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Posted: October 20, 2016 at 11:31 pm
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin. These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long term cases the skin may become thickened. The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.
Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person’s history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis; however, can occur following brief exposures to specific substances to which a person is sensitive.
Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. The steroid creams should generally be of mid to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur.Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection. Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.Antihistamines may be used to help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.
Dermatitis was estimated to affect 334 million people globally in 2013. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood. In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people. Contact dermatitis is two times more common in females than males. Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time. Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs, however exact rates are unclear.
Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum. Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.
Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands.
Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present. The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp. Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline.
The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to hair loss. In severe cases, pimples may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back. In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash.
Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.
A patch of dermatitis that has been scratched
The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment. It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma. The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during development, and missing out on this exposure increases risk for asthma and allergy.
While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites, with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites, the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.
A number of genes have been associated with eczema, one of which is filaggrin. Genome-wide studies found three new genetic variants associated with eczema: OVOL1, ACTL9 and IL4-KIF3A.
Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the two conditions.
Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination. However, in uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful. Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.
Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.
The term “eczema” refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard and unsystematic, with many synonyms being used to describe the same condition.
A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g. hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid), or by possible cause (varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type of eczema (atopic dermatitis) .
The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas. Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal.
There are several different types of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. Many use the term dermatitis and eczema synonymously.
Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one.
There is no good evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk. There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.
People with eczema should not get the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.
There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching. Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it.
Bathing once or more a day is recommended. It is a misconception that bathing dries the skin in people with eczema.Soaps should be avoided as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead to excessive dryness. It is not clear whether dust mite reduction helps with eczema.
There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema. There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets. Benefits have not been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed. Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.
People can also wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.
Moisturizing agents (also known as emollients) are recommended at least once or twice a day. Oilier formulations appear to be better and water-based formulations are not recommended. It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others. Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used.Occlusive dressings at night may be useful.
There is little evidence for antihistamine and they are thus not generally recommended. Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be tried in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema.
If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur.Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases. Once daily use is generally enough. For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g. hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g. clobetasol propionate) may be used. In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects.
Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia. Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution. They are, however, generally well tolerated.Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.
Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use. Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids. Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely. Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than picrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids.
The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued a health advisory a possible risk of lymph node or skin cancer from these products, however subsequent research has not supported these concerns. A major debate, in the UK, has been about the cost of these medications and, given only finite NHS resources, when they are most appropriate to use.
When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.
Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good. A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB; in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer.
There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema. It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm. Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema. Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective. Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset.Probiotics do not appear to be effective. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.
Other remedies lacking evidence to support them include chiropractic spinal manipulation and acupuncture. There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments.[needs update] While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.
Most cases are well managed with topical treatments and ultraviolet light. About 2% of cases however are not. In more than 60% the condition goes away by adolescence.
Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population). Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 1549 years. In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.
Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000. In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.
Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%.
from Ancient Greek kzema, from – ekz-ein, from ek “out” + – z-ein “to boil”
The term “atopic dermatitis” was coined in 1933 by Wise and Sulzberger.Sulfur as a topical treatment for eczema was fashionable in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.
The word dermatitis is from the Greek derma “skin” and – -itis “inflammation” and eczema is from Greek: ekzema “eruption”.
The terms “hypoallergenic” and “doctor tested” are not regulated, and no research has been done showing that products labeled “hypoallergenic” are in fact less problematic than any others.
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Dermatitis – Wikipedia
Posted: October 13, 2016 at 5:36 am
Gambling, though widespread in the United States, is subject to legislation at both the state and federal level that bans it from certain areas, limits the means and types of gambling, and otherwise regulates the activity.
Congress has used its power under the Commerce Clause to regulate interstate gambling, international gambling, and relations between the United States and Native American territories. For example, it has passed laws prohibiting the unauthorized transportation of lottery tickets between states, outlawing sports betting with certain exceptions, and regulating the extent to which gambling may exist on Native American land.
Each state determines what kind of gambling it allows within its borders, where the gambling can be located, and who may gamble. Each state has enacted different laws pertaining to these topics. The states also have differing legal gambling ages, with some states requiring the same minimum age for all types of gambling, while for others, it depends on the activity. For example, in New Jersey, an 18-year-old can buy a lottery ticket or bet on a horse race, but cannot enter a casino until age 21. Presumably, the age 21 restriction is due to the sale of alcohol in that location.
A standard strategy for avoiding laws that prohibit, constrain, or aggressively tax gambling is to locate the activity just outside the jurisdiction that enforces them, in a more “gambling friendly” legal environment. Gambling establishments often exist near state borders and on ships that cruise outside territorial waters. Gambling activity has also exploded in recent years in Native American territory. Internet-based gambling takes this strategy and extends it to a new level of penetration, for it threatens to bring gambling directly into homes and businesses in localities where a physical gambling establishment could not conduct the same activity.
In the 1990s, when the World Wide Web was growing rapidly in popularity, online gambling appeared to represent an end-run around government control and prohibition. A site operator needed only to establish the business in a friendly offshore jurisdiction such as the Bahamas and begin taking bets. Anyone with access to a web browser could find the site and place wagers by credit card. Confronted with this blatant challenge to American policies, the Department of Justice and Congress explored the applicability of current law and the desirability of new regulation for online gambling.
In exploring whether an offshore Internet gambling business taking bets from Americans violated federal law, attention was focused on the Wire Act, 18 U.S.C. 1084 (2000). The operator of a wagering business is at risk of being fined and imprisoned under the Wire Act if the operator knowingly uses a “wire communication facility” to transmit information related to wagering on “any sporting event or contest.” 18 U.S.C. 1084(a). An exception exists if that act is legal in both the source and destination locations of the transmission. 1084(b). The Wire Acts definition of wire communication facility appears to embrace the nation’s entire telecommunications infrastructure, and therefore probably applies to online gambling. See 1081.
The Department of Justice maintains that, under the Wire Act, all Internet gambling by bettors in the United States is illegal. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary Hearing on Establishing Consistent Enforcement Policies in the Context of Online Wagers, 110th Cong., Nov. 14, 2007 (testimony of Catherine Hanaway, U.S. Attorney (E.D. Mo.), Dept. of Justice). The Fifth Circuit disagreed, ruling that the Wire Act applies only to sports betting, not other types of gambling. In re MasterCard Intl Inc., 313 F.3d 257 (5th Cir. 2002).
In 2006, Congress passed the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act, which made it illegal for wagering businesses to knowingly accept payment in connection with unlawful Internet gambling (though it does not itself make Internet gambling illegal). 109 Pub. L. 109-347, Title VIII (Oct. 13, 2006) (codified at 31 U.S.C. 5301, 536167). It also authorizes the Federal Reserve System to create regulations that prohibit financial transaction providers (banks, credit card companies, etc.) from accepting those payments. See 31 U.S.C. 5363(4). This Act, along with threats of prosecution under the Wire Act from the Department of Justice, has caused several Internet gambling businesses to withdraw from the U.S. market.
In response, House Representatives introduced multiple bills in 2007 to soften federal Internet gambling law. If passed, the Internet Gambling Regulation and Enforcement Act and the Internet Gambling Regulation and Tax Enforcement Act would license, regulate, and tax Internet gambling businesses rather than prohibit them from taking bets from the United States. Alternatively, the Skill Game Protection Act would clarify the Wire Act to exempt certain games such as poker and chess.
In addition to federal measures, some states have enacted legislation to prohibit some types of Internet gambling. In 2006, Washington State amended its Code to make knowingly transmitting or receiving gambling information over the Internet a felony. See Wash. Rev. Code 9.46.240 (2006). Other states with similar prohibitions have made it a misdemeanor instead. See e.g., 720 ILCS 5/28-1 (2007).
States have not been particularly active in enforcing these laws, possibly due to a conflict with the dormant Commerce Clause doctrine. That doctrine theorizes that state law applying to commerce outside the states borders is unconstitutional because that power lies with federal, not state, government. In particular, federal preemption has obstructed states attempts to regulate gambling activity on Indian reservations within state borders. See Missouri ex rel. Nixon v. Coeur DAlene Tribe, 164 F.3d 1102 (8th Cir. 1999). The federal Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 25 U.S.C. 29 (2000), governs gambling activity on Indian reservations, but the extent to which it and other federal gambling laws preempt state action in the Internet arena is uncertain.
Posted: at 5:35 am
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All products require separate applications. Separate policies or certificates are issued. Golden Rule Short Term Medical plans are medically underwritten. Related insurance products offered by either company may be medically underwritten see the product brochures and applications. Healthiest You is not an insurance product and is provided by HY Holdings, Inc., d/b/a Healthiest You. Travel Health Insurance and Pet Insurance are underwritten by different companies that are not related to the UnitedHealthcare family of companies. Product availability varies by state.
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Posted: October 8, 2016 at 10:22 pm
The National Security Agency contractor who federal authorities say took top secret information from the NSA is being described as “more weirdo than whistleblower,” senior officials told ABC News.
Harold Martin, 51, was arrested in late August in what neighbors described as a dramatic FBI raid, but it was not until Wednesday that his curious case was revealed in a criminal complaint. In court documents, the FBI says Martin took home physical documents and information stored on digital devices, some of which was sensitive compartmented information (SCI), the highest level of classification.
It was information that the FBI said, if made public, would “reasonably be expected to to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security of the United States.” In all, the Department of Justice said investigators seized “thousands of pages of documents and dozens of computer or other digital storage devices and media” that held “many terabytes of information.”
Although Martin worked at Booz Allen Hamilton, the same contractor for whom Edward Snowden worked, and was apparently able to slip through the NSA’s security with highly sensitive information, as Snowden did in 2013, officials said overnight that that appears to be where the similarities between the two end.
It is unclear why Martin, a Navy veteran, allegedly removed so much sensitive information from his workplace and allegedly stored it in his home, nearby woodsheds or his vehicle, but he has not been charged with espionage indicating to some former officials that this case may not be as serious as Snowden’s. The Department of Justice said Tuesday that if convicted, Martin could face up to 11 years in prison one year for unauthorized removal of classified material and 10 years for theft of government property. Snowden, however, could face a far harsher prison sentence, should he return to the U.S. from Moscow; the U.S. government has said the death penalty will not be sought.
“It’s not a repeat of Snowden, but it is another insider,” Chris Inglis, a former NSA deputy director, told ABC News Wednesday. “It could be quite harmful, but [so far] it’s not as malicious or nefarious.”
Jim Wyda, a public defender assigned to Martin, said there is “no evidence Hal Martin intended to betray his country.”
“What we do know is that Hal Martin loves his family and his country. He served our nation honorably in the United States Navy, and he has devoted his entire career to serving and protecting America. We look forward to defending Hal Martin in court,” Wyda said.
Regardless of Martin’s intentions, the incident is another embarrassment for the NSA, coming three years after Snowden made off with a cache of data that exposed dozens of NSA surveillance programs. It is unclear whether Martin purportedly absconded with his data before or after post-Snowden security reforms were put in place.
“When you download this kind of top secret information off the NSA network into your own computer or into a thumb drive, alarms should go off. Apparently they didn’t,” said former White House cybersecurity adviser and current ABC News consultant Richard Clarke.
Martin’s former employer, Booz Allen, released a statement Wednesday saying the company fired one of its employees, without identifying Martin, after learning of his arrest and that the firm continues to work with law enforcement.
The federal complaint complaint says Martin was interviewed by federal agents in late August and, when “confronted with specific documents, admitted he took documents and digital files from his work assignment to his residence and vehicle that he knew were classified.” He allegedly said he knew what he had done was wrong.
Posted: at 10:22 pm
United States Constitution
Twenty-fourth Amendment, amendment (1964) to the Constitution of the United States that prohibited the federal and state governments from imposing poll taxes before a citizen can participate in a federal election. It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964.
In 1870, following the American Civil War, the Fifteenth Amendment, guaranteeing the right to vote to former slaves, was adopted. The Twenty-fourth Amendment was adopted as a response to policies adopted in various Southern states after the ending of post-Civil War Reconstruction (186577) to limit the political participation of African Americans. Such policies were bolstered by the 1937 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Breedlove v. Suttles, which upheld a Georgia poll tax. The Supreme Court reasoned that voting rights are conferred by the states and that the states may determine voter eligibility as they see fit, save for conflicts with the Fifteenth Amendment (respecting race) and the Nineteenth Amendment (respecting sex). It further ruled that a tax on voting did not amount to a violation of privileges or immunities protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. In short, because the tax applied to all votersrather than just certain classes of votersit did not violate the Fourteenth or Fifteenth Amendment.
During the civil rights era of the 1950s, particularly following the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, such policies increasingly were seen as barriers to voting rights, particularly for African Americans and the poor. Thus, the Twenty-fourth Amendment was proposed (by Sen. Spessard Lindsey Holland of Florida) and ratified to eliminate an economic instrument that was used to limit voter participation. Two years after its ratification in 1964, the U.S. Supreme Court, invoking the Fourteenth Amendments equal protection clause, in Harper v. Virginia Board of Electors, extended the prohibition of poll taxes to state elections.
The full text of the amendment is:
Section 1The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
Section 2The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
amendment (1920) to the Constitution of the United States that officially extended the right to vote to women.
…the United States to deny federal funds to local agencies that practiced discrimination. Efforts to increase African American voter participation were also helped by the ratification in 1964 of the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the Constitution, which banned the poll tax.
…in Southern states into the 20th century. Some states abolished the tax in the years after World War I, while others retained it. Its use was declared unconstitutional in federal elections by the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, effective in 1964. In 1966 the Supreme Court, going beyond the Twenty-fourth Amendment, ruled that under the equal protection clause of…
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Twenty-fourth Amendment | United States Constitution …
Posted: August 25, 2016 at 4:36 pm
“Look, we should embrace immigration,” Johnson said Wednesday during an appearance on CNN’s “New Day.” “These are really hard-working people that are taking jobs that U.S. citizens don’t want.”
The former governor of New Mexico was dismissive of recent signals that the Republican nominee could moderate some of his immigration proposals, including his previous call to round up and deport all 11 million undocumented immigrants currently in the United States.
“He still says he wants to build a wall across the border,” Johnson said of Trump. “And, really, he’s not going to deport all 11 million. He’s going to keep some.”
Trump’s hard-line position on the issue of immigration has animated his campaign more than any other, but that once-resolute stance has turned fuzzy this week.
Kellyanne Conway, Trump’s newly appointed campaign manager, said Sunday on CNN’s “State of the Union” that the candidate might back off from his support of a deportation force.
But appearing on Fox News on Monday, Trump stood by his support of mass deportation, saying there are “a lot of bad people that have to get of this country.”
“They’re going to be out of here so fast, your head will spin,” Trump said.
The following day, in a different interview on Fox News, Trump said “there could certainly be a softening (on immigration) because we’re not looking to hurt people.”
Trump wasn’t the only candidate who drew scrutiny from Johnson on Wednesday. Addressing the report that Hillary Clinton met with donors to the Clinton Foundation during her time as secretary of state, Johnson said there is an “implication” of a “pay-to-play” arrangement.
But he said that no legal lines were crossed.
“Nobody’s going to get prosecuted for this because that’s also the nature of this,” Johnson said.
Johnson is jockeying to get on the debate stage with Trump and Clinton this fall. In order to qualify, he must eclipse 15% in an average of five different polls. Johnson has yet to hit that threshold in any major national poll, but he said Monday he’s “kind of optimistic” about his chances of qualifying.
Posted: August 23, 2016 at 9:32 am
Download PDF Quick Facts
The continuing lack of economic freedom compounds Greeces worsening competitiveness and political volatility. Bold policy actions are needed to restore fiscal sustainability, enhance labor market flexibility, and tackle systemic corruption.
Major fiscal weaknesses exposed by the debt and employment crisis have not been sufficiently addressed. Unemployment remains high, particularly among young people, and public unions and special interests stifle or delay adjustments to market conditions.
Greece joined NATO in 1952 and the European Union in 1981. It adopted the euro in 2002. Following elections in January 2015, the Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) party assumed power on a pledge to end austerity and renegotiate debt repayments. In August, the EU Commission, International Monetary Fund, and European Central Bank agreed to a $95 billion bailout package in exchange for more fiscal and economic reforms and additional austerity. It was the third bailout package in five years. Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras resigned in August after his support in parliament crumbled following his signing of the deal, but he was able to reestablish his coalition following snap elections in September. Greece remains mired in political and economic uncertainty, and its future in the eurozone is uncertain. The economy, which depends on shipping and tourism, fell back into recession in the first quarter of 2015 after a brief upswing. Unemployment is the highest in the eurozone.
Deeply rooted systemic cronyism and corruption, as well as the absence of a strong civil society, lie at the heart of the Greek debt crisis. Both public-sector and private-sector elites are able to plunder the country and their fellow citizens with impunity. Tax evasion is rampant. The judiciary is independent, but protection of property rights is not strongly enforced.
The top personal income tax rate has increased to 42 percent. The top corporate tax rate is 26 percent. The overall tax burden equals about 33.5 percent of GDP. Government spending remains at over 50 percent of GDP, chronic budget deficits continue, and public debt far exceeds the size of the economy. Fiscal stability is highly dependent on eurozone creditors, and structural adjustments have been marginal.
Efforts to enhance the business environment have been sporadic. The process for launching a company is fairly streamlined, but licensing requirements remain time-consuming. With high non-salary costs for employing a worker and rigid restrictions on work hours, the labor market remains stagnant. Resolution of the debt crisis will require privatization of heavily subsidized and loss-making state-owned enterprises.
EU members have a 1 percent average tariff rate. Trade agreements are currently being negotiated with countries that include the United States and Japan. Greece maintains non-tariff barriers to the provision of some professional services by non-EU providers. The financial systems overall stability has been severely undermined, and banking has been under increasing strain.
Posted: August 10, 2016 at 9:08 pm
Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump addresses the audience during a campaign event at Trask Coliseum in Wilmington, N.C., on Tuesday. Sara D. Davis/Getty Images hide caption
Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump addresses the audience during a campaign event at Trask Coliseum in Wilmington, N.C., on Tuesday.
Updated at 9 p.m. ET
Donald Trump has been saying for months that Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton wants to “abolish the Second Amendment,” but now the Republican presidential nominee has gone even further.
At a rally in Wilmington, N.C., on Tuesday afternoon, Trump repeated that charge and then appeared to many observers to suggest taking up arms against his rival.
“Hillary wants to abolish essentially abolish the Second Amendment,” Trump said. “If she gets to pick her judges, nothing you can do, folks. Although the Second Amendment people, maybe there is. I don’t know.”
You can watch that portion of Trump’s speech here:
The response from Clinton and her supporters was swift. In an interview with the public radio program Texas Standard, Democratic vice presidential nominee Tim Kaine said, “There is absolutely no place, there should be no place in our politics for somebody who wants to be a leader to say something even in an offhand way that is connected to inciting violence.”
Almost immediately after Trump spoke, the pro-Clinton superPAC Priorities USA Action emailed out a clip of Trump’s comments with the subject heading, “Donald Trump Just Suggested That Someone Shoot Hillary Clinton,” plus a one-sentence message: “THIS IS NOT OK.”
Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook said in a statement, “This is simple what Trump is saying is dangerous. A person seeking to be president of the United States should not suggest violence in any way.”
But the Trump campaign was quick to dispute that interpretation. In an emailed statement with the subject line, “Trump Campaign Statement on Dishonest Media,” Trump spokesman Jason Miller said:
“It’s called the power of unification 2nd Amendment people have amazing spirit and are tremendously unified, which gives them great political power. And this year, they will be voting in record numbers, and it won’t be for Hillary Clinton, it will be for Donald Trump.”
Trump reiterated that explanation in an interview with Fox News host Sean Hannity on Tuesday: “This is a political movement. This is a strong, powerful movement, the Second Amendment. You know, Hillary wants to take your guns away.”
CNN commentator and Trump supporter Kayleigh McEnany explained it this way:
“I think he’s referring to the fact that the National Rifle Association is the most powerful lobby, hands-down, in the United States. So if anyone can stop a very anti-Second Amendment agenda, it would be the NRA and the Second Amendment folks.”
Clinton has not called for abolishing the Second Amendment. What she has called for is tougher gun regulations including expanded background checks and allowing families of victims of gun violence to sue gun manufacturers or dealers.
Hillary Clinton’s Twitter account sent out a message from former Rep. Gabrielle Giffords, who was badly injured in a shooting at a constituent outreach event she held in Tucson, Ariz., in 2011 that killed six people.
The U.S. Secret Service, charged with protecting both nominees, said on Tuesday evening that it was “aware” of Trump’s comments, but the agency did not comment further.
Trump: ‘2nd Amendment’ Could Stop Hillary – npr.org
Posted: July 31, 2016 at 5:48 am
Complementary and alternative medicine might make you think of pungent herbal teas, chanting, or meditation. In fact, both herbal remedies and meditation, as well as dozens of other treatments, fall under the heading of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
Although there is no strict definition of CAM, it generally includes any healing practices that are not part of mainstream medicine that means any practice that is not widely taught in medical schools or frequently used by doctors or in hospitals.
Both alternative and complementary medicine use the same kinds of remedies to treat health conditions. The difference is that alternative medicine is used instead of conventional medical treatments and therapies. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional medical treatments and therapies, not as a replacement.
The boundaries of CAM in the United States are constantly changing as different types of care become more accepted by doctors and more requested by patients. A few practices (such as hypnosis) that were dismissed as nonsense 20 years ago are now considered helpful therapies in addition to traditional medicine.
So, are there any complementary health approaches that might beright for your family?
In the United States, the lead agency that’s charged with scientific research into CAM is the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH classifies two general areas of complementary and alternative care:
In addition to these different practices, CAM can refer to different types of medical philosophies. These alternative medical systems are entire fields of theory and practice, and many date back to centuries before the conventional medicine we use in the West today. Examples of alternative medical systems include traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, homeopathic medicine, and naturopathic medicine.
Alternative medical systems incorporate many of the practices listed above into their treatments. For example, the TCM practice of acupuncture may be combined with herbal medicine and qi gong. And Ayurveda includes the mind-body therapies of meditation and yoga, along with the practice of taking specific herbs for health reasons.
Some CAM practices are supported by scientific research, while others have not been fullystudied yet. Sometimes experts have scientific evidence that a CAM practice (like acupuncture) works, but they don’t have a clear understanding as to why it works.
CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, which means that the doctor or practitioner treats the “whole” person and not just the disease or condition. With CAM, many practitioners also address patients’ emotional and spiritual needs. This “high touch” approach differs from the “high tech” practice of traditional medicine, which tends to concentrate on the physical side of an illness.
CAM is starting to make its way into mainstream hospitals and doctors’ offices. New centers for integrative medicine offer a mix of traditional and complementary treatments. There, you might receive a prescription for pain medication (as you might get from a traditional health care provider) and massage therapy to treat a chronic back problem. Such centers usually employ both medical doctors and certified or licensed specialists in the various CAM therapies.
Despite the growth of the field, complementary health approaches usually are not covered by medical insurance. This is largely because few scientific studies have been done to prove whether the treatments are effective (unlike traditional medicine, which relies heavily on studies). Rather, most CAM therapies are based on longstanding practice and word-of-mouth stories of success.
The lack of scientific study means that some potential problems associated with CAM therapies may be difficult to identify. What’s more, almost all of the studies that have been done involved adults as test subjects; there is little research on the effects of CAM on children. Although approaches such as prayer, massage, and yoga are generally considered safe complements to regular medical treatment, some therapies particularly herbal remedies and other dietary supplements might have risks.
Unlike prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, dietary supplements are not rigorously regulated by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They face no extensive tests before they are marketed and they do not have to meet quality standards. That means when you buy an herbal supplement like ginseng you might not know what you’re getting: The amount of the ingredient may be more or less than what is stated on the label; the herb may not be the right plant species; or the supplement may be contaminated with other herbs, pesticides, metals, or other ingredients like prescription drugs.
“Natural” does not equal “safe,” and many parents don’t realize that some supplements can actually cause health problems for their kids. For example, certain herbal supplements can cause high blood pressure, liver damage, or allergic reactions. Talk to your doctor before giving your child any dietary supplement.
Parents might also give their kids much more of an herb than recommended, thinking that because it’s natural, higher doses won’t hurt. But many plants contain potent chemicals; approximately 25% of all prescription drugs are derived from plants.
Choosing a practitioner can pose another problem. Although many states have licensing boards for specialists in acupuncture or massage, for instance, there is no organization in the United States that monitors alternative care providers or establishes standards of treatment. Basically, almost anyone can claim to be a practitioner, whether he or she has any training.
Perhaps the greatest risk, however, is the potential for people to delay or stop traditional medical treatment in favor of an alternative therapy. Illnesses such as diabetes and cancer require the care of a doctor. Relying entirely on alternative therapies for any serious chronic or acute conditions can jeopardize a child’s health.
Many parents turn to a cup of chamomile tea or ginger as a wayto soothe symptoms of the flu or an upset stomach. Anxious kids can learn to relax with the help of meditation or yoga. Some CAM therapies may be helpful for a child when used to complement traditional care.
If you want to try CAM for your child, talk with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure it is safe and will not conflict with any traditional care your child receives. Your doctor also can give you information about treatment options and perhaps recommend a reputable practitioner.
By coordinating complementary approaches with traditional care, you don’t have to choose between them. Instead, you can get the best of both.
Date reviewed: March 2014
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