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The Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Ice – TMS

Posted: December 2, 2016 at 12:31 pm

Since icebergs were first proposed as potential aircraft carriers in World War II, research has led to a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of ice. While work remains, especially in relating fracture on the small scale to that on the larger scale and to the appropriate structural features, the groundwork in materials science has been laid. This paper presents an overview of the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice.

Since then ice research has flourished. Nucleation and growth from both vapor and liquid states has been studied and placed within the context of classical thermodynamics and kinetics. The structure of ice and natural ice formations has been examined and then related to the thermal-mechanical history of the material. Electrical properties have been measured and explained in terms of the number density and mobility of protonic charge carriers. Optical and thermal behaviors have been explored. Mechanical behavior has been thoroughly studied, from the flow and fracture of single crystals to the creep of glaciers and the fracturing of Arctic sea-ice covers. Indeed, over the past ten years alone more than 10,000 papers on ice have appeared in the scientific and engineering literature.

Why the interest? Ice, it turns out, is a factor in activities as diverse as skiing and skating, rainmaking, polar marine transportation, and cold ocean oil exploration. It is an element in the degradation of cold concrete and other porous materials. It forms as “icing” on airplanes and electrical transmission lines. Ice is also a factor in global climate, evident perhaps from the facts that the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets cover about 10% of the earth’s land area and sea ice covers about 10% of the ocean surface either seasonally or perennially. In addition, the ice sheets and the air bubbles entrapped therein are the storehouses of the pa-leoclimate record. Ice is also a major constituent of the moons of Jupiter and of other extraterrestrial bodies.

This article reviews the structure and mechanical behavior of polycrystalline terrestrial ice. Fuller accounts are given in the literature cited and in the following references: ice physics by Hobbs2 and by Petrenko and Whitworth;3 ice-structure interactions by Sanderson;4 sea ice by Weeks;5 ice mechanics by Michel;6 and plastic flow and fracture in the Johannes Weertman Symposium.7 Curtin8 offers a historical perspective through the eyes of the U.S. Navy, and Levi9 describes the role of ice in the global heat budget. Durham et al.10 discuss the creep of planetary ice.

The relationship to Ic lies in a common tetrahedral arrangement of H2O molecules. Ic, however, has the diamond cubic crystal structure, in which the stacking sequence relative to the {111} plane is . . . AABBCCAABBCC . . . ; its lattice parameter (at -130C) is 0.635 nm.

The hydrogen atoms are arranged randomly11 according to the Bernal-Fowler rules.12 First, two protons must be located near each oxygen. Second, only one proton must lie on each O-O bond. The random arrangement persists at low temperatures, owing to the extraordinarily slow reorientation of the H2O molecule (greater than 100 years at liquid nitrogen temperature), and this leads to a large amount (3.41 J/mol.) of zero-point entropy. Ice does not violate the third law of thermodynamics.

Point Defects

Violations of the Bernal-Fowler rules create ionic and Bjerrum defects.15 If the proton moves along the O-O bond, then the first rule is violated: one proton near an oxygen atom creates an OH- ion; three create an H3O+ ion. If the proton moves around the oxygen atom, then the second rule is violatedno hydrogen atom on an O-O bond creates L-type Bjerrum defects (L stands for leer, which means empty in German); two protons create a D-type Bjerrum defect (D means doublet). Both kinds of defects contribute to electrical conductivity (the migration of ions allows protons to move from one end of a bond to the other), and the movement of Bjerrum defects allows protons to move from one side of an oxygen atom to another. Without the migration of both defects, long-range protonic conduction could not occur.

Despite the fact that water is a universal solvent, the solubility of substances in ice Ih is very low. The solubility of HCl, for instance, is 3 X 10-6 at -10C. Exceptions are HF and NH3. These molecules are assumed to dissolve substitutionally, creating L-defects in HF and D-defects in NH3, as well as additional ionic defects. The impurities increase electrical conductivity.

Dislocations

Figure 2 shows a composite x-ray topograph illustrating slip bands in two adjacent grains in a polycrystal. In both crystals slip occurred by dislocation glide on basal or {0001} planes.16 The Burgers’ vectors were parallel to the direction and of a magnitude defined by the shortest distance between oxygen atoms in the same basal plane (i.e., by the distance not between nearest neighbors, but between next-nearest neighbors, as in Figure 1). Basal slip,17 in principle, can take place on both a more widely spaced set of planes, termed shuffle planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 8 and 11 in Figure 1), and a less widely spaced set, termed glide planes (e.g., the plane between atoms 1 and 8 in Figure 1). It is not clear which set is dominant. The distinction is significant, however, because adjacent planes of oxygen atoms of the glide set relate to each other in a manner similar to that in face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, leading to the possibility of dislocation dissociation into partials. To date, however, partial dislocations have not been observed.

A unique feature is worth noting. Because the protons in ice Ih are arranged randomly, the translation of part of the crystal relative to the rest by the Burgers’ vector will not exactly reproduce the atomic arrangement.18 Instead, the translation introduces Bjerrum defects. The stress needed to create them (of formation energy 0.68 eV) is orders of magnitude greater than can be accounted for by the actual flow stress.18 This implies that some kind of protonic rearrangement must occur. However, the precise way in which dislocations overcome the obstacle presented by proton disorder is not yet known.

Planar Defects

Stacking faults have been observed in as-grown crystals using x-ray topography.19 They can be eliminated by annealing and so are considered to be unstable defects. Twins have not been observed, in material either well annealed or plastically deformed. Barring free surfaces, grain boundaries are the most prominent planar defect. They exhibit ledges, some as large as 1 mm (Figure 2), and close to the melting point they contain liquid water in submillimeter-sized veins that lie along lines of intersection.20 Within warm sea ice they also contain millimeter-sized brine pockets. Grain boundaries are sites of sliding and crack nucleation and are thus important microstructural features.

Arctic sea ice5 forms directly upon the unidirectional solidification of salt water. Floating covers form and consist primarily of columnar-shaped grains elongated in the growth direction, reminiscent of metallic ingots. Once thickened to a few centimeters, the covers develop a strong growth texture in which the crystallographic c-axes are confined more or less to the horizontal plane, but are either randomly oriented within this plane or aligned22 with the ocean current. Sea ice is characterized also by an intragranular porous substructure that consists of submillimeter diameter air bubbles and brine pockets, totaling 4-5 vol.%, arrayed in a plate-like manner parallel to basal planes. Also, cold sea ice may contain precipitates of sea salts (mainly NaCl). Both deformation and growth textures lead to macroscopically anisotropic inelastic behavior.

Inelastic behavior is markedly anisotropic. The critical resolved shear stress for non-basal slip is 60 times or more greater than that for basal slip,24 and this presents a problem for polycrystals. Basal slip allows only two independent deformation modes. When coupled with the facts that twinning does not occur and four independent deformation modes are required25 (from self-consistent calculations) for extensive, crack-free flow, the plastic anisotropy leads to the build-up of internal stresses on the scale of the grain size. The stresses arise because grains favorably oriented for slip shed load to those less well oriented. The implication is that unless time is allowed for the internal stresses to relax, plastic flow will initiate cracks.26,27 If the cracks are tolerated, the ice will exhibit macroscopically ductile behavior. If not, then the material will exhibit macroscopically brittle behavior.

That ice can be brittle at temperatures right up to its melting point is perhaps surprising. The reason is related to the fact that its melting point diffusivity is around 10-15-10-14 m2/s, compared to higher values of 10-11-10-12 m2/s for elemental metals. Diffusion-assisted stress relaxation thus occurs relatively slowly.

Plastic flow and quasisteady-state creep of coarsely grained ice has been explained24,29 and then modeled quantitatively in terms of dislocation or power-law creep (i.e., by glide and climb of basal dislocations). Supporting this view is the fact that the activation energies for self-diffusion (0.65 eV = 62 kJ/mol.) and creep are essentially the same. Also, the creep rate is independent of grain size, and the dependence of the creep rate on stress (the inverse of the strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress) is of the correct magnitude. The flow of very finely grained ice of micrometer dimensions can be rationalized in terms of grain-boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation creep. The effect of brine inclusions has been explained by a reduction in internal back stress.

Brittle failure under compression (regime CIII, Figures 3 and 4) is marked by sudden material collapse after shortening less than about 0.5%. The failure mode is generally shear faulting on planes inclined by about 30 to the direction of maximum principal stress, although axial splitting can also occur under unconfined loading. The material now exhibits strain-rate softening, but is still thermally softened. The brittle compressive strength rises sharply under a small amount of confinement in a Coulombic manner.42-47 This implies that the deviatoric stress at failure increases with increasing hydrostatic stress and means that frictional crack sliding is an important element in the failure process. Again, the strength decreases with increasing grain size in a Hall-Petch manner.48 Brine inclusions, however, have no effect at all.47

where v is the velocity of the ice relative to the structure, and L is the width of the structure. Typical values are v = 0.1- 1 m/s and L = 10-100 m, giving strain rates that lead to brittle behavior.

Consider the most recent observations.51 Figure 5a shows a typical terminal shear fault; Figure 5b shows a thin section of the same fault, and Figure 5c shows the corresponding stress-strain curve. The fault was created by loading coarsely grained (10 mm) columnar fresh-water ice biaxially across the columns under a moderate degree of confinement (minor stress/major stress = 22/11 = 0.1) at -10C at 5 X 10-3 s-1. In Figure 5, the long axis of the grains is perpendicular to the page.

Experiments and analyses have shown that the parent cracks nucleate through grain-boundary sliding.56-59 The wing cracks initiate as a result of frictional sliding of the parent cracks.50 The splay cracks, it is thought, initiate from Hertzian contact stresses across the parent-crack faces and then propagate within a tensile field created most likely by nonuniform displacements across the sliding crack.

Schulson et al.51 propose that splay cracks are critical features in initiating the fault. Upon forming, they create sets of closely spaced microcolumns fixed on one end and free on the other. The free end contacts the sliding crack, which induces a moment that causes the columns to bend and break, rather like the breaking of teeth in a comb under a sliding thumb (Figure 6). It is the failure of these microcolumns under frictional shear loading, they suggest, that initiates the fault. Near-surface microcolumns probably break first, owing to less constraint there. It is imagined that growth then follows along a band of reduced shear strength that is composed of splay cracks formed prior to fault initiation plus fresh splay cracks created within a kind of process zone just ahead of the advancing fault front (Figure 7). The front moves rapidly across the section, creating “gouge” in its wake.

An estimate of the stress to initiate the fault may be obtained as follows. Assume that the fault is initiated when a microcolumn breaks. Assume also the scenario sketched in Figure 6, where M and P, respectively, are the induced moment and axial load per unit depth of the microcolumn; and n are the shear stress and normal stresses, respectively, acting on the microcolumn; and is the inclination of the parent crack. Then, by invoking the analysis of Thouless et al.60 for the propagation of an edge crack in a brittle plate, one can show that for = 45 the initiation stress, f, under uniaxial loading is approximated by the relationship51

It is not a new idea that failure of deformation-induced microcolumns is the micromechanical event accounting for the initiation of a shear fault. Others have advanced a similar view.63-65 Previously, however, failure was imagined to occur by elastic buckling of columns fixed on both ends, created, for instance, by echelon arrays of wing cracks. Given the dimensions of the splay-induced microcolumns created in ice, the Euler buckling stress is estimated to be 630 MPa to 3,000 MPa, and this is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the strength of the material. Hence, it is our opinion that elastic buckling is not the event that triggers the fault.

The transition can be understood in terms of the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up at crack tips. At intermediate rates of deformation crack-tip stresses relax through creep deformation, and so the mode-I stress intensity factor KI, at either the tips of wing cracks or splay cracks, never reaches the critical level. At high rates, on the other hand, stress build-up dominates, and KI quickly reaches the critical level Kic. The transition occurs when the competition between stress relaxation and stress build-up is in balance.

Schulson34,48 modeled the process by invoking Ashby-Hallam63 frictional sliding-crack mechanics and Riedel-Rice66 crack-tip creep. By assuming that cracks propagate when the crack-tip creep zone size falls below a small fraction f of the crack length, he obtained the transition strain rate in terms of the independently measurable parameters of fracture resistance (KIc,), creep constant B, (B1/m) friction (), and crack length (D); f must be calculated from the Riedel-Rice model. The transition strain rate may then be expressed by the relationship

where R is the ratio of the confining stress to the most compressive stress. A comparison with experiment34,35,67 shows that the model correctly captures the effects of crack size (set by grain size68 in virgin material), confinement, and brine pores and that it predicts for the conditions of Figure 4 a transition strain rate of 10-3 s-1, which is close to that observed. The model also holds that through the effects of temperature on friction and creep, the transition strain rate is only slightly dependent upon temperature, at least over the range -40C to -3C, again in accord with experiment. Moreover, by including the crack size, the model accounts for the fact that sheets of first-year sea ice, which are laced with meter-sized (and larger) cracks and wind loaded under compression, exhibit macroscopic brittle behavior69 even though they are deformed at rates as low as 10-7 s-1.

Moreover, there is new evidence72 that fracturing and fragmentation of ice exhibit fractal organization in the lab and in the field. Within faulted rock, both splay cracks (as noted above) and zigs and zags denoting wing cracks73,74 have been seen on small and large scales. While the physics may not change with size, the terminal compressive failure stresses will probably be lower in larger features, possibly scaling as (crack size)-0.5. Consistent with this notion, at least for ice, is Sanderson’s4 observation that large fractures fail at lower stresses than small ones. Also consistent are recent measurements of stresses within floating covers,71,75 which are usually within the kPa range as compared with the MPa range of lab measurements. The ductile flow of glaciers, on the other hand, reflects the power-law creep relationship of small test specimens, implying that dislocation-based processes are scale-independent.

Failure under tension is size-dependent, owing in part to the larger flaws within the larger features. Dempsey76,77 has discussed this aspect of the subject, from the perspective of applied mech-anics.

References 1. M.F. Perutz, J. Glaciol., 1 (1948), p. 95. 2. P.V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (London: Oxford University Press, 1974). 3. V.F. Petrenko and R.W. Whitworth, Physics of Ice (London: Oxford University Press, in press). 4. T.J.O. Sanderson, Ice Mechanics Risks to Offshore Structures (London: Graham & Trotman, 1988). 5. W.F. Weeks, Physics of Ice-Covered Seas, ed. M. Leppranta (Helsinki: Helsinki University Printing House, 1998), pp. 1-24 and 25-104. 6. B. Michel, Ice Mechanics (Quebec, Canada: Les Presses de l’Universit Laval, 1978). 7. R.J. Arsenault et al., eds., Johannes Weertman Symposium (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996). 8. T.B. Curtin, Naval Research Reviews L, Arctic Studies (1998), p. 6. 9. B.G. Levi, Physics Today (November 1998), p. 17. 10. W.B. Durham, S. Kirby, and L.A. Stern, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 16293. 11. L. Pauling, J. American Chemical Society, 57 (1935), p. 2680. 12. J.D. Bernal and R.H. Fowler, J. Chem. Physics, 1 (1933), p. 515. 13. J.W. Glen, Cold Regions Science and Technology, Monograph II-C2a (Hanover, NH: U.S. Army Corps. of Engineers, 1974). 14. T. Hondoh et al., J. Chem. Physics, 87 (1983), p. 4044. 15. N. Bjerrum, Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Matematisk-fysiske Meddeleiser, 27 (1951), p. 56. 16. F. Liu, I. Baker, and M. Dudley, Phil. Mag. A, 71 (1995), p. 15. 17. R.W. Whitworth, Phil. Mag. A, 41 (1980), p. 521. 18. J.W. Glen, Phys. Kondens. Mater., 7 (1968), p. 43. 19. M. Oguro and A. Higashi, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. E. Whalley, S.J. Jones, and L.W. Gold (Ottawa, Canada: Royal Society of Canada, 1973), p. 33. 20. J.F. Nye, Physics and Chemistry of Ice, ed. N. Maeno and T. Hondoh (Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press, 1992), pp. 200-205. 21. S. de la Chapelle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 5091. 22. W.F. Weeks and A.J. Gow, J. Geophys. Res., 84 (1978), p. 5105. 23. N.H. Fletcher, The Chemical Physics of Ice (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p. 271. 24. P. Duval, M.F. Ashby, and I. Anderman, J. Phys. Chem., 87 (1983), p. 4066. 25. J.W. Hutchinson, Metall. Trans. A, 8 (1977), p. 1465. 26. L.W. Gold, Canadian J. of Physics, 44 (1966), p. 2757. 27. L.W. Gold, Phil. Mag., 26 (1972), p. 311. 28. N.K. Sinha, J. Materials Sci., 23 (1988), p. 4415. 29. J. Weertman, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 11 (1983), p. 215. 30. S.J. Jones, J. Glaciol., 28 (1982), p. 171. 31. J.-P. Nadreau and B. Michel, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 13 (1986), p. 75. 32. R. Frederking, J. Glaciol., 18 (1977), p. 505. 33. J.A. Richter-Menge, J. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 113 (1991), p. 344. 34. E.M. Schulson and S.E. Buck, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3661. 35. E.M. Schulson and O.Y. Nickolayev, J. Geophys. Res., 100 (1995), p. 22383. 36. J.S. Melton and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 21759. 37. D.L. Goldsby and D.L. Kohlstedt, Scripta Materialia, 37 (1997), p. 1399. 38. E.M. Schulson et al., J. Materials Sci. Ltrs. 8 (1989), p. 1193. 39. E.M. Schulson, P.N. Lim, and R.W. Lee, Phil. Mag. A, 49 (1984), p. 353. 40. J.A. Richter-Menge and K.F. Jones, J. Glaciol., 39 (1993), p. 609. 41. E.M. Schulson, S.G. Hoxie, and W.A. Nixon, Phil. Mag. A, 59 (1989), p. 303. 42. T.R. Smith and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 153. 43. R.E. Gagnon and P.H. Gammon, J. Glaciol., 41 (1995), p. 528. 44. M.A. Rist and S.A.F. Murrell, J. Glaciol., 40 (1994), p. 305. 45. J. Weiss and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 2303. 46. E.T. Gratz and E.M. Schulson, J. Geophys. Res., 102 (1997), p. 5091. 47. E.M. Schulson and E.T. Gratz, Acta Metall. (in press). 48. E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 38 (1990), p. 1963. 49. S.K. Singh and I.J. Jordaan, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 153. 50. B. Zou, J. Xiao, and I.J. Jordann, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 24 (1996), p. 213. 51. E.M. Schulson, D. Iliescu, and C.E. Renshaw, J. Geophys. Res. (in press). 52. T.-F. Wong, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr., 19 (1982), p. 49. 53. R.R. Gottschalk et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95 (1990), p. 21613. 54. S.J. Martel and D.D. Pollard, J. Geophys. Res., 94 (1989), p. 9417. 55. K.M. Cruikshank et al., J. Struct. Geol., 13 (1991), p. 865. 56. H.J. Frost, Proc. in Joint Applied Mechanics and Materials Summer Conference, ed. J.P. Dempsey and Y.D.S. Rajapakse (Los Angeles, CA: University of California, 1995), pp. 1-8. 57. R.C. Picu, V. Gupta, and H.J. Frost, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (1994), p. 11775. 58. R.C. Picu and V.J. Gupta, Acta Metall., 43 (1995), p. 3791. 59. J. Weiss, E.M. Schulson, and H.J. Frost, Phil. Mag. A, 73 (1996), p. 1385. 60. M.D. Thouless et al., Acta Metall., 35 (1987), p. 1333. 61. J.P. Dempsey, Ice Structure Interactions, ed. S.J. Jones (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991), p. 109. 62. D.E. Jones, F.E. Kennedy, and E.M. Schulson, Ann. Glaciol., 15 (1991), p. 242. 63. M.F. Ashby and S.D. Hallam, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 497. 64. C.G. Sammis and M.F. Ashby, Acta Metall., 34 (1986), p. 511. 65. Z.P. Bazant and Y. Xiang, J. Eng. Mech., 2 (1997), p. 162. 66. H. Riedel and J.R. Rice, ASTM-STP-7700, (1980), p. 112. 67. R.A. Batto and E.M. Schulson, Acta Metall., 41 (1993), p. 2219. 68. D.M. Cole, Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. on Offshore Mech. Arctic Engng. (New York: ASME, 1985), p. 220. 69. J.R. Marko and R.E. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res., 82 (1977), p. 979. 70. E.M. Schulson and W.D. Hibler, III, J. Glaciol., 37 (1991), p. 319. 71. J.A. Richter-Menge et al., Proc. of the ASYS Conference on the Dynamics of the Arctic Climate System, ed. P. Lemke (Gotteborg, Sweden: World Meterological Org., 1996), pp. 327-331. 72. J. Weiss and M. Gay, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (1998), p. 24005. 73. D.E. Moore and D.A. Lockner, J. Struct. Geol., 17 (1995), p. 95. 74. R. Bilham and P. Williams, Geophys. Res. Lett., 12 (1985), p. 557. 75. W.B. Tucker, III and D.K. Perovich, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 20 (1992), p. 119. 76. J.P. Dempsey, contribution to Research Trends in Solid Mechanics, a report from U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (in press). 77. J.P. Dempsey, Johannes Weertman Symposium, ed. R.J. Arsenault et al. (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1996), p. 351. 78. R.W. Lee (M.S. thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 1985). 79. E.M. Schulson and N.P. Cannon, Proc. IAHR Ice Symp. (Hamburg, Germany: Hamburgische, Schiffbau-Versuchanstahlt GmbH, 1984), p. 24. 80. I. Hawkes and M. Mellor, J. Glaciol., 11 (1972), p. 103.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

E.M. Schulson is currently a professor of engineering at Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College.

For more information, contact E.M. Schulson, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755; (603) 646-2888; fax (603) 646-3856; e-mail erland.schulson@dartmouth.edu.

Direct questions about this or any other JOM page to jom@tms.org.

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Prison abolition movement – Wikipedia

Posted: at 12:27 pm

The prison abolition movement is a movement that seeks to reduce or eliminate prisons and the prison system, and replace them with more humane and effective systems.

It is distinct from prison reform, which is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons; however, relying on prisons less could improve their conditions by reducing overcrowding.[1]:3

Some organizations such as the Anarchist Black Cross seek total abolishment of the prison system, not intending to replace it with other government-controlled systems. Many anarchist organizations believe that the best form of justice arises naturally out of social contracts. However, many supporters for prison abolition intend to replace it with other systems, reducing prisons to a smaller role in society.

Prominent social activist Angela Davis, outspoken critic of the prison-industrial complex, openly supports prison abolition.[2] “Mass incarceration is not a solution to unemployment, nor is it a solution to the vast array of social problems that are hidden away in a rapidly growing network of prisons and jails. However, the great majority of people have been tricked into believing in the efficacy of imprisonment, even though the historical record clearly demonstrates that prisons do not work.”[3] Her relevancy in this movement is attested by her close involvement with groups moving to abolish the PIC.[4]

Critical Resistance, co-founded by Angela Davis and Ruth Wilson Gilmore, is an American organization working towards an “international movement to end the Prison Industrial Complex by challenging the belief that caging and controlling people makes us safe.”[5] Other similarly motivated groups such as the Prison Activist Resource Center (PARC), a group “committed to exposing and challenging all forms of institutionalized racism, sexism, able-ism, heterosexism, and classism, specifically within the Prison Industrial Complex,” [6] and Black & Pink, an abolitionist organization that focuses around LGBTQ rights, all broadly advocate for prison abolition.[7] Furthermore, names such as the Human Rights Coalition, a 2001 group that aims to abolish prisons,[8][9] and the California Coalition for Women Prisoners, a grassroots organization dedicated to dismantling the PIC,[10] can all be added to the long list of organizations that desire a different justice system for our world.[11]

Every other year after Ruth Morris organized the first one in Toronto in 1983,[12] The International Conference on Penal Abolition (ICOPA) gathers activists, academics, journalists, and “others from across the world who are working towards the abolition of imprisonment, the penal system, carceral controls and and the prison industrial complex (PIC),”[13] to discuss three important questions surrounding the reality of prison abolition ICOPA was one of the first penal abolitionist conference movements, similar to Critical Resistance in America, but “with an explicitly international scope and agenda-setting ambition.”[14]

Anarchists wish to eliminate all forms of state control, of which imprisonment is seen as one of the more obvious examples. Anarchists also oppose prisons because the vast majority of inmates are non-violent offenders. Numbers show incarceration rates affect mainly poor people and ethnic minorities, and do not generally rehabilitate criminals, in many cases making them worse.[15] As a result, the prison abolition movement often is associated with humanistic socialism, anarchism and anti-authoritarianism.

In October 2015, members at a plenary session of the National Lawyers Guild (NLG) released and adopted a resolution in favor of prison abolition.[16][17]

Proposals for prison reform and proposed alternatives to prisons differ significantly depending on the political beliefs behind them. Proposals and tactics often include:

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime published a series of handbooks on criminal justice. Among them is Alternatives to Imprisonment which identifies how the overuse of imprisonment impacts fundamental human rights, especially those convicted for lesser crimes.

Social justice and advocacy organizations such as Students Against Mass Incarceration (SAMI) at the University of California, San Diego often look to Scandinavian countries Sweden and Norway for guidance in regards to successful prison reform because both countries have an emphasis on rehabilitation rather than punishment.[18] According to Sweden’s Prison and Probation Service Director-General, Nils berg, this emphasis is made popular among the Swedish because the act of imprisonment is considered punishment enough.[19] This focus on rehabilitation includes an emphasis on promoting normalcy for inmates, a charge lead by experienced criminologists and psychologists.[20] In Norway a focus on preparation for societal re-entry has yielded “one of the lowest recidivism rates in the world at 20%, [while] the US has one of the highest: 76.6% of [Americans] prisoners are re-arrested within five years”.[21] The Scandinavian method of incarceration seems to be successful: the Swedish incarceration rate decreased by 6% between 2011 and 2012.[22]

In place of prisons, some abolitionists propose community-controlled courts, councils, or assemblies to control the problem of social crime.[23] They argue that with the destruction of capitalism, and the self-management of production by workers and communities, property crimes would largely vanish. A large part of the problem, according to some, is the way the judicial system deals with prisoners, people, and capital. They argue that there would be fewer prisoners if society treated people more fairly, regardless of gender, color, ethnic background, sexual orientation, education, etc. This is proven with the creation of private prisons in America and corporations like Correction Corporation of America (CCA). Its shareholders benefit from the expansion of prisons and tougher laws on crime. More prisoners is seen as beneficial for business.[24]

Opponents of the abolition argue that none of the arguments above address the protection of non-criminal population from the effects of crime, and from particularly violent criminals.

Prison abolitionists such as Amanda Pustlinik take issue with the fact that prisons are used as a “default asylum” for many individuals with mental illness.[40] One question that is often asked by some prison abolitionists is:

“why do governmental units choose to spend billions of dollars a year to concentrate people with serious illnesses in a system designed to punish intentional lawbreaking, when doing so matches neither the putative purposes of that system nor most effectively addresses the issues posed by that population?” [40]

This question is often one of the major pieces of evidence that prison abolitionist claim highlights the depravity of the penal system. Many of these prison abolitionists often state that mentally ill offenders, violent and non-violent, should be treated in mental hospitals not prisons.[41] There are more people with mental illness in prisons that in psychiatric hospitals.[42] By keeping the mentally ill in prisons they claim that rehabilitation cannot occur because prisons are not the correct environment to deal with deep seated psychological problems and facilitate rehabilitative practices.[41] Individuals with mental illnesses that have led them to commit any crime have a much higher chance of committing suicide while in prison because of the lack of proper medical attention.[43] The increased risk of suicide is said to be because there is much stigma around mental illness and lack of adequate treatments within hospitals.[43] The whole point of the penal system is to rehabilitate and reform individuals who have willingly transgressed on the law. According to many prison abolitionists however, when mentally ill persons, often for reasons outside of their cognitive control, commit illegal acts prisons are not the best place for them to receive the help necessary for their rehabilitation.[41] For many prison abolitionists, if for no other reason than the fact that mentally ill individuals will not be receiving the same potential for rehabilitation as the non-mentally ill prison population, prisons are considered to be unjust and therefore violate their Sixth Amendment and Fifth Amendment Rights, in the U.S., and their chance to rehabilitate and function outside of the prison.[40][40][41][44] In America, by violating an individual’s rights as a citizen, prison abolitionists see no reason for prisons to exist, and again, offer another reason people within the movement demand for the abolition of prisons.[40][41][44]

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Liberal Studies – Interdisciplinary Studies – Clayton …

Posted: November 30, 2016 at 6:44 pm

For more information, call the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies: (678) 466-4883

The Liberal Studies program allows students to create an individualized curriculum composed of courses and experiences which meet their individual career needs. This approach is different from many traditional, discipline-based baccalaureate programs which are designed in part to prepare students for advanced work in a specific academic discipline — a major in history or biology, for example. This flexibility enables students to develop academic plans that meet the ever-changing requirements of the world of work, but it also requires careful planning. Students should clarify their career or learning goals as they begin designing the components of their program. The bachelors degree in Liberal Studies can also be an appropriate preparation for students planning to attend graduate school in certain disciplines and professions. Students may earn either a baccalaureate degree by completing a planned program of 120 semester credit hours or an associate’s degree with a major in Liberal Studies upon the completion of Areas A-F of the Core Curriculum.

While this degree program is open to all qualified students, it has been designed principally to meet the higher education needs of the following two specific groups of students:

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The program allows students the opportunity to bring together — or integrate — courses from a wide variety of academic areas or disciplines to support their individual career goals. In addition to the courses available at Clayton State, students may elect to take courses on the campuses of the Atlanta Regional Consortium like Emory, Georgia State, or Agnes Scott, or they can take advantage of distance learning courses offered by those institutions or others. The program also integrates on-campus with community-based, experiential methods of learning. Workforce skills today require new competencies such as effective collaboration and teamwork which may not be available through classroom instruction alone; these skills must be learned, developed, and advanced in real work environments. For these reasons, internship placements which support this component are arranged for all students in the program.

Since this program was developed to allow students to design individualized curriculum plans, the first step in the application process is the identification and clarification of career goals. These goals will shape the outcomes of individual programs — what students need to know and be able to do in order to be successful in the occupational or professional area chosen. This step is primarily the responsibility of students seeking admission to the program and will require considerable investigation and reflection prior to completion of the application process. Only if students have clear goals statements can faculty advisors effectively assist them in designing programs which are appropriate and which maximize the resources available.

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Admission to the Program: Before enrolling in BALS 3901 (Liberal Studies Internship/Practicum), students must have:

Individualized Curriculum: Students work closely with an assigned Liberal Studies advisor to develop a curriculum plan which takes advantage of the wide range of learning resources available. Courses may be drawn from any discipline, but all courses must apply toward the baccalaureate degrees at Clayton State. Courses from a career associate degree program (AAS) generally do not count toward baccalaureate degrees. Completing a degree in Liberal Studies requires completion of 120 semester hours as follows:

Completing a degree in Integrative studies requires completion of 120 semester hours as follows:

Academic Standing: A grade of C or better is required in the BALS 3901 course. Students must maintain a 2.0 overall grade point average to remain in good standing as defined by University System policy. In addition, no more than 6 semester hours of D grades can be counted in the courses that are chosen to fulfill the upper division requirements of the program.

Residency Requirement: The normal University residency requirement of 30 hours applies, with the following exceptions: (1) all BALS 3901 courses must be taken in residence at Clayton State University; and (2) 9 hours of coursework taken from schools participating in the Atlanta Regional Council for Higher Education (ARCHE) may be counted as in residence, provided the courses are approved in advance as part of the students Liberal Studies program of study. Note: Of the 30 hours required for residency, 21 semester hours must be 3000-4000 level courses credited toward your degree.

Liberal Studies Internship: The Liberal Studies Practicum/Internship (BALS 3901) is the principal “experiential learning” component of the program, though students may also earn additional credit via other internships or cooperative education. This seminar will normally be taken during the first term of the senior year, and the placement site will be in a professional work environment related to the interests/career goals of the individual student. Placement may be with for-profit, not-for-profit, or governmental entities as appropriate. Collaborating businesses/agencies must agree to create and supervise meaningful experiences that will allow students to observe and participate in real world projects and activities that bear directly on the challenges of the contemporary workplace. Students are permitted to complete a practicum or internship in the company where they are already employed. Students are encouraged to seek experiential opportunities outside the USA.

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The Liberal Studies program provides the opportunity for a student to work with an advisor to design a curriculum that meets the students career and educational needs. This flexibility enables students to develop academic programs that meet the ever-changing requirements of the world of work. A bachelors degree in Liberal Studies can also be designed to prepare students for graduate school in certain disciplines and professions.

Before beginning upper-division study in Liberal Studies, applicants must have:

Core Curriculum (Areas A – E) 42 hours

All Liberal Studies Core Curriculum requirements are shown in the suggested degree program.

Lower Division Core Requirements (Core Curriculum Area F) 18 hours

Humanities 3-9 hours

Any of the following 1000- or 2000-level courses: AFAM, WST, ART, CMS, COMM, THEA, ENGL, FREN, MUSC, PHIL, and SPAN

Social Sciences 3-9 hours

Any of the following 1000- or 2000-level courses: AFAM, WST, ECON, EDUC, HIST, POLS, PSYC, SOCI

Natural Sciences and Mathematics 0-6 hours

Any 1000- or 2000-level MATH courses numbered 1113 or higher not already applied to Areas A or D and/or any 1000- or 2000-level ASTR, BIOL, CHEM, or PHYS, or other science courses not already applied to Area D.

Area Major Courses 0-12 hours

Courses from Area F of any major that have not been used to satisfy other Core Curriculum category requirements.

Upper Division Required Courses 3 hours

BALS 3901, Liberal Studies Practicum/Internship 3 hours

Students may take up to 9 hours of BALS 3901, but students may only register for 1 semester of BALS 3901 per semester. Additional terms of BALS 3901 will be applied in the upper division.

Upper Division Area Major Courses 57 hours

The Liberal Studies Major requires students to complete a CSU minor program in Arts & Sciences (African-American Studies, History, English (Literature), English (Writing), Womens Studies, Communication & Media Studies, Philosophy, Psychology, Political Science, Chemistry, etc.).

Fulfilling the requirements for a minor in an area of expertise enables students to move toward achieving career and academic goals. Additional courses may be drawn from any field, but must be in the students advised program of study. No more than 18 lower division hours may be applied to this category.

Total Degree Requirements 120 hours

In order to be admitted to the upper division level of the Integrative Studies program, students must have and institutional grade point average of at least 2.0 and must maintain a minimum 2.0 GPA to progress to graduation.

For general Clayton State University admission information

visit http://admissions.clayton.edu/

or email Clayton State University info

or call (678) 466-4115

BALS Curriculum Worksheet Fall 2015

BALS Graduation Application 2015

BALS Graduation Application 2011

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Liberal Studies – Interdisciplinary Studies – Clayton …

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Tension myositis syndrome – Wikipedia

Posted: at 6:40 pm

Tension myositis syndrome (TMS), also known as tension myoneural syndrome, is a name given by John E. Sarno to a condition he describes as characterized by psychogenic musculoskeletal and nerve symptoms, most notably back pain.[1][2][3] Sarno, a Professor of Clinical Rehabilitation Medicine at New York University School of Medicine and Attending Physician at The Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine at New York University Medical Center, has described TMS in four books,[4][5][6][7] and has stated that the condition may be involved in other pain disorders as well.[2] The treatment protocol for TMS includes education, writing about emotional issues, resumption of a normal lifestyle and, for some patients, support meetings and/or psychotherapy.[1][8] In 2007, David Schechter (a medical doctor and former student and research assistant of Sarno’s) published a peer-reviewed study of TMS treatment showing a 54% success rate for chronic back pain. In terms of statistical significance and success rate, the study outperformed similar studies of other psychological interventions for chronic back pain.[1]

The TMS diagnosis and treatment protocol are not accepted by the mainstream medical community.[9][10] However, TMS and Sarno’s treatment methods have received national attention, including a segment on ABC’s 20/20;[10] an episode of Larry King Live;[11] an interview with Medscape;[2] and articles in Newsweek,[12]The Seattle Times,[13] and The New York Times.[9] Prominent medical doctors who support TMS treatment include Andrew Weil[14][15] and Mehmet Oz.[16] Notable patients treated for tension myositis syndrome include Senator Tom Harkin, John Stossel,[3]Howard Stern,[17] and Anne Bancroft.[9]

Back pain is frequently mentioned as a TMS symptom,[1][8][18][19] but Sarno defines TMS symptoms much more broadly than that:

Below is a list of criteria for diagnosing TMS, according to Schechter and Sarno:

Schechter and Sarno state that if a patient is unable to visit a medical doctor who is trained in TMS, then the patient should see a traditional medical doctor to rule out serious disorders, such as fractures, tumors and infections.[13][20]

The treatment protocol for TMS includes education, writing about emotional issues and resumption of a normal lifestyle. For patients who do not recover quickly, the protocol also includes support groups and/or psychotherapy.[1][8]

Sarno’s protocol for treatment of TMS is used by the Harvard RSI Action Group, a student volunteer organization, as part of their preventative education and support program for people with repetitive strain injury, also referred to as “RSI”.[21]

Education may take the form of office visits, lectures and written and audio materials. The content of the education includes the psychological and physiological aspects of TMS.[1][8] According to Schechter, the education allows the patients to “learn that their physical condition is actually benign and that any disability they have is a function of pain-related fear and deconditioning, not the actual risk of further ‘re-injury.'”[1]

Sarno states that each patient should set aside time daily to think and write about issues that could have led to the patient’s repressed emotions. He recommends the following two writing tasks:

Schechter developed a 30-day daily journal called “The MindBody Workbook” to assist the patient in recording emotionally significant events and making correlations between those events and their physical symptoms. According to Sarno and Schechter, daily repetition of the psychological process over time defeats the repression through conscious awareness.[22]

To return to a normal lifestyle, patients are told to take the following actions:

Sarno uses support meetings for patients who do not make a prompt recovery. Sarno states that the support meetings (a) allow the patients to explore emotional issues that may be causing their symptoms and (b) review concepts covered during the earlier education.[8]

Sarno says that about 20% of his patients need psychotherapy. He states that he uses “short-term, dynamic, analytically oriented psychotherapy.”[8] Schechter says that he uses psychotherapy for about 30% of his patients, and that six to ten sessions are needed per patient.[1]

Alan Gordon, LCSW has created a TMS recovery program on the TMS Wiki, which includes various articles, exercises, and segments from sessions exemplifying therapeutic concepts.

While psychogenic pain and pain disorder are accepted diagnoses in the medical community, the TMS modality is more controversial.

A non-peer-reviewed 2005 study by Schechter at the Seligman Medical Institute (SMI), co-authored with institute director Arthur Smith, found that treatment of TMS achieved a 57% success rate among patients with chronic back pain.[23]

A peer-reviewed[24] 2007 study with Schechter, Smith and Stanley Azen, Professor and Co-Director of Biostatistics in the Department of Preventative Medicine at the USC Keck School of Medicine, found a 54% success rate for treatment of TMS (P<.00001 the treatment consisted of office visits at-home educational materials writing about emotional issues and psychotherapy. average pain duration for study patients was years. with less than months back were excluded to confounder that most episodes typically resolve on their own in a few weeks.>

Schechter, Smith and Azen also compared their results to the results of three studies of other psychological treatments for chronic back pain. The three non-TMS studies were selected because of (a) their quality, as judged by the Cochrane Collaboration, and (b) the similarity of their pain measurements to those used in the TMS study. Of the three non-TMS studies, only one (the Turner study) showed a statistically significant improvement. Compared to the 2007 TMS study, the Turner study had a lower success rate (26%-35%, depending on the type of psychological treatment) and a lower level of statistical significance (P<.05>

Schechter, et al. state that one advantage of TMS treatment is that it avoids the risks associated with surgery and medication, but they caution that the risks of TMS treatment are somewhat unknown due to the relatively low number of patients studied so far.[1]

According to Sarno, TMS is a condition in which unconscious emotional issues (primarily rage) initiate a process that causes physical pain and other symptoms. His theory suggests that the unconscious mind uses the autonomic nervous system to decreases blood flow to muscles, nerves or tendons, resulting in oxygen deprivation, experienced as pain in the affected tissues.[2][8][25] Sarno theorizes that because patients often report that back pain seems to move around, up and down the spine, or from side to side, that this implies the pain may not be caused by a physical deformity or injury.[7]

Sarno states that the underlying cause of the pain is the mind’s defense mechanism against unconscious mental stress and emotions such as anger, anxiety and narcissistic rage. The conscious mind is distracted by the physical pain, as the psychological repression process keeps the anger/rage contained in the unconscious and thereby prevented from entering conscious awareness.[19][26] Sarno believes that when patients recognize that the symptoms are only a distraction, the symptoms then serve no purpose, and they go away. TMS can be considered a psychosomatic condition and has been referred to as a “distraction pain syndrome”.[20]

Sarno is a vocal critic of conventional medicine with regard to diagnosis and treatment of back pain, which is often treated by rest, physical therapy, exercise and/or surgery.[5]

Notable patients who have been treated for TMS include the following:

The TMS diagnosis and treatment protocol are not accepted by the mainstream medical community.[9][10] Sarno himself stated in a 2004 interview with Medscape Orthopaedics & Sports Medicine that “99.999% of the medical profession does not accept this diagnosis.”[2] Although the vast majority of medical doctors do not accept TMS, there are prominent doctors who do. Andrew Weil, a notable medical doctor and alternative medicine proponent, endorses TMS treatment for back pain.[14][15]Mehmet Oz, a television personality and Professor of Surgery at Columbia University, includes TMS treatment in his four recommendations for treating back pain.[16] Richard E. Sall, a medical doctor who authored a book on worker’s compensation, includes TMS in a list of conditions he considers possible causes of back pain resulting in missed work days that increase the costs of worker’s compensation programs.[29]

Critics in mainstream medicine state that neither the theory of TMS nor the effectiveness of the treatment has been proven in a properly controlled clinical trial,[6] citing the placebo effect and regression to the mean as possible explanations for its success. Patients typically see their doctor when the pain is at its worst and pain chart scores statistically improve over time even if left untreated; most people recover from an episode of back pain within weeks without any medical intervention at all.[30] The TMS theory has also been criticized as too simplistic to account for the complexity of pain syndromes.[10] James Rainville, a medical doctor at New England Baptist Hospital, said that while TMS treatment works for some patients, Sarno mistakenly uses the TMS diagnosis for other patients who have real physical problems.[31]

Sarno responds that he has had success with many patients who have exhausted every other means of treatment, which he says is proof that regression to the mean is not the cause.[10]

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Tension myositis syndrome – Wikipedia

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Alternative medicine – Wikipedia

Posted: November 29, 2016 at 1:27 am

Alternative medicine or fringe medicine are practices claimed to have the healing effects of medicine but are disproven, unproven, impossible to prove, or only harmful. Alternative therapies or diagnoses are not part of medicine or science-based healthcare systems. Alternative medicine consists of a wide variety of practices, products, and therapiesranging from those that are biologically plausible but not well tested, to those with known harmful and toxic effects. Contrary to popular belief, significant expense is paid in testing alternative medicine, including over $2.5 billion spent by the United States government, with almost none showing any effect beyond that of false treatment. Perceived effects of alternative medicine are caused by placebo, decreased effects of functional treatment (and therefor also decreased side-effects), and regression toward the mean where improvement that would have occurred anyway is credited to alternative therapies. Alternative medicine is not the same as experimental medicine.

Alternative medicine has grown in popularity and is used by a significant percentage of the population in many countries. While it has extensively rebranded itself: from quackery to complementary or integrative medicineit promotes essentially the same practices. Newer proponents often suggest alternative medicine be used together with functional medical treatment, in a belief that it “complements” (improves the effect of, or mitigates the side effects of) the treatment. However, significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively influence treatments, making them less effective, notably cancer therapy. Despite it being illegal to market alternative therapies for any type of cancer treatment in most of the developed world, many cancer patients use them. In the UK complementary therapies are commonly made available to cancer patients.[1][2]

Alternative medical diagnoses and treatments are not included in the science-based curriculum taught in medical schools, and are not used in medical practice where treatments are based on scientific knowledge. Alternative therapies are often based on religion, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, or fraud. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries.

Alternative medicine has been criticized for being based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, or poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical. Testing alternative medicine that have no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce medical research resources. Critics have said “there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn’t”, and the problem is not only that it does not work, but that the “underlying logic is magical, childish or downright absurd”. There have also been calls that the concept of any alternative medicine that works is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is simply “medicine”.

Practitioners of complementary medicine usually discuss and advise patients as to available alternative therapies. Patients often express interest in mind-body complementary therapies because they offer a non-drug approach to treating some health conditions.[3][clarification needed]

In addition to the social-cultural underpinnings of the popularity of alternative medicine, there are several psychological issues that are critical to its growth. One of the most critical is the placebo effecta well-established observation in medicine.[4] Related to it are similar psychological effects, such as the will to believe,[5]cognitive biases that help maintain self-esteem and promote harmonious social functioning,[5] and the post hoc, ergo propter hoc fallacy.[5]

CAM’s popularity may be related to other factors that Edzard Ernst mentioned in an interview in The Independent:

Why is it so popular, then? Ernst blames the providers, customers and the doctors whose neglect, he says, has created the opening into which alternative therapists have stepped. “People are told lies. There are 40 million websites and 39.9 million tell lies, sometimes outrageous lies. They mislead cancer patients, who are encouraged not only to pay their last penny but to be treated with something that shortens their lives. “At the same time, people are gullible. It needs gullibility for the industry to succeed. It doesn’t make me popular with the public, but it’s the truth.[6]

Paul Offit proposed that “alternative medicine becomes quackery” in four ways: by recommending against conventional therapies that are helpful, promoting potentially harmful therapies without adequate warning, draining patients’ bank accounts, or by promoting “magical thinking.”[7]

In a paper published in October 2010 entitled The public’s enthusiasm for complementary and alternative medicine amounts to a critique of mainstream medicine, Ernst described these views in greater detail and concluded:

[CAM] is popular. An analysis of the reasons why this is so points towards the therapeutic relationship as a key factor. Providers of CAM tend to build better therapeutic relationships than mainstream healthcare professionals. In turn, this implies that much of the popularity of CAM is a poignant criticism of the failure of mainstream healthcare. We should consider it seriously with a view of improving our service to patients.[8]

Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines among the minority using them in lieu of conventional medicine. There are several socio-cultural reasons for the interest in these treatments centered on the low level of scientific literacy among the public at large and a concomitant increase in antiscientific attitudes and new age mysticism.[5] Related to this are vigorous marketing[9] of extravagant claims by the alternative medical community combined with inadequate media scrutiny and attacks on critics.[5][10]

There is also an increase in conspiracy theories toward conventional medicine and pharmaceutical companies, mistrust of traditional authority figures, such as the physician, and a dislike of the current delivery methods of scientific biomedicine, all of which have led patients to seek out alternative medicine to treat a variety of ailments.[10] Many patients lack access to contemporary medicine, due to a lack of private or public health insurance, which leads them to seek out lower-cost alternative medicine.[11] Medical doctors are also aggressively marketing alternative medicine to profit from this market.[9]

Patients can be averse to the painful, unpleasant, and sometimes-dangerous side effects of biomedical treatments. Treatments for severe diseases such as cancer and HIV infection have well-known, significant side-effects. Even low-risk medications such as antibiotics can have potential to cause life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in a very few individuals. Many medications may cause minor but bothersome symptoms such as cough or upset stomach. In all of these cases, patients may be seeking out alternative treatments to avoid the adverse effects of conventional treatments.[5][10]

It is loosely as a defined set of products, practices, and theories that are believed or perceived by their users to have the healing effects of medicine,[n 1][n 2] but whose effectiveness has not been clearly established using scientific methods,[n 1][n 3][15][16][17][18] or whose theory and practice is not part of biomedicine,[n 2][n 4][n 5][n 6] or whose theories or practices are directly contradicted by scientific evidence or scientific principles used in biomedicine.[15][16][22] “Biomedicine” or “medicine” is that part of medical science that applies principles of biology, physiology, molecular biology, biophysics, and other natural sciences to clinical practice, using scientific methods to establish the effectiveness of that practice. Unlike medicine,[n 4] an alternative product or practice does not originate from using scientific methodology, but may instead be based on testimonials, religion, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or other unscientific sources.[n 3][12][15][16]

In General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine, published in 2000 by the World Health Organization (WHO), complementary and alternative medicine were defined as a broad set of health care practices that are not part of that country’s own tradition and are not integrated into the dominant health care system.[23]

The expression also refers to a diverse range of related and unrelated products, practices, and theories ranging from biologically plausible practices and products and practices with some evidence, to practices and theories that are directly contradicted by basic science or clear evidence, and products that have been conclusively proven to be ineffective or even toxic and harmful.[n 2][25][26]

The terms-Alternative medicine, complementary medicine, integrative medicine, holistic medicine, natural medicine, unorthodox medicine, fringe medicine, unconventional medicine, and new age medicine are used interchangeably as having the same meaning and are almost synonymous in some contexts,[27][28][29][30] but may have different meanings in some rare cases.

The meaning of the term “alternative” in the expression “alternative medicine”, is not that it is an effective alternative to medical science, although some alternative medicine promoters may use the loose terminology to give the appearance of effectiveness.[15][31] Loose terminology may also be used to suggest meaning that a dichotomy exists when it does not, e.g., the use of the expressions “western medicine” and “eastern medicine” to suggest that the difference is a cultural difference between the Asiatic east and the European west, rather than that the difference is between evidence-based medicine and treatments that don’t work.[15]

Complementary medicine (CM) or integrative medicine (IM) is when alternative medicine is used together with functional medical treatment, in a belief that it improves the effect of treatments.[n 7][12][33][34][35] However, significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively influence treatment, making treatments less effective, notably cancer therapy.[36][37] Both terms refer to use of alternative medical treatments alongside conventional medicine,[38][39][40] an example of which is use of acupuncture (sticking needles in the body to influence the flow of a supernatural energy), along with using science-based medicine, in the belief that the acupuncture increases the effectiveness or “complements” the science-based medicine.[40]

Allopathic medicine or allopathy is an expression commonly used by homeopaths and proponents of other forms of alternative medicine to refer to mainstream medicine. Specifically it refers to the use of pharmacologically active agents or physical interventions to treat or suppress symptoms or pathophysiologic processes of diseases or conditions.[41] The expression was coined in 1810 by the creator of homeopathy, Samuel Hahnemann (17551843).[42] In such circles, the expression “allopathic medicine” is still used to refer to “the broad category of medical practice that is sometimes called Western medicine, biomedicine, evidence-based medicine, or modern medicine” (see the article on scientific medicine).[43]

Use of the term remains common among homeopaths and has spread to other alternative medicine practices. The meaning implied by the label has never been accepted by conventional medicine and is considered pejorative.[44] More recently, some sources have used the term “allopathic”, particularly American sources wishing to distinguish between Doctors of Medicine (MD) and Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) in the United States.[42][45] William Jarvis, an expert on alternative medicine and public health,[46] states that “although many modern therapies can be construed to conform to an allopathic rationale (e.g., using a laxative to relieve constipation), standard medicine has never paid allegiance to an allopathic principle” and that the label “allopath” was from the start “considered highly derisive by regular medicine”.[47]

Many conventional medical treatments clearly do not fit the nominal definition of allopathy, as they seek to prevent illness, or remove the cause of an illness by acting on the etiology of disease.[48][49]

CAM is an abbreviation of complementary and alternative medicine.[50][51] It has also been called sCAM or SCAM with the addition of “so-called” or “supplements”.[52][53] The words balance and holism are often used, claiming to take into account a “whole” person, in contrast to the supposed reductionism of medicine. Due to its many names the field has been criticized for intense rebranding of what are essentially the same practices: as soon as one name is declared synonymous with quackery, a new name is chosen.[27]

It refers to the pre-scientific practices of a culture, contrary to what is traditionally practiced in cultures where medical science dominates.

“Eastern medicine” typically refers to the traditional medicines of Asia where conventional bio-medicine penetrated much later.

Prominent members of the science[7][54] and biomedical science community[14] assert that it is not meaningful to define an alternative medicine that is separate from a conventional medicine, that the expressions “conventional medicine”, “alternative medicine”, “complementary medicine”, “integrative medicine”, and “holistic medicine” do not refer to any medicine at all.[7][14][54][55]

Others in both the biomedical and CAM communities point out that CAM cannot be precisely defined because of the diversity of theories and practices it includes, and because the boundaries between CAM and biomedicine overlap, are porous, and change. The expression “complementary and alternative medicine” (CAM) resists easy definition because the health systems and practices it refers to are diffuse, and its boundaries poorly defined.[25][n 8] Healthcare practices categorized as alternative may differ in their historical origin, theoretical basis, diagnostic technique, therapeutic practice and in their relationship to the medical mainstream. Some alternative therapies, including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda, have antique origins in East or South Asia and are entirely alternative medical systems;[60] others, such as homeopathy and chiropractic, have origins in Europe or the United States and emerged in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Some, such as osteopathy and chiropractic, employ manipulative physical methods of treatment; others, such as meditation and prayer, are based on mind-body interventions. Treatments considered alternative in one location may be considered conventional in another.[63] Thus, chiropractic is not considered alternative in Denmark and likewise osteopathic medicine is no longer thought of as an alternative therapy in the United States.[63]

Critics say the expression is deceptive because it implies there is an effective alternative to science-based medicine, and that complementary is deceptive because it implies that the treatment increases the effectiveness of (complements) science-based medicine, while alternative medicines that have been tested nearly always have no measurable positive effect compared to a placebo.[15][64][65][66]

One common feature of all definitions of alternative medicine is its designation as “other than” conventional medicine. For example, the widely referenced descriptive definition of complementary and alternative medicine devised by the US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), states that it is “a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine.”[69] For conventional medical practitioners, it does not necessarily follow that either it or its practitioners would no longer be considered alternative.[n 9]

Some definitions seek to specify alternative medicine in terms of its social and political marginality to mainstream healthcare.[72] This can refer to the lack of support that alternative therapies receive from the medical establishment and related bodies regarding access to research funding, sympathetic coverage in the medical press, or inclusion in the standard medical curriculum.[72] In 1993, the British Medical Association (BMA), one among many professional organizations who have attempted to define alternative medicine, stated that it[n 10] referred to “…those forms of treatment which are not widely used by the conventional healthcare professions, and the skills of which are not taught as part of the undergraduate curriculum of conventional medical and paramedical healthcare courses.”[73] In a US context, an influential definition coined in 1993 by the Harvard-based physician,[74] David M. Eisenberg,[75] characterized alternative medicine “as interventions neither taught widely in medical schools nor generally available in US hospitals”.[76] These descriptive definitions are inadequate in the present-day when some conventional doctors offer alternative medical treatments and CAM introductory courses or modules can be offered as part of standard undergraduate medical training;[77] alternative medicine is taught in more than 50 per cent of US medical schools and increasingly US health insurers are willing to provide reimbursement for CAM therapies. In 1999, 7.7% of US hospitals reported using some form of CAM therapy; this proportion had risen to 37.7% by 2008.[79]

An expert panel at a conference hosted in 1995 by the US Office for Alternative Medicine (OAM),[80][n 11] devised a theoretical definition[80] of alternative medicine as “a broad domain of healing resources… other than those intrinsic to the politically dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period.”[82] This definition has been widely adopted by CAM researchers,[80] cited by official government bodies such as the UK Department of Health,[83] attributed as the definition used by the Cochrane Collaboration,[84] and, with some modification,[dubious discuss] was preferred in the 2005 consensus report of the US Institute of Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States.[n 2]

The 1995 OAM conference definition, an expansion of Eisenberg’s 1993 formulation, is silent regarding questions of the medical effectiveness of alternative therapies.[85] Its proponents hold that it thus avoids relativism about differing forms of medical knowledge and, while it is an essentially political definition, this should not imply that the dominance of mainstream biomedicine is solely due to political forces.[85] According to this definition, alternative and mainstream medicine can only be differentiated with reference to what is “intrinsic to the politically dominant health system of a particular society of culture”.[86] However, there is neither a reliable method to distinguish between cultures and subcultures, nor to attribute them as dominant or subordinate, nor any accepted criteria to determine the dominance of a cultural entity.[86] If the culture of a politically dominant healthcare system is held to be equivalent to the perspectives of those charged with the medical management of leading healthcare institutions and programs, the definition fails to recognize the potential for division either within such an elite or between a healthcare elite and the wider population.[86]

Normative definitions distinguish alternative medicine from the biomedical mainstream in its provision of therapies that are unproven, unvalidated, or ineffective and support of theories with no recognized scientific basis. These definitions characterize practices as constituting alternative medicine when, used independently or in place of evidence-based medicine, they are put forward as having the healing effects of medicine, but are not based on evidence gathered with the scientific method.[12][14][38][39][69][88] Exemplifying this perspective, a 1998 editorial co-authored by Marcia Angell, a former editor of the New England Journal of Medicine, argued that:

This line of division has been subject to criticism, however, as not all forms of standard medical practice have adequately demonstrated evidence of benefit, [n 4][89] and it is also unlikely in most instances that conventional therapies, if proven to be ineffective, would ever be classified as CAM.[80]

Similarly, the public information website maintained by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of the Commonwealth of Australia uses the acronym “CAM” for a wide range of health care practices, therapies, procedures and devices not within the domain of conventional medicine. In the Australian context this is stated to include acupuncture; aromatherapy; chiropractic; homeopathy; massage; meditation and relaxation therapies; naturopathy; osteopathy; reflexology, traditional Chinese medicine; and the use of vitamin supplements.[91]

The Danish National Board of Health’s “Council for Alternative Medicine” (Sundhedsstyrelsens Rd for Alternativ Behandling (SRAB)), an independent institution under the National Board of Health (Danish: Sundhedsstyrelsen), uses the term “alternative medicine” for:

Proponents of an evidence-base for medicine[n 12][94][95][96][97] such as the Cochrane Collaboration (founded in 1993 and from 2011 providing input for WHO resolutions) take a position that all systematic reviews of treatments, whether “mainstream” or “alternative”, ought to be held to the current standards of scientific method.[98] In a study titled Development and classification of an operational definition of complementary and alternative medicine for the Cochrane Collaboration (2011) it was proposed that indicators that a therapy is accepted include government licensing of practitioners, coverage by health insurance, statements of approval by government agencies, and recommendation as part of a practice guideline; and that if something is currently a standard, accepted therapy, then it is not likely to be widely considered as CAM.[80]

A United States government agency, the National Center on Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), created its own classification system for branches of complementary and alternative medicine that divides them into five major groups. These groups have some overlap, and distinguish two types of energy medicine: veritable which involves scientifically observable energy (including magnet therapy, colorpuncture and light therapy) and putative, which invokes physically undetectable or unverifiable energy.[99]

The NCCIH classification system is –

Alternative medicine consists of a wide range of health care practices, products, and therapies. The shared feature is a claim to heal that is not based on the scientific method. Alternative medicine practices are diverse in their foundations and methodologies.[69] Alternative medicine practices may be classified by their cultural origins or by the types of beliefs upon which they are based.[12][15][22][69] Methods may incorporate or be based on traditional medicinal practices of a particular culture, folk knowledge, supersition, spiritual beliefs, belief in supernatural energies (antiscience), pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, new or different concepts of health and disease, and any bases other than being proven by scientific methods.[12][15][16][22] Different cultures may have their own unique traditional or belief based practices developed recently or over thousands of years, and specific practices or entire systems of practices.

Alternative medicine, such as using naturopathy or homeopathy in place of conventional medicine, is based on belief systems not grounded in science.[69]

Alternative medical systems may be based on traditional medicine practices, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda in India, or practices of other cultures around the world.[69] Some useful applications of traditional medicines have been researched and accepted within ordinary medicine, however the underlying belief systems are seldom scientific and are not accepted.

Bases of belief may include belief in existence of supernatural energies undetected by the science of physics, as in biofields, or in belief in properties of the energies of physics that are inconsistent with the laws of physics, as in energy medicine.[69]

Substance based practices use substances found in nature such as herbs, foods, non-vitamin supplements and megavitamins, animal and fungal products, and minerals, including use of these products in traditional medical practices that may also incorporate other methods.[69][121][122] Examples include healing claims for nonvitamin supplements, fish oil, Omega-3 fatty acid, glucosamine, echinacea, flaxseed oil, and ginseng.[123]Herbal medicine, or phytotherapy, includes not just the use of plant products, but may also include the use of animal and mineral products.[121] It is among the most commercially successful branches of alternative medicine, and includes the tablets, powders and elixirs that are sold as “nutritional supplements”.[121] Only a very small percentage of these have been shown to have any efficacy, and there is little regulation as to standards and safety of their contents.[121] This may include use of known toxic substances, such as use of the poison lead in traditional Chinese medicine.[123]

The history of alternative medicine may refer to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as “alternative medicine” beginning in the 1970s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled “irregular practices” by the western medical establishment.[15][124][125][126][127] It includes the histories of complementary medicine and of integrative medicine. Before the 1970s, western practitioners that were not part of the increasingly science-based medical establishment were referred to “irregular practitioners”, and were dismissed by the medical establishment as unscientific and as practicing quackery.[124][125] Until the 1970’s, irregular practice became increasingly marginalized as quackery and fraud, as western medicine increasingly incorporated scientific methods and discoveries, and had a corresponding increase in success of its treatments.[126] In the 1970s, irregular practices were grouped with traditional practices of nonwestern cultures and with other unproven or disproven practices that were not part of biomedicine, with the entire group collectively marketed and promoted under the single expression “alternative medicine”.[15][124][125][126][128]

Use of alternative medicine in the west began to rise following the counterculture movement of the 1960s, as part of the rising new age movement of the 1970s.[15][129][130] This was due to misleading mass marketing of “alternative medicine” being an effective “alternative” to biomedicine, changing social attitudes about not using chemicals and challenging the establishment and authority of any kind, sensitivity to giving equal measure to beliefs and practices of other cultures (cultural relativism), and growing frustration and desperation by patients about limitations and side effects of science-based medicine.[15][125][126][127][128][130][131] At the same time, in 1975, the American Medical Association, which played the central role in fighting quackery in the United States, abolished its quackery committee and closed down its Department of Investigation.[124]:xxi[131] By the early to mid 1970s the expression “alternative medicine” came into widespread use, and the expression became mass marketed as a collection of “natural” and effective treatment “alternatives” to science-based biomedicine.[15][131][132][133] By 1983, mass marketing of “alternative medicine” was so pervasive that the British Medical Journal (BMJ) pointed to “an apparently endless stream of books, articles, and radio and television programmes urge on the public the virtues of (alternative medicine) treatments ranging from meditation to drilling a hole in the skull to let in more oxygen”.[131] In this 1983 article, the BMJ wrote, “one of the few growth industries in contemporary Britain is alternative medicine”, noting that by 1983, “33% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 39% of those with backache admitted to having consulted an alternative practitioner”.[131]

By about 1990, the American alternative medicine industry had grown to a $27 billion per year, with polls showing 30% of Americans were using it.[130][134] Moreover, polls showed that Americans made more visits for alternative therapies than the total number of visits to primary care doctors, and American out-of-pocket spending (non-insurance spending) on alternative medicine was about equal to spending on biomedical doctors.[124]:172 In 1991, Time magazine ran a cover story, “The New Age of Alternative Medicine: Why New Age Medicine Is Catching On”.[130][134] In 1993, the New England Journal of Medicine reported one in three Americans as using alternative medicine.[130] In 1993, the Public Broadcasting System ran a Bill Moyers special, Healing and the Mind, with Moyers commenting that “…people by the tens of millions are using alternative medicine. If established medicine does not understand that, they are going to lose their clients.”[130]

Another explosive growth began in the 1990s, when senior level political figures began promoting alternative medicine, investing large sums of government medical research funds into testing alternative medicine, including testing of scientifically implausible treatments, and relaxing government regulation of alternative medicine products as compared to biomedical products.[15][124]:xxi[125][126][127][128][135][136] Beginning with a 1991 appropriation of $2 million for funding research of alternative medicine research, federal spending grew to a cumulative total of about $2.5 billion by 2009, with 50% of Americans using alternative medicine by 2013.[137][138]

In 1993, Britain’s Prince Charles, who claimed that homeopathy and other alternative medicine was an effective alternative to biomedicine, established The Prince’s Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH), as a charity to explore “how safe, proven complementary therapies can work in conjunction with mainstream medicine”.[139] The FIH received government funding through grants from Britain’s Department of Health.[139] In 2008, London’s The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst that asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying: “the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous.” In 2010, Brittan’s FIH closed after allegations of fraud and money laundering led to arrests of its officials.[139]

In 2004, modifications of the European Parliament’s 2001 Directive 2001/83/EC, regulating all medicine products, were made with the expectation of influencing development of the European market for alternative medicine products.[140] Regulation of alternative medicine in Europe was loosened with “a simplified registration procedure” for traditional herbal medicinal products.[140][141] Plausible “efficacy” for traditional medicine was redefined to be based on long term popularity and testimonials (“the pharmacological effects or efficacy of the medicinal product are plausible on the basis of long-standing use and experience.”), without scientific testing.[140][141] The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was created within the European Medicines Agency in London (EMEA). A special working group was established for homeopathic remedies under the Heads of Medicines Agencies.[140]

Through 2004, alternative medicine that was traditional to Germany continued to be a regular part of the health care system, including homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine.[140] The German Medicines Act mandated that science-based medical authorities consider the “particular characteristics” of complementary and alternative medicines.[140] By 2004, homeopathy had grown to be the most used alternative therapy in France, growing from 16% of the population using homeopathic medicine in 1982, to 29% by 1987, 36% percent by 1992, and 62% of French mothers using homeopathic medicines by 2004, with 94.5% of French pharmacists advising pregnant women to use homeopathic remedies.[142] As of 2004[update], 100 million people in India depended solely on traditional German homeopathic remedies for their medical care.[143] As of 2010[update], homeopathic remedies continued to be the leading alternative treatment used by European physicians.[142] By 2005, sales of homeopathic remedies and anthroposophical medicine had grown to $930 million Euros, a 60% increase from 1995.[142][144]

Since 2009, according to Art. 118a of the Swiss Federal Constitution, the Swiss Confederation and the Cantons of Switzerland shall within the scope of their powers ensure that consideration is given to complementary medicine.[145]

By 2013, 50% of Americans were using CAM.[138] As of 2013[update], CAM medicinal products in Europe continued to be exempted from documented efficacy standards required of other medicinal products.[146]

Much of what is now categorized as alternative medicine was developed as independent, complete medical systems. These were developed long before biomedicine and use of scientific methods. Each system was developed in relatively isolated regions of the world where there was little or no medical contact with pre-scientific western medicine, or with each other’s systems. Examples are traditional Chinese medicine and the Ayurvedic medicine of India.

Other alternative medicine practices, such as homeopathy, were developed in western Europe and in opposition to western medicine, at a time when western medicine was based on unscientific theories that were dogmatically imposed by western religious authorities. Homeopathy was developed prior to discovery of the basic principles of chemistry, which proved homeopathic remedies contained nothing but water. But homeopathy, with its remedies made of water, was harmless compared to the unscientific and dangerous orthodox western medicine practiced at that time, which included use of toxins and draining of blood, often resulting in permanent disfigurement or death.[125]

Other alternative practices such as chiropractic and osteopathic manipulative medicine were developed in the United States at a time that western medicine was beginning to incorporate scientific methods and theories, but the biomedical model was not yet totally dominant. Practices such as chiropractic and osteopathic, each considered to be irregular practices by the western medical establishment, also opposed each other, both rhetorically and politically with licensing legislation. Osteopathic practitioners added the courses and training of biomedicine to their licensing, and licensed Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine holders began diminishing use of the unscientific origins of the field. Without the original nonscientific practices and theories, osteopathic medicine is now considered the same as biomedicine.

Further information: Rise of modern medicine

Until the 1970s, western practitioners that were not part of the medical establishment were referred to “irregular practitioners”, and were dismissed by the medical establishment as unscientific, as practicing quackery.[125] Irregular practice became increasingly marginalized as quackery and fraud, as western medicine increasingly incorporated scientific methods and discoveries, and had a corresponding increase in success of its treatments.

Dating from the 1970s, medical professionals, sociologists, anthropologists and other commentators noted the increasing visibility of a wide variety of health practices that had neither derived directly from nor been verified by biomedical science.[147] Since that time, those who have analyzed this trend have deliberated over the most apt language with which to describe this emergent health field.[147] A variety of terms have been used, including heterodox, irregular, fringe and alternative medicine while others, particularly medical commentators, have been satisfied to label them as instances of quackery.[147] The most persistent term has been alternative medicine but its use is problematic as it assumes a value-laden dichotomy between a medical fringe, implicitly of borderline acceptability at best, and a privileged medical orthodoxy, associated with validated medico-scientific norms.[148] The use of the category of alternative medicine has also been criticized as it cannot be studied as an independent entity but must be understood in terms of a regionally and temporally specific medical orthodoxy.[149] Its use can also be misleading as it may erroneously imply that a real medical alternative exists.[150] As with near-synonymous expressions, such as unorthodox, complementary, marginal, or quackery, these linguistic devices have served, in the context of processes of professionalisation and market competition, to establish the authority of official medicine and police the boundary between it and its unconventional rivals.[148]

An early instance of the influence of this modern, or western, scientific medicine outside Europe and North America is Peking Union Medical College.[151][n 14][n 15]

From a historical perspective, the emergence of alternative medicine, if not the term itself, is typically dated to the 19th century.[152] This is despite the fact that there are variants of Western non-conventional medicine that arose in the late-eighteenth century or earlier and some non-Western medical traditions, currently considered alternative in the West and elsewhere, which boast extended historical pedigrees.[148] Alternative medical systems, however, can only be said to exist when there is an identifiable, regularized and authoritative standard medical practice, such as arose in the West during the nineteenth century, to which they can function as an alternative.

During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries regular and irregular medical practitioners became more clearly differentiated throughout much of Europe and,[154] as the nineteenth century progressed, most Western states converged in the creation of legally delimited and semi-protected medical markets.[155] It is at this point that an “official” medicine, created in cooperation with the state and employing a scientific rhetoric of legitimacy, emerges as a recognizable entity and that the concept of alternative medicine as a historical category becomes tenable.[156]

As part of this process, professional adherents of mainstream medicine in countries such as Germany, France, and Britain increasingly invoked the scientific basis of their discipline as a means of engendering internal professional unity and of external differentiation in the face of sustained market competition from homeopaths, naturopaths, mesmerists and other nonconventional medical practitioners, finally achieving a degree of imperfect dominance through alliance with the state and the passage of regulatory legislation.[148][150] In the US the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, based in Baltimore, Maryland, opened in 1893, with William H. Welch and William Osler among the founding physicians, and was the first medical school devoted to teaching “German scientific medicine”.[157]

Buttressed by increased authority arising from significant advances in the medical sciences of the late 19th century onwardsincluding development and application of the germ theory of disease by the chemist Louis Pasteur and the surgeon Joseph Lister, of microbiology co-founded by Robert Koch (in 1885 appointed professor of hygiene at the University of Berlin), and of the use of X-rays (Rntgen rays)the 1910 Flexner Report called upon American medical schools to follow the model of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and adhere to mainstream science in their teaching and research. This was in a belief, mentioned in the Report’s introduction, that the preliminary and professional training then prevailing in medical schools should be reformed, in view of the new means for diagnosing and combating disease made available the sciences on which medicine depended.[n 16][159]

Putative medical practices at the time that later became known as “alternative medicine” included homeopathy (founded in Germany in the early 19c.) and chiropractic (founded in North America in the late 19c.). These conflicted in principle with the developments in medical science upon which the Flexner reforms were based, and they have not become compatible with further advances of medical science such as listed in Timeline of medicine and medical technology, 19001999 and 2000present, nor have Ayurveda, acupuncture or other kinds of alternative medicine.[citation needed]

At the same time “Tropical medicine” was being developed as a specialist branch of western medicine in research establishments such as Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine founded in 1898 by Alfred Lewis Jones, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, founded in 1899 by Patrick Manson and Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, instituted in 1912. A distinction was being made between western scientific medicine and indigenous systems. An example is given by an official report about indigenous systems of medicine in India, including Ayurveda, submitted by Mohammad Usman of Madras and others in 1923. This stated that the first question the Committee considered was “to decide whether the indigenous systems of medicine were scientific or not”.[160][161]

By the later twentieth century the term ‘alternative medicine’ entered public discourse,[n 17][164] but it was not always being used with the same meaning by all parties. Arnold S. Relman remarked in 1998 that in the best kind of medical practice, all proposed treatments must be tested objectively, and that in the end there will only be treatments that pass and those that do not, those that are proven worthwhile and those that are not. He asked ‘Can there be any reasonable “alternative”?'[165] But also in 1998 the then Surgeon General of the United States, David Satcher,[166] issued public information about eight common alternative treatments (including acupuncture, holistic and massage), together with information about common diseases and conditions, on nutrition, diet, and lifestyle changes, and about helping consumers to decipher fraud and quackery, and to find healthcare centers and doctors who practiced alternative medicine.[167]

By 1990, approximately 60 million Americans had used one or more complementary or alternative therapies to address health issues, according to a nationwide survey in the US published in 1993 by David Eisenberg.[168] A study published in the November 11, 1998 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that 42% of Americans had used complementary and alternative therapies, up from 34% in 1990.[169] However, despite the growth in patient demand for complementary medicine, most of the early alternative/complementary medical centers failed.[170]

Mainly as a result of reforms following the Flexner Report of 1910[171]medical education in established medical schools in the US has generally not included alternative medicine as a teaching topic.[n 18] Typically, their teaching is based on current practice and scientific knowledge about: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, pathology, pharmacology, microbiology and immunology.[173] Medical schools’ teaching includes such topics as doctor-patient communication, ethics, the art of medicine,[174] and engaging in complex clinical reasoning (medical decision-making).[175] Writing in 2002, Snyderman and Weil remarked that by the early twentieth century the Flexner model had helped to create the 20th-century academic health center, in which education, research, and practice were inseparable. While this had much improved medical practice by defining with increasing certainty the pathophysiological basis of disease, a single-minded focus on the pathophysiological had diverted much of mainstream American medicine from clinical conditions that were not well understood in mechanistic terms, and were not effectively treated by conventional therapies.[176]

By 2001 some form of CAM training was being offered by at least 75 out of 125 medical schools in the US.[177] Exceptionally, the School of Medicine of the University of Maryland, Baltimore includes a research institute for integrative medicine (a member entity of the Cochrane Collaboration).[98][178] Medical schools are responsible for conferring medical degrees, but a physician typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Licensed physicians in the US who have attended one of the established medical schools there have usually graduated Doctor of Medicine (MD).[179] All states require that applicants for MD licensure be graduates of an approved medical school and complete the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE).[179]

The British Medical Association, in its publication Complementary Medicine, New Approach to Good Practice (1993), gave as a working definition of non-conventional therapies (including acupuncture, chiropractic and homeopathy): “…those forms of treatment which are not widely used by the orthodox health-care professions, and the skills of which are not part of the undergraduate curriculum of orthodox medical and paramedical health-care courses.” By 2000 some medical schools in the UK were offering CAM familiarisation courses to undergraduate medical students while some were also offering modules specifically on CAM.[181]

In 1991, pointing to a need for testing because of the widespread use of alternative medicine without authoritative information on its efficacy, United States Senator Tom Harkin used $2 million of his discretionary funds to create the Office for the Study of Unconventional Medical Practices (OSUMP), later renamed to be the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM).[124]:170[182][183] The OAM was created to be within the National Institute of Health (NIH), the scientifically prestigious primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research.[124]:170[182][183] The mandate was to investigate, evaluate, and validate effective alternative medicine treatments, and alert the public as the results of testing its efficacy.[134][182][183][184]

Sen. Harkin had become convinced his allergies were cured by taking bee pollen pills, and was urged to make the spending by two of his influential constituents.[134][182][183] Bedell, a longtime friend of Sen. Harkin, was a former member of the United States House of Representatives who believed that alternative medicine had twice cured him of diseases after mainstream medicine had failed, claiming that cow’s milk colostrum cured his Lyme disease, and an herbal derivative from camphor had prevented post surgical recurrence of his prostate cancer.[124][134] Wiewel was a promoter of unproven cancer treatments involving a mixture of blood sera that the Food and Drug Administration had banned from being imported.[134] Both Bedell and Wiewel became members of the advisory panel for the OAM. The company that sold the bee pollen was later fined by the Federal Trade Commission for making false health claims about their bee-pollen products reversing the aging process, curing allergies, and helping with weight loss.[185]

In 1994, Sen. Harkin (D) and Senator Orrin Hatch (R) introduced the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA).[186][187] The act reduced authority of the FDA to monitor products sold as “natural” treatments.[186] Labeling standards were reduced to allow health claims for supplements based only on unconfirmed preliminary studies that were not subjected to scientific peer review, and the act made it more difficult for the FDA to promptly seize products or demand proof of safety where there was evidence of a product being dangerous.[187] The Act became known as the “The 1993 Snake Oil Protection Act” following a New York Times editorial under that name.[186]

Senator Harkin complained about the “unbendable rules of randomized clinical trials”, citing his use of bee pollen to treat his allergies, which he claimed to be effective even though it was biologically implausible and efficacy was not established using scientific methods.[182][188] Sen. Harkin asserted that claims for alternative medicine efficacy be allowed not only without conventional scientific testing, even when they are biologically implausible, “It is not necessary for the scientific community to understand the process before the American public can benefit from these therapies.”[186] Following passage of the act, sales rose from about $4 billion in 1994, to $20 billion by the end of 2000, at the same time as evidence of their lack of efficacy or harmful effects grew.[186] Senator Harkin came into open public conflict with the first OAM Director Joseph M. Jacobs and OAM board members from the scientific and biomedical community.[183] Jacobs’ insistence on rigorous scientific methodology caused friction with Senator Harkin.[182][188][189] Increasing political resistance to the use of scientific methodology was publicly criticized by Dr. Jacobs and another OAM board member complained that “nonsense has trickled down to every aspect of this office…It’s the only place where opinions are counted as equal to data.”[182][188] In 1994, Senator Harkin appeared on television with cancer patients who blamed Dr. Jacobs for blocking their access to untested cancer treatment, leading Jacobs to resign in frustration.[182][188]

In 1995, Wayne Jonas, a promoter of homeopathy and political ally of Senator Harkin, became the director of the OAM, and continued in that role until 1999.[190] In 1997, the NCCAM budget was increased from $12 million to $20 million annually.[191] From 1990 to 1997, use of alternative medicine in the US increased by 25%, with a corresponding 50% increase in expenditures.[169] The OAM drew increasing criticism from eminent members of the scientific community with letters to the Senate Appropriations Committee when discussion of renewal of funding OAM came up.[124]:175 Nobel laureate Paul Berg wrote that prestigious NIH should not be degraded to act as a cover for quackery, calling the OAM “an embarrassment to serious scientists.”[124]:175[191] The president of the American Physical Society wrote complaining that the government was spending money on testing products and practices that “violate basic laws of physics and more clearly resemble witchcraft”.[124]:175[191] In 1998, the President of the North Carolina Medical Association publicly called for shutting down the OAM.[192]

In 1998, NIH director and Nobel laureate Harold Varmus came into conflict with Senator Harkin by pushing to have more NIH control of alternative medicine research.[193] The NIH Director placed the OAM under more strict scientific NIH control.[191][193] Senator Harkin responded by elevating OAM into an independent NIH “center”, just short of being its own “institute”, and renamed to be the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). NCCAM had a mandate to promote a more rigorous and scientific approach to the study of alternative medicine, research training and career development, outreach, and “integration”. In 1999, the NCCAM budget was increased from $20 million to $50 million.[192][193] The United States Congress approved the appropriations without dissent. In 2000, the budget was increased to about $68 million, in 2001 to $90 million, in 2002 to $104 million, and in 2003, to $113 million.[192]

In 2009, after a history of 17 years of government testing and spending of nearly $2.5 billion on research had produced almost no clearly proven efficacy of alternative therapies, Senator Harkin complained, “One of the purposes of this center was to investigate and validate alternative approaches. Quite frankly, I must say publicly that it has fallen short. It think quite frankly that in this center and in the office previously before it, most of its focus has been on disproving things rather than seeking out and approving.”[193][194][195] Members of the scientific community criticized this comment as showing Senator Harkin did not understand the basics of scientific inquiry, which tests hypotheses, but never intentionally attempts to “validate approaches”.[193] Members of the scientific and biomedical communities complained that after a history of 17 years of being tested, at a cost of over $2.5 Billion on testing scientifically and biologically implausible practices, almost no alternative therapy showed clear efficacy.[137] In 2009, the NCCAM’s budget was increased to about $122 million.[193] Overall NIH funding for CAM research increased to $300 Million by 2009.[193] By 2009, Americans were spending $34 Billion annually on CAM.[196]

In 2012, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a criticism that study after study had been funded by NCCAM, but “failed to prove that complementary or alternative therapies are anything more than placebos”.[197] The JAMA criticism pointed to large wasting of research money on testing scientifically implausible treatments, citing “NCCAM officials spending $374,000 to find that inhaling lemon and lavender scents does not promote wound healing; $750,000 to find that prayer does not cure AIDS or hasten recovery from breast-reconstruction surgery; $390,000 to find that ancient Indian remedies do not control type 2 diabetes; $700,000 to find that magnets do not treat arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or migraine headaches; and $406,000 to find that coffee enemas do not cure pancreatic cancer.”[197] It was pointed out that negative results from testing were generally ignored by the public, that people continue to “believe what they want to believe, arguing that it does not matter what the data show: They know what works for them”.[197] Continued increasing use of CAM products was also blamed on the lack of FDA ability to regulate alternative products, where negative studies do not result in FDA warnings or FDA-mandated changes on labeling, whereby few consumers are aware that many claims of many supplements were found not to have not to be supported.[197]

In 2014 the NCCAM was renamed to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) with a new charter requiring that 12 of the 18 council members shall be selected with a preference to selecting leading representatives of complementary and alternative medicine, 9 of the members must be licensed practitioners of alternative medicine, 6 members must be general public leaders in the fields of public policy, law, health policy, economics, and management, and 3 members must represent the interests of individual consumers of complementary and alternative medicine.[198]

There is a general scientific consensus that Alternative Therapies lack the requisite scientific validation, and their effectiveness is either unproved or disproved.[12][15][199][200] Many of the claims regarding the efficacy of alternative medicines are controversial, since research on them is frequently of low quality and methodologically flawed.Selective publication bias , marked differences in product quality and standardisation, and some companies making unsubstantiated claims, call into question the claims of efficacy of isolated examples where there is evidence for alternative therapies.[202]

The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine points to confusions in the general population – a person may attribute symptomatic relief to an otherwise-ineffective therapy just because they are taking something (the placebo effect); the natural recovery from or the cyclical nature of an illness (the regression fallacy) gets misattributed to an alternative medicine being taken; a person not diagnosed with science-based medicine may never originally have had a true illness diagnosed as an alternative disease category.[203]

Edzard Ernst characterized the evidence for many alternative techniques as weak, nonexistent, or negative[204] and in 2011 published his estimate that about 7.4% were based on “sound evidence”, although he believes that may be an overestimate.[205] Ernst has concluded that 95% of the alternative treatments he and his team studied, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy, and reflexology, are “statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments”, but he also believes there is something that conventional doctors can usefully learn from the chiropractors and homeopath: this is the therapeutic value of the placebo effect, one of the strangest phenomena in medicine.[206][207]

In 2003, a project funded by the CDC identified 208 condition-treatment pairs, of which 58% had been studied by at least one randomized controlled trial (RCT), and 23% had been assessed with a meta-analysis.[208] According to a 2005 book by a US Institute of Medicine panel, the number of RCTs focused on CAM has risen dramatically.

As of 2005[update], the Cochrane Library had 145 CAM-related Cochrane systematic reviews and 340 non-Cochrane systematic reviews. An analysis of the conclusions of only the 145 Cochrane reviews was done by two readers. In 83% of the cases, the readers agreed. In the 17% in which they disagreed, a third reader agreed with one of the initial readers to set a rating. These studies found that, for CAM, 38.4% concluded positive effect or possibly positive (12.4%), 4.8% concluded no effect, 0.69% concluded harmful effect, and 56.6% concluded insufficient evidence. An assessment of conventional treatments found that 41.3% concluded positive or possibly positive effect, 20% concluded no effect, 8.1% concluded net harmful effects, and 21.3% concluded insufficient evidence. However, the CAM review used the more developed 2004 Cochrane database, while the conventional review used the initial 1998 Cochrane database.

In the same way as for conventional therapies, drugs, and interventions, it can be difficult to test the efficacy of alternative medicine in clinical trials. In instances where an established, effective, treatment for a condition is already available, the Helsinki Declaration states that withholding such treatment is unethical in most circumstances. Use of standard-of-care treatment in addition to an alternative technique being tested may produce confounded or difficult-to-interpret results.[210]

Cancer researcher Andrew J. Vickers has stated:

“CAM”, meaning “complementary and alternative medicine”, is not as well researched as conventional medicine, which undergoes intense research before release to the public.[212] Funding for research is also sparse making it difficult to do further research for effectiveness of CAM.[213] Most funding for CAM is funded by government agencies.[212] Proposed research for CAM are rejected by most private funding agencies because the results of research are not reliable.[212] The research for CAM has to meet certain standards from research ethics committees, which most CAM researchers find almost impossible to meet.[212] Even with the little research done on it, CAM has not been proven to be effective.[214]

Steven Novella, a neurologist at Yale School of Medicine, wrote that government funded studies of integrating alternative medicine techniques into the mainstream are “used to lend an appearance of legitimacy to treatments that are not legitimate.”[215] Marcia Angell considered that critics felt that healthcare practices should be classified based solely on scientific evidence, and if a treatment had been rigorously tested and found safe and effective, science-based medicine will adopt it regardless of whether it was considered “alternative” to begin with.[14] It is possible for a method to change categories (proven vs. unproven), based on increased knowledge of its effectiveness or lack thereof. A prominent supporter of this position is George D. Lundberg, former editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).[55]

Writing in 1999 in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians Barrie R. Cassileth mentioned a 1997 letter to the US Senate Subcommittee on Public Health and Safety, which had deplored the lack of critical thinking and scientific rigor in OAM-supported research, had been signed by four Nobel Laureates and other prominent scientists. (This was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).)[216]

In March 2009 a staff writer for the Washington Post reported that the impending national discussion about broadening access to health care, improving medical practice and saving money was giving a group of scientists an opening to propose shutting down the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. They quoted one of these scientists, Steven Salzberg, a genome researcher and computational biologist at the University of Maryland, as saying “One of our concerns is that NIH is funding pseudoscience.” They noted that the vast majority of studies were based on fundamental misunderstandings of physiology and disease, and had shown little or no effect.[215]

Writers such as Carl Sagan (1934-1996), a noted astrophysicist, advocate of scientific skepticism and the author of The demonhaunted world: science as a candle in the dark (1996), have lambasted the lack of empirical evidence to support the existence of the putative energy fields on which these therapies are predicated.

Sampson has also pointed out that CAM tolerated contradiction without thorough reason and experiment.[217] Barrett has pointed out that there is a policy at the NIH of never saying something doesn’t work only that a different version or dose might give different results.[137] Barrett also expressed concern that, just because some “alternatives” have merit, there is the impression that the rest deserve equal consideration and respect even though most are worthless, since they are all classified under the one heading of alternative medicine.[218]

Some critics of alternative medicine are focused upon health fraud, misinformation, and quackery as public health problems, notably Wallace Sampson and Paul Kurtz founders of Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine and Stephen Barrett, co-founder of The National Council Against Health Fraud and webmaster of Quackwatch.[219] Grounds for opposing alternative medicine include that:

Many alternative medical treatments are not patentable,[citation needed], which may lead to less research funding from the private sector. In addition, in most countries, alternative treatments (in contrast to pharmaceuticals) can be marketed without any proof of efficacyalso a disincentive for manufacturers to fund scientific research.[226]

English evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, in his 2003 book A Devil’s Chaplain , defined alternative medicine as a “set of practices that cannot be tested, refuse to be tested, or consistently fail tests.”[227] Dawkins argued that if a technique is demonstrated effective in properly performed trials then it ceases to be alternative and simply becomes medicine.[228]

CAM is also often less regulated than conventional medicine.[212] There are ethical concerns about whether people who perform CAM have the proper knowledge to treat patients.[212] CAM is often done by non-physicians who do not operate with the same medical licensing laws which govern conventional medicine,[212] and it is often described as an issue of non-maleficence.[229]

According to two writers, Wallace Sampson and K. Butler, marketing is part of the training required in alternative medicine, and propaganda methods in alternative medicine have been traced back to those used by Hitler and Goebels in their promotion of pseudoscience in medicine.[15][230]

In November 2011 Edzard Ernst stated that the “level of misinformation about alternative medicine has now reached the point where it has become dangerous and unethical. So far, alternative medicine has remained an ethics-free zone. It is time to change this.”[231]

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Food Research; 100% Whole Food Supplements for Healthcare …

Posted: at 1:27 am

Food Research; 100% Whole Food Supplements for Healthcare Professionals

Food Research International is Caribbean company dedicated to providing the highest quality nutritional supplements, in a form that is as close as possible to those naturally found in foods. It is well understood by nutrition researchers that we, as humans, should derive nutrition from food. It is our goal at Food Research to provide the best, scientifically researched, natural food supplements which meet the needs of those who live in our “modern” society. Food Research products are environmentally friendly. They are natural food complexes which have been shown to be better for the internal human environment.

Why are Food Research International products the best?

At least 98.97% of vitamins consumed are synthetic isolates, though they are often labeled as natural. Yet, there are no isolated USP nutrients that exist naturally. So, nearly all companies combine synthetic isolates with industrially-processed minerals in order to produce their vitamin-mineral formulas.

Food Research International is different.

None of our products contain any synthetic/isolated USP nutrients.

In order to obtain potencies that members of modern societies need, many of the nutrients in our products are hydroponically-grown to improve the concentration of nutrients in the specific raw foods that we use.

We essentially take advantage of a law of nature that a plant will absorb more of a nutrient when that nutrient in more available. Essentially, the plant is fed an enzyme-containing liquid that will be higher in one particular mineral. The plant will absorb more of that mineral, since more of it is present. The nutrient foods are grown in an FDA registered facility.

In reality we are duplicating the process of nature when we create food nutrients. Nature’s process takes inorganic, non-food substances from the soil and delivers them to the cells of the plant. This natural process is the merging of different elements into a union creating one. Creating a whole from different elements is nature in action. The best method of creating a union, like those created by nature, between inorganic fractions and the whole food matrix seems to be utilizing hydroponic technologies.

We wanted to supply the best possible form of nutrients so we looked into modern technologies that would be compatible with the natural life processes that nature uses to improve the nutrients in natural plants.

This led to the acquisition of foods combined with a natural cold fusion process. The definition of fusion is the merging of different elements into a union, creating an enhanced whole from different elements. A natural cold fusion process is used to produce superior nutrients that are always 100% food. Enhanced nutrients occur from the merging of specific elements through a living plant into a whole food matrix through low temperature hydroponic farming. The reason that the process is “cold” is in order to preserve the naturally-occurring enzymes and other beneficial substances in the foods. Many of the processes and equipment had to be custom-made or altered to accommodate our need to maintain the fresh frozen raw foods used to create the usable raw materials. Cold fusion processing was not an after thought. No expense was spared to create these cold fusion processes and the state of the art manufacturing plant needed to keep Food Research International products the best available on the planet.

Furthermore, this form of “cold fusion-hydroponic” farming is pesticide free, and hence the quality of the food nutrients produced this way can be considered superior to conventionally grown foods. After growing, the plant is then harvested and dried.

No Genetically-Modified Organisms (GMO) have ever been found in our nutrient foods upon average analysis (which means none have ever been detected any time that they have been tested for).

These superior foods are also free of artificial colors, preservatives, and similar chemicals. The grown nutrients are also HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) validated. And the nutrient content of each batch is tested for potency.

Food Research International represents the best of all worlds: Real food nutrients, in real foods, with naturally occurring substances (such as enzymes, amino acids, lipids, and/or bioflavonoids) bottled and tested for potency.

100% food nutrients, 100% of the time.

Food Research International your best choice for 100% food nutrients. Additionally, you may view some of the specialized equioment from which Food Research International food nutrients are grown and processed.

We also have the best known refractive drying process of any food nutrients. You may also view information about the drying process.

Who heads up the Food Research? Food Research International Ltd. was intitially headed up by Clyde Skeete, of Barbados. Financial affairs handled by Canadian Barbara Gibbs.

The research group at Food Research consists of a variety of independent research scientists.

One researcher is Robert Thiel, Naturopath who also holds a Ph.D. in nutrition science. He has conducted, and had published, many scientific health studies. Thiel received the Leadership Award from the Orthomolecular Health Medicine Society. Thiel has been named Research Scientist of the Year, Physician of the Year, and Disability Researcher of the Year by the largest American naturopathic association. Doc. Thiel has had the only comprehensive paper published in a medical peer-reviewed journal (Medical Hypotheses) on the advantages of natural food vitamins over synthetic ‘nutrients’. He also specializes in nutritional interventions for fatigue, sports performance, and various genetic and non-genetic disabilities.

Another is Steve Xue Ph.D., who runs Natural Medicine Without Borders. Dr. Xue also teaches Alternative Medicine to senior students at Portland State University and aspects of Traditional Chinese Medicine at top TCM universities in China. Dr. Xue received the Best Teaching Award by the Center for Teaching Excellence of Ohio University and the Award for Excellence of Research by the College of Education of Arkansas State University. He has authored various papers and books. He also specializes in alternative interventions for communications disorders.

Another researcher is Dr. James Schutz who has a doctorate in nutrition. He works with Kay Minders who holds a B.S. in nutrition. Both Dr. Schutz and Ms. Minders are also a board certified holistic health practitioners. Dr. Schutz has been registered internationally as a specialist in fibromylagia, immune disorders, and nutrition. Ms. Minders also has been registered as a therapeutic specialist in nutrition and immune disorders. Both also work with genetic and non-genetic disabilities.

Input is also provided by health professionals throughout the world.

Why are Food Research nutrients better than isolated USP nutrients? Human beings should get their nutrition from foods. “The body is designed to handle foods” [1]. It is important to realize “that in nature vitamins are never isolated. They are always present in the form of vitamin-complexes” [2-5]. Vitamins are natural complexes which produce a variety of actions in the body whereas some isolated USP vitamins are analogues of vitamins which appear to have at least some of these activities [5]. Food nutrients are complexed just as nutrients found in all foods, because they are food. USP vitamins are synthesized (according to strict federal standards), standardized chemical isolates (as listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia or the USAN and USP Dictionary of Drug Names) [6]; they are not food.

It is well known among nutrition researchers that most essential minerals are not well absorbed (some are less than 1%) [7]. “Bioavailability of orally administered vitamins, minerals, and trace elements is subject to a complex set of influences…In nutrition science the term ‘bioavailability’ encompasses the sum of impacts that may reduce or foster the metabolic utilization of a nutrient” [8]. Studies show that natural food complex nutrients are better than isolated USP vitamins or inorganic mineral salts or mineral chelates [e.g. 9-25].

Compared to USP/Mineral Salt

Up to 25 times more bioavailable [20]

Numerous university studies have concluded that supplements containing food nutrients are better than USP isolates. Food nutrients are better because they contain important enzymes, peptides, and phytonutrients CRITICAL to the UTILIZATION of vitamins and minerals which are not present in isolated USP nutrients. Published research has concluded that food vitamins are superior synthetic/USP vitamins.

References: [1] Whitney EN, Hamilton EMN. Understanding Nutrition, 4th ed. West Publishing, New York, 1987 [2] Airola P. How to Get Well. Health Plus, Sherwood (OR), 1989 [3] Olson JA. Vitamin A, retinoids, and carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil.,1994:287-307 [4] Farrell PA, Roberts RJ. Vitamin E. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil.,1994:326-358 [5] DeCava JA. The Real Truth about Vitamins & Antioxidants. A Printery, Centerfield (MA), 1997 [6] The United States Pharmacopeial Convention. USAN and USP Dictionary of Drug Names. Mack Printing, Easton (PA),1986 [7] Turnland JR. Bioavailability of dietary minerals to humans: the stable isotope approach. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr,1991;30(4);387-396 [8] Schumann K, et al. Bioavailability of oral vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals in perspective. Arzneimittelforshcung,1997;47(4):369-380 [9] Ha SW. Rabbit study comparing yeast and isolated B vitamins (as described in Murray RP. Natural vs. Synthetic. Mark R. Anderson, 1995, p:A3). Ann Rev Physiol,1941; 3:259-282 [10] Thiel R. Natural vitamins may be superior to synthetic ones. Med Hypo.2000;55(6):461-469 [11] Thiel R.J, Fowkes S.W. Can cognitive deterioration associated with Down syndrome be reduced? Medical Hypotheses, 2005; 64(3):524-532 [12] Traber MG, Elsner A, Brigelius-Flohe R. Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopherol acetates. FEBS Letters, 1998;437:145-148 [13] Ross A.C. Vitamin A and Carotenoids. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 351-375 [14] Lucock M. Is folic acid the ultimate functional food component for disease prevention? BMJ, 2004;328:211-214 [15] Williams D. ORAC values for fruits and vegetables. Alternatives, 1999;7(22):171 [16] Thiel R. Vitamin D, rickets, and mainstream experts. Int J Naturopathy, 2003; 2(1) [17] Traber MG. Vitamin E. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1999:347-362 [18] Olson R.E. Vitamin K. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Nutrition, 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Balt., 1999: 363-380 [19] Hamet P, et al. The evaluation of the scientific evidence for a relationship between calcium and hypertension. J Nutr, 1995;125:311S-400S [20] Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlade JE, Robson JRK. Food & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. CRC Press, New York, 1993 [21] Wood R.J., Ronnenberg A.G. Iron. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 248-270 [22] Rude R.K., Shils M.E. Magnesium. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott William & Wilkins, Phil, 2005: 223-247 [23] Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Nottingham Press, UK, 1995: 257-267 [24] Andlid TA, Veide J, Sandberg AS. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int J. Food Microbiology. 2004;97(2):157-169 [25] King JC, Cousins RJ. Zinc. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10 th ed. Lipponcott Williams & Wilkins, Phil., 2005:271-285

Some of these studies (citations) may not conform to peer review standards. Therefore the results are not conclusive. Professionals can, and often do, come to different conclusions when reviewing scientific data (peer-reviewed or not).

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The Abolition of Man – Wikipedia

Posted: at 1:25 am

The Abolition of Man is a 1943 book by C. S. Lewis. It is subtitled “Reflections on education with special reference to the teaching of English in the upper forms of schools,” and uses that as a starting point for a defense of objective value and natural law, and a warning of the consequences of doing away with or “debunking” those things. It defends science as something worth pursuing but criticizes using it to debunk valuesthe value of science itself being among themor defining it to exclude such values. The book was first delivered as a series of three evening lectures at King’s College, Newcastle, part of the University of Durham, as the Riddell Memorial Lectures on February 2426, 1943.

Lewis begins with a critical response to The Green Book, by Gaius and Titius, i.e. The Control of Language: A Critical Approach to Reading and Writing, published in 1939 by Alex King and Martin Ketley.[1] The Green book was used as a text for upper form students in British schools.[2]

Lewis criticises the authors for subverting student values. He claims that they teach that all statements of value (such as “this waterfall is sublime”) are merely statements about the speaker’s feelings and say nothing about the object. Lewis says that such a subjective view of values is faulty, and, on the contrary, certain objects and actions merit positive or negative reactions: that a waterfall can actually be objectively praiseworthy, and that one’s actions can be objectively good or evil. In any case, Lewis notes, this is a philosophical position rather than a grammatical one, and so parents and teachers who give such books to their children and students are having them read the “work of amateur philosophers where they expected the work of professional grammarians.”

Lewis cites ancient thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and Augustine, who believed that the purpose of education was to train children in “ordinate affections,” that is, to train them to like and dislike what they ought; to love the good and hate the bad. He says that although these values are universal, they do not develop automatically or inevitably in children (and so are not “natural” in that sense of the word), but must be taught through education. Those who lack them lack the specifically human element, the trunk that unites intellectual man with visceral (animal) man, and may be called “men without chests”.

Lewis criticizes modern attempts to debunk “natural” values (such as those that would deny objective value to the waterfall) on rational grounds. He says that there is a set of objective values that have been shared, with minor differences, by every culture “…the traditional moralities of East and West, the Christian, the Pagan, and the Jew…”. Lewis calls this the Tao (which closely resembles Taoist usage).[a] Without the Tao, no value judgments can be made at all, and modern attempts to do away with some parts of traditional morality for some “rational” reason always proceed by arbitrarily selecting one part of the Tao and using it as grounds to debunk the others.

The final chapter describes the ultimate consequences of this debunking: a distant future in which the values and morals of the majority are controlled by a small group who rule by a “perfect” understanding of psychology, and who in turn, being able to “see through” any system of morality that might induce them to act in a certain way, are ruled only by their own unreflected whims. In surrendering rational reflection on their own motivations, the controllers will no longer be recognizably human, the controlled will be robot-like, and the Abolition of Man will have been completed.

An appendix to The Abolition of Man lists a number of basic values seen by Lewis as parts of the Tao, supported by quotations from different cultures.

A fictional treatment of the dystopian project to carry out the Abolition of Man is a theme of Lewis’s novel That Hideous Strength.

Passages from The Abolition of Man are included in William Bennett’s 1993 book The Book of Virtues.

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How Psychedelics Saved My Life – Reset.me

Posted: November 27, 2016 at 9:49 am

by Amber Lyon

on May 28, 2014

Amber Lyon is an Emmy Award-winning former CNN investigative news correspondent.

I invite you to take a step back and clear your mind of decades of falsepropaganda. Governments worldwide lied to us about the medicinal benefits of marijuana. The public has also been misled about psychedelics.

These non-addictive substances- MDMA, ayahuasca, ibogaine, psilocybin mushrooms, peyote, and many more- are proven to rapidly and effectively help people heal from trauma, PTSD, anxiety, addiction and depression.

Psychedelicssaved my life.

I was drawn to journalism at a young age by the desire to provide a voice for the little guy. For nearly a decade working as a CNN investigative correspondent and independent journalist, I became a mouthpiece for the oppressed, victimized and marginalized. My path of submersion journalism brought me closest to the plight of my sources, by living the story to get a true understanding of what was happening.

Speaking ata press conference in Lebanon onthehuman rights abuses Iwitnessed while reporting in Bahrain.

After several years of reporting, I realized an unfortunate consequence of my style- I had immersed myself too deeply in the trauma and suffering of the people Id interviewed. I began to have trouble sleeping as their faces appeared in my darkest dreams. I spent too long absorbed in a world of despair and my inability to deflect it allowed the trauma of others to settle inside my mind and being. Combine that with several violent experienceswhile working in the field and I was at my worst. A life reporting on the edge had led me to the brinkof my own sanity.

Because I could not find a way to process my anguish, it grew into a monster, manifesting itself into a constant state of anxiety, short-term memory loss, sleeplessness, and hyper arousal. The heart palpitations made me feel like I was knocking on deaths door.

While at CNN, Iinvestigated human rights and environmental issues.

Prescription medications and antidepressants serve a purpose, butI knew they were not on mypath tohealing after my investigations exposed their sinister side effectsincluding infants being born dependent on the medicinesafter their mothers couldnt kick their addictions. Masking the symptoms of a deeper condition with a pill felt like putting a Band-Aid on bullet wound.

I was made aware of the potential healing powers of psychedelics as a guest on the Joe Rogan Experience podcast in October 2012. Joe told me psychedelicmushrooms transformed his life and had the potential to changethe course of humanity for the better. My initial reaction was one of amusement and somewhat disbelief, but the seed was planted.

Psychedelics were an odd choice for someone like me. I grew up in the Midwest and was fed 30 years of propaganda explaining how horrible these substances were for my health. You can imagine my jaw-dropping surprise when, after the Rogan podcast, I found articles on the prodigious effects of these substances that behave more like medicines than drugs. Articles like this one, this, this , this, and this. And studies such as this, this, this,this, this and this all gut-wrenching examples of how weve been misled by authorities who classify psychedelics as schedule 1 narcoticsthat have no medicinal value despite dozens of scientific studies proving otherwise.

Having only ever smoked the odd marijuana joint in college, in March 2013 I found myself boarding a plane to Iquitos, Peru to try one of the most powerful psychedelics on earth. I ditched my car at the airport, hastily packed my belongings in a backpack and headed down to the Amazon jungle placing my blind faith in a substance that a week ago I could hardly pronounce: ayahuasca.

Theayahuasca brew is prepared by combining chacruna leaves, that contain the powerful psychedelic DMT, with the ayahuasca vine.

Ayahuasca is a medicinal tea that contains the psychedeliccompound dimethyltryptamine, or DMT. The brewis rapidly spreading around the world after numerous anecdotes have shownthe brew has the power to cureanxiety, PTSD, depression, unexplained pain, and numerous physical and mental health ailments. Studies of long-term ayahuasca drinkersshow they are less likely to face addictions and have elevated levels of serotonin, the neurotransmitterresponsible for happiness.

If I had any reservations, doubts, or disbeliefs, they were quickly expelled shortly after my first ayahuasca experience. The foul-tasting tea vibrated throughmy veins and into my brainas the medicine scanned my body. My field of vision becameengulfed with fiercecolors and geometric patterns. Almost instantly, I saw a vision of a brick wall. The word anxiety was spray painted in large letters on the wall. You must heal your anxiety, the medicine whispered. I entereda dream-like state where traumatic memories were finally dislodged from my subconscious.

It was as if I was viewing a film ofmy entire life, not as the emotional me, but as an objective observer. The vividlyintrospective movie played in my mind asI relived my most painful scenes- my parents divorce when I was just 4 years-old, past relationships, being shot at by policewhile photographing a protest in Anaheim and crushed underneath a crowd while photographing a protest in Chicago. The ayahuasca enabled me to reprocess these events, detaching the fear and emotion from the memories. Theexperience was akin to ten years of therapy in one eight-hour ayahuasca session.

But theexperience, and many psychedelic experiences for that matter, was terrifying at times. Ayahuasca is not for everyone- you have to be willing to revisit some very dark places and surrender to the uncontrollable, fierceflow of the medicine. Ayahuascaalso causesviolent vomiting and diarrhea, which shamans call getting well because youare purging trauma from your body.

After seven ayahuasca sessions in the jungles of Peru, the fog that engulfed my mind lifted. I was able to sleep again and noticedimprovements in my memory and less anxiety. I yearned to absorb as much knowledge as possible about these medicines and spent the next year travelling the world in search of more healers, teachers and experiences through submersion journalism.

I was drawn totry psilocybin mushrooms after reading how they reduced anxiety in terminal cancer patients. The ayahuasca showed me my main ailmentwas anxiety, and I knew I still had work to do to fix it. Psilocybinmushroomsare not neurotoxic, nonaddictive, and studies show they reduce anxiety, depression, and even lead to neurogenesis, or the regrowth of brain cells. Why would governments worldwide keep such a profound fungiout of the reach of their people?

The curandera blesses me as Iconsume a leaf full of psilocybin mushrooms for the healing ceremony.

After Peru, I visited curanderas, or healers, in Oaxaca, Mexico. The Mazatecs have used psilocybinmushrooms as a sacrament and medicinally for hundreds of years. Curandera Dona Augustine served me a leaf full of mushrooms during a beautiful ceremony before a Catholic alter. As she sang thousand year-old songs, I watched the sunset over the mountainous landscape in Oaxaca and a deep sense of connectivity washed over my whole being. The innate beauty had me at a loss for words; a sudden outpouring of emotion had me in tears. I cried through the night and with each tear a small part of my trauma trickled down my cheek and dissolved onto the forest floor, freeing me from its toxic energy.

Psilocybin mushrooms are not neurotoxic, non-addictive, and a study from University of Southern Florida shows they can repair brain damage from trauma.

Perhaps most astounding, the mushrooms silenced the self-critical part of my mind long enough for me to reprocess memories without fear or emotion. The mushrooms enabled me to remember one of the most terrifying moments of my career: when I wasdetained at gunpoint in Bahrain while filming a documentary for CNN. I had lost any detailedrecollection of that daywhen masked men pointed guns at our heads andforced my crew and I onto the ground. Fora good half an hour, I did not know whether we were going to survive.

I spent many sleepless nights desperately searching for memories of that day, but they were locked inmy subconscious. Iknew the memoriesstill haunted me becauseanytime I would see PTSD triggers, such as loud noises, helicopters, soldiers, or guns, a rush of anxiety and panic would flood my body.

The psilocybin was the key to unlock the trauma, enabling me to relive the detainmentmoment to moment, from outside of my body, as an emotionless, objective observer. I peered into the CNNvan and saw my former selfsitting in the backseat, loud helicopters overhead. My producer Taryn was sitting to theright of me frantically trying to close the van door as we tried to make an escape. I heardTaryn screamguns! as armedmasked men jumpedout of the security vehicles surroundingthe van. I watched as Ifrantically dug through a backpack on the floor, grabbing my CNN ID card and jumpingout of thevan. I saw myself land on the groundin childs pose, dust covering mybody and face. Iwatched as I threw myhand with the CNN badge in the air above myhead yelling CNN, CNN, dont shoot!!

I saw the pain in my face as the security forces threw human rights activist and dear friend Nabeel Rajab against a security car and began to harass him. I saw the terror in my faceas I glanced down at my shirt, arms in the air, prayingthe video cardsconcealed on my body wouldnt fall onto the ground.

During the ceremony the psilocybin unlocks traumatic memories stored deep in my subconscious so I can process them and heal. The experience is intensely introspective.

As I relived each moment of the detainment, I reprocessed each memory moving it from the fear folder to its new permanent home in the safe folder in my brains hard drive.

Five ceremonies with psilocybin mushrooms cured my anxiety and PTSD symptoms. The butterflies that had a constant home in my stomach have flown away.

Psychedelics are not the be-all and end-all. For me, theywere the key that openedthe door to healing. I still have to work to maintain the healing with the use of floatationtanks, meditation, and yoga. For psychedelics to be effective, its essential they are taken with the right mindset in a quiet, relaxed setting conducive to healing, and that all potential prescription drug interactions are carefully researched. Itcan be fatalif Ayahuasca is mixed with prescription antidepressants.

I was blessed with an inquisitive nature and a stubbornness to always question authority. Had I opted for a doctors script and resigned myself in the hope that things would just get better, I never would have discovered the outer reaches of my mind and heart. Had I drunk the Kool-Aid and believed that all drugs are evil and have no healing value, I may still be in the midst of a battle with PTSD.

This very world that glamorizes war, violence, commercialism, environmental destruction, and suffering has outlawed some of the most profound keys to inner peace. The War on Drugs is not based on science. If it was, two of the most deadly drugs on earth-alcohol and tobacco- would be illegal. Those suffering from trauma have become victims of this failed war and have lost one of the most effective ways to heal.

Humanity has gone mad as a result.

Lyon and a scientist cut open a fish stomach to inspect for plastic litter while filming a documentary on excessive ocean plastic pollution.

I spent ten years witnessing the collective insanity as a journalist on the frontlines- wars, bloodshed, environmental destruction, sex slavery, lies, addiction, anger, fear.

But I had it all wrong journalistically. I had beenfocusing on the symptoms of an ill society, rather than attacking the root cause: unprocessed trauma.

We all have trauma. Trauma rests in the violent criminal, the cheating spouse, the corrupt politician, those suffering from mental illness, addictions, inside those too fearful to take risks and reach their full potential.

If its not adequately processed and purged, trauma becomes cemented onto the hard drive of the mind, growing into a dark parasite that rears its ugly head throughout a persons entire life. The wounds keep us locked in a grid of fear, trapped behind a personality not true to the soul, working a mundane job rather than following a passion, repeating a cycle of abuse, destroying the environment, harming one another. The most common and severe suffering is inflicted during childhood and hijacks the drivers seat into adulthood, steering an individual down a road deprived ofhappiness. Renowned addiction expertGabor Mate says, The major cause of severe substance addiction is always childhood trauma.

We live in a world full of wounds and when left untreated, theyre unceremoniously handed from one generation to the next, so the cycle of trauma continues in all its destructive brutality.

But theres hope. We can transform the course of humanity by collectively purging our grief and healing at the individual level, with the help of psychedelic medicines. Once we collectively heal atthe individual level, we will see dramatic positive transformation in society as a whole.

I founded the websitereset.me, to produce and aggregate journalism on consciousness, natural medicines, and therapies. Psychedelic explorer Terrence McKenna compared taking psychedelics to hitting the reset button on your internal hard drive, clearing out the junk, and starting over. I created reset.me to help connect those who need to hit the reset button in life with journalism covering thetools that enableus to heal.

Its a human rights crisis psychedelics are not accessible to the general population. Its insane that governments worldwide have outlawedthe very medicines that can emancipate our souls from suffering.

Its time westop the madness.

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N. Katherine Hayles – Wikipedia

Posted: November 25, 2016 at 10:16 am

N. Katherine Hayles (born 16 December 1943) is a postmodern literary critic, most notable for her contribution to the fields of literature and science, electronic literature, and American literature.[1] She is professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Program in Literature at Duke University.[2]

Hayles was born in Saint Louis, Missouri to Edward and Thelma Bruns. She received her B.S. in Chemistry from the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1966, and her M.S. in Chemistry from the California Institute of Technology in 1969. She worked as a research chemist in 1966 at Xerox Corporation and as a chemical research consultant Beckman Instrument Company from 1968-1970. Hayles then switched fields and received her M.A. in English Literature from Michigan State University in 1970, and her Ph.D. in English Literature from the University of Rochester in 1977.[3] She is a social and literary critic.

Her scholarship primarily focuses on the “relations between science, literature, and technology.”[4][5] Hayles has taught at UCLA, University of Iowa, University of MissouriRolla, the California Institute of Technology, and Dartmouth College.[3] She was the faculty director of the Electronic Literature Organization from 2001-2006.[6]

Hayles understands “human” and “posthuman” as constructions that emerge from historically specific understandings of technology, culture and embodiment; “human and “posthuman” views each produce unique models of subjectivity.[7] Within this framework “human” is aligned with Enlightenment notions of liberal humanism, including its emphasis on the “natural self” and the freedom of the individual.[8] Conversely, Posthuman does away with the notion of a “natural” self and emerges when human intelligence is conceptualized as being co-produced with intelligent machines. According to Hayles the posthuman view privileges information over materiality, considers consciousness as an epiphenomenon and imagines the body as a prosthesis for the mind .[9] Specifically Hayles suggests that in the posthuman view “there are no essential differences or absolute demarcations between bodily existence and computer simulation…”[8] The posthuman thus emerges as a deconstruction of the liberal humanist notion of “human.”

Despite drawing out the differences between “human” and “posthuman”, Hayles is careful to note that both perspectives engage in the erasure of embodiment from subjectivity.[10] In the liberal humanist view, cognition takes precedence over the body, which is narrated as an object to possess and master. Meanwhile, popular conceptions of the cybernetic posthuman imagine the body as merely a container for information and code. Noting the alignment between these two perspectives, Hayles uses How We Became Posthuman to investigate the social and cultural processes and practices that led to the conceptualization of information as separate from the material that instantiates it.[11] Drawing on diverse examples, such as Turing’s Imitation Game, Gibson’s Neuromancer and cybernetic theory, Hayles traces the history of what she calls “the cultural perception that information and materiality are conceptually distinct and that information is in some sense more essential, more important and more fundamental than materiality.”[12] By tracing the emergence of such thinking, and by looking at the manner in which literary and scientific texts came to imagine, for example, the possibility of downloading human consciousness into a computer, Hayles attempts to trouble the information/material separation and in her words, “…put back into the picture the flesh that continues to be erased in contemporary discussions about cybernetic subjects.[13]

In the years since Hayles’ How We Became Posthuman was published, it has been both praised and critiqued by scholars who have viewed her work through a variety of lenses; including those of cybernetic history, feminism, postmodernism, cultural and literary criticism, and conversations in the popular press about humans’ changing relationships to technology.

Reactions to Hayles’ writing style, general organization, and scope of the book have been mixed. The book is generally praised for displaying depth and scope in its combining of scientific ideas and literary criticism. Linda Brigham of Kansas State University claims that Hayles manages to lead the text “across diverse, historically contentious terrain by means of a carefully crafted and deliberate organizational structure.”[14] Some scholars found her prose difficult to read or over-complicated. Andrew Pickering describes the book as “hard going” and lacking of “straightforward presentation.”[15] Dennis Weiss of York College of Pennsylvania accuses Hayles of “unnecessarily complicat[ing] her framework for thinking about the body”, for example by using terms such as “body” and “embodiment” ambiguously. Weiss however acknowledges as convincing her use of science fiction in order to reveal how “the narrowly focused, abstract constellation of ideas” of cybernetics circulate through a broader cultural context.[16] Craig Keating of Langara College on the contrary argues that the obscurity of some texts questions their ability to function as the conduit for scientific ideas.[17]

Several scholars reviewing How We Became Posthuman highlighted the strengths and shortcomings of her book vis a vis its relationship to feminism. Amelia Jones of University of Southern California describes Hayles’ work as reacting to the misogynistic discourse of the field of cybernetics.[18] As Pickering wrote, Hayles’ promotion of an “embodied posthumanism” challenges cybernetics’ “equation of human-ness with disembodied information” for being “another male trick to feminists tired of the devaluation of women’s bodily labor.”[15] Stephanie Turner of Purdue University also described Hayles’ work as an opportunity to challenge prevailing concepts of the human subject which assumed the body was white, male, and European, but suggested Hayles’ dialectic method may have taken too many interpretive risks, leaving some questions open about “which interventions promise the best directions to take.”[19]

Reviewers were mixed about Hayles’ construction of the posthuman subject. Weiss describes Hayles’ work as challenging the simplistic dichotomy of human and post-human subjects in order to “rethink the relationship between human beings and intelligent machines,” however suggests that in her attempt to set her vision of the posthuman apart from the “realist, objectivist epistemology characteristic of first-wave cybernetics”, she too, falls back on universalist discourse, premised this time on how cognitive science is able to reveal the “true nature of the self.”[16] Jones similarly described Hayles’ work as reacting to cybernetics’ disembodiment of the human subject by swinging too far towards an insistence on a “physical reality” of the body apart from discourse. Jones argued that reality is rather “determined in and through the way we view, articulate, and understand the world”.[18]

In terms of the strength of Hayles’ arguments regarding the return of materiality to information, several scholars expressed doubt on the validity of the provided grounds, notably evolutionary psychology. Keating claims that while Hayles is following evolutionary psychological arguments in order to argue for the overcoming of the disembodiment of knowledge, she provides “no good reason to support this proposition.”[17] Brigham describes Hayles’ attempt to connect autopoietic circularity to “an inadequacy in Maturana’s attempt to account for evolutionary change” as unjustified.[14] Weiss suggests that she makes the mistake of “adhering too closely to the realist, objectivist discourse of the sciences,” the same mistake she criticizes Weiner and Maturana for committing.[16]

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N. Katherine Hayles – Wikipedia

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The Non-Technical Guide to Machine Learning & Artificial …

Posted: November 23, 2016 at 10:00 pm

Shivon Zilis and James Cham, who invest in machine learning-related companies for Bloomberg Beta, recently created a machine intelligence market landscape.

Below, you can find links to the 317+ companies in the landscape (and a few more), and play around with some apps that are applying machine learning in interesting ways.

Algocian Captricity Clarifai Cortica Deepomatic DeepVision Netra Orbital Insight Planet Spaceknow

Capio Clover Intelligence Gridspace MindMeld Mobvoi Nexidia Pop Up Archive Quirious.ai TalkIQ Twilio

Alluvium C3 IoT Planet OS Maana KONUX Imubit GE Predix ThingWorx Uptake Sentenai Preferred Networks

Alation Arimo Cycorp

Deckard.ai Digital Reasoning IBM Watson Kyndi Databricks Sapho

Bottlenose CB Insights DataFox Enigma

Intelligent Layer Mattermark Predata Premise Quid Tracxn

ActionIQ Clarabridge Eloquent Labs Kasisto Preact Wise.io Zendesk

6sense AppZen Aviso Clari Collective[i] Fusemachines InsideSales Salesforce Einstein Zensight

AirPR BrightFunnel CogniCor Lattice LiftIgniter Mintigo msg.ai Persado Radius Retention Science

Cylance Darktrace Deep Instinct Demisto Drawbridge Networks Graphistry LeapYear SentinelOne SignalSense Zimperium

Entelo Algorithmia HiQ HireVue SpringRole Textio Unitive Wade & Wendy

AdasWorks Auro Robotics Drive.ai Google Mobileye nuTonomy Tesla Uber Zoox

Airware DJI DroneDeploy Lily Pilot AI Labs Shield AI Skycatch Skydio

Clearpath Robotics Fetch Robotics Harvest Automation JaybridgeRobotics Kindred AI Osaro Rethink Robotics

Amazon Alexa Apple Siri Facebook M Google Now/Allo Microsoft Cortana Replika

Alien Labs Butter.ai Clara Labs

Deckard.ai SkipFlag Slack Sudo Talla x.ai Zoom.ai

Abundant Robotics AgriData Blue River Technology Descartes Labs Mavrx Pivot Bio TerrAvion Trace Genomics Tule UDIO

AltSchool Content Technologies (CTI) Coursera Gradescope Knewton Volley

AlphaSense Bloomberg Cerebellum Capital Dataminr iSentium Kensho Quandl Sentient

Beagle Blue J Legal Legal Robot Ravel Law ROSS Intelligence Seal

Acerta ClearMetal Marble NAUTO PitStop Preteckt Routific

Calculario Citrine Eigen Innovations Ginkgo Bioworks Nanotronics Sight Machine Zymergen

Affirm Betterment Earnest Lendo Mirador Tala (a InVenture) Wealthfront ZestFinance

Atomwise CareSkore Deep6 Analytics IBM Watson Health Numerate Medical Oncora pulseData Sentrian Zephyr Health

DreamUp Vision

3Scan Arterys Bay Labs Butterfly Network Enlitic Google DeepMind Imagia

Atomwise Color Genomics Deep Genomics Grail iCarbonX Luminist Numerate Recursion Pharmaceuticals Verily Whole Biome

Automat Howdy Kasisto KITT.AI Maluuba Octane AI OpenAI Gym Semantic Machines

Ayasdi BigML Dataiku DataRobot Domino Data Lab Kaggle RapidMiner Seldon

Spark Beyond Yhat Yseop

Bonsai ScaleContext Relevant Cycorp Datacratic deepsense.io Geometric Intelligence H2O.ai HyperScience Loop AI Labs minds.ai Nara LogicsReactive Scaled Inference Skymind SparkCognition

Agolo AYLIEN Cortical.io Lexalytics Loop AI Labs Luminoso MonkeyLearn Narrative Science spaCy

AnOdot Bonsai

Deckard.ai Fuzzy.ai Hyperopt Kite Layer 6 AI Lobe.ai RainforestQA SignifAI SigOpt

Amazon Mechanical Turk CrowdAI CrowdFlower Datalogue DataSift diffbot Enigma Import.io Paxata Trifacta WorkFusion

Amazon DSSTNE Apache Spark Azure ML Baidu Caffe Chainer DeepLearning4j H2O.ai Keras Microsoft CNTK Microsoft DMTK MLlib MXNet Nervana Neon PaddlePaddle scikit-learn TensorFlow Theano Torch7 Weka

1026 Labs Cadence Cirrascale Google TPU Intel (Nervana) Isocline KNUPATH NVIDIA DGX-1/Titan X Qualcomm Tenstorrent Tensilica

Cogitai Kimera Knoggin NNAISENSE Numenta OpenAI Vicarious

Andrew Ng Chief Scientist of Baidu; Chairman and Co-Founder of Coursera; Stanford CS faculty.

Sam Altman President, YC Group, OpenAI co-chairman.

Harry Shum EVP, Microsoft AI and Research.

Geoffrey Hinton The godfather of deep learning.

Samiur Rahman CEO of Canopy. Former Data Engineering Lead at Mattermark.

Jeff Dean Google Senior Fellow at Google, Inc. Co-founder and leader of Googles deep learning research and engineering team.

Eric Horvitz Technical Fellow at Microsoft Research

Denny Britz Deep Learning at Google Brain.

Tom Mitchell Computer scientist and E. Fredkin University Professor at the Carnegie Mellon University.

Chris Dixon General Partner at Andreessen Horowitz.

Hilary Mason Founder at FastForwardLabs. Data Scientist in Residence at Accel.

Elon Musk Tesla Motors, SpaceX, SolarCity, PayPal & OpenAI.

Kirk Borne The Principal Data Scientist at Booz Allen, PhD Astrophysicist.

Peter Skomoroch Co-Founder & CEO SkipFlag. Previously Principal Data Scientist at LinkedIn, Engineer at AOL.

Paul Barba Chief Scientist at Lexalytics.

Andrej Karpathy Research scientist at OpenAI. Previously CS PhD student at Stanford.

Monica Rogati Former VP of Data Jawbone & LinkedIn data scientist.

Xavier Amatriain Leading Engineering at Quora. Netflix alumni.

Mike Gualtieri Forrester VP & Principal Analyst.

Fei-Fei Li Professor of Computer Science, Stanford University, Director of Stanford AI Lab.

David Silver Royal Society University Research Fellow.

Nando de Freitas Professor of Computer ScienceFellow, Linacre College.

Roberto Cipolla Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge.

Gabe Brostow Associate Professor in Computer Science at Londons Global University.

Arthur Gretton Associate Professor with the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit.

Ingmar Posner University Lecturer in Engineering Science at the University of Oxford.

Pieter Abbeel Associate Professor, UC Berkeley, EECS. Berkeley Artificial Intelligence Research (BAIR) laboratory. UC Berkeley Center for Human Compatible AI. Co-Founder Gradescope.

Josh Wills Slack Data Engineering and Apache Crunch committer.

Noah Weiss Head of Search, Learning, & Intelligence at Slack in NYC. Former SVP of Product at foursquare + Google PM on structured search.

Michael E. Driscoll Founder, CEO Metamarkets. Investor at Data Collective

Drew Conway Founder and CEO of Alluvium.

Sean Taylor Facebook Data Science Team

Demis Hassabis Co-Founder & CEO, DeepMind.

Randy Olson Senior Data Scientist at Penn Institute for Biomedical Informatics.

Shivon Zilis Partner at Bloomberg Beta where she focuses on machine intelligence companies.

Adam Gibson Founder of Skymind.

Alexandra Suich Technology reporter for The Economist.

Anthony Goldblum Co-founder and CEO of Kaggle.

Avi Goldfarb Professor at Rotman, University of Toronto and the Chief Data Scientist at Creative Destruction Lab.

Ben Lorica Chief Data Scientist of O’Reilly Media, and Program Director of OReilly Strata & OReillyAI conferences. Ben hosts the OReilly Data Show Podcast too.

Chris Nicholson Co-founder Deeplearning4j & Skymind. Previous to that, Chris worked at The New York Times.

Doug Fulop Product manager at Kindred.ai.

Dror Berman Founder, Innovation Endeavors.

Dylan Tweney Founder of @TweneyMedia, former EIC @venturebeat, ex-@WIRED, publisher of @tinywords.

Gary Kazantsev R&D Machine Learning at Bloomberg LP.

Gideon Mann Head of Data Science / CTO Office at Bloomberg LP.

Gordon Ritter Cloud investor at Emergence Capital, cloud entrepreneur.

Jack Clark Strategy and Communications Director OpenAI. Past: @business Worlds Only Neural Net Reporter. @theregister Distributed Systems Reporter.

Federico Pascual COO & Co-Founder, MonkeyLearn.

Matt Turck VC at FirstMark Capital and the organizer of Data Driven NYC and Hardwired NYC.

Nick Adams Data Scientist, Berkeley Institute for Data Science.

Roger Magoulas Research Director, OReilly Media.

Sean Gourley Former CEO, Quid.

Shruti Gandhi Array.VC, previously at True & Samsung Ventures.

Steve Jurvetson Partner at Draper Fisher Jurvetson.

Vijay Sundaram Venture Capitalist Innovation Endeavors, Tinkerer Polkadot Labs.

Zavain Dar VC Lux Capital, Lecturer Stanford University, Moneyball Philadelphia 76ers.

Yann Lecun Director of AI Research, Facebook. Founding Director of the NYU Center for Data Science

Read the rest here:

The Non-Technical Guide to Machine Learning & Artificial …

Posted in Artificial Intelligence | Comments Off on The Non-Technical Guide to Machine Learning & Artificial …