is immediately withdrawn from consideration of distribution.

Sony isn’t the only one struggling though — Microsoft last year launched the Xbox One in the country along with around 10 titles. However, though the Xbox has a few more games available, it’s region locked, while the PS4 is not. This means that Chinese players can import and play games from around the world for Sony’s console (at the risk of a fine) but not Microsoft’s.

In July, research institute Niko Partners estimated that the combined number of Xbox Ones and PS4s sold in 2015 would be under 550,000, though this doesn’t take into account sales of gaming hardware and software sold in China’s widely used grey market.

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PS4 Sales in China Hurt by "Censorship Regime," Exec Says

Posted: at 2:44 pm

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The PlayStation 4 launched in China back in March, but sales haven’t been as strong as Sony would have hoped. PlayStation boss Andrew House said in an interview at the Tokyo Game Show this week that China’s censorship rules are hurting the sales potential of the PS4 in the country.

“We are still challenged somewhat with a censorship regime that we have to work with,” House told Reuters. “This can be time-consuming.”

Despite a slow start, House said he still sees huge potential in the China, a country whose gamer population exceeds the entire US population.

“I don’t think it has been a kind of a rocket launch start,” House said, adding that he envisions “tremendous potential for gaming as an entertainment medium in China.” With an estimated population of 1.35 billion and a growing middle-class, China is considered to potentially be the world’s largest market for video games.

According to China’s censorship rules, nothing that promotes drug use of violence is allowed. All games must be approved by the Shanghai government culture department and the approval process for games is said to take no longer than 20 days. A full list of content that is not allowed in games sold in China is available here.

The Xbox One launched in China in September 2014 and sold around 100,000 units during its launch week. Nintendo has not yet announced specific plans to bring its consoles or games to the market.

According to one Asia business analyst group, the PS4 and Xbox One systems in China may only sell fewer than 550,000 units, combined, in 2015.

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PS4 Sales in China Hurt by "Censorship Regime," Exec Says

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Futurism (song) MuseWiki: Supermassive wiki for the band Muse

Posted: September 10, 2015 at 12:40 pm

Additional information

The song itself is about a futuristic world, hence the pre-release name of “Electro Empire”, and fits into the theme of Origin of Symmetry, but wasn’t included due to its difficulty to play live. The song was otherwise called “Spectrum” and “Tesseract” whilst in production; tesseract being the name given to the 4-dimensional shape analogous to a cube.

The song features a powerful bass line and is similar to Hysteria’s. According to Matt in a tweet, Futurism led to the idea for Hysteria bassline.

An alternative interpretation is that the song is about a near-future world formed as a result of modern developments, particularly the way social networking in fact keeps us apart from people (“grounded, boxed in”) and the use of technology makes us like “silent gods”.

After playing the song twice in 2015, Matt cited Futurism and The Groove as two examples of b-sides he felt were better than some album tracks.[2]

The first seconds of the song bear a distinct resemblance to the song “Too Many Puppies” by Primus which has been occasionally played by Muse as a riff.

A first version of Futurism was performed live for the first time at Reading Festival 2000 in 2000, in which lyrics of the song were slightly different (the original live version is also one of only four Muse songs that contains swearing). Despite the band said it can get difficult to play, the song was performed live for the second time ever at Zepp Tokyo in 2013.

Other performances of the song were during the Psycho UK Tour in 2015, in Newport and in Exeter.

Futurism is actually an italian art movement started by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in 1909. It containained the first glmpse of what is now known as modern art. The whole article can be found here: [2]

Apostasy and apathy still rules Yeah you know it’s cool Just suck and see A future turns us into silent gods And I won’t miss you at all

Grounded Boxed in Like the evil in your veins Grounded Boxed in I am stuck with you

Fate can’t decide Alignment of the planets in your hands Come on crush our plans Just suck and see A future that won’t let you disagree And I won’t miss you at all

Grounded Boxed in Like the evil in your veins Grounded Boxed in I am stuck with you

Feel it, hear it, right apathy you are, see it, be it, you’ll see

Apostasy and apathy still rules Yeah you know it’s cool Can’t wait and see A future turns us into silent gods And I won’t miss you at all

Grounded Grounded Like the evil in your veins Grounded Boxed in I am stuck with you

Pursue Alignment of the planets in your hands Come on and fuck my plans Can’t wait and see A future won’t just let you disagree Won’t miss you at all

Grounded Boxed in Like the evil in your veins Grounded Boxed in I am stuck with you

Be it, Be it, Be it, Be it

Go back to Origin of Symmetry

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Futurism (song) MuseWiki: Supermassive wiki for the band Muse

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Henry Makow

Posted: August 19, 2015 at 8:41 am

(left, Dalai Lama with the guru Shoko Asahara of the AUM sect of Japan,

responsible for the Tokyo sarin gas attack onMarch 20, 1995.)

A reader, Matt, senses something sinister

about the Dalai Lama and Tibetan Buddhism.

“Tibet is a stronghold of both spiritual and temporal power, connected with the highest secret orders and globalist councils in the world. The common goal is world domination through a saviour king to bring this about.”

“Today, the media focuses on the crimes of Islamic fanatics, but when is the last time you heard about fanatic Buddhist monks inciting violence? Is Buddhism a sacred cow for some reason?”

Will Planned Antichrist be a Lama?

From Nov. 13, 2014 (Updated with Graph below in English)

by Matt

(henrymakow.com)

Something may be rotten in the state of Tibet. Ever suspicious of the Dalai Lama’s status as being the universal “holy” friend of seemingly all political and religious leaders of the world, I decided to learn more information about this character and the institution he represents. Something about the man seemed fake and deceptive to me, as if he had been fooling the world with his perma-smile all along. Check outThe Darkness Over Tibet, an excellent, brief summary on this subject. Example:

– The Dalai Lama is only a marketing program to make Tibet look good. He and his 100 servitors could never have exiled Tibet without the agreement from the Chinese government. The Chinese government and Lamaist (Tibetan Buddhist) organization are closely linked on an occult level. The true “spiritual” leader of Lamaism is the Panchen Lama, who is almost unknown at all outside of Tibet. He’s considered as the “black pope” (the Catholic pope is the “white pope”).

– The Catholic Church (Jesuits) and Lamaism are closely linked. Jesuits have been traveling to Tibet and helped to setup the hierarchical lamaist organization (the first Dalai Lama was named in the 14th century), which in turn offered help to the Vatican (this confirms many theories according to which all the major world religions are secretly linked at the very top). Many spiritual leaders in Tibet are in fact Jesuits. Both hierarchies are arranged scientifically to optimize the function of black magic rituals.

– He mentions Maitreya, who is supposed to be the upcoming reincarnation of Buddha, but which will be used by those in power as a false messiah to “save the world”, from problems which are mostly illusory because created by those in power.

My searches led me to the online tomeThe Shadow of the Dalai Lamaby Victor and Victoria Trimondi. Here, my suspicions of the Dalai Lama were confirmed when I read that his Holiness worked with the guru Shoko Asahara of the AUM sect of Japan, responsible for the Tokyo sarin gas attack onMarch 20, 1995. Asahara apparently was very much connected to the Tibetan religion and met with many high Tantra masters. This is just one of a myriad of examples pointing to something seriously wrong with this institution.

I found a few good articles discussing the feudal, hellish society that existed under the greedy Lamas who ruled with an iron fist and treated the masses like animals.When the Dalai Lamas Ruled – Hell On EarthandThe True Face Of The Dalai Lamaprovide a decent summary on the feudal Lamaist theocracy of Tibet.

Today, the media focuses on the crimes of Islamic fanatics, but when is the last time you heard about fanatic Buddhist monks inciting violence? Is Buddhism a sacred cow for some reason? For a brief summary on this, readThe Long and Strange History of Buddhist Violence. In the Kalachakra Tantra, war and violence is discussed as the means to cleanse the world of undesirables Read about theAggressive War Myth here.

If you’ve seen Twin Peaks, you may remember the strange references to Tibet. In one episode, Windom Earle uses the Tibetan word ‘Dugpa’:

“… these evil sorcerers, dugpas, they call them, cultivate evil for the sake of evil and nothing else. They express themselves in darkness for darkness, without leavening motive. This ardent purity has allowed them to access a secret place of great power, where the cultivation of evil proceeds in exponential fashion. And with it, the furtherance of evil’s resulting power. These arenot fairy tales, or myths. This place of power is tangible, and as such, can be found, entered, and perhaps, utilized in some fashion. The dugpas have many names for it, but chief among them is the Black Lodge.”

Did David Lynch place occult secrets in plain sight in Twin Peaks? Was this “Revelation of the Method”?

There is also a strong connection between Theosophy (Blavastky, et al) and Tibetan Buddhism. Theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater wrote about an occult Buddhist hierarchy of the world and the Great White Brotherhood is an important aspect of Theosophical teachings.The Occult Hierarchy and the Mastersdiscusses this in detail.

According toThe Shadow of the Dalai Lama, German authors have written of “an occulthierarchia ordinisof the Lamaist theocracy, which invisibly influences and steers the East.”

“J. Strunk’s arguments (Zu Juda und Rom –Tibet, [To Juda and Rome –Tibet], 1937) are more far reaching; he tries to uncover a conspiracy of an international ecclesiastical elite (with members from all the world religions) with the living Buddha, the Dalai Lama from Lhasa as their visible head. “What there are of organizations and new spiritual currents running alongside and in all directions nearly always end up on the ‘roof of the world’, in a Lama temple, once one has progressed through Jewish and Christian lodges”(Strunk, 1937, p. 28).”

“General Ludendorff and his wife likewise took to the field with great vigor against the “Asian priests”and warned that the Tibetan Lamas had emplaced themselves at the head of Jewish and Jesuit secret orders (Europa den Asiatenpriestern?[Europe of the Asian priests)], 1941).”

On pg. 32 ofGeheime Weltmchte [Secret World Powers]by S. Ipares, possibly the most accurate chart of the world hierarchy can be found, (see above) placing the Lamas at the top with the Theosophists possibly being the liaison between the Lamas and the European leadership.

Lastly, the famous German author Gustav Meyrink (The Golem) had a very interesting mystical experience (Read the story inpart 1andpart 2) in which he saw a Dugpa (red hat Lama) in a vision. I believe anecdotal information like this can help us just as much or even more to find the truth.

More scrutiny of Tibetan Buddhism is warranted. I see a lot of deception and attempts to conceal the truth. Tibet to be a stronghold of both spiritual and temporal power, connected with the highest secret orders and globalist councils in the world. Their common goal is world domination through a saviour king to bring this about. The effort to gradually sell this agenda to the world is most seen in the carefully engineered public adulation of the Dalai Lama, which has me wondering if a planned World King will actually be a Lama.

The idea of a Lamaist theocracy being the ultimate rulers of the world will sound far-fetched to many, but there is a good reason why it can only be found in old and untranslated German books.

Related:

1. Dalai lama articles on this site:

Tibetan Buddhism- A Racket Posing as a Religion

2. Critical Links to Lamaism

Buddhists, Occultists and Secret Societies in Early Bolshevik Russia: an interview with Andrei Znamenski

‘Red Shambhala’: Telepathy, Mental Powers, Electronic Surveillance & Mysticism in the U.S.S.R.

Red Star Over Shambhala: Soviet, British and American Intelligence & the Search for Lost Civilisation in Central Asia

Occult Secrets of the Dalai Lama

Rudra Chakrin: King of the World, Tantric Apocolyptic Redeemer, and Dajjal

Colbert Gets Paul McCartney To Suggest Dalai Lama Cannibalism

Red Caps and Sect Worship

The Inner Government of the World

The Phantom Kingdom – The Nazi Tibet Connection

Cricket Magic by Gustav Meyrink

First Comment by Ryan, author of “In Defence of the Dalai Lama”

In short your latest bashing of Tibetan Buddhism is just another example of someone with an axe to grind who criticizes something he has no idea about, based solely upon other overly-critical, antiquated and misinformed articles. As evidenced by the numerous factual flaws in his article he obviously doesn’t have the least bit of knowledge, superficial or otherwise about Tibetan Buddhism.

Just a few of many points:

-“Lamaism” is an incorrect, very antiquated term for Vajrayana Buddhism.

-To quote “Twin Peaks” – an American TV series? as an authoritative source on the Drugpas undermines any seriousness of this article. Really! Yes a Drukpa school exists, but this cannot be used as a general term.

-The Trimondis are an interesting example. The Dalai Lama has thousands of students who praise him. Why quote only the rare few who were disenchanted by the Dalai Lama and don’t even publish their highly critical book under their real name.

-I am amused by his German language sources from the 1930’s. Can/did the author actually read the material he is quoting. The chart only contains general Buddhist terms and seems to put Pratyeda (solitary) Buddhas at the pinnacle (Herr der Welt/Ruler of the World) . Pratyeka Buddhas are practitioners of Theravada Buddhism and are held in very low esteem by Tibetan Buddhists.

-It is worthwhile to read other parts of the original “Geheime Weltmchte” text. Reading the short last chapter “Asiatisches Geheimbundwesen” it becomes clear just how little the author knew about Buddhism in general. This being the case what validity can their conclusions in the chart have?

-As far as the visions of Gustav Meyrink: What makes them more valid than mine or yours? If the author is really looking for who might control the world shouldn’t he look more into the Theosophist Illuminati connection.

Dan writes:

There’s not enough room here to even begin on the topic of how we’ve been bamboozled about the Dalai Lama and Tibet, and why.

Tibet was the last fully intact feudal theocracy on Earth till 1951, when Mao seized the moment to occupy and incorporate it. At that time an Australian journalist wrote that the concept of human rights had been unknown in Tibet. A tiny elite of lamas and ancient aristocracy were literally worshiped by the serfs as demigods. Belief in soul evolution through reincarnation invariably produces a rigid caste system, on the logical assumption that serfs are ‘born that way’ because of karma and dharma. The ruling castes equally so. Got a problem with being a serf? Obey your masters, and maybe in a few hundred lifetimes your status may improve – but not in this one. The Tibetan serfs fully believed this. So did the lamas and ‘nobility’. Serfs were whipped an tortured for trivial offenses. Mutilation was a standard punishment – cutting off ears, fingers, gouging out eyes, etc. These acts were carried out by an army of thugs formalized as warrior caste, or brutal order of low born monks who served as muscle for the lamas.

There are ‘high and low’ castes of Tibetan monks. The ‘tulku lamas’ are supposed to be reincarnations of historical men of renown. The vast majority of monks are from the lower castes and serve the Tulkus as slaves. Inside one of those magnificent medieval monasteries in Tibet it was discovered that the Tulka and all the elite lamas in that monastery were very active homosexuals, taking any peasant boy that struck their fancy for the ‘honor’ of becoming a monk-slave in that monastery. But this monastery also provided many of the especially brutal thug-monks sent out to serve as guards and enforcers at other monasteries.

Why didn’t we hear any of this in school? Where were the specials on National Geographic and History Channel about the reality that the Dalai Lama is as much a feudal throwback as the Royal family?

Politics. The Dalai Lama* was important to the CIA when the State Department was against China’s expansion. But the real money poured into the Dalai Lama’s organization in exile through the United Nations NGO’s. Between the two of these backers, there was a very real blackout on the reality of Tibetan lack of a “concept of human rights” well into the 20th century. Even right now, if you Google “Tibet human rights” you will get a pile of articles talking about modern Chinese violations of human rights. The template for this skewed history comes from Amnesty International. They’re not going to tell you that the Tibetan theocrats think most of us are no better than sheep to be herded, accordingly.

The ‘Elite’ wet dream is a “New” World Order that is in fact a resurrection of ancient Theocratic Feudalism. That’s they push Tibetan Buddhism.

There’s not space left for me to recount my own experience with the Tibetan network in America. I’ll just say that it was consistent with this dark mind set from the past. Just volunteer to go into one of the Tibetan ashrams out west and the pseudo-Christ candy coating melts off the Dalai Lama very quickly.

* Dalai Lama – The Worst Dictator in this Modern Day

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Henry Makow

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Digital Dodge: Some Greeks Using Bitcoin to Evade Currency …

Posted: July 4, 2015 at 3:42 am

There is at least one legal way to get your euros out of Greece these days, to guard against the prospect that they might be devalued into drachmas: convert them into bitcoin.

Although absolute figures are hard to come by, Greek interest has surged in the online “cryptocurrency”, which is out of the reach of monetary authorities and can be transferred at the touch of a smartphone screen.

New customers depositing at least 50 euros with BTCGreece, the only Greece-based bitcoin exchange, open only to Greeks, rose by 400 percent between May and June, according to its founder Thanos Marinos, who put the number at “a few thousand.” The average deposit quadrupled to around 700 euros.

Using bitcoin could allow Greeks to do one of the things that capital controls were put in place this week to prevent: transfer money out of their bank accounts and, if they wish, out of the country.

“When people are trying to move money out of the country and the state is stopping that from taking place, bitcoin is the only way to move any value,” said Adam Vaziri, a board member of the UK Digital Currency Association. “There aren’t any other options unless you buy diamonds, and that’s very difficult to move.”

But Marinos said the bitcoin buyers’ main aim was to shield their money against the prospect that Greece might leave the euro zone and convert all the deposits in Greek banks into a greatly devalued national currency. If voters reject the demands of international creditors in a referendum on Sunday, this becomes much more likely.

“A lot of people are keeping all the bitcoins they buy on our platform, until they understand what to do with them,” Marinos said. “In their eyes, now they have bitcoins, they’re safe.”

That said, the value of a bitcoin, a web-based digital currency invented six years ago that floats freely and is not backed by a government or central bank, has been highly volatile.

It peaked at over $1,200 in late 2013 before crashing almost 70 percent in less than a month after a hacking attack on the Tokyo-based bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox in early 2014.

This week, as Greece defaulted on a debt to the IMF, the price jumped to a 3-1/2-month high of $268 BTC=BTSP on the Bitstamp exchange — up more than 20 percent since the start of June — while the number of daily transactions reached a record 150,917.

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Veteran designers are still as innovative as newcomers

Posted: April 12, 2015 at 6:40 am

Pradas little sister is all grown up

Ever since Pradas glass honeycomb building opened in Omotesando 12 years ago, the Herzog-and-de Meuron-designed building has become a monument to architecture and shopping in Tokyo. In late March, the same designers returned just across the street to realize a brand new boutique for Pradas kid-sister brand Miu Miu.

Zoning laws prevented another tower, so the store has had to make do with two floors, which are almost completely covered with an oversized canopy. Its a bit like a cross between a metal box and a huge copper orange that has been sliced open to reveal a bumpy peel that runs under the roof and throughout the shop interior.

Inside, days of yore meet retro futurism with intense chartreuse-green wallpaper and transparent Perspex rail finishing. The brand takes its cues from the kind of girl who listens to punk rock but cant live without her hair bows, so the juxtaposition is fitting.

And much like a maturing younger sister, Miu Miu is ready to stand out on her own.

Miu Miu 3-17-8, Minami Aoyama Minato-ku; 03 6434 8591; aoyama.miumiu.com/en

Issey Miyake may have been around the block several times, but its still up for letting loose. This month the brand launched a new shopping playground, simply called Issey Miyake Marunouchi. The name is where the simplicity ends, though, because the buildings fashion-forward architectural design by Tokujin Yoshioka and the high-tech goods the store showcases are anything but straightforward.

The shop brings together the more experimental Miyake-run labels, including the new menswear line Homme Plisse, which re-imagines the brands revolutionary pleats technology, and In-Ei, the origami-meets-interiors line of products. Of course, you can also find his 2-D-to-3-D origami clothing line 132 5. as well as a selection of the much coveted Bao Bao bags, some of which will be sold here exclusively.

The first-floor shop is airy and spacious with walls slashed by red triangular panels, creating a high-energy atmosphere. Miyake often taps Yoshioka for his stores, and in this case the space is also housing a series of futuristic Yoshioka-designed watches, which are perfectly at home in this new environment.

Issey Miyake Marunouchi: 2-3-2 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo; 03-5221-9900; http://www.isseymiyake.com/im_marunouchi

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Xth Squad Prepares to Initiate Operation Abyss

Posted: March 28, 2015 at 11:40 am

A new video has appeared for Operation Abyss: New Tokyo Legacy, giving a quick initiation for new recruits to the game’s Xth Squad. Full name the Xion Transhuman Squad, the Xth’s job is to counter the threat of Variants, genetically-engineered monsters that appear through mysterious portals connected to a dimension known as the Abyss. The Xth is under the command of the Code Physics Agency, which works under the guise of a private school named Hinowa Academy and provides the squad with special weapons to use against the Variants.

Operation Abyss: New Tokyo Legacy is a spiritual successor to Demon Gaze, with players controlling a party of up to six through first-person dungeons. The game is set to be released by NIS America for PlayStation Vita on June 9, 2015 in North America and June 5, 2015 in Europe.

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Xth Squad Prepares to Initiate Operation Abyss

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Tokyo men stay one step ahead in style

Posted: March 22, 2015 at 9:43 pm

Tokyo men stay one step ahead in style

(AFP) / 22 March 2015

From sharp futurism to wool-and-denim casuals, the finale of Tokyo Fashion Week put the spotlight largely on menswear, aiming to promote the most dynamic area of Japanese clothes design.

A model displaying a creation from the “Sulvam” label by Japanese designer Teppei Fujita during Tokyo Fashion Week’s 2015-16 autumn/winter collection in Tokyo. AFP

Tokyo: Feminine glamour may turn the most heads at fashion weeks in New York or Paris, but in Tokyo it is the style-conscious men who set the sartorial trends.

From sharp futurism to wool-and-denim casuals, the finale of Tokyo Fashion Week put the spotlight largely on menswear, aiming to promote the most dynamic area of Japanese clothes design.

What happens here is probably the future of mens fashion, said Antonio Cristaudo from Pitti Immagine, a collection of fashion industry events in Italy.

Theres individuality, they want to be different, he told AFP. Its important for all the fashion world to see whats happening in Japan.

Such innovation is nowhere more evident than on the streets of Tokyo, from the vintage and skater styles of Ura-Hara to the slick suits of the Marunouchi business district.

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Tokyo men stay one step ahead in style

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